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Sample records for aids indicator survey

  1. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: Rationale, Methods, Description of Participants, and Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Waruiru, Wanjiru; Kim, Andrea A.; Kimanga, Davies O.; Ng’ang’a, James; Schwarcz, Sandra; Kimondo, Lucy; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Umuro, Mamo; Mwangi, Mary; Ojwang’, James K.; Maina, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional population-based surveys are essential surveillance tools for tracking changes in HIV epidemics. In 2007, Kenya implemented the first AIDS Indicator Survey [Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007)], a nationally representative, population-based survey that collected demographic and behavioral data and blood specimens from individuals aged 15–64 years. Kenya’s second AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was conducted to monitor changes in the epidemic, evaluate HIV prevention, care, and treatment initiatives, and plan for an efficient and effective response to the HIV epidemic. Methods KAIS 2012 was a cross-sectional 2-stage cluster sampling design, household-based HIV serologic survey that collected information on households as well as demographic and behavioral data from Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years. Participants also provided blood samples for HIV serology and other related tests at the National HIV Reference Laboratory. Results Among 9300 households sampled, 9189 (98.8%) were eligible for the survey. Of the eligible households, 8035 (87.4%) completed household-level questionnaires. Of 16,383 eligible individuals aged 15–64 years and emancipated minors aged less than 15 years in these households, 13,720 (83.7%) completed interviews; 11,626 (84.7%) of the interviewees provided a blood specimen. Of 6302 eligible children aged 18 months to 14 years, 4340 (68.9%) provided a blood specimen. Of the 2094 eligible children aged 10–14 years, 1661 (79.3%) completed interviews. Conclusions KAIS 2012 provided representative data to inform a strategic response to the HIV epidemic in the country. PMID:24732819

  2. Using Information and Communications Technology in a National Population-Based Survey: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ojwang’, James K.; Lee, Veronica C.; Waruru, Anthony; Ssempijja, Victor; Ng’ang’a, John G.; Wakhutu, Brian E.; Kandege, Nicholas O.; Koske, Danson K.; Kamiru, Samuel M.; Omondi, Kenneth O.; Kakinyi, Mutua; Kim, Andrea A.; Oluoch, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background With improvements in technology, electronic data capture (EDC) for large surveys is feasible. EDC offers benefits over traditional paper-based data collection, including more accurate data, greater completeness of data, and decreased data cleaning burden. Methods The second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was a population-based survey of persons aged 18 months to 64 years. A software application was designed to capture the interview, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling data. The application included: interview translations for local languages; options for single, multiple, and fill-in responses; and automated participant eligibility determination. Data quality checks were programmed to automate skip patterns and prohibit outlier responses. A data sharing architecture was developed to transmit the data in realtime from the field to a central server over a virtual private network. Results KAIS 2012 was conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Overall, 68,202 records for the interviews, specimen collection, and home-based testing and counseling were entered into the application. Challenges arose during implementation, including poor connectivity and a systems malfunction that created duplicate records, which prevented timely data transmission to the central server. Data cleaning was minimal given the data quality control measures. Conclusions KAIS 2012 demonstrated the feasibility of using EDC in a population-based survey. The benefits of EDC were apparent in data quality and minimal time needed for data cleaning. Several important lessons were learned, such as the time and monetary investment required before survey implementation, the importance of continuous application testing, and contingency plans for data transmission due to connectivity challenges. PMID:24732816

  3. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: Implications for Public Health Policies for HIV Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maina, William K.; Kim, Andrea A.; Rutherford, George W.; Harper, Malayah; K’Oyugi, Boniface O.; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M.; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012–2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, socio-demographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice. PMID:24732817

  4. Making Aid More Effective by 2010: 2008 Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration Indicators in Selected FTI Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a pilot survey on aid effectiveness indicators in the education sector carried out by the Education for All--Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) Secretariat. The covers 10 FTI-endorsed countries: Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, and Rwanda. All…

  5. Tuberculosis and HIV at the National Level in Kenya: Results From the Second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mbithi, Agneta; Gichangi, Anthony; Kim, Andrea A.; Katana, Abraham; Weyenga, Herman; Williamson, John; Robinson, Katherine; Oluoch, Tom; Maina, William K.; Kellogg, Timothy A.; De Cock, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-morbidity with tuberculosis and HIV is a common cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. In the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey, we collected data on knowledge and experience of HIV and tuberculosis, as well as on access to and coverage of relevant treatment services and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya. Methods A national, population-based household survey was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013. Information was collected through household questionnaires, and blood samples were taken for HIV, CD4 cell counts, and HIV viral load testing at a central laboratory. Results Overall, 13,720 persons aged 15–64 years participated; 96.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 96.3 to 97.1] had heard of tuberculosis, of whom 2.0% (95% CI: 1.7 to 2.2) reported having prior tuberculosis. Among those with laboratory-confirmed HIV infection, 11.6% (95% CI: 8.9 to 14.3) reported prior tuberculosis. The prevalence of laboratory-confirmed HIV infection in persons reporting prior tuberculosis was 33.2% (95% CI: 26.2 to 40.2) compared to 5.1% (95% CI: 4.5 to 5.8) in persons without prior tuberculosis. Among those in care, coverage of ART for treatment-eligible persons was 100% for those with prior tuberculosis and 88.6% (95% CI: 81.6 to 95.7) for those without. Among all HIV-infected persons, ART coverage among treatment-eligible persons was 86.9% (95% CI: 74.2 to 99.5) for persons with prior tuberculosis and 58.3% (95% CI: 47.6 to 69.0) for those without. Conclusions Morbidity from tuberculosis and HIV remain major health challenges in Kenya. Tuberculosis is an important entry point for HIV diagnosis and treatment. Lack of knowledge of HIV serostatus is an obstacle to access to HIV services and timely ART for prevention of HIV transmission and HIV-associated disease, including tuberculosis. PMID:24732814

  6. Under-five mortality and maternal HIV status in Tanzania: analysis of trends between 2003 and 2012 using AIDS Indicator Survey data

    PubMed Central

    Arunda, Malachi Ochieng; Choudhry, Vikas; Ekman, Björn; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality among children under five remains a significant health challenge across sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS is one of the leading contributors to the relatively slow decline in under-five mortality in this region. In Tanzania, HIV prevalence among under-five children is high and 90% of all infections are due to mother-to-child transmission. Objectives The study aimed to examine the association between maternal HIV-positive status and under-five mortality in Tanzania. It also aimed to estimate the proportions and trends of under-five mortality attributable to maternal HIV/AIDS in Tanzania between 2003 and 2012. Design Binomial logistic regression was used to analyze cross-sectional survey data from the Tanzania AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine the association between maternal HIV positivity and under-five mortality between 2003 and 2012. Results After controlling for confounders, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–1.9) in 2003–2004, 4.6 (95% CI 2.7–7.8) in 2007–2008, and 2.4 (95% CI 1.2–4.6) in 2011–2012. The maternal HIV-attributable mortality risk percent of under-five children was 3.7 percent in 2003–2004, 11.3 percent in 2007–2008 and 5.6% in 2011–2012. Conclusion Maternal HIV positivity is associated with under-five mortality in Tanzania, making maternal HIV serostatus a relevant determinant of whether a child will survive up to five years of age or not. The impact of maternal HIV/AIDS attributable mortality risk has a significant contribution to the overall under-five mortality in Tanzania. The continued monitoring of HIV and mortality trends is important for policy development and design of interventions. PMID:27329937

  7. Superintendents' Views on AIDS: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Katherine E.; Seaton, George

    1988-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of selected school superintendents about how to deal with the disease Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the schools. They are in agreement that AIDS education should be part of the regular school curriculum. There is no general agreement on how schools should deal with other aspects of the AIDS disease.…

  8. Indicators of satisfaction in clickers-aided EFL class

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhonggen

    2015-01-01

    How to identify whether students are satisfied with clickers-aided EFL class might be largely a mystery for most researchers since satisfaction is deeply hidden in human psychology which is subtle and intangible. This study, by using bivariate correlation analysis and structural equation modeling, survey scales claimed both valid and internally consistent, and data collected from randomly selected 227 participants, explored the indicators of satisfaction in clickers-aided EFL class, together with gender differences in the indicators. It was concluded that satisfaction was positively correlated with interaction, self-efficacy and self-regulation in clickers-aided EFL class without statistically significant gender differences. Furthermore, interaction, self-efficacy and self-regulation were mutually and significantly correlated. Although indicators of satisfaction might not be limited to these three factors, the findings should be helpful to future researchers who desire to determine whether users are satisfied with the polling technology. Then teachers could decide what teaching style and contents should be adopted. In order to satisfy users of clickers, future lecturing might be designed to promote peer interaction, self-efficacy and self-regulation. PMID:25999898

  9. Verification Survey: NASFAA Survey Shows Administrative Burden Increasing for Financial Aid Offices. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    More than three in four college financial aid offices reported an increase in the number of cases where they must verify information on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators' (NASFAA's) latest Quick-Scan Survey. The increase in the number of verification…

  10. JCCC Financial Aid Office Student Satisfaction Survey, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    In 1997, the Financial Aid Office Staff at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) in Kansas conducted a survey to gauge student satisfaction with the Student Financial Aid Office. Surveys mailed to 3,026 current and prospective JCCC students resulted in 299 usable responses. This report combines results for applicants for two types of financial…

  11. The CDC AIDS Survey: A Psychometric Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin

    The latent structure, reliability, and item discrimination of 33 items on a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) instrument representing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were assessed. The study sample included 311 adolescents ranging from ages 12 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics of the…

  12. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  13. Survey of Intelligent Computer-Aided Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. B.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems integrate artificial intelligence and simulation technologies to deliver training for complex, procedural tasks in a distributed, workstation-based environment. Such systems embody both the knowledge of how to perform a task and how to train someone to perform that task. This paper briefly reviews the antecedents of ICAT systems and describes the approach to their creation developed at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. In addition to the general ICAT architecture, specific ICAT applications that have been or are currently under development are discussed. ICAT systems can offer effective solutions to a number of training problems of interest to the aerospace community.

  14. A Survey of Special Educators' Awareness of, Experiences with, and Attitudes toward Nonverbal Communication Aids in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrewsbury, Rosemary G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of surveys completed by 237 special educators indicate respondents' limited awareness, understanding, and experiences with nonverbal communication aids. Results have implications for preservice and continuing education programs for special educators. (Author/CL)

  15. Armchair Survey Sampling: An Aid in Teaching Survey Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, M. E.

    A fictitious community of 583 households was set up to simulate a survey population, and was used in two laboratory assignments where students "interviewed" householders by a quota sampling procedure and tested the performance of several probability sampling designs. (Author/JEG)

  16. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  17. Social Indicator Surveys: Their Implications for Educational Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Earl E.; Fine-Davis, Margret

    Selected results from two nationwide surveys of subjective social indicators conducted in the Republic of Ireland in 1977 and 1978 are presented. Approximately 2,000 respondents were randomly selected from the Electoral Register for each of two surveys. The surveys were part of a series of experimental studies of subjective social indicators…

  18. Depth indicator and stop aid machining to precise tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverty, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Attachment for machine tools provides a visual indication of the depth of cut and a positive stop to prevent overcutting. This attachment is used with drill presses, vertical milling machines, and jig borers.

  19. Improving radiation survey data using CADD/CAE (computer-aided design and drafting computer-aided engineering)

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, G.L.; Tarpinian, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health physics technician manhours and radiation exposure can be reduced in situations where the CADD/CAE-generated drawings are used for survey mapping.

  20. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  1. WATER QUALITY INDICES: A SURVEY OF INDICES USED IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study documents the extent to which water quality indices currently are being used in the United States. It reviews the indices published in the literature and surveys the States and interstate commissions to determine: (1) which agencies are using indices, (2) the type of i...

  2. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  4. Extramarital sex and HIV risk behavior among US adults: results from the National AIDS Behavioral Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, K H; Catania, J A; Dolcini, M M

    1994-01-01

    Data from the National AIDS Behavioral Survey were used to examine the social distribution of extramarital sex and risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among married individuals in the United States. Of 1686 married respondents living across the United States, 2.2% reported extramarital sex; of 3827 married respondents living in 23 urban areas with large Hispanic or African-American populations, 2.5% reported having sexual partners outside marriage. The data indicate that the correlates of extramarital sex varied by race/ethnicity. Low levels of condom use were found among people reporting extramarital sex (8% to 19% consistent users). PMID:7998648

  5. [Application of different death evaluation indicators for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Ma, Y

    2016-05-10

    AIDS has gradually changed from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic disease since the advent of antiretroviral drugs. In 2003, China initiated a national free antiretroviral treatment program for people living with HIV/AIDS, several death evaluation indicators have been used to evaluate public health effect of the program. Death evaluation indicators used frequently in domestic and overseas include mortality, case fatality rate, excess mortality, standard mortality ratio, years of potential life lost, disability-adjusted life year and life expectancy. This paper summarizes the different death indicators applied in effectiveness evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, elaborates the application range and significance of these indicators and suggests the research in related life expectancy and burden of disease which have not been conducted in China. PMID:27188376

  6. Survey-based Indices for Nursing Home Quality Incentive Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    Willemain, Thomas R.

    1983-01-01

    Incentive payments are a theoretically appealing complement to nursing home quality assurance systems that rely on regulatory enforcement. However, the practical aspects of incentive program design are not yet well understood. After reviewing the rationale for incentive approaches and recent State and. Federal initiatives, the article considers a basic program design issue: creating an index of nursing home quality. It focuses on indices constructed from routine licensure and certification survey results because State initiatives have relied heavily on these readily accessible data. It also suggests a procedure for creating a survey-based index and discusses a sampling of Implementation issues. PMID:10309858

  7. Computer generated K indices adopted by the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. D. G.

    1992-04-01

    On 1 January 1991 the British Geological Survey adopted a computer method for generating K indices from its three geomagnetic observatories. This replaced the traditional handscaling method, resulting in saving of staff time. Other advantages are the ability to distribute K indices to users in real time and the fact that there will not be any change in bias of the K index caused by a change of handscaler in future. The computer algorithm is described. The results of a comparison between the computed and handscaled K indices are presented, which show the computer method to be compatible with handscaling.

  8. SURVEY OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHER AIDES, FALL 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER, CHARACTERISTICS, AND ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY NONCERTIFIED PERSONNEL SERVING AS TEACHER AIDES IN NEW YORK SCHOOLS (EXCLUDING NEW YORK CITY), QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES FROM 629 OF THE 740 CHIEF SCHOOL OFFICERS IN THE STATE (85 PERCENT) WERE TALLIED. MORE THAN TWO-THIRDS REPORTED THE USE OF TEACHER AIDES. FROM AN 85 PERCENT…

  9. HIV/AIDS and disability: a pilot survey of HIV/AIDS knowledge among a deaf population in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Groce, Nora; Yousafzai, Aisha; Dlamini, Phindile; Zalud, Sarah; Wirz, Shelia

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to establish whether there were measurable differences in the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS between hearing individuals and individuals who identified themselves as deaf sign language users in Swaziland. A cross-sectional survey of 191 rural and urban hearing and deaf adults was undertaken in Swaziland in December 2003. A structured questionnaire was administered, seeking to establish whether there were statistically significant differences between hearing and deaf populations in their level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS symptoms, transmission and prevention, as well as differences in sources of information about HIV/AIDS. Additional questions were asked regarding whether there were differences in accessibility of HIV testing services and HIV/AIDS-related healthcare for the two groups. Significant differences in levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS were identified between the hearing and deaf respondents. The deaf population was significantly more likely (P<0.05) to believe in incorrect modes of HIV transmission (e.g. hugging and airborne transmission) and HIV prevention (e.g. avoiding sharing utensils and eating healthy foods). Almost all of the deaf respondents (99%) reported difficulties in communicating with healthcare facility staff, which may result in less use of HIV voluntary counseling and testing services. This paper reports the results of this study, and discusses the need for targeted HIV/AIDS education campaigns and improved accessibility in healthcare facilities for deaf sign language users in countries such as Swaziland. PMID:17106349

  10. Indication criteria for cochlear implants and hearing aids: impact of audiological and non-audiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Haumann, Sabine; Hohmann, Volker; Meis, Markus; Herzke, Tobias; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Owing to technological progress and a growing body of clinical experience, indication criteria for cochlear implants (CI) are being extended to less severe hearing impairments. It is, therefore, worth reconsidering these indication criteria by introducing novel testing procedures. The diagnostic evidence collected will be evaluated. The investigation includes postlingually deafened adults seeking a CI. Prior to surgery, speech perception tests [Freiburg Speech Test and Oldenburg sentence (OLSA) test] were performed unaided and aided using the Oldenburg Master Hearing Aid (MHA) system. Linguistic skills were assessed with the visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, and general state of health, socio-economic status (SES) and subjective hearing were evaluated through questionnaires. After surgery, the speech tests were repeated aided with a CI. To date, 97 complete data sets are available for evaluation. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between postsurgical speech reception threshold (SRT) measured with the adaptive OLSA test and pre-surgical data such as the TRT test (r=−0.29), SES (r=−0.22) and (if available) aided SRT (r=0.53). The results suggest that new measures and setups such as the TRT test, SES and speech perception with the MHA provide valuable extra information regarding indication for CI. PMID:26557327

  11. Implantable and Semi-Implantable Hearing Aids: A Review of History, Indications, and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Burke, Patrick Rademaker; Jardim, Isabela de Souza; Brito, Rubens de; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The complaints associated with the use of conventional amplifying hearing aids prompted research at several centers worldwide that ultimately led to the development of implantable devices for aural rehabilitation. Objectives To review the history, indications, and surgical aspects of the implantable middle ear hearing devices. Data Synthesis Implantable hearing aids, such as the Vibrant Soundbridge system (Med-El Corporation, Innsbruck, Austria), the Maxum system (Ototronix LLC, Houston, Texas, United States), the fourth-generation of Carina prosthesis (Otologics LLC, Boulder, Colorado, United States), and the Esteem device (Envoy Medical Corporation - Minnesota, United States), have their own peculiarities on candidacy and surgical procedure. Conclusion Implantable hearing aids, which are currently in the early stages of development, will unquestionably be the major drivers of advancement in otologic practice in the 21st century, improving the quality of life of an increasingly aged population, which will consequently require increased levels of hearing support. PMID:25992110

  12. Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social

  13. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  14. A survey of the use of aided augmentative and alternative communication during music therapy sessions with persons with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, Anita L

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that as many as 50% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) will not develop adequate speech to meet their communication needs (Noens & van Berckelaer-Onnes, 2004). Thus, alternate means of communication such as Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) are necessary. Though many music therapists work with clients with ASD, there is a lack of research regarding music therapists' use of aided AAC. This study sought to obtain information from music therapists who work with persons with ASD via a survey to answer the following questions: (a) how many music therapists are using aided AAC in their sessions, (b) how they are using aided AAC, and (c) what type of training they have had regarding AAC systems. To assess the research questions, the author created an electronic survey. Upon distribution, the survey response rate was 49.6%. Results indicated that only 14.6% of respondents utilize aided AAC with all of their clients who use aided AAC outside of music therapy. The most common form of aided input used by music therapists in their sessions with clients with ASD is a picture schedule. Only 40% of respondents have additional training in aided AAC. Chi square tests revealed significant relationships among many of the variables: use of aided AAC and additional training, use and treatment setting, literacy promotion and additional training, modeling and additional training, referral for AAC systems and length of work with clients with ASD, referral and additional training. Results are discussed in relation to current communication literature. PMID:21866714

  15. Wading birds as biological indicators 1975 colony survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The suitability of wading birds (herons and their allies) as biological indicators in the coastal environment were studied in 1975 by 8 teams of investigators which located and censused 198 colonies along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida [USA]. Over 1/4 million breeding birds [Ardea herodias, Butorides virescens, Florida caerulea, Bubulcus ibis, Dichromanassa rufescens, Casmerodius albus, Egretta thula, Hydranassa tricolor, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea, Mycteria americana, Plegadis falcinellus, Eudocimus albus and Ajaia ajaja] were censused. The number of species in colonies ranged from 1-11. The number of 1- and 2-spp. colonies increased from Florida to Maine. Colony size decreased from Florida to Maine. Wading bird colony sites are generally active each year and the number of colonies may have recently increased in some areas of the coast. Species composition and total population of colonies fluctuate from year to year. The breeding population of wading birds was correlated with the area of coastal wetlands by state. Five teams of investigators studied the reproductive biology of 9 spp. in 13 colonies. Mean clutch size, the percentage of nests in which 1 or more eggs hatched and the overall percentage of eggs that hatched differed among colonies for some species, but no latitudinal gradient was found in any of these characteristics for any species. The use of wading birds to their full potential as biological indicators requires further exploration: survey and reproductive success methods need to be tested, the survey of colonies repeated, available historical information assembled and habitat requirements measured.

  16. USE OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT NEEDS INDICES FOR ORAL HEALTH SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    Nakas, Enita; Tiro, Alisa; Vrazalica, Lejla Redzepagic; Hadzihasanovic, Dzana; Dzemidzic, Vildana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study is to compare incidence of orthodontic malocclusion based on occlusal indices and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and to evaluate the most commonly used method among the dentists for orthodontic treatment in Sarajevo. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 110 (31 female and 79 male)subjects older than 16 years with complete permanent dentition. Subjects were examined according to Occlusal Index (Angle classification of malocclusion, overjet, overbite, dental arch crowding and tooth rotation) and IOTN index. We conduct survey regarding which indexes are used in deciding on orthodontic treatment need, among primary health care and Orthodontist. Results: The present study show differences between the presence of malocclusion and treatment need as assessed by these two used indices. Based on the survey that we conduct all primary health care doctors use Occlusal Index to decide need for orthodontic treatment, more than 95% of orthodontic specialist use Occlusal Index for treatment need estimation. Conclusion: When measuring and grading treatment needs we should rely on Index of orthodontic treatment need. In such high demand for orthodontic treatment need it is necessary to establish need for the orthodontic treatment as fundamental, so that individuals with greatest treatment need can be assigned priority. PMID:27147922

  17. 40th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2008-2009 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 40th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2008-09. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2008-2009 academic year, the states…

  18. 36th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2004-2005 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 36th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2004-05. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2004-2005 academic year, the states…

  19. 38th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2006-2007 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 38th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2006-07. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2006-2007 academic year, the states…

  20. 37th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2005-2006 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 37th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2005-06. Data highlights of the survey include: (1) In the 2005-2006 academic year, the states…

  1. Students' perceptions of their preparation for AIDS patient care: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M; McGriff, E P

    1996-06-01

    A survey of undergraduate students (n = 1,390) was conducted to determine their self-perceptions of their educational preparation to care of persons with HIV disease. HIV/AIDS content was included in the curricula of 97% of the respondents, with hours of instruction ranging from 0 to 18 with a mean of five. School policies regarding HIV clinical experiences varied from requiring all students to care for at least one AIDS patient to considering student preferences. Students (n = 944) perceived that faculty were willing to assign and supervise students in the care of HIV/AIDS patients. The majority of students (73%) believed that their preparation to care for AIDS patients was excellent or good. A genuine feeling of compassion was apparent in the responses of most students, and it was evident that faculty had taught students to care for HIV/AIDS patients without prejudice, and with respect for human life. PMID:11361619

  2. AIDS policy responsiveness in Africa: evidence from opinion surveys.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M

    2014-01-01

    As a result of massive scale-up efforts in developing countries, millions of people living with HIV are now receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, countries have been uneven in their scale-up efforts with ART coverage rates exceeding expectations in some places and lagging behind expectation in others. This paper develops a model that explains ART scale-up as a function of the responsiveness of political parties to their primary constituents. Specifically, the paper argues that, faced with a perilous 'threat to the nation', countries responded in one of two ways, both of which were designed to appeal to their primary constituents--either adopting a 'Geneva Consensus' response, or depicting the epidemic as a Western disease and adopting a 'pan-African' response. The article tests this theory using Afrobarometer data for eleven countries. The paper finds that HIV/AIDS is generally a non-partisan issue in most countries. However, the analysis does uncover some differences in partisan support for HIV/AIDS responses in both countries that have adopted Geneva Consensus and pan-African responses, though not in the direction hypothesised. The lack of congruence in policy preferences between the public and their governments suggests a democratic deficit in that these governments have acted independently of the preferences of core constituents. PMID:24502399

  3. Bayesian geostatistical modeling of Malaria Indicator Survey data in Angola.

    PubMed

    Gosoniu, Laura; Veta, Andre Mia; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2010-01-01

    The 2006-2007 Angola Malaria Indicator Survey (AMIS) is the first nationally representative household survey in the country assessing coverage of the key malaria control interventions and measuring malaria-related burden among children under 5 years of age. In this paper, the Angolan MIS data were analyzed to produce the first smooth map of parasitaemia prevalence based on contemporary nationwide empirical data in the country. Bayesian geostatistical models were fitted to assess the effect of interventions after adjusting for environmental, climatic and socio-economic factors. Non-linear relationships between parasitaemia risk and environmental predictors were modeled by categorizing the covariates and by employing two non-parametric approaches, the B-splines and the P-splines. The results of the model validation showed that the categorical model was able to better capture the relationship between parasitaemia prevalence and the environmental factors. Model fit and prediction were handled within a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Combining estimates of parasitaemia prevalence with the number of children under we obtained estimates of the number of infected children in the country. The population-adjusted prevalence ranges from in Namibe province to in Malanje province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least ITNs per person was by 41% lower (CI: 14%, 60%) than in those with fewer ITNs. The estimates of the number of parasitaemic children produced in this paper are important for planning and implementing malaria control interventions and for monitoring the impact of prevention and control activities. PMID:20351775

  4. Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of Malaria Indicator Survey Data in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Gosoniu, Laura; Veta, Andre Mia; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2010-01-01

    The 2006–2007 Angola Malaria Indicator Survey (AMIS) is the first nationally representative household survey in the country assessing coverage of the key malaria control interventions and measuring malaria-related burden among children under 5 years of age. In this paper, the Angolan MIS data were analyzed to produce the first smooth map of parasitaemia prevalence based on contemporary nationwide empirical data in the country. Bayesian geostatistical models were fitted to assess the effect of interventions after adjusting for environmental, climatic and socio-economic factors. Non-linear relationships between parasitaemia risk and environmental predictors were modeled by categorizing the covariates and by employing two non-parametric approaches, the B-splines and the P-splines. The results of the model validation showed that the categorical model was able to better capture the relationship between parasitaemia prevalence and the environmental factors. Model fit and prediction were handled within a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Combining estimates of parasitaemia prevalence with the number of children under we obtained estimates of the number of infected children in the country. The population-adjusted prevalence ranges from in Namibe province to in Malanje province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least ITNs per person was by 41% lower (CI: 14%, 60%) than in those with fewer ITNs. The estimates of the number of parasitaemic children produced in this paper are important for planning and implementing malaria control interventions and for monitoring the impact of prevention and control activities. PMID:20351775

  5. Current indications for renal biopsy: a questionnaire-based survey.

    PubMed

    Fuiano, G; Mazza, G; Comi, N; Caglioti, A; De Nicola, L; Iodice, C; Andreucci, M; Andreucci, V E

    2000-03-01

    Indications for renal biopsy are still ill defined. We recently sent a detailed questionnaire to 360 nephrologists in different areas of the world with the aim of providing information on this critical issue by evaluating the replies. The questionnaire was organized in four sections that included questions on renal biopsy indications in patients with normal renal function, renal insufficiency, and a transplanted kidney. In addition, the questions included methods applied to each renal biopsy procedure and to specimen processing. We received 166 replies; North Europe (50 replies), South Europe (47 replies), North America (31 replies), Australia and New Zealand (24 replies), and other countries (14 replies). In patients with normal renal function, primary indications for renal biopsy were microhematuria associated with proteinuria, particularly greater than 1 g/d of protein. In chronic renal insufficiency, kidney dimension was the major parameter considered before renal biopsy, whereas the presence of diabetes or serological abnormalities was not considered critical. In the course of acute renal failure (ARF) of unknown origin, 20% of the respondents would perform renal biopsy in the early stages, 26% after 1 week of nonrecovery, and 40% after 4 weeks. In a transplanted kidney, the majority of nephrologists would perform a renal biopsy in the case of graft failure after surgery, ARF after initial good function, slow progressive deterioration of renal function, and onset of nephrotic proteinuria. The last section provided comprehensive information on the technical aspects of renal biopsy. This survey represents the first attempt to provide a reliable consensus that can be used in developing guidelines on the use of kidney biopsy. PMID:10692270

  6. A survey on computer aided diagnosis for ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), which can automate the detection process for ocular diseases, has attracted extensive attention from clinicians and researchers alike. It not only alleviates the burden on the clinicians by providing objective opinion with valuable insights, but also offers early detection and easy access for patients. Method We review ocular CAD methodologies for various data types. For each data type, we investigate the databases and the algorithms to detect different ocular diseases. Their advantages and shortcomings are analyzed and discussed. Result We have studied three types of data (i.e., clinical, genetic and imaging) that have been commonly used in existing methods for CAD. The recent developments in methods used in CAD of ocular diseases (such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration and Pathological Myopia) are investigated and summarized comprehensively. Conclusion While CAD for ocular diseases has shown considerable progress over the past years, the clinical importance of fully automatic CAD systems which are able to embed clinical knowledge and integrate heterogeneous data sources still show great potential for future breakthrough. PMID:25175552

  7. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA), in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female), aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p<0.001) and female (r=0.87, p <001), while the lowest were in the waist/thigh also for both: male group (r=0.58, p<0.001) and female group (r=0.03, p=0.86). The other indices also showed significant positive correlation with DEXA. Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS. PMID:23031203

  8. Occupational health of home care aides: results of the safe home care survey

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Margaret M; Markkanen, Pia K; Galligan, Catherine J; Sama, Susan R; Kriebel, David; Gore, Rebecca J; Brouillette, Natalie M; Okyere, Daniel; Sun, Chuan; Punnett, Laura; Laramie, Angela K; Davis, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In countries with ageing populations, home care (HC) aides are among the fastest growing jobs. There are few quantitative studies of HC occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess quantitatively the OSH hazards and benefits for a wide range of HC working conditions, and (2) compare OSH experiences of HC aides who are employed via different medical and social services systems in Massachusetts, USA. Methods HC aides were recruited for a survey via agencies that employ aides and schedule their visits with clients, and through a labour union of aides employed directly by clients or their families. The questionnaire included detailed questions about the most recent HC visits, as well as about individual aides’ OSH experiences. Results The study population included 1249 HC aides (634 agency-employed, 615 client-employed) contributing information on 3484 HC visits. Hazards occurring most frequently related to musculoskeletal strain, exposure to potentially infectious agents and cleaning chemicals for infection prevention and experience of violence. Client-hired and agency-hired aides had similar OSH experiences with a few exceptions, including use of sharps and experience of verbal violence. Conclusions The OSH experience of HC aides is similar to that of aides in institutional healthcare settings. Despite OSH challenges, HC aides enjoy caring for others and the benefits of HC work should be enhanced. Quantification of HC hazards and benefits is useful to prioritise resources for the development of preventive interventions and to provide an evidence base for policy-setting. PMID:26209318

  9. Public Service Announcements and the Fight against AIDS: A Survey of Radio Broadcasters' Attitudes and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    A pilot study surveyed radio broadcasters in Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas to further an understanding of their role as gatekeepers for public service announcements (PSA) to educate audiences about AIDS and bring about "safe" behavior. A total of 300 stations were in the sample. Respondents were asked to provide information about their…

  10. A Survey of AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among Prostitutes in an International Border Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Felipe; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 60 prostitutes in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to AIDS. Found that the prostitutes are not utilizing risk reduction behaviors while having sexual relations with their clients. Provides implications for social workers and public health workers who must develop strategies to work effectively…

  11. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  12. AIDS/HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behavior. Minnesota Student Survey Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    The Minnesota Student Survey, including questions on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus transmission and sexual activity, was completed by approximately 88,000 6th-, 9th-, and 12th-graders during the 1988-89 school year. Sexual activity questions were not asked of sixth graders. Over 90% of high school students knew about sharing…

  13. 35th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2003-2004 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 35th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2003-04. Data highlights include: (1) In the 2003-2004 academic year, the states awarded about…

  14. 41st Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2009-2010 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 41th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2009-10. Data highlights include: (1) In the 2009-2010 academic year, the states awarded about…

  15. Decision aid systems for evaluating sustainability: a critical survey

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus

    2004-05-01

    Assessing sustainability in compliance with the EU water framework directive is affected by numerous conflicting interests. As they can no longer be resolved by means of intuitive reasoning, some authors propose the integration of the major fragmented indicators into one common indicator of the overall sustainability by means of a codified multi-criteria decision support methodology (DSM). Practitioners in urban water management, however, usually object to the use of a codified DSM, as in the legal context (negotiations between the stakeholders, tendering procedure) it might jeopardize the feasibility of the decision making process (DMP). Here we show that a feasible implementation of a DSM into the DMP is possible. To this end, we design a cooperative approach, which by means of an axiomatic evaluation helps to select an appropriate DSM. We illustrate it by a hypothetical dialogue between the relevant authority and the developer. It will expose the inherent limitations of the DSM, which are due to their underlying mathematical features.

  16. [Indication for and verification of hearing aid benefit using modern methods of speech audiometry in German].

    PubMed

    Kollmeier, B; Lenarz, T; Winkler, A; Zokoll, M A; Sukowski, H; Brand, T; Wagener, K C

    2011-10-01

    The current guidelines for hearing aid supply in Germany employ the often criticised Freiburg monosyllabic speech test (FBE) in quiet. This test can be replaced with the monosyllabic rhyme test by von Wallenberg and Kollmeier (WaKo) in quiet and by the measurement of a speech reception threshold in an interfering noise at a moderate level (45 dB SPL) using either the Göttingen or the Oldenburg sentence test (criterion: 2 dB improvement in SNR, "signal-to-noise ratio"). This procedure was investigated in a group of 38 participants with a sensorineural hearing impairment (mild, moderate or severe hearing loss) and 11 volunteers with normal hearing. On average, comparable indications were achieved. Participants with a mild hearing loss and a selective problem with listening in interfering noise were assessed more fairly. PMID:21769581

  17. Charitable Giving for HIV and AIDS: Results from a Canadian National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Dan; Calzavara, Liviana; Worthington, Catherine; Tyndall, Mark; Adrien, Alix; Walters, Melissa; White, Samantha; Jones, Marcella K.

    2014-01-01

    Background For the first time, a national survey of adults in Canada posed questions on charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. The objective of this analysis was to explore the behaviour and attitudes of this population in terms of charitable giving. Methods In 2011, individuals in Canada 16 years of age or older were recruited for a survey from an online panel supplemented by random digit dial telephone interviewing. The margin of error was +/−2.1 percentage points (95%). Chi-square tests were used to detect bivariate associations. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to compare those who had donated to HIV and AIDS in the past 12 months with those who had donated to other disease or illness charities. Results 2,139 participated. 82.5% had donated to a charitable cause in the past 12 months. 22.2% had ever donated to HIV and AIDS, with 7.8% doing so in the past 12 months. Individuals who had donated to HIV and AIDS versus other disease or illness charities tended to be younger (p<0.05), single (p<0.005), more highly educated (p<0.001) and to self-identify as a member of a sexual minority group (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed individuals who self-identified as a member of a sexual minority group were significantly much more likely to have donated to HIV and AIDS than to other disease or illness charities in the past 12 months (OR, 7.73; p<0.001; CI 4.32–13.88). Discussion Despite a generally philanthropic orientation, relatively few respondents had ever been involved in charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. Those who had could be understood relationally as individuals at closer social proximity to HIV and AIDS such as members of sexual minority groups. PMID:25153827

  18. Indications for Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing in Congenital Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Medina, Miguel; Bojovic, Branko; Ahn, Edward; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2016-09-01

    The complex three-dimensional relationships in congenital craniofacial reconstruction uniquely lend themselves to the ability to accurately plan and model the result provided by computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The goal of this study was to illustrate indications where CAD/CAM would be helpful in the treatment of congenital craniofacial anomalies reconstruction and to discuss the application of this technology and its outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of all congenital craniofacial cases performed by the senior author between 2010 and 2014. Cases where CAD/CAM was used were identified, and illustrative cases to demonstrate the benefits of CAD/CAM were selected. Preoperative appearance, computerized plan, intraoperative course, and final outcome were analyzed. Preoperative planning enabled efficient execution of the operative plan with predictable results. Risk factors which made these patients good candidates for CAD/CAM were identified and compiled. Several indications, including multisuture and revisional craniosynostosis, facial bipartition, four-wall box osteotomy, reduction cranioplasty, and distraction osteogenesis could benefit most from this technology. We illustrate the use of CAD/CAM for these applications and describe the decision-making process both before and during surgery. We explore why we believe that CAD/CAM is indicated in these scenarios as well as the disadvantages and risks. PMID:27516839

  19. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  20. Enacs Survey of Southern Galaxies Indicates Open Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-02-01

    first time. This may imply that the formation of at least a good fraction of the nearby, rich clusters is still going on. If the mean density of the Universe is indeed much smaller than the critical density, as indicated by the cluster masses determined during this survey, then this is a quite unexpected result. One explanation may be that many clusters have only started to form fairly recently. Notes: [1] The team is headed by Peter Katgert (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) and Alain Mazure (Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale, Marseille, France); other members are Andrea Biviano and Roland den Hartog (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands), Pierre Dubath (Observatoire de Geneve, Switzerland), Eric Escalera (SISSA, Trieste, Italy), Paola Focardi (Bologna University, Italy), Daniel Gerbal (Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris, France), Guilano Giuricin (SISSA, Trieste, Italy), Bernard Jones (Theoretical Astrophysics Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark), Olivier Le Fevre (Meudon Observatory, Paris, France), Mariano Moles and Jaime Perea (Astrophysics Institute of Andalucia, Granada, Spain), and George Rhee (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, U.S.A.). [2] The detailed results will soon be published in two comprehensive articles to appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. [3] This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 07/96, (click here to get the image [GIF,45k] and caption ) showing one of the rich clusters, as observed with the ESO 1-metre Schmidt telescope. [4] The masses of the planets in the solar system are determined in a similar way from the motions of their moons. The faster the moon moves around the planet at a given distance, the heavier is the planet.

  1. Information preferences and practices among people living with HIV/AIDS: results from a nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Timothy P.; Palmer, Carole L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to reach many segments of the diverse HIV/AIDS community and broaden understanding of how information can better assist people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administered mail survey distributed nationwide at clinics, drug treatment centers, and other AIDS service organizations. Results: The 662 respondents preferred getting information from people—including health professionals, family, and friends—and considered people the most trustworthy, useful, understandable, and available information sources. Forty-three percent selected doctors as their most preferred source. The Internet was not rated highly overall but was preferred by those with more education or living in metropolitan areas. Seventy-two percent said they actively search for HIV/AIDS-related information, and 80% said they give advice or tell others where to get such information. However, 71% agreed that it is easy to feel overwhelmed by information, and 31% agreed that not seeking information can be beneficial. Conclusions: Overall, information seeking is an important activity for this sample of people living with HIV/AIDS. Many sources are widely available to them but, together, can be overwhelming. They rely on health professionals far more than print or media sources and receive encouragement and support from family and friends. PMID:16239938

  2. Survey Page Length and Progress Indicators: What Are Their Relationships to Item Nonresponse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge; Sarraf, Shimon; Tukibayeva, Malika

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of online student surveys has been associated with greater item nonresponse. This chapter presents research aimed at exploring what factors might help minimize item nonresponse, such as altering online survey page length and using progress indicators.

  3. A quick survey of an HBCU's first year nursing students' perception of the HIV/AIDS phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Joseph A; Watkins, Mary P; Richardson, Agnes M

    2007-12-01

    There are always some assumptions that are made about the knowledge of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) phenomenon among graduating high school seniors. To ascertain their knowledge, a categorical survey questionnaire was designed featuring yes and no answers, a Likert scale, and qualitative response questions to the problem of HIV/AIDS prevention behavior. It was administered to first semester nursing college students at an historically black college and university (HBCU) in northeastern United States. These freshman students were enrolled in the course University Seminar. The class consisted of 68 students (64 females and 4 males). The students in this class anonymously completed the questionnaire about their perceptions and knowledge of the HIV/AIDS phenomenon. Findings from the study indicated that the majority of the students knew that HIV/AIDS could make an individual sick enough to die. The students stated, however, that they were willing to submit to the sexual demands of their partners, even when they refused to wear condoms. Of the 64 female students who responded to the questionnaire, 38 stated that using a condom might diminish their feeling during the sexual experience and they thought that it was very important that that did not happen. Therefore, this situation might affect a student's decision as to whether or not to insist on using a condom. In conclusion, it is recommended that intensive HIV/AIDS education be incorporated into the curriculum and the questionnaire be repeated in these students' junior and senior years to ascertain whether or not there was a change in their attitudes. PMID:18318328

  4. HIV/AIDS, growth and poverty in KwaZulu-Natal and South Africa: an integrated survey, demographic and economy-wide analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper estimates the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the KwaZulu-Natal province and the rest of South Africa. Methods We extended previous studies by employing: an integrated analytical framework that combined firm surveys of workers' HIV prevalence by sector and occupation; a demographic model that produced both population and workforce projections; and a regionalized economy-wide model linked to a survey-based micro-simulation module. This framework permits a full macro-microeconomic assessment. Results Results indicate that HIV/AIDS greatly reduces annual economic growth, mainly by lowering the long-run rate of technical change. However, impacts on income poverty are small, and inequality is reduced by HIV/AIDS. This is because high unemployment among low-income households minimises the economic costs of increased mortality. By contrast, slower economic growth hurts higher income households despite lower HIV prevalence. Conclusion We conclude that the increase in economic growth that results from addressing HIV/AIDS is sufficient to offset the population pressure placed on income poverty. Moreover, incentives to mitigate HIV/AIDS lie not only with poorer infected households, but also with uninfected higher income households. Our findings reveal the substantial burden that HIV/AIDS places on future economic development in KwaZulu-Natal and South Africa, and confirms the need for policies to curb the economic costs of the pandemic. PMID:19758444

  5. Public Service Announcements and the Fight against AIDS: A National Survey of Television and Radio Broadcasters' Attitudes and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    A follow-up national study surveyed 500 television and radio broadcasters to further understanding of their role as gatekeepers for public service announcements (PSAs) to educate audiences about AIDS, and to bring about "safe" behavior. Respondents were asked to provide information about their stations, and their stations' use of HIV/AIDS PSAs. Of…

  6. 42nd Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2010-2011 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides data regarding state-funded expenditures for student financial aid and illustrates the extent of efforts made by the states to assist postsecondary students. Information in this report is based on academic year 2010-11 data from the 42nd Annual National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) survey.…

  7. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients requesting physicians’ aid in dying: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Goy, Elizabeth R; Dobscha, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in terminally ill patients pursuing aid in dying from physicians. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting State of Oregon, USA. Participants 58 Oregonians, most terminally ill with cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, who had either requested aid in dying from a physician or contacted an aid in dying advocacy organisation. Main outcome measures Diagnosis of depression or anxiety according to the hospital anxiety and depression scale and the structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results 15 study participants met “caseness” criteria for depression, and 13 met criteria for anxiety. 42 patients died by the end of the study; 18 received a prescription for a lethal drug under the Death with Dignity Act, and nine died by lethal ingestion. 15 participants who received a prescription for a lethal drug did not meet criteria for depression; three did. All three depressed participants died by legal ingestion within two months of the research interview. Conclusion Although most terminally ill Oregonians who receive aid in dying do not have depressive disorders, the current practice of the Death with Dignity Act may fail to protect some patients whose choices are influenced by depression from receiving a prescription for a lethal drug. PMID:18842645

  8. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Blewitt, Kelly A; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Kitchener, Betty A; Parslow, Ruth A

    2005-01-01

    Background The prevalence of mental disorders is so high that members of the public will commonly have contact with someone affected. How they respond to that person (the mental health first aid response) may affect outcomes. However, there is no information on what members of the public might do in such circumstances. Methods In a national survey of 3998 Australian adults, respondents were presented with one of four case vignettes and asked what they would do if that person was someone they had known for a long time and cared about. There were four types of vignette: depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, and chronic schizophrenia. Verbatim responses to the open-ended question were coded into categories. Results The most common responses to all vignettes were to encourage professional help-seeking and to listen to and support the person. However, a significant minority did not give these responses. Much less common responses were to assess the problem or risk of harm, to give or seek information, to encourage self-help, or to support the family. Few respondents mentioned contacting a professional on the person's behalf or accompanying them to a professional. First aid responses were generally more appropriate in women, those with less stigmatizing attitudes, and those who correctly identified the disorder in the vignette. Conclusions There is room for improving the range of mental health first aid responses in the community. Lack of knowledge of mental disorders and stigmatizing attitudes are important barriers to effective first aid. PMID:15694008

  9. Survey of Librarians Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G Self-Scorable).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Alan

    A survey conducted in February 1990 asked 100 librarians to respond to a mailed Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a widely used personality survey that determines Jungian personality types. The results of the MBTI can be applied to building work teams in the library. Forty-eight librarians responded to the survey. Their responses were tallied…

  10. Applying research to AIDS programs in villages. Burkina Faso project learns from community survey.

    PubMed

    Tankoano, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, 34 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were recorded for the province of Bam, which has a population of 4239. Since 1992, PLAN and the local Ministry of Health have been conducting an AIDS prevention program in the province. An initial baseline community survey to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices about the disease was conducted in order to tailor the program to the needs and characteristics of the target population. A questionnaire was administered to 300 randomly selected adults in 10 rural villages. The sexes were equally represented. 74% of the villagers were found to be illiterate and the major sources of health information were radio, health facilities, and friends and relatives; therefore, educational activities were carried out through non-written methods (traditional and modern) that employed these communication channels. Initially, 5 men and 5 women ("Village Communicators") were selected by their communities to be trained in information, education, and communication (IEC) techniques regarding AIDS prevention; under the supervision of their trainers, they organized and conducted 2 weekly sessions. An additional 62 women and 50 men were trained as Village Communicators to promote AIDS awareness among their own gender. A team of health personnel, artists, and a traditional music group conducted collective sessions to promote condom use and address problems relating to AIDS (polygamy, remarrying of spouses of AIDS victims, availability of testing during prenuptial visits). Although 90% of respondents had heard about AIDS, 30% did not understand the disease or its routes of transmission; so messages about the effects and the transmission of AIDS were emphasized. Because 56% of respondents admitted having had 2 or more sex partners, and a similar percentage admitted having had 2 or more sexual encounters per week, messages were disseminated on sexuality using community volunteers and the folkloric band. 42% of respondents were

  11. [Statistical surveys in Mali: on indicators, markers for development].

    PubMed

    Sacko, A; Wane, H R

    1994-05-01

    In November 1993 in Bamako, Mali, the National Directorship of Statistics and Information held a meeting for 60 cadres of different administrations and national services to present the results of the National Surveys on Budget-Expenses (EBC) and on the Informal Sector (ESI). EBC took place between June 1988 and May 1989 and aimed to improve knowledge on food, nutrition, and household expenses. Annual per capita household expenses varied from 84,000 FCFA in Mopti to 214,000 FCFA in Bamako District. Per capita expenses in rural areas were 66% of that in urban areas (166,500 vs. 181,000 FCFA). Expenses per unit of food increased with the size of the unit of food. Expenses per person fell with unit food size. Each person consumed, on average, 202 kg/year, providing 92% of energy needs. Protein needs were more than satisfied (115%). 23.7% of children aged 0-10 had stunted growth (25.3% in rural areas vs. 19.5% in urban areas). Malnutrition occurred in 11.5% of urban children and 11.7% of rural children. Malnutrition was present in 93% of less than one year olds and in 36.5% of children aged 12-48 months. 19% of women and 14.5% of men were malnourished. ESI was conducted between September 1989 and January 1990. The mean rate of activity was 55.35%. Unemployed persons made up about 1% of this rate. 45,970 persons were active in the informal sector, most in urban areas (60%). The informal sector comprised 16% of the total active population. In Bamako District, the active population in the informal sector was 155,000 persons. The rate of real activity in Bamako was 40% for men and 31% for women. The unemployment rate was 8.4% for men and 5.8% for women. 80% of unemployed persons in Bamako were less than 35 years old. 24% and 18% of the unemployed had secondary and postsecondary education, respectively. PMID:12288138

  12. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    PubMed

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. PMID:24360417

  13. The Impact of Student Aid on Recruitment and Retention: What the Research Indicates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature on the relationship between student aid, college choice, and students' ability to continue their enrollment. Suggests colleges must invent their own financial resources to remain competitive. Discusses the problem of some students having to be periodic consumers (attending when they can afford it). Describes how an understanding…

  14. A Comparison of Web and Telephone Responses From a National HIV and AIDS Survey

    PubMed Central

    Calzavara, Liviana; Allman, Dan; Worthington, Catherine A; Tyndall, Mark; Iveniuk, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Response differences to survey questions are known to exist for different modes of questionnaire completion. Previous research has shown that response differences by mode are larger for sensitive and complicated questions. However, it is unknown what effect completion mode may have on HIV and AIDS survey research, which addresses particularly sensitive and stigmatized health issues. Objectives We seek to compare responses between self-selected Web and telephone respondents in terms of social desirability and item nonresponse in a national HIV and AIDS survey. Methods A survey of 2085 people in Canada aged 18 years and older was conducted to explore public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors around HIV and AIDS in May 2011. Participants were recruited using random-digit dialing and could select to be interviewed on the telephone or self-complete through the Internet. For this paper, 15 questions considered to be either sensitive, stigma-related, or less-sensitive in nature were assessed to estimate associations between responses and mode of completion. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted for questions with significant (P≤.05) bivariate differences in responses to adjust for sociodemographic factors. As survey mode was not randomly assigned, we created a propensity score variable and included it in our multivariate models to control for mode selection bias. Results A total of 81% of participants completed the questionnaire through the Internet, and 19% completed by telephone. Telephone respondents were older, reported less education, had lower incomes, and were more likely from the province of Quebec. Overall, 2 of 13 questions assessed for social desirability and 3 of 15 questions assessed for item nonresponse were significantly associated with choice of mode in the multivariate analysis. For social desirability, Web respondents were more likely than telephone respondents to report more than 1 sexual partner in the past year (fully adjusted

  15. Factors Contributing to Financial Aid Administrators' Job Satisfaction: NASFAA 2008 Financial Aid Administrators' Job Satisfaction Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In what kind of job environment are financial aid administrators (FAA) currently working? How satisfied are they with their jobs? What motivates them and what factors are considered morale dampers? How are financial aid (FA) functions viewed by campus' top administrators? Does FA get similar respect and appreciation from their campus peer offices…

  16. AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes, Provisional Data from the National Health Interview Survey: United States, August 1987. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics. No. 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Deborah A.; And Others

    This document presents provisional data for all Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) questionnaire items from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for August 1987. It notes that the AIDS questionnaire was designed to provide baseline estimates of public knowledge and attitudes about AIDS transmission, the prevention of AIDS virus…

  17. Determinants of personal demand for an AIDS vaccine in Uganda: contingent valuation survey.

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David; Pariyo, George; Ainsworth, Martha; Hill, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors affecting demand for an HIV/AIDS vaccine among adults in their prime earning and childbearing years and the impact of vaccination on risk behaviour in a high-prevalence, low-income country. METHODS: A contingent valuation survey of 1677 adults aged 18-60 years was conducted in 12 districts in Uganda. Respondents were asked about a hypothetical vaccine to prevent HIV infection. Households were randomly assigned survey questionnaires with one of two levels of vaccine efficacy (50% or 95%) and one of five prices. The influence of demographic characteristics, vaccine efficacy, self-assessed risk of infection, price, and household assets on vaccine demand was assessed using multivariate regression analysis. FINDINGS: Altogether, 94% (1576/1677) of respondents would be willing to be vaccinated with a free HIV/AIDS vaccine; 31% (78/251) would not be willing to be vaccinated at a price of 5000 Ugandan shillings (2.86 U.S. dollars). Household wealth, vaccine price, and risk behaviour were significant determinants of individual demand. Demand was equally high for both low-efficacy and high-efficacy vaccines. Respondents believed that condom use would be slightly less necessary with a high-efficacy vaccine (655/825; 79.4%) than a low-efficacy vaccine (690/843; 81.8%). However, reported condom use with partners other than spouses in the absence of a vaccine was much lower (137/271; 50.6%), with 26% (175/670) of men and 9.5% (96/1007) of women reporting having had partners other than their spouses during the past year. CONCLUSION: The high demand for an AIDS vaccine of any level of efficacy can be explained by the heavy toll of AIDS in Uganda: 72% (990/1371) of respondents had lost a family member to the disease. An AIDS vaccine would be self-targeting: those with a greater chance of becoming infected and spreading HIV would be more likely to seek a vaccine, improving the efficiency of vaccination programmes. However,,high levels of risk

  18. Does Pre-Survey Training Impact Knowledge of Survey Administrators and Survey Outcomes in Developing Countries? Evaluation Findings of a Training of Trainers Workshop for National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Kolawole Solomon; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Ogboi, Johnbull Sonny; Bashorun, Adebobola Toluwalashe; Issa, Kawu Bolakale; Amida, Perpetua; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Onoriode, Ezire

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although, Nigeria had conducted various national surveys followed by central and state level trainings for survey administrators, prior pre-survey trainings have not been systematically evaluated to assess their impact on knowledge gain and final outcome of the survey. A central training of trainers’ session was organized for master trainers on the conduct of the 2012 National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of training on the quality of conduct of a national research survey in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Method: A total of 185 participants consisting of State AIDS Program Coordinators, Reproductive Health Coordinators, State Laboratory Scientists, Lead Supervisors and Counselor Testers were invited from the 36 states in Nigeria and the FCT for the central training of trainers in Abuja. The training lasted 5 days and the trainees were grouped into two on the basis of behavioral epidemiology and laboratory components. Training tools such as the developed protocol, training power point slides, practical sessions such as role plays, and usage of HIV rapid test kits were utilized during the training. The facilitators were drawn from Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH), universities and research Institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The facilitators prepared and administered 25 structured questions for the behavioral group and 28 questions for the laboratory group at the beginning of the training to assess the participants’ knowledge of HIV and the survey. The same questions answered by Trainees responded to the same questions prior to the commencement and at the end of the trainings. Scores were aggregated to 100 for each test. We conducted paired t-test to determine statistically significant differences between pre-test and post-test results at 0.05 significance level and ANOVA to determine if there were differences in knowledge level among different groups

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian nurses towards patients with HIV/AIDS: findings from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zeinab M; Wahsheh, Moayad A

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian nurses toward patients with HIV/AIDS, particularly in regards to their sources of information and education. This survey utilized a cross-sectional design. A self-administered questionnaire developed by Eckstein was used in collecting the data. A total of 922 nurses completed the questionnaire. Overall, Jordanian nurses expressed negative attitudes toward patients with HIV/AIDS, and their level of HIV/AIDS knowledge was weak. Weak knowledge level was recorded among nurses in the following subsections: agent and immunology; course and manifestation; transmission and incidence; and precaution and prevention. Only in one subsection (risk group), did nurses show a good level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. More than two-thirds of nurses (84%) refused to provide care to patients who tested positive for HIV/AIDS. Most of the nurse participants believed that currently provided HIV/AIDS information resources were inadequate (81.4 %). The majority of nurses were interested in support groups for staff nurses (96.5%). The major source of HIV/AIDS information obtained by Jordanian nurses was through Internet web sites (52.7%). The majority of nurses (96.2%) ranked their fear of getting AIDS from their nursing practice as overwhelming. The total attitude of participants towards patients with HIV/AIDS in all five subsections (i.e., fear of contagion, social stigma, fatal outcome of the disease, direct care, and education and counseling) was negative (84.3%). Accurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS along with an in-depth understanding of patients? needs can help alleviate much of the fear, anxiety, and stigma associated with caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22077750

  20. National population based HIV prevalence surveys in sub‐Saharan Africa: results and implications for HIV and AIDS estimates

    PubMed Central

    García‐Calleja, J M; Gouws, E; Ghys, P D

    2006-01-01

    Background Sentinel surveillance among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) has been the main source of information on HIV trends in sub‐Saharan Africa. These data have also been used to generate national HIV and AIDS estimates. New technologies and resources have allowed many countries to conduct national population based surveys that include HIV prevalence measurement, as an additional source of information on the AIDS epidemic. Methods The authors reviewed the reports of 20 national population based surveys from 19 countries carried out in sub‐Saharan Africa since 2001. They examined the sampling methodology, HIV testing and response rates, and female:male and urban:rural prevalence ratios. They also constructed adjusted prevalence scenarios assuming different relative risks for survey non‐responders. Results The national population based surveys vary considerably in quality, as reflected in the household response rate (ranging from 75.4% to 99.7%), women's testing rate (ranging from 68.2% to 97.3%), and men's testing rate (ranging from 62.2% to 95.4%), while for some surveys detailed response information is lacking. While 95% confidence intervals around the female:male and urban:rural prevalence ratios in individual countries are large, the median female:male ratio of the combined set of surveys results is 1.5 and the median urban:rural ratio 1.7. A scenario assuming that non‐responders have twice the HIV prevalence of those who fully participated in the survey suggests that individual non‐response could result in an adjusted HIV prevalence 1.03 to 1.34 times higher than the observed prevalence. Conclusions Population based surveys can provide useful information on HIV prevalence levels and distribution. This information is being used to improve national HIV and AIDS estimates. Further refinements in data collection, analysis, and reporting, combined with high participation rates, can further improve HIV and AIDS estimates at national and

  1. [Serological and Behavioral Survey on HIV/AIDS among prisoners in Nouakchott (Mauritania)].

    PubMed

    Ba, K; Keita, M; Fall-Malick, F Z; Mint Beibakar, M; Diallo, M; Lo, B B

    2015-08-01

    In Mauritania, epidemiological data estimate national HIV prevalence to less than 1%. Our study is the first joint survey on HIV/AIDS conducted among prisoners in Mauritania. It is a cross-sectional survey with anonymity and informed consent. The study covered a sample of 296 prisoners enrolled in a population of 706 prisoners held in Nouakchott. The sex ratio was 14.6. The refusal rate of blood sample was 4.7%. HIV prevalence in the sample was 3.9%. 53.37% of prisoners knew the concept of seropositivity but only 7.4% had a perfect knowledge of the ways of HIV transmission untainted by false beliefs. The results showed that 99% of prisoners knew that the condom is a means of protection against HIV infection, but they also showed many false beliefs about protection against HIV in the majority of prisoners. Indeed, 98.49% of respondents said they protected themselves by avoiding sex with strangers and 94.97% of them thought that sex with young girls or virgins are protection against HIV. Nearly one quarter of the prisoners did not have a good perception of risk of contracting HIV in prison although homosexual relations between prisoners have been reported. This study showed that prisoners in Mauritania are a vulnerable group to HIV because the prevalence of HIV in this group was higher than the national prevalence and this sub-population was unfamiliar with the disease and adopt risk behaviors. PMID:26141499

  2. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  3. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  4. Costs of Homemaker-Home Health Aide and Alternative Forms of Service; A Survey of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nancy; And Others

    The cost analysis project report is directed towards persons in policy-making and administrative positions at the national, State, and direct service agency levels. Its purpose was to survey the literature and records to identify costs of homemaker-home health aide services and comparative costs of alternative forms of services. Part 1 includes…

  5. A Survey of British Research in Audio-Visual Aids, Supplement No. 2, 1974. (Including Cumulative Index 1945-1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, Susie, Comp.

    The second supplement to the new (1972) edition of the Survey of Research in Audiovisual Aids carried out in Great Britain covers the year 1974. Ten separate sections cover the areas of projected media, non-projected media, sound media, radio, moving pictures, television, teaching machines and programed learning, computer-assisted instruction,…

  6. HIV/AIDS Course Content in CSWE-Accredited Social Work Programs: A Survey of Current Curricular Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Diana; Shears, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed program directors at all bachelor of social work and master of social work programs accredited by the Council on Social Work Education using an online tool that assessed whether and how their respective social work programs are covering content related to HIV/AIDS. Of the 650 program directors, 153 (24%) participated in the…

  7. 44th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid: 2012-2013 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report provides data regarding state-funded expenditures for student financial aid and illustrates the extent of efforts made by the states to assist postsecondary students. Information in this report is based on academic year 2012-13 data from the 44th Annual NASSGAP survey. Highlights include: (1) In the 2012-13 academic year, the states…

  8. Modeling Comparative Daily Enrollment Indicators To Aid Intelligent College Decisions. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajubutu, Oyebanjo A.

    This paper shows how three critical enrollment indicators drawn from a relationship database were used to guide planning and management decisions. The paper discusses the guidelines for the development of the model, attributes needed, variables to be calculated, and other issues that may improve the effectiveness and efficiency of daily enrollment…

  9. Survey on computer aided decision support for diagnosis of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegenbart, Sebastian; Uhl, Andreas; Vécsei, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a complex autoimmune disorder in genetically predisposed individuals of all age groups triggered by the ingestion of food containing gluten. A reliable diagnosis is of high interest in view of embarking on a strict gluten-free diet, which is the CD treatment modality of first choice. The gold standard for diagnosis of CD is currently based on a histological confirmation of serology, using biopsies performed during upper endoscopy. Computer aided decision support is an emerging option in medicine and endoscopy in particular. Such systems could potentially save costs and manpower while simultaneously increasing the safety of the procedure. Research focused on computer-assisted systems in the context of automated diagnosis of CD has started in 2008. Since then, over 40 publications on the topic have appeared. In this context, data from classical flexible endoscopy as well as wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) and confocal laser endomicrosopy (CLE) has been used. In this survey paper, we try to give a comprehensive overview of the research focused on computer-assisted diagnosis of CD. PMID:25770906

  10. 78 FR 76285 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Panel Member Survey To Develop Indicators of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Member Survey To Develop Indicators of Resilient Coastal Tourism AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... shape the tourism industry's ability to adapt to or bounce back from external shocks such as natural... to measure the resiliency of coastal tourism. To help gather this information, NOAA will conduct...

  11. School Teachers' Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Van; Spangler, Tracy

    A survey was conducted of 100 elementary and secondary teachers in northwestern Ohio concerning their knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results indicated a lack of basic knowledge of AIDS among the majority of respondents, with a mean score of 14 out of 21 points (67 percent). Several of the most frequently missed questions…

  12. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

  13. Intention to use hearing aids: a survey based on the theory of planned behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Grugel, Linda; Meis, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs) by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Study sample Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. Results The TPB models’ outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the “subjective norm” construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the “subjective norm” construct but was largely dominated by their “attitude toward HAs”. Conclusion The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient’s stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking. PMID:25258520

  14. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary prevention activities. Conclusions

  15. College Students and AIDS: AIDS Communication and Involvement Effects on Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Randy; McCain, Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to describe college students' AIDS communication and explore the relationships between AIDS communication, involvement, and sexual behavior. A non-random sample of 334 college students was surveyed. AIDS message discrimination and multiple indicators of involvement were tested for associations with sexual behavior…

  16. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821

  17. Selection of key financial indicators: a literature, panel and survey approach.

    PubMed

    Pink, George H; Daniel, Imtiaz; Hall, Linda McGillis; McKillop, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998, most hospitals in Ontario have voluntarily participated in one of the largest and most ambitious publicly available performance-reporting initiatives in the world. This article describes the method used to select key financial indicators for inclusion in the report including the literature review, panel and survey approaches that were used. The results for five years of recent data for Ontario hospitals are also presented. PMID:18271103

  18. Geostatistical Modeling of Malaria Endemicity using Serological Indicators of Exposure Collected through School Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Ruth A.; Kefyalew, Takele; Rand, Alison; Sime, Heven; Assefa, Ashenafi; Mekasha, Addis; Edosa, Wasihun; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Cano, Jorge; Teka, Hiwot; Reithinger, Richard; Pullan, Rachel L.; Drakeley, Chris J.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia has a diverse ecology and geography resulting in spatial and temporal variation in malaria transmission. Evidence-based strategies are thus needed to monitor transmission intensity and target interventions. A purposive selection of dried blood spots collected during cross-sectional school-based surveys in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, were tested for presence of antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax antigens. Spatially explicit binomial models of seroprevalence were created for each species using a Bayesian framework, and used to predict seroprevalence at 5 km resolution across Oromia. School seroprevalence showed a wider prevalence range than microscopy for both P. falciparum (0–50% versus 0–12.7%) and P. vivax (0–53.7% versus 0–4.5%), respectively. The P. falciparum model incorporated environmental predictors and spatial random effects, while P. vivax seroprevalence first-order trends were not adequately explained by environmental variables, and a spatial smoothing model was developed. This is the first demonstration of serological indicators being used to detect large-scale heterogeneity in malaria transmission using samples from cross-sectional school-based surveys. The findings support the incorporation of serological indicators into periodic large-scale surveillance such as Malaria Indicator Surveys, and with particular utility for low transmission and elimination settings. PMID:25962770

  19. Merit Aid: Students, Institutions, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S.; Schapiro, Morton Owen

    Recent research indicates a trend toward increases in the share of all institution-based student aid funds going to merit aid and in merit scholarship competition among institutions. This paper presents findings of a study that surveyed 379 nonprofit bachelors'-degree-granting institutions in 1983-84 and 1991-92. Findings indicate that the less…

  20. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination. PMID:27079055

  1. Accurate Atmospheric Parameters at Moderate Resolution Using Spectral Indices: Preliminary Application to the MARVELS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Pepper, Joshua; Wang, Ji; Paegert, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ~ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test was

  2. Indicators of Family Care for Development for Use in Multicountry Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kariger, Patricia; Engle, Patrice; Britto, Pia M. Rebello; Sywulka, Sara M.; Menon, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Indicators of family care for development are essential for ascertaining whether families are providing their children with an environment that leads to positive developmental outcomes. This project aimed to develop indicators from a set of items, measuring family care practices and resources important for caregiving, for use in epidemiologic surveys in developing countries. A mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) design was used for item selection and evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to examine the validity of candidate items in several country samples. Qualitative methods included the use of global expert panels to identify and evaluate the performance of each candidate item as well as in-country focus groups to test the content validity of the items. The quantitative methods included analyses of item-response distributions, using bivariate techniques. The selected items measured two family care practices (support for learning/stimulating environment and limit-setting techniques) and caregiving resources (adequacy of the alternate caregiver when the mother worked). Six play-activity items, indicative of support for learning/stimulating environment, were included in the core module of UNICEF's Multiple Cluster Indictor Survey 3. The other items were included in optional modules. This project provided, for the first time, a globally-relevant set of items for assessing family care practices and resources in epidemiological surveys. These items have multiple uses, including national monitoring and cross-country comparisons of the status of family care for development used globally. The obtained information will reinforce attention to efforts to improve the support for development of children. PMID:23304914

  3. Implementing Aid in Dying in California: Experiences from Other States Indicates the Need for Strong Implementation Guidance.

    PubMed

    Cain, Cindy L

    2016-05-01

    In late 2015, California passed the End of Life Option Act (AB 15), which allows residents at the terminal stage of an illness to request a prescription for medications meant to hasten death. As California seeks to implement the law in June 2016, findings from other states that practice aid in dying (AID) may guide implementation. This policy brief provides an overview of the use of AID, outlines outstanding questions about practice and ethics, and recommends steps for improving California's implementation of AB 15. Specifically, the implementation of AB 15 would be improved by adjusting surveillance data-collection requirements and encouraging additional research investment, using the legalization of AID to improve knowledge of and practices for end-of-life care generally, and creating ongoing educational opportunities for providers and the general public. PMID:27416645

  4. Accurate atmospheric parameters at moderate resolution using spectral indices: Preliminary application to the marvels survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Ji; and others

    2014-12-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T {sub eff}, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ∼ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T {sub eff}, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An

  5. Sex, AIDS, and the Use of Condoms: A Survey of Compliance in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Robert; Matsen, Krista

    The potential for an increase in the transmission of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) exists because the practice of sexual intercourse among unmarried individuals has increased in all age groups. Nonetheless, an earlier study in 1984 had found that the sexual activity and minimal condom use of college students had not changed…

  6. A Survey of Primary Bibliographic Instruction Methods and Aids Currently Used in Selected Canadian Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beristain, Maureen Fanning

    This study examines bibliographic instruction methods and aids currently being used in selected Canadian academic libraries. The project's objectives included identifying: the current state of bibliographic instruction; programs or special services offered for foreign students; changes or developments that have taken place in bibliographic…

  7. The Design of a Survey Instrument to Aid in Identifying Sex Related Barriers to Employment and the Administration of That Instrument to Rural and Urban Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. Dolores; Mook, Corena

    A project was conducted to design a survey instrument that would help in identifying sex-related barriers to employment and to administer that instrument to employers in both rural and urban counties of Kansas. It was projected that the data derived from the survey could be used to aid in designing vocational education methods and techniques.…

  8. Malaria indicator survey 2009, South Sudan: baseline results at household level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. This nationally representative survey aimed to provide data on malaria indicators at household level across the country. Methods In 2009, data were collected using a two-stage random cluster sample of 2,797 households in 150 census enumeration areas during a Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in South Sudan. The survey determined parasite and anaemia prevalence in vulnerable population groups and evaluated coverage, use and access to malaria control services. Standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (RBM-MERG) MIS household and women’s questionnaires were adapted to the local situation and used for collection of data that were analysed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Results The results of this survey showed that 59.3% (95% CI: 57.5-61.1) of households owned at least one mosquito net. The proportion of the population with access to an ITN in their household was 49.7% (95% CI: 48.2-51.2). The utilization of insecticide-treated nets was low; 25.3% (95% CI: 23.9-26.7) for children under five (U5) and 35.9% (95% CI: 31.9-40.2) of pregnant women (OR: 1.66 (1.36-2.01); P =0.175). Prevalence of infection was 24.5% (95% CI: 23.0-26.1) in children U5 and 9.9% (95% CI: 7.4-13.1) in pregnant women. About two thirds (64%) of children U5 and 46% of pregnant women were anaemic. Only 2% of households were covered by indoor residual spraying (IRS) the previous year. Data shows that 58% reported that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, 34% mentioned that the use of mosquito nets could prevent malaria, 41% knew the correct treatment for malaria, and 52% of the children received treatment at a health facility. Conclusion The observed high malaria prevalence could be due to low levels of coverage and utilization of interventions

  9. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i) provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii) to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS) to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii) scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located <2,000 m altitude. Of 5,083 surveyed households, 3,282 (65.6%) owned at least one ITN. In ITN-owning households, 53.2% of all persons had slept under an ITN the prior night, including 1,564/2,496 (60.1%) children <5 years of age, 1,891/3,009 (60.9%) of women 15 - 49 years of age, and 166/266 (65.7%) of pregnant women. Overall, 906 (20.0%) households reported to have had IRS in the past 12 months. Of 747

  10. Public School Nurses' Preparedness for a Hearing Aid Monitoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This investigation surveyed public school nurses' (n=30) preparedness to participate in a hearing aid monitoring program. Results indicated some deficiencies in nurses' exposure to, knowledge of, and basic skill level with hearing aids, hearing aid batteries, and ear molds. (Author/DB)

  11. Indicators of Victimization and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents: Analyses From Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633

  12. Brief Report: Applying an Indicator Set to Survey the Health of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patricia Noonan

    2008-01-01

    This report gives an account of applying a health survey tool by the "Pomona" Group that earlier documented the process of developing a set of health indicators for people with intellectual disabilities in Europe. The "Pomona" health indicator set mirrors the much larger set of health indicators prepared by the European Community Health Indicators…

  13. The influence of personality disorder indication, social support, and grief on alcohol and cocaine use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nathan B; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Vaughan, Ellen L; Connell, Christian M; Tate, David C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol and cocaine use among a diverse sample of 268 HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the study data. Male gender, PD indication, and social support had direct effects on substance use. PD had significant indirect effects on both alcohol and cocaine use, mediated by social support, but not by grief. Finally, both PD and social support had significant, but opposite, effects on grief. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:17846878

  14. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat data for surveying Texas coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Weismiller, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using machine-aided processing of Landsat data to inventory environmental units was studied by analyzing geometrically corrected and spatially registered Landsat data collected over the Matagorda Bay area of the Texas coastal estuarine system. A clustering algorithm (nonsupervised processor) was used to divide the data into groups of sample points of similar spectral characteristics, and correlation of spectral classes with reference data on a point-to-point basis showed the coastal features exhibit unique spectral variations. Use of a maximum likelihood algorithm permitted discrimination of 13 terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  15. Biomedical Informatics for Computer-Aided Decision Support Systems: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest. PMID:23431259

  16. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  17. Procedures for Surveying School Problems: Some Individual, Group, and System Indicators. A Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elaine N.; And Others

    This manual presents information on three instruments designed for surveying mental health problems in schools. Part I describes the instruments, which are two questionnaires called the School Problem Area Survey--Staff, and the School Problem Area Survey--Students, and a guide to be used in interviews, called the Demographic Information Form as…

  18. Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries.

    PubMed

    Troesch, Barbara; Hoeft, Birgit; McBurney, Michael; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Weber, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Vitamins play a crucial role in health, but modern lifestyles may lead to suboptimal intakes even in affluent countries. The aim of the present study is to review vitamin intakes in Germany, the UK, The Netherlands and the USA and to compare them with respective national recommendations. Data on adults from the most recently published national dietary intake surveys for the first three countries and data for adults from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 to 2008 for the USA were used as a basis for the analysis. The proportions of the populations with intakes below recommendations were categorised as < 5, 5-25, >25-50, >50-75 and >75 % for each vitamin. The data generated are presented in a 'traffic light display', using colours from green to red to indicate degrees of sufficiency. The trends found were compared with the results from the European Nutrition and Health Report 2009, even though in that report, only information on mean intakes in the different countries was available. We showed that, although inter-country differences exist, intakes of several vitamins are below recommendations in a significant part of the population in all these countries. The most critical vitamin appears to be vitamin D and the least critical niacin. The variation between the countries is most probably due to differences in recommendations, levels of fortification and local dietary habits. We show that a gap exists between vitamin intakes and requirements for a significant proportion of the population, even though diverse foods are available. Ways to correct this gap need to be investigated. PMID:22691229

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Aids Federal Agencies in ObtainingCommercial Satellite and Aerial Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a leading U.S. Federal civil agency in the implementation of the civil aspects of the Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy (CRSSP). The USGS is responsible for collecting inter-agency near-term requirements, establishing an operational infrastructure, and supporting the policy and other Federal agencies.

  20. Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education: Survey Results, 1991. Bulletin No. 93253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara

    This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…

  1. Role of community pharmacies in prevention of AIDS among injecting drug misusers: findings of a survey in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, A.; Byrne, C.; Jackson, P.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the current and potential roles of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs. DESIGN--Cross sectional postal survey of a one in four random sample of registered pharmacies in England and Wales. SETTING--Project conducted in the addiction research unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, London. SUBJECTS--2469 Community pharmacies in the 15 regional health authorities in England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Willingness of pharmacists to sell injecting equipment to known or suspected misusers of drugs; pharmacists' attitudes to syringe exchange schemes, keeping a "sharps" box for use by misusers of drugs, and offering face to face advice and leaflets; and opinions of community pharmacists on their role in AIDS prevention and drug misuse. RESULTS--1946 Questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 79%. This fell short of the target of one in four pharmacies in each family practitioner committee area in England and Wales, and total numbers of respondents were therefore weighted in inverse proportion to the response rate in each area. The findings disclosed a substantial demand for injecting equipment by drug misusers. After weighting of numbers of respondents an estimated 676 of 2434 pharmacies were currently selling injecting equipment and 65 of 2415 (3%) were participating in local syringe exchange schemes; only 94 of 2410 pharmacies (4%) had a sharps box for used equipment. There was a high degree of concern among pharmacists about particular consequences of drug misusers visiting their premises, along with a widespread acceptance that the community pharmacist had an important part to play. CONCLUSIONS--Promoting the participation of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs is a viable policy, but several problems would need to be overcome before it was implemented. PMID:2511969

  2. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  3. Stigma, discrimination, and sexual (dis)satisfaction among people living with HIV: results from the "AIDES et toi" survey.

    PubMed

    Rojas Castro, D; Le Gall, J M; Andreo, C; Spire, B

    2010-08-01

    The effects of HIV-related stigma and discrimination have been studied in several areas, such as access to testing, quality of care quality, and access to work. Nevertheless, the effects of stigma and discrimination on the sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not been studied enough. AIDES, a French community-based organization, has developed a biannual survey which assesses several socioeconomical and psychosocial dimensions of the people in contact with this organization. A focus on the results concerning sexual (dis)satisfaction and the factors associated are presented here. A convenience sample of 521 HIV-positive men having sex with men, heterosexual men and women was analyzed. A logistic regression was performed to examine which factors were significantly associated with sexual dissatisfaction. Results showed that being older, not having a full-time job, not having a steady sexual partner, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, discrimination in the sexual relationship setting, and the perception of loneliness were independently associated with sexual dissatisfaction. A quality health approach must include the aspects linked to sexual life and sexual satisfaction. Given the potentially harmful effects that HIV-related stigma and discrimination have on PLWHA's well-being, more specific actions and advocacy in this direction should be developed and implemented. PMID:20552468

  4. High-risk behavior of HIV/AIDS among females sex workers in Bangladesh: survey in Rajshahi City.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sheikh Moin; Hossain, Md Golam; Islam, Md Ashraful; Islam, Md Nurul; Aik, Saw; Kamarul, T

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients are one of the major sources of spread of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of unprotected sex among FSWs in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. A total of 200 FSWs were randomly selected for the survey from February to September 2012. The age range of FSWs was 16-41 years (average age, 24.52 ± 6.26 years), and the majority of these women (84.4%) were married. More than 88% of FSWs reported practicing unprotected sex because of clients' insistence. Further analysis showed a significantly higher rate of protected sex among unmarried FSWs (P < 0.01). Approximately 32% of FSWs did not undergo voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV, and this factor was significantly associated with the education level (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), and economic status (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 89.5% respondents did not ask their new clients about VCT/HIV status, and this factor was associated with the resident area (P < 0.05), age (P < 0.05), and economic status (P < 0.01) of FSWs. Authorities in this country should focus their HIV/AIDS prevention efforts on illiterate FSWs, married FSWs, and FSWs aged below 21 years or above 30 years. PMID:24858608

  5. Clustering and meso-level variables in cross-sectional surveys: an example of food aid during the Bosnian crisis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Focus groups, rapid assessment procedures, key informant interviews and institutional reviews of local health services provide valuable insights on health service resources and performance. A long-standing challenge of health planning is to combine this sort of qualitative evidence in a unified analysis with quantitative evidence from household surveys. A particular challenge in this regard is to take account of the neighbourhood or clustering effects, recognising that these can be informative or incidental. Methods An example of food aid and food sufficiency from the Bosnian emergency (1995-96) illustrates two Lamothe cluster-adjustments of the Mantel Haenszel (MH) procedure, one assuming a fixed odds ratio and the other allowing for informative clustering by not assuming a fixed odds ratio. We compared these with conventional generalised estimating equations and a generalised linear mixed (GLMM) model, using a Laplace adjustment. Results The MH adjustment assuming incidental clustering generated a final model very similar to GEE. The adjustment that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced a final multivariate model and effect sizes very similar to GLMM. Discussion In medium or large data sets with stratified last stage random sampling, the cluster adjusted MH is substantially more conservative than the naïve MH computation. In the example of food aid in the Bosnian crisis, the cluster adjusted MH that does not assume a fixed odds ratio produced similar results to the GLMM, which identified informative clustering. PMID:22376353

  6. Use of Web 2.0 to Recruit Australian Gay Men to an Online HIV/AIDS Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thériault, Nathanaelle; Hiller, Janet E; Nor, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Background Continuous prevention efforts for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are recommended among those men who have sex with men (MSM). Creative use of e-technologies coupled with a better understanding of social networks could lead to improved health interventions among this risk population. Objective The aims of the study were to (1) compare the impact of various advertising strategies on recruiting MSM participants to an online HIV/AIDS survey, and (2) explore the feasibility of using a social network service (SNS) for study advertising. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in 2009. South Australian men over 18 years were invited to participate if they had had sexual intercourse with men in the previous year. A short questionnaire was used to collect demographics and information on sexual behavior, HIV history, use of the Internet for dating purposes, and sources of health information. The survey was promoted in community settings and online, including advertisements through social networks. Results A total of 243 men completed the online survey during the 8-week data collection period. Online advertisements recruited 91.7% (220/240) of the sample. Conversely, traditional advertisements in the community recruited only 5.8% (14/240) of the sample. Ten volunteers were asked to advertise on their personal SNS application, but only 2 effectively did so. Only 18/240 (7.5%) of the respondents reported having learned of our study through the SNS application. In this sample, 19.3% (47/243) of participants had never been tested for HIV. Among the participants who had been tested, 12.8% (25/196) reported being HIV-positive. Regarding Internet use, 82.3% (200/243) of participants had dated online in the previous 6 months. Among the participants who had dated online, most (175/200, 87.5%) had found an Internet sexual partner and two-thirds (132/200, 66.0%) had had anal sex with these partner(s). Among men

  7. Domiciliary Non-invasive Ventilation in COPD: An International Survey of Indications and Practices.

    PubMed

    Crimi, Claudia; Noto, Alberto; Princi, Pietro; Cuvelier, Antoine; Masa, Juan F; Simonds, Anita; Elliott, Mark W; Wijkstra, Peter; Windisch, Wolfram; Nava, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that metanalyses and clinical guidelines do not recommend the routine use of domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for patients diagnosed with severe stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and with chronic respiratory failure, it is common practice in some countries. We conducted an international web-survey of physicians involved in provision of long-term NIV to examine patterns of domiciliary NIV use in patients diagnosed with COPD. The response rate was 41.6%. A reduction of hospital admissions, improvements in quality of life and dyspnea relief were considered as the main expected benefits for patients. Nocturnal oxygen saturation assessment was the principal procedure performed before NIV prescription. Recurrent exacerbations (>3) requiring NIV and failed weaning from in hospital NIV were the most important reasons for starting domiciliary NIV. Pressure support ventilation (PSV) was the most common mode, with "low" intensity settings (PSV-low) the most popular (44.4 ± 30.1%) compared with "high" intensity (PSV-high) strategies (26.9 ± 25.9%), with different geographical preferences. COPD is confirmed to be a common indication for domiciliary NIV. Recurrent exacerbations and failed weaning from in-hospital NIV were the main reasons for its prescription. PMID:26744042

  8. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    PubMed Central

    Van Huy, Nguyen; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Van Tien, Nguyen; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Design Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011) were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Results Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively). Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively). Conclusions This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control policies and practices

  9. The Vital Role of Administrative Cost Allowances to Student Financial Aid Offices: Key Findings from NASFAA's Administrative Cost Allowance Survey, July 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) recently conducted a survey on the 2009-10 award year Administrative Cost Allowances (ACA), which are funds used by colleges and universities to support operations and professional development. Specifically, ACA is often used in essential areas that support the day-to-day…

  10. Measuring Trends in Salaries and Wages in Public Schools: ERS Composite Indicator of Changes. ERS Information Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    The composite indicator, published annually by the Educational Research Service (ERS), was designed to reflect overall changes in average salaries and wages paid by public school systems. The purpose of this book is to describe the nature of the indicator, how it is compiled on a national and state basis, and how local school systems can compile…

  11. Correlates of HIV testing among women in Malawi: results from the 2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey.

    PubMed

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Mataya, Ronald H

    2008-11-01

    We report a study of women 15-49 years aimed at assessing correlates of HIV testing and having received test results in a nationally representative survey of women in Malawi. A total of 26 259 women were recruited into the study, of whom 3712 (14.1%) had ever been tested for HIV infection and received their results. We found that age and education were not significantly associated with HIV testing but marital status, wealth, region were. Contrary to our expectations that women who had delivered a child were more likely to have been ever tested when accessing prenatal and intra-partum care, we found that women who had delivered a child in the 2 years before the survey were less likely to have ever been tested. We suggest that by 2006 when the survey was conducted, prenatal and intra-partum care were not important avenues for HIV testing in Malawi. PMID:18803613

  12. Agricultural land cover mapping with the aid of digital soil survey data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A study is recounted which assessed the effect of stratifying multidate Landsat MSS data on land cover classification accuracy. The study area covered 49,184 ha (121,534 acres) in Gentry County in northwestern Missouri. A pixel-by-pixel comparison of the two land cover classifications with field-verified land cover indicated improvements in identification of all cover types when land areas were stratified by soils. The introduction of soil map information to the land cover mapping process can improve discrimination of land cover types and reduce confusion among crop types that may be caused by soil-specific management practices, soil-induced crop development differences, and background reflectance characteristics.

  13. Approximations to the Truth: Comparing Survey and Microsimulation Approaches to Measuring Income for Social Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figari, Francesco; Iacovou, Maria; Skew, Alexandra J.; Sutherland, Holly

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate income distributions in four European countries (Austria, Italy, Spain and Hungary) using two complementary approaches: a standard approach based on reported incomes in survey data, and a microsimulation approach, where taxes and benefits are simulated. These two approaches may be expected to generate slightly different…

  14. AIDS/HIV education for preservice elementary teachers.

    PubMed

    Ballard, D J; White, D M; Glascoff, M A

    1990-08-01

    Professional preparation programs should provide future elementary teachers opportunities to develop competence in dealing with school-related AIDS issues. Curriculum writers and instructors of preservice elementary teachers could be more effective if they were aware of this groups' beliefs about school-related AIDS issues. A survey was conducted to assess the beliefs and opinions of preservice elementary teachers about school-related AIDS issues. Subjects (n = 157) generally agreed they would eventually have a child with AIDS in their classroom and agreed AIDS education should be included in the elementary grades, yet a substantial number did not believe they understood the basics about AIDS. Less than one-third indicated they knew how to clean up blood or body fluids safely. About one-third indicated they would feel personally threatened to teach a student with AIDS. These results are reflected in recommended AIDS educational content and resources for preservice elementary teachers and future research in this area. PMID:2232729

  15. Food Insecurity and Other Poverty Indicators among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Effects on Treatment and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O.; Grebler, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the demands of long-term medication adherence have meant the full benefits of HIV treatment are often not realized. In particular, food insecurity has emerged as a robust predictor of ART non-adherence. However, research is limited in determining whether food insecurity uniquely impedes HIV treatment or if food insecurity is merely a marker for poverty that interferes more broadly with treatment. This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61% (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structural interventions that address basic survival needs among people living with HIV, especially food security. PMID:24705680

  16. Comparison of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Procedures: Effects on Health Indicators in Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Goldschmeding, Judith E. J.; de Wilde, Erik Jan

    2006-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are frequently used in youth research, but doubt remains whether total anonymity affects the results. This study compared the responses of 704 mainly 16-17-year-old adolescents to self-report measures of various health indicators in 2 groups: anonymous and confidential collection. For most health indicators no…

  17. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  18. Wealth inequality and utilization of reproductive health services in the Republic of Vanuatu: insights from the multiple indicator cluster survey, 2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the Republic of Vanuatu has improved maternal indicators, more needs to be done to improve equity among the poorest in the use of reproductive health services to expedite the progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 5(MDG 5) target. While large developing country studies provide evidence of a rich-poor gap in reproductive health services utilization, not much is written in terms of Pacific Islands. Thus, this study aims to examine the degree of inequality in utilization of reproductive health services in a nationally representative sample of Vanuatu households. Methods This paper used data from the 2007 Vanuatu Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). The analyses were based on responses from 615 ever married women, living with at least one child below two years of age. Outcomes included antenatal care (ANC) and use of birth attendants at delivery, place of delivery, and counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed in the analysis. Results Findings revealed that the economic well-being status of the household to which women belong, played a crucial role in explaining the variation in service utilization. Inequality in utilization was found to be more pronounced between the poorest and richest groups within the wealth quintiles. In adjusted models, mothers in the richest bands of wealth were 5.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-22.47), 2.12 (95% CI: 1.02-3.42), 4.0 (95% CI 1.58-10.10), and 2.0 (95% CI 1.02-5.88) times more likely to have assisted delivery from medically trained personnel, have institutional deliveries, and have counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Association between household wealth inequality and utilization of ANC and delivery assistance from medically trained personnel, institutional delivery, and counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS suggest that higher utilization of reproductive health care services in Vanuatu poor

  19. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. Methods The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. Results These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. Conclusions This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. PMID:26206364

  20. A process for creating multimetric indices for large-scale aquatic surveys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in sampling and laboratory protocols, differences in techniques used to evaluate metrics, and differing scales of calibration and application prohibit the use of many existing multimetric indices (MMIs) in large-scale bioassessments. We describe an approach to develop...

  1. Spectral classification indicators of emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fei; Liu, Yu-Yan; Li, Pei-Yu; Yu, Ming; Lei, Yu-Ming; Wang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    To find efficient spectral classification diagrams to classify emission-line galaxies, especially in large surveys and huge data bases, an artificial neural network (ANN) supervised learning algorithms is applied to a sample of emission-line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9 provided by the Max Planck Institute and the Johns Hopkins University (MPA/JHU) (http://www.sdss3.org/dr9/spectro/spectroaccess.php). A two-step approach is adopted. (i) The ANN network must be trained with a subset of objects that are known to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs) hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies, treating the strong emission-line flux measurements as input feature vectors in n-dimensional space, where n is the number of strong emission-line flux ratios. (ii) After the network is trained on a sample of galaxies, the remaining galaxies are classified in the automatic test analysis as AGN hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies. We show that the classification diagrams based on the [N II]/Hα versus other emission-line ratio, such as [O III]/Hβ, [Ne III]/[O II], ([O III]λ4959 + [O III]λ5007)/[O III]λ4363, [O II]/Hβ, [Ar III]/[O III], [S II]/Hα, and [O I]/Hα, plus colour, allows us to separate unambiguously AGN hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies. Among them, the diagram of [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ achieved an accuracy of 98 per cent for classification of AGN hosts, composites or star-forming galaxies. The other diagrams above except the diagram of [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ give an accuracy of ˜90 per cent. The code in the paper is available on the web (http://fshi5388.blog.163.com).

  2. Analysis of Parent Survey Data Addressing Part B SPP/APR Indicator #8--2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with federal reporting requirements mandated by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) must report annually on 20 performance indicators related to the provision of special education services to children…

  3. DESIGN AND INDICATOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF USA GREAT RIVERS: MISSOURI, MISSISSIPPI, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great River Ecosystems (GRE) include the river channel and associated backwaters and floodplain habitats. The challenge in designing a GRE monitoring and assessment program is to choose a set of habitats, indicators, and sampling locations that reveal the ecological condition of ...

  4. Toward long-term all-sky time domain surveys-SINDICS: a prospective concept for a Seismic INDICes Survey of half a million red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Eric; Haywood, Misha; Mosser, Benoit; García, Rafael A.; Babusiaux, Carine; Ballot, Jérôme; Samadi, Reza; Katz, David; Belkacem, Kevin; Bernardi, Pernelle; Buey, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    CoRoT and Kepler have brought a new and deep experience in long-term photometric surveys and how to use them. This is true for exoplanets characterizing, stellar seismology and beyond for studying several other phenomena, like granulation or activity. Based on this experience, it has been possible to propose new generation projects, like TESS and PLATO, with more specific scientific objectives and more ambitious observational programs in terms of sky coverage and/or duration of the observations. In this context and as a prospective exercise, we explore here the possibility to set up an all-sky survey optimized for seismic indices measurement, providing masses, radii and evolution stages for half a million solar-type pulsators (subgiants and red giants), in our galactic neighborhood and allowing unprecedented stellar population studies.

  5. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  6. Supernova Legacy Survey: using spectral signatures to improve Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. S.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Bronder, T. J.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Aldering, G.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Kronborg, T.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Zhang, T.

    2011-01-01

    Optical long-slit spectroscopy at the Gemini-North telescope using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) was used to classify targets from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) from 2005 July and 2006 May-2008 May. During this time, 95 objects were observed. Where possible, the objects' redshifts (z) were measured from narrow emission or absorption features in the host galaxy spectrum, otherwise they were measured from the broader supernova features. We present spectra of 68 confirmed or probable SNe Ia from SNLS with redshifts in the range 0.17 ≤z≤ 1.02. In combination with earlier SNLS Gemini and VLT spectra, we used these new observations to measure pseudo-equivalent widths (EWs) of three spectral features - Ca II H&K, Si II and Mg II- in 144 objects and compared them to the EWs of low-redshift SNe Ia from a sample drawn from the literature. No signs of changes with z are seen for the Ca II H&K and Mg II features. Systematically lower EW Si II is seen at high redshift, but this can be explained by a change in demographics of the SNe Ia population within a two-component model combined with an observed correlation between EW Si II and photometric light-curve stretch.

  7. A survey on the effects of metabolic syndrome on the periodontal indices of hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad; Izadi, Mozhgan; Yaghini, Jaber; Rastegari, Abdolah; Abed, Ahmad Moghareh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome and periodontitis coincide with systemic inflammation and glucose tolerance disorder, which indicate the common pathophysiologic pathway of these diseases. The main goal of this study was to determine the effects of the metabolic syndrome on the periodontal indices of hemodialysis (HD) patient. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 75 persons were selected by the simple method, 50 of them were HD patients, and 25 of them were healthy people. They were divided into three groups each of which included 25 persons. The periodontal conditions of the selected persons were determined by radiography, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and bleeding index. Then, the periodontal indices of the patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and the persons not affected by metabolic syndrome were compared. At the end, the data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 20) using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests at the meaningful level of α = 0.05. Since the condition of the unilateral variance test could not be provided for this study, the Kruskal–Wallis test was used. To complete the test, the Mann–Whitney test was used in the binary form among the groups being studied. Results: The obtained results showed a meaningful difference among the groups under study (P < 0.001). The results of the test showed a meaningful difference among the obtained indices of the groups being studied in the binary form (P < 0.001) too. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed when the severity of chronic systemic disease increased the health of the periodontal tissues would decrease. PMID:27605991

  8. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the

  9. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and its association with socioeconomic status among women: results of Lebanese Survey for Family Health (PAPFAM) 2004.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, Loulou; El Kak, Faysal H; Khawaja, Marwan; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2015-03-01

    This article assesses the association of women's HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission and prevention with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from the 2004 Lebanese PAPFAM (Pan-Arab Project for Family Health) survey were used. The survey was based on a representative household sample (n = 5532 households; n = 3315 women) of ever-married women aged 15 to 55 years. Adjusted analysis revolved around multivariate logistic regression models. 18% of women were knowledgeable of HIV/AIDS transmission methods and 21% of prevention methods. Income and education were significantly related to women's transmission and prevention knowledge. Significant differences were also found by region and media exposure. Women in the richest income quintile were 4 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.43-6.42) more likely to be knowledgeable than those in the poorest. Women with the highest education were 2.57 times more likely (95% CI = 1.98-3.34) to be knowledgeable than those with elementary education or less. These results suggest the need for incorporating contextual regional and population differences for more effective HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns in Lebanon. PMID:22186399

  10. Can surveys of women accurately track indicators of maternal and newborn care? A validity and reliability study in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Katharine J; Blanc, Ann K; Warren, Charlotte E; Kimani, James; Mdawida, Brian; Ndwidga, Charity

    2016-01-01

    Background Tracking progress on maternal and newborn survival requires accurate information on the coverage of essential interventions. Despite widespread use, most indicators measuring maternal and newborn intervention coverage have not been validated. This study assessed the ability of women delivering in two Kenyan hospitals to recall critical elements of care received during the intrapartum and immediate postnatal period at two time points: hospital discharge and 13–15 months following delivery. Methods Women’s reports of received care were compared against observations by trained third party observers. Indicators selected for validation were either currently in use or have the potential to be included in population–based surveys. We used a mixed–methods approach to validate women’s reporting ability. We calculated individual–reporting accuracy using the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), population–level accuracy using the inflation factor (IF), and compared the accuracy of women’s reporting at baseline and follow–up. We also assessed the consistency of women’s reporting over time. We used in–depth interviews with a sub–set of women (n = 20) to assess their understanding of key survey terms. Results Of 606 women who participated at baseline and agreed to follow–up, 515 were re–interviewed. Thirty–eight indicators had sufficient sample size for validation analysis; ten met criteria for high or moderate reporting accuracy (0.60indicators. Seven indicators had moderate or higher (0.4≤rphi) consistency between self–reports at baseline and follow–up. Four indicators met all criteria at follow–up: support person was present during the birth, episiotomy, caesarean section, and low birthweight infant (<2500 g

  11. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Kien, Vu Duy; Nam, You-Seon; Lee, Chul Ou; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1) skilled antenatal care and (2) skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities). Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011) and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011). The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups. PMID:26950561

  12. Survey of Wastewater Indicators and Human Pathogen Genomes in Biosolids Produced by Class A and Class B Stabilization Treatments ▿

    PubMed Central

    Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the infectious aerosol risk associated with the land application of biosolids requires an in-depth knowledge of the magnitudes and changes in pathogen concentrations for a variety of class A and class B stabilization methods. The following survey used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture assays to detect environmentally resistant bacterial and viral pathogens and biosolid indicator organisms for 36 biosolid grab samples. Biosolids were collected from 14 U.S. states and included 16 class B mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) samples and 20 class A biosolid samples from temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), MAD plus composting (COM), and MAD plus heat pelletization processes. The indicator concentrations of fecal coliforms and male-specific coliphages as well as pathogen genome concentrations for human adenovirus species, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile were significantly lower in the class A samples, and a multivariate analysis of variance ranked the stabilization processes from the lowest pathogen/indicator load to the highest as (i) class A COM, (ii) class A TPAD, and (iii) class B MAD. Human adenovirus genomes were found in 88% of the class B samples and 70 to 100% of the class A samples. L. pneumophila, S. aureus, and C. difficile genomes were detected at the qPCR assay detection limits in 19 to 50% of the class B and class A anaerobic digestion samples, while L. pneumophila was detected in 50% of the class A compost samples. When considering all the stabilization methods, both the fecal coliform and the male-specific coliphage concentrations show a significant linear correlation with the pathogen genome concentrations. This survey provides the necessary pathogen concentrations to add to biosolid aerosol risk and pathogen exposure analyses and clarifies the effectiveness of class A stabilization methods with the pathogen and indicator loads in biosolids. PMID:18997022

  13. Assessing the Validity and Reliability of Three Indicators Self-Reported on the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Survey

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Kristen; Morrow, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the reliability and validity of three self-reported indicators from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey. Methods We used 2008 PRAMS (n=15,646) data from 12 states that had implemented the 2003 revised U.S. Certificate of Live Birth. We estimated reliability by kappa coefficient and validity by sensitivity and specificity using the birth certificate data as the reference for the following: prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); Medicaid payment for delivery; and breastfeeding initiation. These indicators were examined across several demographic subgroups. Results The reliability was high for all three measures: 0.81 for WIC participation, 0.67 for Medicaid payment of delivery, and 0.72 for breastfeeding initiation. The validity of PRAMS indicators was also high: WIC participation (sensitivity = 90.8%, specificity = 90.6%), Medicaid payment for delivery (sensitivity = 82.4%, specificity = 85.6%), and breastfeeding initiation (sensitivity = 94.3%, specificity = 76.0%). The prevalence estimates were higher on PRAMS than the birth certificate for each of the indicators except Medicaid-paid delivery among non-Hispanic black women. Kappa values within most subgroups remained in the moderate range (0.40–0.80). Sensitivity and specificity values were lower for Hispanic women who responded to the PRAMS survey in Spanish and for breastfeeding initiation among women who delivered very low birthweight and very preterm infants. Conclusion The validity and reliability of the PRAMS data for measures assessed were high. Our findings support the use of PRAMS data for epidemiological surveillance, research, and planning. PMID:24179264

  14. The Role of Academic Discipline and Gender in High School Teachers' AIDS-Related Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Lori J.; Chunis, Michelle L.; Smith, Danielle M.; Carboni, Anthony A.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 141 teachers from nine Massachusetts high schools to examine their knowledge of and attitudes toward AIDS. Results indicated a direct relationship between teachers' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and positive or supportive attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. There were significant differences based on academic discipline. Allied health teachers had…

  15. World Bank Contribution to Building National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity in Africa: Going beyond Indicator Development and Conceptual Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David

    2004-01-01

    International commitment to the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic has grown rapidly in recent years, stimulated by the leadership of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its cosponsors and supported by a range of new mechanisms. These include the World Bank's Multi-Country…

  16. Checklists and Other Cognitive Aids For Emergency And Routine Anesthesia Care-A Survey on the Perception of Anesthesia Providers From a Large Academic US Institution

    PubMed Central

    Krombach, Jens W.; Edwards, William A.; Marks, James D.; Radke, Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of printed or electronic checklists and other cognitive aids has gained increasing interest from anesthesia providers and professional societies. While these aids are not currently considered standard of care, the perceptions of the clinician might have an impact on their adoption. Objectives: We conducted a comprehensive survey to study the current opinions of anesthesia provider on the use of checklists and other cognitive aids. Patients and Methods: A questionnaire was developed by a departmental checklist focus group, which aimed to identify the perception of health care checklists in general as well as specific checklists for routine and crisis situations in anesthesia. Furthermore participants were asked regarding their perception of performing routine anesthesia and managing crisis situations without any cognitive aids. Using a web-based system, the survey was administered to all anesthesia providers at a single large United States academic medical center (University of California San Francisco). Demographic information included professional status (faculty, anesthesia resident, or nurse anesthetists [certified registered nurse anesthetists; CRNA]) and years of clinical experience. Results: 69% of 312 providers responded. 98% of the survey takers consider the procedural time-out (the widely used pre-incision operating room checklist) as important or very important. We found that many anesthesia providers acknowledged limitations in their ability to perform clinical tasks without any lapses, and a majority would use checklists and other cognitive aids if available. Their acceptances are especially high for crisis situations (87 - 97%, depending on years of experience) and routine care that providers do not perform often (76 - 91%). Printed or electronic aids for patient-care transition and shift hand-offs were also valued (61% and 58%). To prepare for and perform routine anesthesia care, 40% of providers claimed interest in using

  17. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs. PMID:12345639

  18. Survey of Parents of Middle/High School Students. Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding HIV/AIDS Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutt, Dan

    This study, commissioned by the Lucas County (Ohio) Health Department, was designed to assess parental beliefs and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS prevention for youth, particularly in middle and high schools. In November 1996, 400 telephone interviews were completed with parents of middle/high school students in Lucas County. Names were randomly…

  19. HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behavior among students in Semey, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Marit; Stockfelt, Leo; Urazalin, Marat; Ahlm, Clas; Andersson, Rune

    2008-01-01

    Background Until recently, young people in Kazakhstan have been only moderately affected by the global HIV epidemic. Today, however, the HIV epidemic in Central Asia is one of the most rapidly increasing epidemics in the world. It is mainly concentrated to vulnerable groups such as intravenous drug users, sex workers, the purchasers of sexual services and the financially marginalized. Young, sexually active people may however be the gateway for the epidemic to the general population, and knowledge about their attitudes and behavior is therefore important in planning preventive measures. Methods To gather information about young students and their attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, we collected 600 structured questionnaires and made 23 semi-structured interviews among three groups of students. Response rate was 99%. Results Almost 99% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 89% could identify ways to protect oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. The main routes of transmission, sexual contact without condom and intravenous drug use, were both identified by 97% of the students. Twenty-five percent of the female students and 75% of the male students had had one or more sexual partners. More than 30% of the young men had purchased sex, and homosexuality was widely stigmatized. Conclusion Risks for the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people in Kazakhstan include prostitution as well as stigmatization of the HIV positive and of homosexuals. Protective factors are good knowledge about risks and protection, and opportunities to talk and gather information about sexuality and HIV/AIDS. PMID:19087297

  20. 78 FR 5458 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... in the Design and Development of a Survey Regarding Patient and Family Member/Friend Experiences With... of care designed to provide comfort and support to patients and their families when a life-limiting... capturing hospice care experiences. A rigorous, well-designed Hospice Survey will allow us to understand:...

  1. Indications for and use of antidepressants in child and adolescent psychiatry--a cross-sectional survey in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Buhl Sørensen, Christine; Bøhm Jepsen, Ea; Thomsen, Per Hove; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2003-06-01

    The prescription of antidepressants for children and adolescents is a controversial subject, and it has been documented that the practice has increased in the past decade in Denmark, the UK, and the USA. The aim of this study was to survey the indications for and use of antidepressants in child and adolescent psychiatry. Questionnaires were sent to all Danish child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals, out-patient clinics and privately practising psychiatrists treating children and adolescents under the age of 19 years (31 units in all). A 93.5 % response rate for the total of 382 questionnaires in the survey. The antidepressant serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most prominently used agents in treating children and adolescents. The extent of their use represents 8 % of the total sample of individuals under the age of 19 years receiving any kind of psychiatric treatment - 0.03 % of the reference population in Denmark. It is only a surprisingly minor group of children and adolescents that are being treated with antidepressants despite the fact that 10 % of youth under the age of 19 are afflicted with diseases like depression, OCD, anxiety disorder and eating disorders. PMID:12768458

  2. A Comprehensive Investigation toward the Indicative Proteins of Bladder Cancer in Urine: From Surveying Cell Secretomes to Verifying Urine Proteins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiao; Ren, Yan; Hou, Guixue; Wen, Bo; Xian, Feng; Chen, Zhen; Cui, Ping; Xie, Yingying; Zi, Jin; Lin, Liang; Wu, Song; Li, Zesong; Wu, Lin; Lou, Xiaomin; Liu, Siqi

    2016-07-01

    Urine is an ideal material to study the cancer-related protein biomarkers in bladder, whereas exploration to these candidates is confronting technique challenges. Herein, we propose a comprehensive strategy of searching the urine proteins related with bladder cancer. The strategy consists of three core combinations, screening the biomarker candidates in the secreted proteins derived from the bladder cancer cell lines and verifying them in patient urines, defining the differential proteins through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with LC-MS/MS, and implementing quantitative proteomics of profiling and targeting analysis. With proteomic survey, a total of 700 proteins were found with their abundance of secreted proteins in cancer cell lines different from normal, while 87 proteins were identified in the urine samples. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantification was adapted in verifying the bladder cancer related proteins in individual urine samples, resulting in 10 differential urine proteins linked with the cancer. Of these candidates, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the combination of CO3 and LDHB was more sensitive as the cancer indicator than other groups. The discovery of the bladder cancer indicators through our strategy has paved an avenue to further biomarker validation. PMID:27265680

  3. Left atrial appendage closure-indications, techniques, and outcomes: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Pison, Laurent; Potpara, Tatjana S; Chen, Jian; Larsen, Torben B; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this EP Wire was to assess the indications, techniques, and outcomes of left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) in Europe. Thirty-three European centres, all members of the European Heart Rhythm Association electrophysiology (EP) research network, responded to this survey by completing the questionnaire. The major indication for LAAO (94%) was the prevention of stroke in patients at high thrombo-embolic risk (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2) and contraindications to oral anticoagulants (OACs). Twenty-one (64%) of the responding centres perform LAAO in their own institution and 80% implanted 30 or less LAAO devices in 2014. Two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography was the preferred imaging technique to visualize LAA before, during, and after LAAO in 79, 58, and 62% of the participating centres, respectively. Following LAAO, 49% of the centres prescribe vitamin K antagonists or novel OACs. Twenty-five per cent of the centres combine LAAO with pulmonary vein isolation. The periprocedural complications included death (range, 0-3%), ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke (0-25%), tamponade (0-25%), and device embolization (0-20%). In conclusion, this EP Wire has demonstrated that LAAO is most commonly employed in patients at high thrombo-embolic risk in whom OAC is contraindicated. The technique is not yet very widespread and the complication rates remain significant. PMID:25833883

  4. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  5. The SEEDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey: Exoplanet and Brown Dwarf Survey for Nearby Young Stars Dated with Gyrochronology and Activity Age Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Tamura, Motohide; Helminiak, Kris; Mede, Kyle; Brandt, Timothy; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The SEEDS campaign has successfully discovered and characterized exoplanets, brown dwarfs, and circumstellar disks since it began in 2009, via the direct imaging technique. The survey has targeted nearby young stars, as well as stars associated to star-forming regions, the Pleiades open cluster, moving groups, and debris disks. We selected the nearby young stars that have been dated with age indicators based on stellar rotation periods (i.e., gyrochronology) and chromoshperic/coronal activities. Of these, nearly 40 were observed, with ages mainly between 100 and 1000 Myr and distances less than 40 pc. Our observations typically attain the contrast of ~6 x 10-6 at 1'' and better than ~1 x 10-6 beyond 2'', enabling us to detect a planetary-mass companion even around such old stars. Indeed, the SEEDS team reported the discovery that the nearby Sun-like star GJ 504 hosts a Jovian companion GJ 504b, which has a mass of 3-8.5 Jupiter masses that is inferred according to the hot-start cooling models and our estimated system age of 100-510 Myr. The remaining observations out of the selected ~40 stars have resulted in no detection of additional planets or brown dwarf companions. Meanwhile, we have newly imaged a low-mass stellar companion orbiting the G-type star HIP 10321, for which the presence of companion was previously announced via radial velocity technique. The astrometry and radial velocity measurements are simultaneously analyzed to determine the orbit, providing constraints on the dynamical mass of both objects and stellar evolution models. Here we summarize our direct imaging observations for the nearby young stars dated with gyrochrolorogy and activity age indicators. Furthermore, we report the analysis for the HIP 10321 system with the imaged low-mass companion.

  6. The Use of a Knowledge Survey as an Indicator of Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A knowledge survey (KS) is a series of content-based questions sequenced in order of presentation during a course. Students do not answer the questions; rather, they rank their confidence in their ability to answer each question. A 304-question KS was designed and implemented for a multisection, multi-instructor introductory biology course to determine whether this tool could be used to assess student learning. The KS was administered during the first 2 wk and the last 2 wk of the semester online via WebCT. Results were scored using one point for each “not confident” response (level 1), two points for each “possibly confident” response (level 2), and three points for each “confident” response (level 3). We found that scores increased significantly between the pre- and post-KS, indicating that student confidence in their knowledge of the course material increased over the semester. However, the correlation between student confidence and final grades was negligible or low, and chi-square tests show that KS scores and matched exam questions were not significantly related. We conclude that under the conditions implemented in our study, the KS does not reliably measure student learning as measured by final grades or exam questions. PMID:16341258

  7. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. The study aimed to assess current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Methods The PLHIV Stigma Index, a questionnaire that measures and detects changing trends in relation to stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV, was used as the survey tool. The study was conducted in 10 clinics in four provinces supported by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD), with an interview total of 486 PLHIV. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Results Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. Conclusion The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study. PMID:24461042

  8. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    To, Kien Gia; Lee, Jong-Koo; Nam, You-Seon; Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Objective Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Design Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Results Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (p<0.05). Those having access to an improved sanitation facility were more likely to practise handwashing [odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37–2.09, p<0.001], as were those with access to improved water sources (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.37–2.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Households with low education, low wealth, belonging to ethnic minorities, and with low access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources should be targeted for interventions implementing handwashing practice. In addition

  9. Council of the Great City Schools High School Reform Survey, School Year 2006-2007. Urban Indicator. Spring 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In response to a request by the Secondary Education Sub-Committee of its Achievement Task Force, the Council of the Great City Schools surveyed its membership in the fall of 2007 to gather information on a variety of high school reform issues. An electronic file of the survey was emailed to the curriculum directors in each member district in…

  10. Did an AIDS Peer Education Program Change First-Year College Students' Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Nicholas D.; Getty, Adelaide

    1994-01-01

    College students who did and did not attend an AIDS peer education program completed preprogram and postprogram surveys to determine their AIDS-related attitudes and behavior. Data analysis indicated students who attended the program were more likely to engage in preventive behaviors including condom use and HIV-antibody testing. (SM)

  11. AIDS Awareness in Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Lyndall L.

    1994-01-01

    Survey responses from 88 of 293 industrial technology education department heads found that 68% could not identify courses in which acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is covered; 52% were not aware of AIDS-related activities on their campuses; and 48% had AIDS education programs at their institutions. (SK)

  12. Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners among Vietnamese women: analysis from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dinh Thai; Oh, Juhwan; Heo, Jongho; Van Huy, Nguyen; Van Minh, Hoang; Choi, Sugy; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Under current HIV transmission mechanisms operating in Vietnam, women are seen as victims of their male partners. Having multiple sexual partners is one of the well-known risk factors for HIV infection. However, little is known about women's risky sexual behaviour and their vulnerability to HIV in Vietnam. This study aims to explore association between early sexual initiation and the number of lifetime sexual partners in Vietnamese women. Although the Vietnamese culture is socially conservative in this area, identifying women's risky sexual behaviour is important for the protection of women at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Design A total of 8,791 women, who reported having had sexual intercourse, were included in this analysis of data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Vietnam. Data were collected using two-stage strata sampling, first at the national level and second across six geographical regions (n=8,791). Multivariable logistic regressions describe association between early initiation of a sexual activity and lifetime multiple sexual partners. Results Early sexual intercourse was significantly associated with having lifetime multiple sexual partners. Women who were aged 19 or younger at first sexual intercourse were over five times more likely to have multiple sexual partners, compared with women whose first sexual intercourse was after marriage; aged 10–14 years (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.9–18.8) at first intercourse; and aged 15–19 years (OR=5.4; 95% CI=4.0–7.2) at first intercourse. There was significant association with having multiple sexual partners for women of lower household wealth and urban residence, but the association with educational attainment was not strong. Conclusions The study results call for health and education policies to encourage the postponement of early sexual activity in young Vietnamese women as protection against risky sexual behaviour later in life. PMID:26950566

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition. PMID:26950558

  14. AIDS and behavioural risk factors in women in inner city Baltimore: a comparison of telephone and face to face surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, M; Celentano, D D; Burwell, L; Davis, A; Davis, M; Polacsek, M; Santelli, J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate the influence the mode of administration of a questionnaire (telephone or face to face) on reports of sexual behaviour and attitudes of HIV risk among woman of reproductive age. DESIGN--Two cross sectional surveys--one, a modified random digit dialing telephone survey, the second, a face to face street sample--were carried out by the same interviewers using similar questionnaires in the same neighbourhoods. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Two socially deprived, inner city neighbourhoods of Baltimore City were assessed in early 1990 before a community health intervention was carried out in one of them. Women between 17 and 35 years were surveyed. MAIN RESULTS--Altogether 775 and 416 women in the target age group were interviewed by telephone and face to face methods: the response rates were 66.4% and 77% respectively. Telephone respondents tended to be older, had more education, were more often married, were less likely to live in subsidised housing, and were more likely to report HIV testing. The proportions of respondents who reported a previous abortion and had had a surgical sterilisation were higher among the telephone respondents (34.7% v 24.1% and 26.4% v 20.6%, respectively). With regard to sexual risk behaviour, the only statistically significant differences were found in the proportion who reported having used drugs (10.6% of the face to face v 2.4% of the telephone sample) or alcohol (30.5% v 16.3%) at last sexual intercourse. The observed method effect on these variables remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, employment, and marital status. This effect was even stronger for a subgroup of face to face respondents who reported not having a telephone at home. The adjusted odds ratios for reporting alcohol consumption and use of drugs at the last sexual encounter in this group compared with the telephone respondents were 3.7 (2.1, 6.6) and 14.1 (5.7, 34.5) respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Despite the

  15. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  16. Knowledge of Malaria and Its Association with Malaria-Related Behaviors—Results from the Malaria Indicator Survey, Ethiopia, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jimee; Graves, Patricia M.; Jima, Daddi; Reithinger, Richard; Kachur, S. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2005, the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia launched a major effort to distribute over 20 million long-lasting insecticidal nets, provide universal access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs), and train 30,000 village-based health extension workers. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional, nationally representative Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted during the malaria transmission season in 2007. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of women's malaria knowledge on household ITN ownership and women's ITN use. In addition, we investigated the effect of mothers' malaria knowledge on their children under 5 years of age's (U5) ITN use and their access to fever treatment on behalf of their child U5. Malaria knowledge was based on a composite index about the causes, symptoms, danger signs and prevention of malaria. Approximately 67% of women (n = 5,949) and mothers of children U5 (n = 3,447) reported some knowledge of malaria. Women's knowledge of malaria was significantly associated with household ITN ownership (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–2.7) and with increased ITN use for themselves (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.5). Knowledge of malaria amongst mothers of children U5 was associated with ITN use for their children U5 (aOR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1–2.4), but not significantly associated with their children U5 seeking care for a fever. School attendance was a significant factor in women's ITN use (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1–3.9), their children U5′s ITN use (aOR = 4.4; 95% CI 1.6–12.1), and their children U5 having sought treatment for a fever (aOR = 6.5; 95% CI 1.9–22.9). Conclusions Along with mass free distribution of ITNs and universal access to ACTs, delivery of targeted malaria educational information to women could improve ITN ownership and use. Efforts to control malaria could be influenced by progress towards broader goals of

  17. Singaporean beliefs about HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G D

    1996-12-01

    As part of an in-home survey, 429 Singaporeans responded to questions concerning beliefs about AIDS as a disease and the ways in which one can contract HIV. The results indicated that, although many held realistic beliefs, identifiable biases and misconceptions were present. Virtually all respondents were aware that HIV is contracted through sexual contact as well as the sharing of needles during IV drug use. However, many respondents believed that it is either somewhat or very likely for HIV to be transmitted through casual contact, by giving blood, or from mosquitoes and other insects. Also, many expressed the belief that persons with AIDS are identifiable through visible symptoms or membership in high risk groups and a significant percentage indicated a lack of concern about the disease. Implications for understanding AIDS beliefs and for health education are discussed. PMID:9104063

  18. A national survey of home-based care kits for palliative HIV/AIDS care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabude, Z A; Beksinska, M E; Ramkissoon, A; Wood, S; Folsom, M

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess home-based care (HBC) kits and programs in South Africa to evaluate the feasibility of scaling up kit production and distribution. South African HBC organizations received structured questionnaires; key informant interviews and a literature review were completed to assess systems for production, distribution and supply of HBC kits. Meetings with stakeholders were held in two Provinces to share and analyze the study findings. The study team distributed questionnaires to 466 organizations and conducted interviews with representatives from 45 organizations, the Provincial Department of Health (DoH) and manufacturers of kits. All identifiable HBC organizations in South Africa were included in the survey. As a result 215 HBC organizations returned questionnaires; including non-governmental organizations (56%), community-based organizations (32%) and organizations affiliated with government health departments. Two types of kits were available: a home kit and a professional kit. The demand for HBC kits exceeded availability, kit contents and availability varied considerably and the supply chain was irregular. Kit production and distribution systems were fragmented. Replenishment of kit items was problematic. End-users are mostly caregivers who have not received adequate training on their use. The study shows that substantial work has been done by HBC organizations in South Africa to respond to the need for palliative care supplies within resource constraints. The growing demand for kits exceeds the supply. There is a need to improve the supply chain management of HBC kits, strengthen referral systems and links between community-based organizations and government departments, expand training opportunities for care givers, and develop monitoring and evaluation systems. PMID:18608083

  19. Monitoring Progress: How the 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education Can Inform a National K-12 STEM Education Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, William O.; Banilower, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    "Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education: A Nation Advancing?" (National Research Council, 2013) describes a set of 14 indicators for assessing and tracking the health of pre-college STEM education in the United States. This 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education (NSSME), is the fifth in a series of…

  20. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15–24 years in Zambia: An in-depth analysis of the 2001–2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kembo, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001–2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15–24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p = .000) and 5.9% (p = .001) respectively, between 2001–2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p = .029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p = .000) and 1.4% (p = .000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15–24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (– 4.5%), premarital sex (– 2.6%), sex before age 18 (– 2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (– 1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design

  1. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood. PMID:23631940

  2. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy. PMID:26617449

  3. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy. PMID:26617449

  4. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  5. Household Composition among Elders in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Context of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional and repeated surveys from household components of Demographic and Health Surveys in sub-Saharan Africa were examined to determine whether household composition indicators for older adults (N = 52,573), involving offspring and grandchildren, correlated with national levels of AIDS mortality. One in 4 was living with a grandchild…

  6. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15–49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15–49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07–1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18–1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27019532

  7. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15-49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15-49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27019532

  8. [Validity of indicators on physical activity and sedentary behavior from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of physical activity indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a sample of 174 students. The following indicators of weekly physical activity were evaluated: ACTIVE-300MIN (≥ 300 minutes/week); ACTIVE-150MIN (≥ 150 minutes), INACTIVE (no physical activity). Additionally, indicators of sedentary behavior were also assessed, as daily screen time (TV, videogames, and computer). The results from the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. The results of ACTIVE-300MIN, ACTIVE-150MIN, and INACTIVE generated by PeNSE showed high accuracy. These indicators performed better than those of sedentary behavior in relation to frequency estimates as well as sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rate. The indicators of physical activity from PeNSE showed satisfactory relative validity. PMID:25317515

  9. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  10. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  11. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  12. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger’s Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss’ Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts’ opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency

  13. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger's Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss' Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts' opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency = 0

  14. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina M.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Binns, Colin W.; Phillips, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI) and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI). Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for “at risk” groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations. PMID:26247963

  15. Results of a Quality of Work Life Index in Spain. A Comparison of Survey Results and Aggregate Social Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royuela, Vicente; Lopez-Tamayo, Jordi; Surinach, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The European Union launched the Lisbon Strategy in 2000 with the aim of establishing itself as the world's most powerful economy. The importance of job quality has returned to the top of the European employment and social policy agenda. As targets are set, significant progress has been made in the creation of indicators. In this study, we compute…

  16. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  17. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  18. Changing patterns in HIV/AIDS stigma and uptake of voluntary counselling and testing services: the results of two consecutive community surveys conducted in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mall, Sumaya; Middelkoop, Keren; Mark, Daniella; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT) has been associated with decreased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour, but in South Africa, which has the largest HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in the world, uptake of VCT remains low. HIV/AIDS-associated stigma has been identified as a barrier to HIV testing. This study explored changes in stigma, and VCT access in a peri-urban South African community with high HIV prevalence, following education and research interventions, as well as the introduction of a wide-scale antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. Two cross-sectional community surveys assessing HIV knowledge, attitudes and uptake of VCT services were conducted. The first survey was performed in 2004 prior to the implementation of a community-based HIV awareness and education campaign, HIV prevention research studies and the introduction of an ART programme. The second survey was performed in 2008 after a three-year education programme, the implementation of HIV-related research studies and following the scale-up of the ART programme. The same study design was used in both the 2004 and 2008 surveys: 10% of households were randomly selected and all residents aged ≥ 14 years were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Overall basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS increased from 2004 to 2008 (p=0.04) and stigmatisation towards HIV-positive individuals decreased over the same time period (p<0.001). Increasing knowledge score was significantly associated with a lower stigma score (p<0.001). Decreasing stigma score was associated with knowing someone who was HIV infected (p<0.001), or who had died from HIV/AIDS (p=0.04). The proportion of participants who had undergone HIV testing increased from 2004 to 2008 (40 vs. 70%, respectively) and, in particular, VCT increased from 26 to 43%. In adjusted analysis, participants who had undergone HIV testing were more likely to have a higher HIV knowledge score (p=0.02) and a lower

  19. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  20. [Relative validity of dietary indicators from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Passos, Michelle Delboni dos; Brito, Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of the dietary indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample included 174 students. The following indicators were evaluated: regular consumption (≥ 5 times a week) of markers for healthy eating, markers for unhealthy eating, and routine eating habits (having meals with parents or guardians (MEAL), having breakfast (breakfast), and eating while studying or watching TV. The results of the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. For all the markers of healthy eating, there was no difference in the proportion of regular consumption when comparing the two methods. The rates detected by the questionnaire were higher for packaged snacks and crackers and lower for cold cuts and MEAL. The indicators for regular consumption of markers for healthy eating and that referring to BREAKFAST were those with the highest accuracy. The dietary indicators used by the PeNSE survey showed satisfactory validity. PMID:24936819

  1. Quality indicators for patient safety in primary care. A review and Delphi-survey by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Frigola-Capell, Eva; Pareja-Rossell, Clara; Gens-Barber, Montse; Oliva-Oliva, Glòria; Alava-Cano, Fernando; Wensing, Michel; Davins-Miralles, Josep

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Quality indicators are measured aspects of healthcare, reflecting the performance of a healthcare provider or healthcare system. They have a crucial role in programmes to assess and improve healthcare. Many performance measures for primary care have been developed. Only the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care identifies key domains of patient safety in primary care. Objective: To present an international framework for patient safety indicators in primary care. Methods: Literature review and online Delphi-survey, starting from the Catalan model. Results: A set of 30 topics is presented, identified by an international panel and organized according to the Catalan model for patient safety in primary care. Most topic areas referred to specific clinical processes; additional topics were leadership, people management, partnership and resources. Conclusion: The framework can be used to organize indicator development and guide further work in the field. PMID:26339833

  2. SU-E-J-184: Volumetric Indices to Aid Definition of Respiratory Gates with Particular Reference to Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, H; Gomez, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Conventional definition of respiratory gates relies on tumor motion determination in limited planes. We are proposing a new method to define the RPM gates in a consistent manner ensuring that the tumor motion is restricted to 4 mm in 3D for lung SBRT patients. The method relies on studying the ratio of volumes obtained by GTVnn intersection with GTV50+2mm margin and GTVnn where GTVnn is the GTV volume in phase nn (=0,10,30.) while GTV50+2mm is a pseudo structure created by adding an isotropic margin of 2mm to GTV50. If for any phase nn, above ratio equals 1, it ensures that the tumor motion is ≤ ±2 mm in 3D from GTV50. Methods: This method was tested for 50 patients (14-Central, 36-peripheral) to determine the RPM gates which were then compared with the gates used clinically. The minimum cut-off value of the above coefficient for its inclusion of a phase in RPM gate was taken as 0.97 for central and 0.95 for peripheral tumors. Results: 15 (30%) of the patients did not require any change in the RPM gates w.r.t. gates defined using conventional motion assessment methods. In 15(30%) cases, the RPM gates could have been smaller while in remaining 20 patients, gates could have been larger. 5(/14) patient’s central tumors and 10 (/36) peripheral tumors did not need any gate change. 8(/50) patients could have RPM gate change of 30% while 10(/50) could have a gate change of up to 20%. 10, 20 & 30% RPM gate change could have happened for 11, 10 & 9 patients, respectively. Conclusion: Proposed volumetric indices based method allows a consistent, scientific and objective method to decide optimal RPM gates which is free from any inter or intra person variability and satisfies the tumor motion limits as defined by AAPM TG-76 in totality.

  3. Simplified Asset Indices to Measure Wealth and Equity in Health Programs: A Reliability and Validity Analysis Using Survey Data From 16 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Nirali M; Fry, Kenzo; Behl, Rasika; Longfield, Kim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Social franchising programs in low- and middle-income countries have tried using the standard wealth index, based on the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) questionnaire, in client exit interviews to assess clients’ relative wealth compared with the national wealth distribution to ensure equity in service delivery. The large number of survey questions required to capture the wealth index variables have proved cumbersome for programs. Methods: Using an adaptation of the Delphi method, we developed shortened wealth indices and in February 2015 consulted 15 stakeholders in equity measurement. Together, we selected the best of 5 alternative indices, accompanied by 2 measures of agreement (percent agreement and Cohen’s kappa statistic) comparing wealth quintile assignment in the new indices to the full DHS index. The panel agreed that reducing the number of assets was more important than standardization across countries because a short index would provide strong indication of client wealth and be easier to collect and use in the field. Additionally, the panel agreed that the simplified index should be highly correlated with the DHS for each country (kappa ≥ 0.75) for both national and urban-specific samples. We then revised indices for 16 countries and selected the minimum number of questions and question options required to achieve a kappa statistic ≥ 0.75 for both national and urban populations. Findings: After combining the 5 wealth quintiles into 3 groups, which the expert panel deemed more programmatically meaningful, reliability between the standard DHS wealth index and each of 3 simplified indices was high (median kappa = 0.81, 086, and 0.77, respectively, for index B that included only the common questions from the DHS VI questionnaire, index D that included the common questions plus country-specific questions, and index E that found the shortest list of common and country-specific questions that met the minimum reliability

  4. [The liver and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  5. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  6. Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS) of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i) to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii) to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential) non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a) in categorical scales and (b) in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3%) province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61%) compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia

  7. Changes in diabetes care indicators: findings from German National Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997–1999 and 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Heidemann, Christin; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Buttery, Amanda; Paprott, Rebecca; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Riedel, Thea; Icks, Andrea; Scheidt-Nave, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate changes in type 2 diabetes care indicators over time in Germany. Methods Adults aged 45–79 years with type 2 diabetes were identified from two national health examination surveys conducted in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98, n=333) and in 2008–2011 (DEGS1, n=526). We examined diabetes care indicators including treatment and preventive targets (glycemic control, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), smoking, weight reduction, sports activity), self-management and care process measures (glucose self-monitoring, holding a diabetes passport, annual foot and eye examination; statin use), and the presence of diabetes-specific complications (diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, diabetic foot, amputations) and comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD) or chronic kidney disease (CKD). We calculated proportions of persons meeting these care indicators by survey and examined unadjusted and adjusted changes between surveys. Results Significant improvement (GNHIES98 vs DEGS1) over time was observed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) (32.4% vs 65.4%), BP <130/80 mm Hg (32.0% vs 47.2%), TC <190 mg/dL (13.5% vs 41.9%), statin use (11.7% vs 35.9%), eye (51.1% vs 78.4%) and foot (48.0% vs 61.4%) examination within the past 12 months, diabetes-specific complications (29.7% vs 21.8%), and CVD (44.5% vs 37.1%). Blood glucose self-monitoring significantly increased (37.4% vs 62.8%), while holding a diabetes passport did not change. Current smoking did not change and obesity rose, although sports activity significantly increased over time. Proportions of adults achieving combination goals of HbA1c, BP, TC, and smoking cessation were low in both surveys in spite of significant improvement. Conclusions In Germany, the quality of diabetes care improved over time. There is much room for improvement, in particular regarding preventive goals and diabetes self-management. PMID:26629347

  8. Assessing spatiotemporal variation of drought in China and its impact on agriculture during 1982-2011 by using PDSI indices and agriculture drought survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Jun-Bang; Lu, Hou-Quan; Guo, An-Hong; Zhu, Zai-Chun; Myneni, Ranga B.; Shugart, Herman H.

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by concerns of the effects of a warming climate, drought variation and its impacts have gained much attention in China. Arguments about China's drought persist and little work has utilized agricultural drought survey area to evaluate the impact of natural drought on agriculture. Based on a newly revised self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) model driven with air-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E0 (PDSIARTS; Yan et al., 2014), spatial and temporal variations of drought were analyzed for 1982-2011 in China, which indicates that there was nonsignificant change of drought over this interval but with an extreme drought event happened in 2000-2001. However, using air temperature (Ta)-based Thornthwaite potential evaporation (EP_Th) and Penman-Monteith potential evaporation (EP_PM) to drive the PDSI model, their corresponding PDSITh and PDSIPM all gave a significant drying trend for 1982-2011. This suggests that PDSI model was sensitive to EP parameterization in China. Annual drought-covered area from agriculture survey was initially adopted to evaluate impact of PDSI drought on agriculture in China during 1982-2011. The results indicate that PDSIARTS drought area (defined as PDSIARTS < -0.5) correlated well with the agriculture drought-covered area and PDSIARTS successfully detected the extreme agriculture drought in 2000-2001 during 1982-2011, i.e., climate factors dominated the interannual changes of agriculture drought area, while PDSITh and PDSIPM drought areas had no relationship with the agriculture drought-covered area and overestimated the uptrend of agriculture drought This study highlights the importance of coupling PDSI with drought survey data in evaluating the impact of natural drought on agriculture.

  9. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009)

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15–49 years. Design Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30–34 years (reference 15–19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. Conclusions The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area. PMID:26950565

  10. THE CALIBRATION OF STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATORS FOR WISE 22 {mu}m-SELECTED GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Chul; Ko, Jongwan; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2013-09-01

    We study star formation rate (SFR) indicators for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22 {mu}m-selected, star-forming galaxies at 0.01 < z < 0.3 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using extinction-corrected H{alpha} luminosities and total infrared luminosities as reference SFR estimates, we calibrate WISE mid-infrared- (MIR-) related SFR indicators. Both the 12 and 22 {mu}m monochromatic luminosities correlate well with the reference the SFR estimates, but tend to underestimate the SFRs of metal-poor galaxies (at lower than solar metallicity), consistent with previous studies. We mitigate this metallicity dependence by using a linear combination of observed H{alpha} and WISE MIR luminosities for our SFR estimates. This combination provides SFR measurements as robust as those applied to Spitzer data by Kennicutt et al. However, we find that the coefficient a in L{sub H{alpha}(obs)} + aL{sub MIR} increases with the SFR, and show that a nonlinear combination of observed H{alpha} and MIR luminosities gives the best SFR estimates with small scatters and with little dependence on physical parameters. Such a combination of H{alpha} and MIR luminosities for SFR estimates is first applied to the WISE data. Using WISE data, we provide several SFR recipes that are applicable to galaxies with 0.1 {approx}< SFR (M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) {approx}< 100.

  11. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Methods Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Results Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. Conclusion The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator. PMID:26217479

  12. Barriers and Incentives to Orphan Care in a Time of AIDS and Economic Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Caregivers in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian H.; Phillips, Carl V.; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J.; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment,…

  13. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  15. SPLAT: Using Spectral Indices to Identify and Characterize Ultracool Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets in Deep Surveys and as Companions to Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Martin, Eduardo; Konopacky, Quinn; Masters, Daniel C.

    2016-06-01

    The majority of ultracool dwarf stars and brown dwarfs currently known were identified in wide-field red optical and infrared surveys, enabling measures of the local, typically isolated, population in a relatively shallow (<100 pc radius) volume. Constraining the properties of the wider Galactic population (scale height, radial distribution, Population II sources), and close brown dwarf and exoplanet companions to nearby stars, requires specialized instrumentation, such as high-contrast, coronagraphic spectrometers (e.g., Gemini/GPI, VLT/Sphere, Project 1640); and deep spectral surveys (e.g., HST/WFC3 parallel fields, Euclid). We present a set of quantitative methodologies to identify and robustly characterize sources for these specific populations, based on templates and tools developed as part of the SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit. In particular, we define and characterize specifically-tuned sets spectral indices that optimize selection of cool dwarfs and distinguish rare populations (subdwarfs, young planetary-mass objects) based on low-resolution, limited-wavelength-coverage spectral data; and present a template-matching classification method for these instruments. We apply these techniques to HST/WFC3 parallel fields data in the WISPS and HST-3D programs, where our spectral index set allows high completeness and low contamination for searches of late M, L and T dwarfs to distances out to ~3 kpc.The material presented here is based on work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G.

  16. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  17. Techniques for computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 data, useful in geologic, forest and water resource surveys. [Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Forestry, geology, and water resource applications were the focus of this study, which involved the use of computer-implemented pattern-recognition techniques to analyze ERTS-1 data. The results have proven the value of computer-aided analysis techniques, even in areas of mountainous terrain. Several analysis capabilities have been developed during these ERTS-1 investigations. A procedure to rotate, deskew, and geometrically scale the MSS data results in 1:24,000 scale printouts that can be directly overlayed on 7 1/2 minutes U.S.G.S. topographic maps. Several scales of computer-enhanced "false color-infrared" composites of MSS data can be obtained from a digital display unit, and emphasize the tremendous detail present in the ERTS-1 data. A grid can also be superimposed on the displayed data to aid in specifying areas of interest.

  18. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are limitations with IHP

  19. Belief in AIDS Origin Conspiracy Theory and Willingness to Participate in Biomedical Research Studies: Findings in Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in Seven Cities Across Two Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stefanie L.; Katz, Ralph V.; Wang, Min Qi; Lee, Ryan; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Claudio, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether a belief in the AIDS origin conspiracy theory is related to likelihood or fear of participation in research studies. Methods The Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire was administered via random-digit-dialed telephone interview to black, white, and Hispanic participants in 4 cities in 1999 and 2000 (n = 1,133) and in 3 cities in 2003 (n = 1,162). Results In 1999, 27.8% of blacks, 23.6% of Hispanics, and 8% of whites (P ≤ .001) reported that it was “very or somewhat likely” that AIDS is “the result of a government plan to intentionally kill a certain group of people by genocide.” In 2003, 34.1% of blacks, 21.9% of Hispanics, and 8.4% of whites (P ≤ .001) reported the same. Conclusions Whereas blacks and Hispanics were more than 3 times more likely than whites to believe in this AIDS origin conspiracy theory, holding this belief was not associated with a decreased likelihood of participation in, or increased fear of participation in, biomedical research. PMID:21388939

  20. Financial Aid as a Service: A Review of Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Judith

    A study was undertaken at Macomb Community College (MCC), in Michigan, to review the effectiveness of the college's financial aid department. Data were gathered from a search of the literature related to financial aid services and a review of comments and findings from MCC alumni and financial aid surveys. In addition, surveys were conducted of…

  1. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  2. Poverty and psychological health among AIDS-orphaned children in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2009-06-01

    This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships. PMID:19806489

  3. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    PubMed

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104750

  4. Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Fitness. Selected Indicators. Findings for 9th-12th Grade Students from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    A survey of 2,439 high school students (the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey) in North Carolina found that students present a mixed picture of healthy and risky physical, nutritional, and weight management practices. The survey examined perception of body weight; weight control by gender; method of weight control; consumption of fruit or fruit…

  5. Factors associated with utilization of antenatal care services in Balochistan province of Pakistan: An analysis of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Pongponich, Sathirakorn; Ghaffar, Najma; Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to identify factors affecting the utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) in Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Methods: Data on ANC utilization, together with social and economic determinants, were derived from a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in Balochistan in 2010. The analysis was conducted including 2339 women who gave birth in last two years preceding the survey. The researchers established a model to identify influential factors contributing to the utilization of ANC by logistic regression; model selection was by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Results: Household wealth, education, health condition, age at first marriage, number of children and spouse violence justification were found to be significantly associated with ANC coverage. Literate mothers are 2.45 times more likely to have ANC, and women whose newborns showed symptoms of illness at birth that needed hospitalization are 0.47 times less likely to access ANC. Women with an increase in the number of surviving children are 1.07 times less likely to have ANC, and those who think their spouse violence is socially justified are 1.36 times less likely to have ANC. The results draw attention towards evidence based planning of factors associated with utilization of ANC in the Balochistan province. Conclusion: The study reveals that women from high wealth index and having education had more chances to get ANC. Factors like younger age of the women at first marriage, increased number of children, symptoms of any illness to neonates at birth that need hospitalization and women who justify spouse violence had less chances to get ANC. Among components of ANC urine sampling and having tetanus toxoid (TT) in the last pregnancy increased the frequency of visits. ANC from a doctor decreased the number of visits. There is dire need to reduce disparities for wealth index, education and urban/rural living. PMID:26870113

  6. Changes and inequalities in early birth registration and childhood care and education in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Kim Bao; Oh, Juhwan; Kien, Vu Duy; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Choi, Sugy; Lee, Chul Ou; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early birth registration, childhood care, and education are essential rights for children and are important for their development and education. This study investigates changes and socioeconomic inequalities in early birth registration and indicators of care and education in children aged under 5 years in Vietnam. Design The analyses reported here used data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) in 2006 and 2011. The sample sizes in 2006 and 2011 were 2,680 and 3,678 for children under 5 years of age. Four indicators of childcare and preschool education were measured: birth registration, possession of books, preschool education attendance, and parental support for early childhood education. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure inequalities in gender, maternal education, geographical area, place of residence, ethnicity, and household wealth. Results There were some improvements in birth registration (86.4% in 2006; 93.8% in 2011), preschool education attendance (57.1% in 2006; 71.9% in 2011), and parental support for early childhood education (68.9 and 76.8%, respectively). However, the possession of books was lower (24.7% in 2006; 19.6% in 2011) and became more unequal over time (i.e. CI=0.370 in 2006; CI=0.443 in 2011 in wealth inequality). Inequalities in the care and education of children were still persistent. The largest inequalities were for household wealth and rural versus urban areas. Conclusion Although there have been some improvements in this area, inequalities still exist. Policy efforts in Vietnam should be directed towards closing the gap between different socioeconomic groups for the care and education of children under 5 years old. PMID:26950564

  7. Comparative Perceptions of Students, Financial Aid Administrators, and Presidents Regarding the Required Competencies of Community College Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Charles Frederick

    As a basis for the establishment of meaningful training programs for community college financial aid administrators, presidents, financial aid administrators, and student aid recipients at 45 California community colleges were surveyed in regard to the attributes and competencies deemed essential for this position. The survey instrument contained…

  8. A Survey and Analysis of Military Computer-Based Training Systems: A Two Part Study. Volume I: A Survey and Annotated Bibliography of Authoring Aids for Instructional Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Robert S.

    The authoring process and authoring aids which facilitate development of instructional materials have recently emerged as an area of concern in the field of instructional systems development (ISD). This process includes information gathering, its conversion to learning packages, its revision, and its formal publication. The purpose of this…

  9. Training of Home Health Aides and Nurse Aides: Findings from National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Manisha; Ejaz, Farida K.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.

    2012-01-01

    Training and satisfaction with training were examined using data from nationally representative samples of 2,897 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) from the National Nursing Assistant Survey and 3,377 home health aides (HHAs) from the National Home Health Aide Survey conducted in 2004 and 2007, respectively. This article focuses on the…

  10. Opinion of AIAW Coaches toward the Use of Selected Ergogenic Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meylink, Willa D.

    The purpose of this survey was to determine the attitude of Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) coaches toward the use of selected ergogenic aids by women intercollegiate athletes. Questionnaires were sent to coaches of certain AIAW National and/or Regional Tournament teams. The general opinion items indicated that the…

  11. Spirituality and Psychological Adaptation among Women with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, Jane M.; Martone, Maria G.; Kerwin, Joseph F.

    2002-01-01

    Survey interviews with 230 predominantly African American and Puerto Rican low-income women who were living with HIV/AIDS in New York City revealed high levels of spirituality and spiritually based coping with HIV. Both spirituality indicators positively correlated with the frequency of receipt of HIV-related social support; they were negatively…

  12. Perspectives and Experiences of Financial Aid Counselors on Community College Students Who Borrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya; Shefman, Pamelyn

    2013-01-01

    Loan borrowing among community college students has increased in recent years. This study utilized original survey data to examine this trend from the perspective and firsthand experiences of 107 community college financial aid counselors from three states: California, Florida, and Texas. Findings indicate these counselors are concerned with the…

  13. HIV/AIDS Knowledge in College Students: The Implications for Individuals and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Amy L.; Prince, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of college students investigated their HIV/AIDS knowledge. Results indicated that significant sex differences existed on most subscales. Important gaps in students' knowledge include lack of awareness of HIV transmission through oral sex or from mother to infant, belief that donating blood can cause one to contract HIV, and lack of…

  14. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  15. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  16. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior, and parenting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Kuo, Caroline; Casale, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty. PMID:23930647

  17. The Annual American Men's Internet Survey of Behaviors of Men Who have Sex with Men in the United States: 2014 Key Indicators Report

    PubMed Central

    Zlotorzynska, Maria; Sineath, Craig; Kahle, Erin; Sullivan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The American Men’s Internet Survey (AMIS) is an annual Web-based behavioral survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) who live in the United States. The purpose of this Rapid Surveillance Report is to report on the second cycle of data collection (November 2014 through April 2015; AMIS-2014) on the same key indicators previously reported for AMIS (December 2013 through May 2014; AMIS-2013). The AMIS survey methodology has not substantively changed since AMIS-2013. MSM were recruited from a variety of websites using banner advertisements or email blasts. Adult men currently residing in the United States were eligible to participate if they had ever had sex with a man. We examined demographic and recruitment characteristics using multivariable regression modeling (P<.05) stratified by the participants' self-reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. The AMIS-2014 round of data collection resulted in 9248 completed surveys from MSM representing every US state. Participants were mainly white, 40 years or older, living in the US South, living in urban/suburban areas, and recruited from a general social networking website. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 11.34% (1049/9248). Compared with HIV-negative/unknown status participants, HIV-positive participants were more likely to have had anal sex without a condom with any male partner in the past 12 months (76.55% vs 67.17%; P<.001) and more likely to have had anal sex without a condom with their last male sex partner who was discordant/unknown HIV status (39.66% vs 18.77%; P<.001). Marijuana and other illicit substance use in the past 12 months was more likely to be reported by HIV-positive participants than HIV-negative/unknown status participants (26.02% vs 21.27%, and 27.26% vs 17.60%, respectively; both P<.001). The vast majority (86.90%, 7127/8199) of HIV-negative/unknown status participants had been previously HIV tested, and 58.23% (4799/8199) had been tested in the past 12 months. Sexually transmitted

  18. The Annual American Men's Internet Survey of Behaviors of Men Who have Sex with Men in the United States: 2014 Key Indicators Report.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Travis; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Sineath, Craig; Kahle, Erin; Sullivan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The American Men's Internet Survey (AMIS) is an annual Web-based behavioral survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) who live in the United States. The purpose of this Rapid Surveillance Report is to report on the second cycle of data collection (November 2014 through April 2015; AMIS-2014) on the same key indicators previously reported for AMIS (December 2013 through May 2014; AMIS-2013). The AMIS survey methodology has not substantively changed since AMIS-2013. MSM were recruited from a variety of websites using banner advertisements or email blasts. Adult men currently residing in the United States were eligible to participate if they had ever had sex with a man. We examined demographic and recruitment characteristics using multivariable regression modeling (P<.05) stratified by the participants' self-reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. The AMIS-2014 round of data collection resulted in 9248 completed surveys from MSM representing every US state. Participants were mainly white, 40 years or older, living in the US South, living in urban/suburban areas, and recruited from a general social networking website. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 11.34% (1049/9248). Compared with HIV-negative/unknown status participants, HIV-positive participants were more likely to have had anal sex without a condom with any male partner in the past 12 months (76.55% vs 67.17%; P<.001) and more likely to have had anal sex without a condom with their last male sex partner who was discordant/unknown HIV status (39.66% vs 18.77%; P<.001). Marijuana and other illicit substance use in the past 12 months was more likely to be reported by HIV-positive participants than HIV-negative/unknown status participants (26.02% vs 21.27%, and 27.26% vs 17.60%, respectively; both P<.001). The vast majority (86.90%, 7127/8199) of HIV-negative/unknown status participants had been previously HIV tested, and 58.23% (4799/8199) had been tested in the past 12 months. Sexually transmitted

  19. The Annual American Men's Internet Survey of Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States: Protocol and Key Indicators Report 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sineath, R Craig; Kahle, Erin M; Tregear, Stephen James; Sullivan, Patrick Sean

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and there is evidence that this population is participating in increasingly risky sexual behavior. These changes are occurring in the context of new modes of online social interaction—many MSM now report first meeting their sex partners on the Internet. Better monitoring of key behavioral indicators among MSM requires the use of surveillance strategies that capitalize on these new modes of interaction. Therefore, we developed an annual cross-sectional behavioral survey of MSM in the United States, the American Men's Internet Survey (AMIS). Objective The purpose of this paper was to provide a description of AMIS methods. In addition we report on the first cycle of data collection (December 2013 through May 2014; AMIS-2013) on the same key indicators used for national HIV behavioral surveillance. Methods AMIS-2013 recruited MSM from a variety of websites using banner advertisements or email blasts. Adult men currently residing in the United States were eligible to participate if they had ever had sex with a man. We examined demographic and recruitment characteristics using multivariable regression modeling (P<.05) stratified by the participants' self-reported HIV status. Results In the AMIS-2013 round, 79,635 persons landed on the study page and 14,899 were eligible, resulting in 10,377 completed surveys from MSM representing every US state. Participants were mainly white, 40 years or older, living in the US South, living in urban areas, and recruited from a general social networking website. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 10.73% (n=1113). Compared to HIV-negative/unknown status participants, HIV-positive participants were more likely to have had anal sex without a condom with any male partner in the past 12 months (72.24% versus 61.24%, respectively; P<.001) and more likely to have had anal sex without a condom with their last male sex partner who was

  20. Synoptic survey of septic indicators in streams and springs at Monte Sano Mountain, Madison County, Alabama, January 29-31, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Ann K.; Mooty, Will S.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a synoptic investigation of fecal bacterial pollution in headwater streams and springs on Monte Sano Mountain. A total of 18 sites were sampled over a 3 day period in late January 1998. Fifteen of the sites were located hydrologically downgradient from residential areas on top of Monte Sano Mountain. Three additional sites were selected as background sites in unpopulated areas on Huntsville Mountain, south of Monte Sano Mountain. Sampling was conducted during a period of high baseflow after a recent storm when no surface runoff was present. Any contaminants identified in the streams and springs were likely derived from ground-water discharge because overland flow was not evident. Four of the five sites in the Pottsville-Pennington unit (uppermost) with the highest concentration of residential land use had Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations that were more than 25 times the background level. In contrast, with the exception of one site, E. coli concentrations in the Bangor-Monteagle unit (middle) and Tuscumbia unit (lowermost) were at or near background levels. Caffeine was also detected in the Pottsville-Pennington unit at a site with one of the highest densities of E. coli. Elevated levels of nitrate and chloride were also identified at sites in the Pottsville-Pennington unit. The results of this synoptic sampling event identified elevated concentrations of fecal bacteria in the Pottsville-Pennington unit at the top of the mountain. These elevated bacterial concentrations occurred in conjunction with caffeine detection and elevated levels of nitrate and chloride. This indicates that there is a potential water-quality problem related to discharge from the shallow ground-water system. These sites are located in close proximity to residential development, indicating that the most probable source of the elevated fecal bacterial concentrations was septic tank effluent.

  1. Quality of life in relation to the traffic pollution indicators NO2 and NOx: results from the Swedish GA2LEN survey

    PubMed Central

    Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Ek, Alexandra; Middelveld, Roelinde; Bjerg, Anders; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Janson, Christer; Forsberg, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect daily activities and quality of life. Asthmatics have higher incidence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma is associated with sinonasal inflammation and nasal symptoms, that all impair quality of life. Worsening of asthma has been found associated with levels of nitrogen dioxide as traffic indicator. Aims The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of traffic pollution indicated by nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) on quality of life in asthmatic persons, individuals with CRS and controls. Methods Within the Swedish Ga2len (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), 605 asthmatics with and without CRS, 110 individuals with CRS only and 226 controls from four cities were surveyed. The mini Asthma Quality of life Questionnaire (mAQLQ) and the Euro Quality of Life (EQ-5D) health questionnaire were used. Air pollution concentrations at the home address were modelled using dispersion models. Results Levels of NO2 (geometric mean 10.1 μg/m3 (95% CI 9.80 to 10.5) and NOx (12.1 μg/m3, 11.7 to 12.6) were similar among conditions (controls, asthmatics, individuals with CRS and asthmatics with CRS). The mAQLQ overall score was not found associated with levels of NO2 or NOx, with or without adjustments, and neither was scores within each of the four domains of mAQLQ: symptoms, activity limitations, emotional functions and effects of environmental stimuli. The mean EQ-5D index value, based on the five dimensions mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety depression, was also found unrelated to NO2 and NOx. Conclusions At moderate exposure levels traffic pollution appears not to affect quality of life. PMID:25478186

  2. Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

  3. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Van Huy, Nguyen; Choi, Sugy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Design Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Results Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.53, p<0.001), male (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.64–2.37, p<0.05), living in rural areas (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.64, p<0.05), or of Kinh ethnicity (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87, p<0.01) were more likely to suffer from diarrhea. Ethnic differences and higher household wealth were factors significantly associated with having illness with a cough. In particular, the effect of level of wealth on illness with a cough varied in each wave. Mothers with higher levels of education had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for children who have

  4. Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent’s eating behaviours: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population. Methods The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescent’s consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data. Results Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway. Conclusions Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence

  5. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  6. Disease prevalence in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Dutch Wadden Sea as indicator of environmental quality: A summary of 1988-2005 surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vethaak, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    In 1988, epizootics of ulcer disease in the flatfish flounder in the Dutch Wadden Sea were reported near freshwater drainage sluices of IJsselmeer Lake, locally affecting up to 38.9% of fish. Other diseases such as fin rot and lymphocystis were less frequent, but followed a similar pattern. Results of follow-up surveys in the Wadden Sea in 1994-2005 confirm previous findings and also show significantly elevated ulcer prevalences at other smaller drainage works. The most likely stress factors that contributed to the development of the epizootics at these sites include osmotic stress, adverse water quality conditions including chemical contaminants, nutritional deficiencies, and obstruction to fish migration. It was shown that discharges of IJsselmeer Lake freshwater in 1988-96 had a wide effect on the prevalence and distribution of ulcers and lymphocystis in the western Wadden Sea. A general reduction in disease prevalence in flounder in the entire Dutch Wadden Sea was observed during 1988-2005, which was most likely due to a general improvement in water quality and locally improved habitat conditions for flounder near drainage sluices. Ulcer prevalences outside the two IJsselmeer Lake sluices (Den Oever and Kornwerderzand) declined in this period from approximately 30% to 10% for medium-sized fish. Other skin diseases have also displayed a downward trend at both sites in recent years, with prevalences falling sharply to below 1%. Elsewhere in the Wadden Sea and the Ems-Dollard estuary, disease prevalences have declined towards natural background levels (< 1%). It is concluded that skin diseases, especially ulcers, are useful indicators of environmental quality in the Wadden Sea.

  7. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  8. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Le, Anh Thi-Kim; Van Dung, Do; Vu, Lan Thi-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that breastfeeding (BF) significantly benefits mothers and infants in various ways. Yet the proportion of breastfed babies in Vietnam is low and continues to decline. This study fills an important evidence gap in BF practices in Vietnam. Objective This paper examines the trend of early initiation of BF and exclusive BF from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam and explores the determinants at individual and contextual levels. Design Data from three waves of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were combined to estimate crude and adjusted trends over time for two outcomes – early initiation of BF and exclusive BF. Three-level logistic regressions were fitted to examine the impacts of both individual and contextual characteristics on early initiation of BF and exclusive BF in the 2011 data. Results Both types of BF showed a decreasing trend over time after controlling for individual-level characteristics but this trend was more evident for early initiation of BF. Apart from child's age, individual-level characteristics were not significant predictors of the BF outcomes, but provincial characteristics had a strong association. When controlling for individual-level characteristics, mothers living in provinces with a higher percentage of mothers with more than three children were more likely to have initiated early BF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.11) but less likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.88–1.01). Mothers living in areas with a higher poverty rate were more likely to breastfeed exclusively (OR: 1.07; CI: 1.02–1.13), and those who delivered by Caesarean section were less likely to initiate early BF. Conclusions Our results suggest that environmental factors are becoming more important for determining BF practices in Vietnam. Intervention programs should therefore not only consider individual factors, but should also consider the potential impact of contextual factors on BF

  9. THE MASS PROFILE AND SHAPE OF BARS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G): SEARCH FOR AN AGE INDICATOR FOR BARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Zaritsky, Dennis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Holwerda, Benne; Ho, Luis C.; Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Knapen, Johan H.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Hinz, Joannah L.; Buta, Ronald J.; Kim, Minjin; Madore, Barry F.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We have measured the radial light profiles and global shapes of bars using two-dimensional 3.6 μm image decompositions for 144 face-on barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. The bar surface brightness profile is correlated with the stellar mass and bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio of their host galaxies. Bars in massive and bulge-dominated galaxies (B/T > 0.2) show a flat profile, while bars in less massive, disk-dominated galaxies (B/T ∼ 0) show an exponential, disk-like profile with a wider spread in the radial profile than in the bulge-dominated galaxies. The global two-dimensional shapes of bars, however, are rectangular/boxy, independent of the bulge or disk properties. We speculate that because bars are formed out of disks, bars initially have an exponential (disk-like) profile that evolves over time, trapping more disk stars to boxy bar orbits. This leads bars to become stronger and have flatter profiles. The narrow spread of bar radial profiles in more massive disks suggests that these bars formed earlier (z > 1), while the disk-like profiles and a larger spread in the radial profile in less massive systems imply a later and more gradual evolution, consistent with the cosmological evolution of bars inferred from observational studies. Therefore, we expect that the flatness of the bar profile can be used as a dynamical age indicator of the bar to measure the time elapsed since the bar formation. We argue that cosmic gas accretion is required to explain our results on bar profile and the presence of gas within the bar region.

  10. Genomic and metagenomic surveys of hydrogenase distribution indicate H2 is a widely utilised energy source for microbial growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Greening, Chris; Biswas, Ambarish; Carere, Carlo R; Jackson, Colin J; Taylor, Matthew C; Stott, Matthew B; Cook, Gregory M; Morales, Sergio E

    2016-03-01

    Recent physiological and ecological studies have challenged the long-held belief that microbial metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2) is a niche process. To gain a broader insight into the importance of microbial H2 metabolism, we comprehensively surveyed the genomic and metagenomic distribution of hydrogenases, the reversible enzymes that catalyse the oxidation and evolution of H2. The protein sequences of 3286 non-redundant putative hydrogenases were curated from publicly available databases. These metalloenzymes were classified into multiple groups based on (1) amino acid sequence phylogeny, (2) metal-binding motifs, (3) predicted genetic organisation and (4) reported biochemical characteristics. Four groups (22 subgroups) of [NiFe]-hydrogenase, three groups (6 subtypes) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases and a small group of [Fe]-hydrogenases were identified. We predict that this hydrogenase diversity supports H2-based respiration, fermentation and carbon fixation processes in both oxic and anoxic environments, in addition to various H2-sensing, electron-bifurcation and energy-conversion mechanisms. Hydrogenase-encoding genes were identified in 51 bacterial and archaeal phyla, suggesting strong pressure for both vertical and lateral acquisition. Furthermore, hydrogenase genes could be recovered from diverse terrestrial, aquatic and host-associated metagenomes in varying proportions, indicating a broad ecological distribution and utilisation. Oxygen content (pO2) appears to be a central factor driving the phylum- and ecosystem-level distribution of these genes. In addition to compounding evidence that H2 was the first electron donor for life, our analysis suggests that the great diversification of hydrogenases has enabled H2 metabolism to sustain the growth or survival of microorganisms in a wide range of ecosystems to the present day. This work also provides a comprehensive expanded system for classifying hydrogenases and identifies new prospects for investigating H2

  11. School Readiness Indicator Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of…

  12. Summary of Student Financial Aid in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    Data on student financial aid in Texas are presented. Tables cover financial aid resources for students in Texas postsecondary institutions by program for 1982-1983, 1984-1985 and 1985-1986. For 17 state aid programs and 6 federal programs, the amount of funding is indicated for the state as a whole and for the following categories of colleges:…

  13. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  14. Tribal Perspective of the Impact Aid Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCounte, Larry

    In a survey of 59 tribes, 27 said they were dissatisfied with the way school districts consult with them under the Impact Aid Program. Impact Aid legislation provides additional funds to local school districts educating children whose parents are employed by the federal government or live on federal property. In 1958, Congress included children…

  15. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior and parenting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, J.; Cluver, L.; Boyes, M.; Kuo, C.; Casale, M.

    2014-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than non-affected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child wellbeing. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and non-affected caregiver-child dyads (n = 2,477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS’s association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty. PMID:23930647

  16. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  17. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  18. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  19. HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Etana, Dula

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma is one of the major public health challenges in Ethiopia. This study examined knowledge about HIV/AIDS and factors behind stigmatisation towards people living with the virus based on demographic and health survey data collected in 2011 from women in the age group 15-49 years. The result shows that 49.3% of rural women had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared with 74.7% of urban women. About three-fourths (72.1%) of the rural women had stigmatising attitudes towards PLWHA whilst the proportion in urban areas was only about a third (34.2%). The likelihood of having adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was significantly higher among educated women but lower among those living in Afar, Somali, and Gambella regions and Dire Dawa City. Women with higher levels of education and frequent access to media had a lower tendency to stigmatise people living with the virus. Adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was also significantly associated with lower likelihood of stigmatisation. The results generally indicate that HIV/AIDS stigma in Ethiopia is partly explained by people's knowledge about HIV/AIDS and by socio-cultural factors that shape their perception of the epidemic. Awareness-raising efforts should thus consider the socio-cultural contexts in which stigma occurs to tackle discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26285101

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS: a crossectional survey of mothers attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV clinics in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aishat, Usman; David, Dairo; Olufunmilayo, Fawole

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention of Mother-To-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) guideline recommends replacement feeding where it is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. Where this is un-achievable, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended during the first six months of life. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 HIV-positive using a two-stage sampling technique. Data on socio-demographics, infant feeding choice and factors influencing these choices were collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Results Majority of the mothers (86.0%) were married and aged 31.0 ± 5.7years. Slightly above half (53.0%) had≤2 children and more than two-third had disclosed their HIV status to their spouses. About two-third (61.0%) were traders with 75.0% earning monthly income ≤N5,000.00k. Half of the mothers had ≥4 antenatal care visits and 85.0% had infant feeding counselling. Infant feeding choices among the mothers were EBF (61.0%), ERF (26.0%) and MF (13.0%). The choice of EBF was influenced by spouse influence (84.0%), family influence (81.0%) and fear of stigmatisation (53.0%). Predictors of EBF were; monthly income (AOR = 2.6, C.I. =1.4-4.5), infant feeding counselling (AOR = 2.7, C.I. = 1.6-6.9) and fear of stigmatisation (AOR = 7. 2, C.I. = 2.1-23.6). Conclusion HIV positive mothers are faced with multiple challenges as they strive to practice exclusive breastfeeding. More extensive and comprehensive approach of infant feeding counseling with emphasis on behavioural change programmes in the context of HIV/AIDS within communities is advocated. PMID:26587157

  1. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  2. AIDS knowledge and attitudes in a Turkish population: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ayranci, Unal

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate and present some pertinent comments concerning Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions among the general population in a city of west Turkey. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of AIDS in Turkey and the other countries. Methods Using a multistage area sampling method, a random sample of individuals aged 11–83 years, living in 65 different quarters in the city of Eskisehir, Turkey during September, October and November 2004 were interviewed. Results In all, 1048 respondents completed the survey. In most items, respondents displayed a fairly good to excellent degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Individuals with higher degrees of education indicated more correct responses in all items relating to knowledge of HIV/AIDS. In general, the respondents' attitudes towards AIDS and people with AIDS were found to be tolerant and positive, with one answer choice showing that the majority of the respondents agreed with the statement that those with HIV/AIDS must be supported, treated and helped (90.7%). Moreover, the proportions of the respondents' misconceptions were found to be significantly low for all the items. However, nearly one fourth of the respondents agreed with the misconceptions 'AIDS is a punishment by God' and 'One is not infected with HIV/AIDS if engaged in sport and well nourished'. Conclusion In general HIV/AIDS related knowledge was high and people showed positive attitudes. However, people continue to hold misconceptions about AIDS and these need to be addressed by health education programs targeting those at higher risk. PMID:16159400

  3. High-Resolution Linkage and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Aided by Genome Survey Sequencing: Building Up An Integrative Genomic Framework for a Bivalve Mollusc

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Wenqian; Fu, Xiaoteng; Dou, Jinzhuang; Li, Hengde; Su, Hailin; Mao, Junxia; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Huang, Xiaoting; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2014-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps are indispensable tools in genetic and genomic studies. Recent development of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods holds great promise for constructing high-resolution linkage maps in organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present study, linkage mapping was conducted for a bivalve mollusc (Chlamys farreri) using a newly developed GBS method—2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD). Genome survey sequencing was performed to generate a preliminary reference genome that was utilized to facilitate linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in C. farreri. A high-resolution linkage map was constructed with a marker density (3806) that has, to our knowledge, never been achieved in any other molluscs. The linkage map covered nearly the whole genome (99.5%) with a resolution of 0.41 cM. QTL mapping and association analysis congruously revealed two growth-related QTLs and one potential sex-determination region. An important candidate QTL gene named PROP1, which functions in the regulation of growth hormone production in vertebrates, was identified from the growth-related QTL region detected on the linkage group LG3. We demonstrate that this linkage map can serve as an important platform for improving genome assembly and unifying multiple genomic resources. Our study, therefore, exemplifies how to build up an integrative genomic framework in a non-model organism. PMID:24107803

  4. Occupational Survey Report on Business Data Programmers: Task Data From Workers and Supervisors Indicating Job Relevance and Training Criticalness. Research and Development Series No. 108.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammerman, Harry L.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    The Center for Vocational Education is continuing its programatic research efforts to develop more effective procedures for identifying valid and necessary curriculum content. The occupational task survey report for the occupation of business data programer is a product resulting from this effort. The task inventory data summarized were collected…

  5. Does Institutional Aid Compensate for or Comply with State Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.; Naughton, Blake Alan

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does state policy for student financial aid affect the distribution of institutional aid awarded to students at public institutions? Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey we employ a Tobit model to investigate the relationship between student characteristics, including family income and academic…

  6. First aid in the dental practice: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jevon, P

    2016-06-24

    First aid encompasses a wide range of scenarios ranging from simple reassurance following a minor mishap to dealing with a life-threatening emergency. Dentists may need to provide first aid in their dental practice to a patient, relative or member of staff. This article provides an overview to first aid in the dental practice, including priorities, responsibilities when providing first aid, assessment of the environment and the casualty (primary survey &secondary survey). The new A3 'First Aid in the Workplace' poster is now available and is included as an insert in this issue (BDJ Vol. 220, Issue 12). PMID:27338910

  7. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  8. AIDS education video: Karate Kids.

    PubMed

    Lowry, C

    1993-01-01

    Street Kids International, in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the National Film Board of Canada, has developed an animated action-adventure video, "Karate Kids," as part of a cross-cultural program of health education that concerns human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and targets street children in developing countries. Simple, but explicit, information is delivered during the 22-minute cartoon; the package also includes a training book for educators, and a pocket comic book. Distributed in 17 languages (it is readily adapted to new language versions, independent of the original producers) in over 100 countries, the video is shown in community theaters, hospitals, schools, and prisons, and out of the backs of trucks. It is easily copied, which is encouraged. After 3 years in distribution, field evaluation has demonstrated that the greatest strength of the video is its ability to stimulate discussion where no discussion was taking place before. Critics include those who believe there is no need for it and those who feel it should be used alone. The results of one evaluation study showed use of the video alone was insufficient; those of a cross-cultural participatory evaluation survey indicated a significant impact on knowledge and attitudes when the video was followed by discussion. Another significant aspect of the project is that it treats street children with respect; they are actors, not victims, who have legitimate needs and rights. They become visible in a world that is often unaware of them. PMID:12179317

  9. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  10. The Disposition of AIDS Imagery in "New York Times" Obituaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, A. Odasuo

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 100 AIDS death obituaries indicates imageries reflect much about American society, such as attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward AIDS, and understanding of linkages between sexual practices and AIDS. Analysis suggests construction of AIDS obituaries may be manifestations of sociopolitical structure and a consequence of bias…

  11. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population. PMID:8916603

  12. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  14. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  15. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  16. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  17. Human Microbiome and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihong; Yang, Liying; Pei, Zhiheng; Poles, Michael; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of the human microbiome continues to grow rapidly; however, reports on changes in the microbiome after HIV infection are still limited. This review surveys the progress made in methodology associated with microbiome studies and highlights the remaining challenges to this field. Studies have shown that commensal oral, gut, vaginal, and penile bacteria are vital to the health of the human immune system. Our studies on crosstalk among oral and gastrointestinal soluble innate factors, HIV, and microbes indicated that the oral and gut microbiome was altered in the HIV-positive samples compared to the negative controls. The importance of understanding the bacterial component of HIV/AIDS, and likelihood of “crosstalk” between viral and bacterial pathogens, will help in understanding the role of the microbiome in HIV-infected individuals and facilitate identification of novel antiretroviral factors for use as novel diagnostics, microbicides, or therapeutics against HIV infection. PMID:22193889

  18. Development of Self-Management Indicators for Chronic Hepatitis B Patients on Antiviral Therapy: Results of a Chinese Delphi Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Na; Guo, Ying; Qin, Bo; Peng, Xin; Zhu, Wen-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a set of indicators that could be used to measure and monitor the self-management performance for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients on antiviral therapy in China. Methods A two-round Delphi study via e-mail correspondence was conducted, with a group of 30 Chinese experts. The Delphi questionnaire consisted of 53 indicators identified from a literature review. Experts rated and scored the importance of indicators on a five-point Likert scale. Consensus was considered to be reached if a median score in the top tertile (4-5) and ≥80% of panel ratings in the top tertile (4-5) after Round 2. The included indicators were validated with a group of 106 CHB patients. Results The response rates for the first and second rounds were 90.9% (n=30) and 86.7% (n=26), respectively. Three new indicators were suggested in the first round. 55 indicators were included in the second round after modified. 45 (81.8%) indicators achieved on the level of consensus, all of which had an inter-quartile range of 1 or below. The final set included 4 domains and 45 indicators which were well accepted and understandable by CHB patients. Conclusion This Delphi study produced a set of 45 self-management indicators for CHB patients on antiviral therapy in China. These indicators could be used to measure and monitor the patients’ self-management performance, with the goal of improving the quality of life in this population. PMID:26327606

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the business community relative to HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G

    1991-01-01

    One of the goals of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) policy on the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is to support business organizations in implementing HIV and AIDS information, education, and prevention activities. However, the response of the American business community to HIV infection and AIDS has been varied. Although company executives consider AIDS to be one of the leading problems in the country, surveys typically indicate that less than one-third of businesses have or are developing some type of AIDS policy. The workplace appears to be a valid site for AIDS information and education programs, given the weight employees attach to information received there. However, workplace education and information programs are undertaken primarily by large companies. Many small companies do not devote much time and effort to these activities, even though extensive, indepth educational programs are likely to have positive impacts on worker attitudes and behavior, whereas short programs or literature distribution may only increase workers' fears. The question of what is an effective workplace program still needs additional research. Very little is known about the magnitude of the costs of HIV infection and AIDS to business. These costs, which are affected by the changing roles of employer-based health insurance, cost shifting, and public programs, will influence how employers react to the epidemic and how they respond to CDC's prevention initiatives. PMID:1956975

  20. A 3-year survey quantifying the risk of dose escalation of benzodiazepines and congeners to identify risk factors to aid doctors to more rationale prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Bjørner, Trine; Aursnes, Ivar Andreas; Skomedal, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated and quantified risk factors of dose escalation, as an indication of drug misuse and dependency of benzodiazepines and congeners, among presumably drug naïve patients in the Norwegian drug prescription database, observed over 3 years. Design Observational study. Setting Prescription database study. Participants We defined an excessive user as one redeeming more than two defined daily doses per day in 3 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures We examined the risk of excessive use over time and the effect of risk factors through multistate logistic regression and scenarios. Results Most of the 81 945 patients had zopiclone or zolpidem as the initial drug (63.8%), followed by diazepam (25.3%), oxazepam (6.1%), nitrazepam/flunitrazepam (2.9%), hydroxyzine/buspirone (1.6%) and alprazolam (0.3%). At any time 23% redeemed prescriptions, about 34% did not redeem any prescriptions beyond any 3-month period and 0.9% ended up as excessive users. Patients previously using drugs, such as opioids, antialcohol or smoke cessation treatment, had a higher risk to become excessive users compared to patients who had not. Patients whose first prescription was for oxazepam or nitrazepam/flunitrazepam had a higher risk of becoming an excessive user compared to those who started with diazepam. A specialist in general practice as the first-time prescriber was associated with a lower risk compared to doctors without specialty. Conclusions Most benzodiazepine use occurred according to guidelines. Still, some experienced dose escalation over time, and risk factors were previous use of other psychotropic drugs, long time use, choice of first-time drug and prescriber's specialty. This could incite doctors to have a cessation plan when issuing first-time prescriptions. PMID:24097305

  1. Correlates of Social Exclusion and Negative Labeling and Devaluation of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural Settings: Evidence from a General Household Survey in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Victor, Bart; Vaz, Lara M. E.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased HIV/AIDS knowledge and access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) have been hypothesized to decrease HIV stigma. However, stigma persists as a barrier to HIV services uptake. We studied the relationship between stigma, knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and its treatment, and confidence in the legal system (legal rights certitude). Methods We analyzed data from a household survey of 3749 randomly sampled female heads of households in 259 enumeration areas across 14 districts of Zambézia Province, Mozambique. The questionnaire included questions about beliefs, attitudes and behavior towards PLWHA, HIV transmission knowledge, treatment-related beliefs, and legal rights certitude. Factor analysis distinguished two stigma constructs: Negative labeling and devaluation (NLD) and social exclusion (SoE). Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between stigma, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, treatment-related beliefs, and legal rights certitude, while controlling for variance in socio-demographics. Results A 4-point increase in knowledge about HIV transmission was associated with more than a 3 unit decrease in NLD and SoE stigma scores (p<0.001). Given HIV transmission knowledge, a 25-point increase in legal rights certitude was associated with a 4.62 unit drop in NLD stigma (p<0.001); we did not detect an association between legal rights certitude and SoE stigma. Knowing at least one HIV positive person was associated with lower SoE (−3.17, 95% CI: −5.78, −0.56); no association with NLD (p = 0.1) was detected. ART efficacy belief was associated with higher NLD and lower SoE (2.90 increase and 6.94 decrease, respectively; p≤0.001). Conclusion Increasing knowledge about HIV transmission and access to ART are likely to reduce stigma, but neither of the two is a panacea. Raising community awareness of the legal rights of PLWHA might improve the efficacy of stigma reduction efforts. Strategies that focus on specific domains

  2. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. PMID:20575152

  3. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  4. AIDS knowledge and risk behaviors among culturally diverse women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, D F; Wambach, K G; Byers, J B; Imershein, A W; Levine, P; Maddox, K; Quadagno, D M; Fordyce, M L; Jones, M A

    1991-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey of women at risk for HIV infection. The sample (n = 620) included black (50.6%), white (28.7%), Hispanic (13.4%), and Haitian (5.0%) adult women from south Florida. Data concerning their AIDS knowledge, prevalence of risk behaviors, and perceived vulnerability are presented. Results indicate differences in certain knowledge areas and risk behaviors by race/ethnicity and a consistent incidence of unprotected sex with their main partners across all racial/ethnic groups. PMID:1873140

  5. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum. PMID:24399260

  6. The political context of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge in a South African township community.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government's response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatization and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government's position and IDS-stigmatizing attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210

  7. State-Funded Scholarship/Grant Programs for Students To Attend Postsecondary Education Institutions. National Association of Student Grant & Aid Programs (NASSGAP) 26th Annual Survey Report, 1994-95 Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSalvatore, Kristen; Hughes, Linda

    This report presents data for the 1994-95 academic year on state-funded student aid in 13 tables. States awarded over $3 billion in student aid to over 1.8 million students, an increase of 8 percent over 1993-94. Of this award, 78 percent was need-based aid to undergraduate and graduate students, while 13 percent was non-need-based, and 9 percent…

  8. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  9. Public awareness of AIDS in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, S C

    1991-04-01

    Singapore had 52 cases of AIDS as at June 1990. This places Singapore in the low-infection-load group of countries. Constant vigilance is necessary however. The Health education programme against AIDS in Singapore was launched in 1985. This first ever National Survey on public awareness of AIDS was carried out by the Research and Evaluation Department, Ministry of Health HQ, in late 1987, to assess the impact of the programme. It showed the level of knowledge of among Singaporeans to be high and comparable in many areas to that in the USA. The survey however also showed lack of credibility in the knowledge of AIDS among the public in certain important areas. This poses challenges to the public education programme. PMID:2042073

  10. Socio-demographic correlates of six indicators of alcohol consumption: survey findings of students across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A self-administered questionnaire assessed six alcohol consumption measures: length of time of last (most recent) drinking occasion; amount consumed during last drinking occasion; frequency of alcohol consumption; heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks in a row); problem drinking; and possible alcohol dependence as measured by CAGE. The questionnaire also collected information on seven relevant student sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, academic year of study, current living circumstances - accommodation with parents, whether student was in intimate relationship, socioeconomic status of parents - parental education, income sufficiency) and two academic achievement variables (importance of achieving good grades at university, and one’s academic performance in comparison with one’s peers). Results The majority of students (65% of females, 76% of males) reported heavy episodic drinking at least once within the last 2 weeks, and problem drinking was prevalent in 20% of females and 29% of males. Factors consistently positively associated with all six indicators of alcohol consumption were male gender and perceived insufficient income. Other factors such as living away from home, being in 1st or 2nd year of studies, having no intimate partner, and lower academic achievement were associated with some, but not all indicators of alcohol consumption. Conclusions The high level of alcohol consumption calls for regular

  11. Ye Olde Maile Surveye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berty, Ernest

    This publication is primarily designed for educational practitioners who possess little or no training in conducting mail surveys or have not kept current on the present state of the art of survey methods and techniques. It is also intended to be a checking and comparing aid to ensure that important research considerations are taken into account.…

  12. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  13. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  14. HIV/AIDS prevention: knowledge, attitudes and education practices of secondary school health personnel in 14 cities of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools. PMID:18839862

  15. Health indicators among low income women who report a history of sex work: the population based Northern California Young Women's Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, D; Kim, A; Ruiz, J; Morrow, S; Reardon, J; Lynch, M; Klausner, J; Molitor, F; Allen, B; Green, A; Ferrero, D; Bell, S; Page-Shafer, K; Delgado, V; McFarland, W; t for

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: We examined differences in demographic characteristics, HIV related risk behaviour, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and HIV and other health concerns among women with and without a history of sex work. Methods: A secondary analysis of a population based, cross sectional survey of young, low income women in northern California. Results: Of the 2543 women interviewed, 8.9% reported a history of sex work. These women reported more lifetime male sexual partners, were more likely to use drugs before sex, and were more likely to have a history of having sex with partners at high risk for HIV (that is, men who have sex with men, inject drugs, or were known to be HIV positive). They were significantly more likely to have positive serology for syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and hepatitis C regardless of their personal injecting drug use history; however, they were no more likely to have HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis A or hepatitis B infection compared to women without a history of sex work. Women with a history of sex work were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual coercion and tobacco use. Conclusions: These data measure the population prevalence of sex work among low income women and associated STI. Women with a history of sex work have health concerns beyond STI and HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:16199746

  16. Erciyes University Students' Knowledge about AIDS: Differences between Students of Natural and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasci, Sultan; Baser, Muruvvet; Mucuk, Salime; Bayat, Meral; Zincir, Handan; Sungur, Gonul

    2008-01-01

    The authors' goal in this study was to assess differences in knowledge about AIDS between students of natural science (NS) and social science (SS). The authors surveyed 542 students at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey, regarding their knowledge of AIDS. Some differences in knowledge about AIDS (eg, regarding the virus that causes AIDS, the…

  17. Cross-sectional survey of indicator and pathogenic bacteria on vegetables sold from Asian vendors at farmers' markets in northern California.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengguang; Li, Xunde; Carabez, Jennifer; Ragosta, Guy; Fernandez, Kristine L; Wang, Elaine; Thiptara, Anyarat; Antaki, Elizabeth; Atwill, Edward R

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted during summer 2013 to determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms (FCs), E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella on raw vegetable commodities common to Asian cuisine from 21 vendors or farmers at six farmers' markets in northern California. Based on 242 samples from six commodities (basil, yardlong beans, bitter squash, okra, squash stems and leaves, cilantro), 100% of samples had detectable FCs and 20% had detectable E. coli. The mean concentrations were 0.67 log CFU/g and 1.26 log CFU per bundle for E. coli and 4.00 log CFU/g and 6.26 log CFU per bundle for FCs. Vegetables irrigated with ground versus surface water contained lower concentrations of FCs, but this difference was not observed for E. coli. Yardlong beans, bitter squash, and okra had lower levels of FCs compared with basil, cilantro, and squash stems and leaves. Sixteen (6.6%) samples had detectable levels of Salmonella serovars (Newport, Enteritidis, Agona, and Worthington), with the majority of positives found in cilantro and squash stems and leaves. There was a twofold higher probability of Salmonella contamination in samples from growers or vendors who stated that they used organic farming practices compared with samples from those using conventional farming practices. Lastly, the concentrations of FC and E. coli bacteria were significantly associated with Salmonella contamination: for each additional 100 CFU/g or bundle, the probability of Salmonella contamination increased by ∼15 and ∼30%, respectively. None of the samples had detectable E. coli O157:H7. PMID:25719888

  18. Pediatric first aid knowledge and attitudes among staff in the preschools of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. The aims of this study were to assess a baseline level of first aid knowledge and overall attitudes regarding first aid among staff members in Shanghai preschools. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among the staff members at selected preschools. A stratified random sampling method was first used to identify suitable subjects. Data were obtained using a multiple-choice questionnaire. A standardized collection of demographics was performed and participants were given the aforementioned questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and attitudes toward first aid. Results 1067 subjects completed the questionnaire. None of the surveyed employees answered all questions correctly; only 39 individuals (3.7%) achieved passing scores. The relative number of correct answers to specific questions ranged from 16.5% to 90.2%. In particular, subjects lacked knowledge regarding first aid for convulsive seizures (only 16.5% answered correctly), chemical injuries to the eye (23%), inhaled poison (27.6%), and choking and coughing (30.1%). A multiple linear regression analysis showed scores were significantly higher among staff members with more education, those who had received first aid training before or were already healthcare providers, younger employees, and staff members from rural districts. Most employees agreed that giving first aid was helpful; the vast majority felt that it was important and useful for them to learn pediatric first aid. Conclusions The level of first-aid knowledge among preschool staffs in Shanghai was low. There is an urgent need to educate staff members regarding first aid practices and the various risk factors relating to specific injuries. PMID:22891706

  19. Preliminary survey of antibiotic-resistant fecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic escherichia coli from river-water samples collected in Oakland County, Michigan, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum- -lactamase (ESBL)-producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was

  20. AIDS in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  1. Exploring the relationship of conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS to sexual behaviors and attitudes among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn

    2003-11-01

    Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372

  2. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  3. BAHA: Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Hagr, Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) has proven performance and advantages for patients with aural atresia or chronic ear drainage who cannot wear air-conduction hearing aids. The BAHA has both cosmetic and acoustic advantages over most conventional hearing aids and hence is becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, BAHA improves the quality of life and has also significantly reduces ear discharge. This extensive review of the literature pertaining to BAHA discus the history, the indications, the advantages, the prediction of the outcome and the complications of this device as well as comparing it to the conventional hearing aids. PMID:21475438

  4. Pregnancy and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Henrion, R

    1988-02-01

    Since the first cases of a new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described by Oleske et al. and Rubinstein et al. in children in 1983, we have witnessed an ever-increasing number of such observations. As serology is not being performed on all pregnant women in many European countries, obstetricians must try to identify those belonging to risk groups: intravenous drug abusers, natives of affected regions or women having travelled to these areas, women having numerous sexual partners, presenting with other sexually transmitted diseases or living with infected individuals, prostitutes, transfused women. If the woman belongs to risk groups, HIV antibody testing is to be done at the beginning of pregnancy. The risks for the mother remain ill-defined, due in part to the difficulties inherent in keeping track of heroin abusers. Aggravation is certain if the mother is affected with AIDS or an associated syndrome called ARC (AIDS-related complex). It is debatable and at least rarer if the mother presents no clinical symptoms. Infant risks are becoming better known. The existence of materno-fetal contamination by transplacental route is undebatable. However, contamination during delivery or during the passage through the maternal genital tract cannot be excluded. The proportion of contaminated infants is approximately 40%. The disease in the infant is highly dangerous. According to these data, the procedure adopted by most obstetricians is the following: abortion is recommended at the first trimester of the pregnancy, a free choice is left open for the woman at the second trimester and at the third trimester delivery is carried out naturally. Caesarean sections are only done when there are obstetrical indications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3281969

  5. Feasibility of integrating the "Healthy moves for aging well" program into home care aide services for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae-Hee; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of implementing simple, safe, non-equipment evidence-based movements (Healthy Moves for Aging Well program) using an affordable and sustainable homecare-aide based delivery model that reaches the maximum possible number of frail older adults living at home in Illinois. Two local agencies were asked to identify two experienced home care aides and two inexperienced home care aides (n= 8). Each home care aides delivered the Healthy Moves to four clients (n= 16). Eight home care aides visited the client in the home and were asked to deliver the Healthy Moves program on a regular basis for a four-month time period. Outcome measures included a pre-and post- survey, a functional fitness test (older adults), and interviews. Evaluation procedures focused on older adult participants, homecare aids, and sites. The results showed that both interview and survey data revealed that most participants including older adults, home care aides, and site directors had a positive perception and high satisfaction with the program. Specially, 100% of older adult participants reported that they would recommend the program to others. Additionally, seniors and home care aides reported that they enjoyed working with each other on the program and both site directors reported that dissemination of the program in the State of Illinois employing home care aides was feasible and acceptable. Our study results indicate that Healthy Moves for Aging Well could be safely and successfully be disseminated to frail older adults in the State of Illinois. PMID:25061600

  6. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician

  7. Conspiracies, contagion, and compassion: trust and public reactions to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Herek, G M; Capitanio, J P

    1994-08-01

    AIDS educational programs can be effective only to the extent that they are perceived as credible by their target audiences. In this study, public trust associated with AIDS was assessed in a national telephone survey. African-Americans were more likely than whites to express distrust of doctors and scientists concerning HIV transmission through casual contact, to believe that AIDS is being used as a form of genocide against minority groups, and to believe that information about AIDS is being withheld from the public. Individuals high in distrust did not differ from those low in distrust in their exposure to AIDS information. Higher levels of AIDS-related distrust were not related to self-reported personal risk reduction, but were related to inaccurate beliefs about HIV transmission through casual contact and greater willingness to avoid and stigmatize people with AIDS. The importance of overcoming distrust in AIDS education programs is discussed. PMID:7986656

  8. Indices for soil management decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indices are needed for periodic assessments of soil resource condition at all scales – within a lawn, field, farm, watershed, county, state, nation, or the world. There are several types of indices including scorecards, simulation models, decision aides, and assessment frameworks. This chapter exami...

  9. On a practitioner's need of further development of Wechsler scales. Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2).

    PubMed

    Kubinger, Klaus D

    2004-11-01

    Wechsler's intelligence test-batteries are still popular yet suffer from psychometric shortcomings and lack a certain content improvement and enlargement. In this paper a new approach will be presented that suits traditional Wechsler-testing. The approach in question is the Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2; Kubinger & Wurst, 2000). Due to it's "branched testing" design, AID 2 works out to be more economical and in this regard also offers other advantages, such as parallel tests and short forms. AID 2 offers a method of survey for identifying specific developmental disorders or learning disabilities. It includes an optional non-verbal instruction and a schedule for retrograde observation support of behavioral misfits. It also offers discriminative indicators for intellectual neglect vs. intellectual advancement. PMID:15581231

  10. RBC indices

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003648.htm RBC indices To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Red blood cell (RBC) indices are part of the complete blood count ( ...

  11. Gaia-ESO Survey: Empirical classification of VLT/Giraffe stellar spectra in the wavelength range 6440-6810 Å in the γ Velorum cluster, and calibration of spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, F.; Prisinzano, L.; Micela, G.; Randich, S.; Gilmore, G.; Drew, J. E.; Jeffries, R. D.; Frémat, Y.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Sacco, G. G.; Smiljanic, R.; Jackson, R. J.; de Laverny, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C. C.; Hourihane, A.; Costado, M. T.; Jofré, P.; Lind, K.; Maiorca, E.

    2014-06-01

    We present a study of spectral diagnostics available from optical spectra with R = 17 000 obtained with the VLT/Giraffe HR15n setup, using observations from the Gaia-ESO Survey, on the γ Vel young cluster, with the purpose of classifying these stars and finding their fundamental parameters. We define several spectroscopic indices, sampling the amplitude of TiO bands, the Hα line core and wings, and temperature- and gravity-sensitive sets of lines, each useful as a Teff or log g indicator over a limited range of stellar spectral types. Hα line indices are also useful as chromospheric activity or accretion indicators. Furthermore, we use all indices to define additional global Teff- and log g-sensitive indices τ and γ, valid for the entire range of types in the observed sample. We find a clear difference between gravity indices of main-sequence and pre-main-sequence stars, as well as a much larger difference between these and giant stars. The potentially great usefulness of the (γ,τ) diagram as a distance-independent age measurement tool for young clusters is discussed. We discuss the effect on the defined indices of classical T Tauri star veiling, which is however detected in only a few stars in the present sample. Then, we present tests and calibrations of these indices, on the basis of both photometry and literature reference spectra, from the UVES Paranal Observatory Projectand the ELODIE 3.1 Library. The known properties of these stars, spanning a wide range of stellar parameters, enable us to obtain a good understanding of the performances of our new spectral indices. For non-peculiar stars with known temperature, gravity, and metallicity, we are able to calibrate quantitatively our indices, and derive stellar parameters for a wide range of stellar types. To this aim, a new composite index is defined, providing a good metallicity indicator. The ability of our indices to select peculiar, or otherwise rare classes of stars is also established. For pre

  12. Space assembly fixtures and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

  13. Culturally sensitive AIDS education and perceived AIDS risk knowledge: reaching the "know-it-all" teenager.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, H C; Gay, K M; Josar, L

    1995-04-01

    Video education is the most popular and effective medium for informing the adolescent population. This study investigated the impact of a culturally relevant HIV/AIDS video education. One hundred and ninety-four African-American teenagers were assigned to either a culturally sensitive or culturally dissimilar video education intervention. Results indicate that both interventions were effective in increasing AIDS knowledge scores. An interaction effect was found between levels of perceived AIDS risk knowledge and participation in the culturally sensitive intervention (CSV). Only the CSV intervention was effective with adolescents who claimed to "know a lot" about AIDS (e.g., "Know-It-All" subgroup). Students in both conditions who were worried about getting AIDS demonstrated higher AIDS risk knowledge at post-assessment. This study provides further evidence of within-ethnicity diversity among African-American youth and for developing culture- and subgroup-specific HIV/AIDS education. PMID:7542465

  14. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  15. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  16. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  17. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  18. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  19. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  20. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  1. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  2. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  3. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  4. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  5. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  6. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  7. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  8. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  9. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  10. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  11. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  12. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  13. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  14. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  15. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  16. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  17. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  18. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  19. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  20. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  1. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  2. HIV and AIDS Relative to Other Health, Social, and Relationship Concerns Among Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Braaten, Laura S.; Jaworski, Beth C.; Durant, Lauren E.; Forsyth, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the priorities of low-income women regarding health, relationship, and social concerns. Method Street-intercept surveys conducted with 161 low-income urban women (M = 27 years; 85% African-American; 80% single mothers) regarding their perceptions of the threat associated with 48 health and social problems. Results Women rated AIDS as their most important health, social, or relationship concern; nearly one-half of all women indicated that they would attend risk reduction programs to learn how to avoid infection with HIV. Conclusions AIDS is perceived as a serious threat to women’s health, and that interventions to reduce risk are welcomed. PMID:10839652

  3. Evaluation of the Siemens Minifonator vibrotactile aid.

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, J M

    1989-03-01

    The Siemens Hearing Instruments Minifonator, a single-channel, wrist-worn vibrotactile aid, was evaluated in a laboratory setting with hearing-impaired adults. Eight subjects, with hearing loss greater than 70 dB in the better ear, were administered a test battery including sound-field detection, speech awareness threshold, environmental sound identification, syllable rhythm and stress categorization, and sentence identification subtests. Performance on each subtest was compared for hearing-aided and tactile-aided conditions. Mean performance levels for the two conditions were comparable for all but one subtest. However, closer inspection revealed that the data for the hearing-aided condition were bimodal: some subjects proved to be good hearing aid users and other performed at chance levels with their hearing aids. Performance in the tactile-aided conditions did not show such variability and mean levels fell between the hearing-aided levels for "good" and "poor" hearing aid users. The effects of training with the device were assessed for two normal-hearing subjects, who were trained in 1-hour daily sessions over a several week period on the environmental sounds and syllable rhythm and stress subtests. Results indicated substantial improvements in performance over the course of training. The implications of these results for long-term use of the device are discussed. PMID:2704198

  4. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  5. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  6. Level of Education, Sexual Promiscuity, and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Catherine D.

    1994-01-01

    Responses of 595 unmarried persons on the 1991 General Social Survey suggest that educational attainment indirectly increases promiscuous sexual behavior by liberalizing sexual attitudes. In a second study, the incidence of AIDS was partly explained by educational attainment, liberal sexual attitudes, and promiscuous sexual practices. (KS)

  7. Dutch Universities' Joint Aid to Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education and Research in the Netherlands, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of the joint aid in the reconstruction of North and South Vietnam provided by Dutch universities. The hospital project, solid matter physics project, micro-electronics project, agricultural project and dentistry project are defined. (Author/PG)

  8. AIDS COST AND SERVICE UTILIZATION STUDY (ACSUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Cost and Services Utilization Survey (ACSUS) was a longitudinal study of persons with HIV-related disease. In a combination of personal interviews and abstraction of medical and billing records spanning an 18-month period, information was collected on more than 1,900 HIV...

  9. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  10. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  11. Challenges in Meeting HIV/AIDS Counselling Needs in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesinde, Abiodun M.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is recognized globally as the greatest health challenge of the present generation. It is widely acknowledged to be the foremost killer disease in Africa. Since the first AIDS case was publicly announced in 1986, the astronomical increase in victims has been a matter of concern. The rates of HIV/AIDS infection indicate that…

  12. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  13. Survey of Labor Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Nan L.

    1985-01-01

    Labor economics textbooks for use with college students were surveyed. Information concerning intended audience, content, and teaching aids is provided for each text. Criteria used in evaluating the texts is provided. (RM)

  14. Job Satisfaction of Financial Aid Administrators in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Robert J.; White, Gordon W.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of financial aid administrators in Illinois studied the possible relationships of institutional type, job title, and years of experience on administrators' personal security, socialization, self-esteem, autonomy, self-actualization, and feeling of being knowledgeable. (MSE)

  15. Overview of Home Health Aides: United States, 2007

    MedlinePlus

    ... 56.1%) valued their work very much. Aides’ perceptions of the three groups’ value of their work ... Aide Survey, 2007. Figure 3. Home health aides’ perception of how others value their work: United States, ...

  16. Who Gets More Financial Aid in China? A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese financial aid system intends to increase the affordability of postsecondary education and provide access to college for disadvantaged students. However, the research base for access to aid in China is extremely thin. Using data from a large cross-sectional survey in Beijing, this study found that attending selective institutions with…

  17. HIV/AIDS, Disability, and Employment. Disability Statistics Report 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebesta, Douglas S.; LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    This report on HIV/AIDS, disability, and employment analyzes data from the AIDS Cost and Services Utilization Survey of 1991-1992, a longitudinal study of 1,949 HIV-infected men and women. The report examines the diagnostic history of people living with HIV and its relation to function, disability, and labor force participation over time. Study…

  18. What Works? HIV/AIDS Education in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Vicki

    By May 1989, 29 states and territories had mandated HIV/AIDS education in their public schools. Rural schools face special problems in the delivery of such education. From telephone interviews and a survey questionnaire, 32 rural school districts across the country were identified that use effective strategies in their HIV/AIDS education programs.…

  19. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  20. Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

  1. A Financial Aid Competency Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Neil; Martinez, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the competencies that financial aid officers need to be successful in their jobs. A survey of 30 competencies was distributed to 508 financial aid officers in the Western United States. Respondents were asked to rate 30 job competencies for their relative importance and frequency of use. Using exploratory factor analysis,…

  2. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    PubMed

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs. PMID:12295521

  3. RBC indices

    MedlinePlus

    ... corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); Mean corpuscular volume (MCV); Red blood cell indices ... and hemoglobin. The MCV reflects the size of red blood cells. The MCH and MCHC reflect the ...

  4. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  5. [Tuberculosis prevalence survey in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-11-01

    epidemiological figures obtained from vital registration, namely incidence of TB, prevalence of active TB at the end of the year and TB mortality. In analyzing the results, we have to take note of the difference in bacteriological examination methods. As laryngeal swab method was used in 1963 and 1968, culture positive rate was lower and no information about smear examination, however, from 1958 to 1973, all indices had declined exponentially with similar speed including prevalence of smear +PTB and bacillary TB if results in 1958 and 1973 were connected directly. Based on this results and the fact that marked decline in the prevalence of active TB requiring much larger sample size for the survey, TB prevalence survey was stopped, and data from vital register has been used since then to evaluate the TB situation. Results of 3 incidence surveys were shown in Fig. 3. Shift of higher incidence from younger age groups to higher age groups was clearly shown from 1954 survey to 1964 survey. The results of routine follow-up by vital registration of 1968 survey population excluding TB cases found in 1968 survey were shown in Table 2, and high risk groups were clearly shown in this table. As routine X-ray examination was done by radiography in 1963 survey, it was possible to pick up any slight TB pathology, and the age-specific prevalence of any TB finding, that of healed findings and of calcified lesions were shown together with BCG vaccination coverage in Fig. 4. In the age groups above 40, the prevalence of any TB finding, as well as of healed and calcified findings was very high, while the coverage of BCG vaccination was below 20%. BCG vaccination was started in Japan in 1943, and those above 40 years of age in 1963 were then already 20 years of age or above, and only few were vaccinated with BCG when BCG vaccination was expanded to cover higher age groups thereafter. TB prevalence survey has now come to be used as one of methods to estimate the incidence of TB under the impact of HIV/AIDS

  6. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  7. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  8. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  9. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. The role of the military: to protect society -- and themselves.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R

    1996-01-01

    Military personnel are at particularly high risk of becoming infected with HIV because they are in the age group at highest risk for infection, age 15-24 years; they are away from home for long periods of time; many feel invulnerable and ready to take risks; there are usually prostitutes and drugs in military areas; and troops have cash, but maybe not condoms, in their pockets. The level of attention given to HIV/AIDS in the military has grown over the course of the last few international AIDS conferences. One roundtable on HIV/AIDS in the armed forces was held at the 11th International Conference on AIDS held in Vancouver during July 7-12, 1996. A large-scale survey reported at the conference found the level of sexual activity to be significantly higher among US military personnel than in the civilian population. Even the oldest soldiers reported higher levels of multiple partner sex habits than the most sexually active young men in the UK and France. The data further indicate that significant numbers of those men who were infected continued to knowingly have unprotected sex. Data from Angola, Cambodia, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Thailand, and Zimbabwe show significantly higher levels of HIV infection among military personnel compared to the civilian populations. The authors stress the important role the military can play in preventing the spread of HIV and the need to involve military personnel in AIDS prevention programs. PMID:12347381

  10. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  11. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  12. Papal policy, poverty, and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Morley, D

    1990-06-30

    Papal "pronouncements" have been a major cause of the Philippines' increasing poverty, and of its failure to promote the only method proved to limit the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Kenya has a growth rate of 3-4% and will double its population in 17 years. The UK has an average family size of 1.8 children. This is due to contraceptive usage. The poor lack knowledge and funds to ignore the rulings of the Catholic Church. Families will have 7 or more children without access to modern contraceptives. The Philippine elite are 90% Catholic, and disregard church policy and use contraceptives. Therefore, they have small families. Abortion is widely used in Latin America. It is the leading cause of death of women aged 15-39. The Philippines is industrializing rapidly; businessmen, however, do not see a future in producing condoms here. Widespread availability of condoms would limit the spread of AIDS. Mainly surveys show that in 1989 only 5 to 10/1000 prostitutes were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other Asian countries have shown large increases in HIV infection occurrence in 2-3 years. Pope John Paul has been telling young people in Burkina Faso that they "must face the plagues of modern times." He did not identify these plaques. However, Monsignore Carlo Cafara, dean of John Paul II's Institute for Marriage and Family Studies at the Vatican, told a recent conference that when 1 partner of a married couple is positive for AIDS, it is preferable to risk catching the AIDS virus than to use condoms. St. Paul would have approved the use of modern contraceptive methods. PMID:2390554

  13. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  14. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  15. The effect of a decision aid intervention on decision making about coronary heart disease risk reduction: secondary analyses of a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decision aids offer promise as a practical solution to improve patient decision making about coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention medications and help patients choose medications to which they are likely to adhere. However, little data is available on decision aids designed to promote adherence. Methods In this paper, we report on secondary analyses of a randomized trial of a CHD adherence intervention (second generation decision aid plus tailored messages) versus usual care in an effort to understand how the decision aid facilitates adherence. We focus on data collected from the primary study visit, when intervention participants presented 45 minutes early to a previously scheduled provider visit; viewed the decision aid, indicating their intent for CHD risk reduction after each decision aid component (individualized risk assessment and education, values clarification, and coaching); and filled out a post-decision aid survey assessing their knowledge, perceived risk, decisional conflict, and intent for CHD risk reduction. Control participants did not present early and received usual care from their provider. Following the provider visit, participants in both groups completed post-visit surveys assessing the number and quality of CHD discussions with their provider, their intent for CHD risk reduction, and their feelings about the decision aid. Results We enrolled 160 patients into our study (81 intervention, 79 control). Within the decision aid group, the decision aid significantly increased knowledge of effective CHD prevention strategies (+21 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and the accuracy of perceived CHD risk (+33 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001), and significantly decreased decisional conflict (-0.63; adjusted p<.0001). Comparing between study groups, the decision aid also significantly increased CHD prevention discussions with providers (+31 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and improved perceptions of some features of patient

  16. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  17. [Gender and HIV/AIDS prevention].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    The sociocultural gender norms that interfere with vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in global and Polish context are discussed. The issue of gender related HIV/AIDS vulnerability in Poland is underestimated. Existing data on unemployment rate and average wages seems to indicate that socioeconomic status of women in Poland is rather low and create social suspectibility to HIV infection. Some programmatic and policy recommendations to reduce individual risk and vulnerability of women and men are presented. PMID:16433319

  18. The Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Clients of Female Sex Workers and their Perspectives, Behaviours and Attitude on HIV and AIDS: A Questionnaire Based Survey from Pokhara, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Manu S; Nepali, Bobin; Sathian, Brijesh; Aryal, Ram Prasad; Thapalia, Madav; Bhatta, Dharm R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The clients of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) have been represented from different socio-demographic backgrounds and their risk behaviour depends upon their learning skills and attitudes and its impacts on practice. Objective: The general objective of this study was to find the socio-demographic characteristics, background, knowledge, behaviour, and the attitude on STIs, HIV and AIDS of the clients of female sex workers. Material and Methods: This questionnaire based, cross sectional study was conducted on 109 clients of FSWs during the time period from January 2010 to July 2010 in Pokhara (submetropolitan city of the Kaski district), Nepal. The locations were the Baglung Bus Park, Lakeside and Mahendrapool. Result: Among the 109 respondents, the mininum and the maximum age were 18 and 50 years. According to the religion-wise distribution, 77.1% of the respondents were Hindus, 10.1% were Buddhists, 8.3% were Christians, 1% were Muslims and 3.7% were from other religions. 67.9% of the respondents were tested for HIV at least once, whereas nearly one third (32.1%) of the respondents were never tested for HIV. 49.5% of the respondents answered that there was no difference between HIV and AIDS. Among the respondents, 89.9% respondents knew how to be safe from STIs and the HIV infections and 99.1% knew about HIV and AIDS. Conclusion: HIV and AIDS is a cross cutting issue in the present situation rather than a health issue. One of the most at risk groups is the clients of female workers who frequently have risk behaviours like having sex with female sex workers. The sexual behaviour among these clients depends upon their attitude, knowledge and perception, which also influence several internal and external factors. In our study, the clients of the female sex workers had some extent of knowledge about the condom, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. They were made aware on these by different organizations who were working in the field of HIV and AIDS, but

  19. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  20. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  1. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  2. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  3. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  4. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  5. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  7. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  8. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  9. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  10. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  11. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  12. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  13. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  14. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  15. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  16. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  17. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  18. The Use of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching: A Study in the Saudi Girls Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal A.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of faculty in girls colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, investigated teaching experience, academic rank, importance of audiovisual aids, teacher training, availability of audiovisual centers, and reasons for not using audiovisual aids. Proposes changes to increase use of audiovisual aids: more training courses, more teacher release time,…

  19. Competencies for Financial Aid Officers: A Competency Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Michael Neil

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid officers play a vital role in assisting prospective and current college students in enrolling and graduating from college. This study explores the competencies that financial aid officers need to be successful in their jobs. A survey of thirty competencies was distributed to 508 practicing financial aid officers in the Western United…

  20. The Moving Target: Student Financial Aid and Community College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, Michael A.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Schumacker, Randall E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews recent literature on student financial aid as a retention tool at community colleges. Enrollment and tuition data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), and federal direct grant student aid data from the IPEDS Student Financial Aid Survey are used to…

  1. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Objective The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Results The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. Conclusions The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26913902

  2. Survey of the Definition of Fetal Viability and the Availability, Indications, and Decision Making Processes for Post-Viability Termination of Pregnancy for Fetal Abnormalities and Health Conditions in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hull, Danna; Davies, Gregory; Armour, Christine M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the definition of fetal viability and the availability, indications, and decision making processes for post-viability termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities and health conditions in Canada. An online survey of members of the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists, and the Canadian Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine who provide direct counselling to, or management of, prenatal patients in Canada (total sample size 815). Results of this study showed that the majority of respondents indicated that their centre will offer post-viability termination of pregnancy (98/123; 80 %). Sixty-seven percent (68/101) of respondents reported the definition of fetal viability to be 24 weeks' gestation. Most respondents reported that a collaborative decision making process was used to determine if post-viability termination of pregnancy would be offered (136/170; 80 %). For conditions presumed to be lethal/likely lethal, the majority of respondents would "sometimes" or "always" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy, whereas for conditions presumed to have a mild effect, the majority of respondents would "rarely" or "never" offer post-viability termination of pregnancy. Ninety percent (77/86) of respondents reported that perinatal hospice is offered as an alternative to termination of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that although post-viability termination is available in many provinces in Canada, variation in the definition of fetal viability and indications appear to exist. While these variations may lead to unequal access to post-viability termination of pregnancy across Canada, they might also represent the complexity of the decision making process and the importance of examining individual factors to ensure that the most appropriate decision is made in each case. PMID:26536885

  3. Secondary School Students' English Writing Aided by Spelling and Grammar Checkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radi, Odette

    This paper presents phase one of a study aimed at investigating how and why secondary school students use computer tools, such as spelling and grammar checkers, to aid them in their English writing and how their patterns of use relate to their English literacy. The study was prompted through close observations over many years, on how students use computers to support their writing. The observation indicated that while some students make a lot of use of computers, they still struggle to read and write in English. The research involved testing and surveying sixty-five Year 8 students. The test results obtained are compared with students’ responses to the survey. The survey questionnaire contained open ended questions for the students to respond reflectively and to evaluate their uses of computer tools.

  4. A Design for a Model College Financial Aid Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDusen, William D.; O'Hearne, John J.

    Much of the information used in this report on a model college financial aid office prepared for the Coordinating Board, Texas College and University System, was obtained from a survey conducted in 1965-66 by the Bureau of Applied Social Research of Columbia University. As part of the survey, questionnaires were sent to directors of financial aid…

  5. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  6. Are the Right Students Receiving Need Based Federal Student Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Students at a college or university who receive need-based financial aid, receive a tremendous financial resource compared to those students who do not receive need based financial aid. A sample of 100 students from various backgrounds and skills were surveyed. The survey asked questions of the two student groups: received need based financial aid…

  7. HIV/AIDS Case Managers and Client HIV Status Disclosure: Perceived Client Needs, Practices, and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Klein, Susan J.; Kalichman, Moira O.; O'Connell, Daniel A.; Freedman, Jay A.; Eaton, Lisa; Cain, Demetria

    2007-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS often need assistance in deciding whether or how to disclose their HIV status to others, and case managers are in a unique position to offer this assistance. The current study surveyed 223 case managers providing services to people living with HIV/AIDS in New York State. The survey was conducted anonymously, and case…

  8. Teaching Basic First-Aid Skills against Home Accidents to Children with Autism through Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    It is known that children with DD can learn first-aid skills and use whenever needed. Applying first-aid skills was taught to three inclusion students with autism through "first-aid skills training package". In the study multiple probe design with probe trials across behaviors was used. The findings indicated that first-aid skills training package…

  9. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  10. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  11. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  12. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  13. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  14. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  15. Support for hospital-based HIV testing and counseling: a national survey of hospital marketing executives.

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, J A; Steiber, S R

    1995-01-01

    Today, hospitals are involved extensively in social marketing and promotional activities. Recently, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that routine testing of hospital patients for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) could identify more than 100,000 patients with previously unrecognized HIV infections. Several issues are assessed in this paper. These include hospital support for voluntary HIV testing and AIDS education and the impact that treating AIDS patients has on the hospital's image. Also tested is the hypothesis that certain hospitals, such as for-profit institutions and those outside the AIDS epicenters, would be less supportive of hospital-based AIDS intervention strategies. To assess these issues, a national random sample of 193 executives in charge of hospital marketing and public relations were surveyed between December 1992 and January 1993. The survey was part of an ongoing annual survey of hospitals and included questions about AIDS, health education, marketing, patient satisfaction, and hospital planning. Altogether, 12.4 percent of executives indicated their hospital had a reputation for treating AIDS patients. Among hospitals without an AIDS reputation, 34.1 percent believed developing one would be harmful to the hospital's image, in contrast to none in hospitals that had such a reputation (chi 2 = 11.676, df = 1, P = .0006). Although 16.6 percent did not know if large-scale HIV testing should be implemented, a near majority (47.7 percent) expressed some support. In addition, 15 percent reported that HIV-positive physicians on the hospital's medical staff should not be allowed to practice medicine, but 32.1 percent indicated that they should.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7638335

  16. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  17. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  19. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  20. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  1. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  2. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  3. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  4. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  5. Computer-aided boundary delineation of agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1989-01-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) presently uses labor-intensive aerial photographic interpretation techniques to divide large geographical areas into manageable-sized units for estimating domestic crop and livestock production. Prototype software, the computer-aided stratification (CAS) system, was developed to automate the procedure, and currently runs on a Sun-based image processing system. With a background display of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graph data, the operator uses a cursor to delineate agricultural areas, called sampling units, which are assigned to strata of land-use and land-cover types. The resultant stratified sampling units are used as input into subsequent USDA sampling procedures. As a test, three counties in Missouri were chosen for application of the CAS procedures. Subsequent analysis indicates that CAS was five times faster in creating sampling units than the manual techniques were.

  6. Surveying Future Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  7. Knowledge about AIDS among Leaving Certificate students.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, J

    1990-03-01

    A self-administered anonymous questionnaire on knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was administered to 2,614 Leaving Certificate students in 50 Galway second-level schools. Levels of knowledge regarding routes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and non-transmission were assessed together with student opinion on related lifestyle issues and awareness of local services. Although 91% had heard of HIV infection only 61% knew that there is a difference between this and AIDS. Over 95% of respondants were aware of the epidemiologically proven means of transmission and between 73% and 98% understood that no transmission risk existed in a range of ordinary social contact situations. Fifty-one per cent of students believed in a HIV transmission risk from receiving blood transfusions in Ireland and 24% doubted the safety of blood donation. Seventy-four per cent of students indicated the media as their main information source on AIDS. Preference for further AIDS information were Health Education sources (30%) and teachers (20%). Only 22% and 23% of respondants respectively were aware of the local Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic and AIDS telephone information service. These data indicate areas in which information on AIDS should be improved by education in the school setting. PMID:2361831

  8. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  9. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  10. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  11. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  12. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  13. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  14. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  15. First aid kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... shield, pads, and bandages Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads, non- ... aid manual Hand sanitizer Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Save-A-Tooth storage ...

  16. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  17. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  18. Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Kovaleski, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. With an annual incidence rate of at least 146.6 people per 100,000, the Bahamas now has one of the highest AIDS rates in the world and the highest such rate in the English-speaking Caribbean. AIDS has become the major cause of death for men and women aged 20-44 in the Bahamas. Indeed, throughout the Caribbean, countries like the Bahamas must now cope with a growing AIDS epidemic. UN AIDS Program figures indicate that at least 310,000 people in the Caribbean have either HIV infection or AIDS, and that the prevalence rate among adults is almost 2%. This compares with an estimated 7.4% of the adult population of sub-Saharan Africa which is infected and 0.6% of adults in North America. 65% of reported AIDS cases in the region result from heterosexual intercourse. While the annual number of AIDS cases has been falling in North America over the last several years and rates in Latin America have leveled off, rates in the Caribbean are increasing sharply. Poverty, the population's lack of awareness, low levels of education, internal and international migration, crack cocaine use, promiscuity, high levels of STDs, prostitution, and tourism are also facilitating the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. Social conservatism, mainly in the English-Caribbean, about discussing sex impedes the implementation and success of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. PMID:12293303

  19. Laser Surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point through an instrument called a theodolite. But how do you take a heading between two points which are not visible to each other, for instance, when tall trees, hills or other obstacles obstruct the line of sight? That was the problem confronting the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The Forest Service manages 187 million acres of land in 44 states and Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, National Forest System lands are not contiguous but intermingled in complex patterns with privately-owned land. In recent years much of the private land has been undergoing development for purposes ranging from timber harvesting to vacation resorts. There is a need for precise boundary definition so that both private owners and the Forest Service can manage their properties with confidence that they are not trespassing on the other's land.

  20. AIDS and economic disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

  1. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  2. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  3. Hearing Aid Use and Associated Factors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Baek, Sun Young; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-10-01

    Despite the high prevalence of hearing impairment in the elderly, the rate of hearing aid use is still low. The objectives of this study were to report the nation-wide prevalence of hearing aid use in the Korean population and to determine the associated factors with hearing aid use utilizing a nationally representative data set.We obtained data from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the Republic of Korea at age ≥40 years (N = 12,709). A field survey team performed interviews as well as physical examinations. Hearing aid use was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and pure-tone audiometry was administered for all participants in a sound-attenuating booth. Prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use were calculated in participants who reported perceived hearing loss and who have bilateral hearing thresholds exceeding the 40 dB hearing level. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the associated factors with hearing aid use.The prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use was 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, in South Korea. Increased hearing threshold (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), severe perceived hearing loss (OR 10.73, 95% CI 4.52-25.46), annoying tinnitus (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.61-6.74), balance problems (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.86), and myopia (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76) were associated factors of regular use of hearing aids.The prevalence of hearing aid use in Korea is relatively low. Finding relevant factors of hearing aid use could provide further insight in setting up hearing-rehabilitation strategy for the elderly with significant hearing loss. PMID:26496259

  4. Hearing Aid Use and Associated Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Il Joon; Baek, Sun Young; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the high prevalence of hearing impairment in the elderly, the rate of hearing aid use is still low. The objectives of this study were to report the nation-wide prevalence of hearing aid use in the Korean population and to determine the associated factors with hearing aid use utilizing a nationally representative data set. We obtained data from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the Republic of Korea at age ≥40 years (N = 12,709). A field survey team performed interviews as well as physical examinations. Hearing aid use was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and pure-tone audiometry was administered for all participants in a sound-attenuating booth. Prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use were calculated in participants who reported perceived hearing loss and who have bilateral hearing thresholds exceeding the 40 dB hearing level. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the associated factors with hearing aid use. The prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use was 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, in South Korea. Increased hearing threshold (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07), severe perceived hearing loss (OR 10.73, 95% CI 4.52–25.46), annoying tinnitus (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.61–6.74), balance problems (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18–0.86), and myopia (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0.76) were associated factors of regular use of hearing aids. The prevalence of hearing aid use in Korea is relatively low. Finding relevant factors of hearing aid use could provide further insight in setting up hearing-rehabilitation strategy for the elderly with significant hearing loss. PMID:26496259

  5. Computer Aids Delineation Of Boundaries In Farmlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slyle, R.; Cheng, T.; Ma, M.; Angelici, G.

    1992-01-01

    Computer-aided stratification (CAS) procedure developmental procedure of image-processing computer equipment and programs partly automating delineation of boundaries between areas. These areas, "primary sampling units", are images of primarily agricultural lands composed by melding digital Landsat Thematic Mapper data and Digital Line Graph data from United States Geological Survey. CAS output data used as inputs for subsequent sampling procedures from which statistics on uses of agricultural lands developed.

  6. Confronting AIDS: international consensus?

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries. PMID:12294024

  7. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival. PMID:1786270

  8. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  9. [AIDS and reproduction -- some aspects].

    PubMed

    Andrade, A T

    1990-01-01

    At present probably about 1/2 million people have AIDS in the world. About 10 million may be infected with HIV without showing symptoms. By 2000 at least 5 million new cases of AIDS are expected. In Latin America AIDS was first concentrated among urban male homosexuals. Lately AIDS has increased rapidly among heterosexuals especially among bisexuals. In Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro 28% of bisexuals were infected with HIV in 1987. In Rio about 1/2 of male or female prostitutes were infected. The number of partners, the frequency of coitus, simultaneous infection with genital ulcers, and anal sex increases the chances of heterosexual transmission. 25-50% of the children of infected pregnant women are born infected with HIV. By the end of 1992 at least 1 million babies will be born to infected mothers of whom 250,000 will be HIV positive. Vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus by decidual leukocytes (especially trophoblasts) via transplacental passage was verified by identifying HIV in aborted fetuses in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. HIV infection can also occur during delivery. The virus can also be transmitted via mother's milk: there have been reports of HIV in milk since 1985. The US Centers for Disease Control advised against breast feeding by HIV infected mothers. Up to 15 months of age it is difficult to assess whether HIV antibodies are derived from the mother's infection or from the infant itself. A polymerase chain reaction test could resolve this problem by amplifying the genetic chain in the blood and detecting HIV in the DNA of the child. Recent studies have indicated that there is no additional risk posed by breast feeding for those infants who have been exposed to HIV during pregnancy or delivery. Mothers infected with HIV in developing countries may breast feed their infants because it is crucial in reducing infant mortality. PMID:12285181

  10. Usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Petro, S J; Herrmann, D; Burrows, D; Moore, C M

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has produced disagreement about the usage and usefulness of external memory aids across age groups. The present study examined the use and perceived usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of the ages of users and potential users. Three age groups (ages 20, 45 and 65 years) were asked to indicate whether they owned each of thirty different commercial aids and regardless of ownership, to rate the degree of usefulness of each of the aids. Each age group used certain aids or perceived certain aids as more useful, than did other age groups. The pattern of results suggest that memory aid usage differs with age partly because the memory tasks required of a person change with life stage. PMID:1761318

  11. HIV/AIDS awareness and attitudes of tour guides in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avcikurt, Cevdet; Koroglu, Ozlem; Koroglu, Ahmet; Avcikurt, Ayla Solmaz

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain Turkish tour guides' awareness and attitudes regarding HIV and AIDS. A sample of 516 tour guides registered in Turkey who verbally consented to participate in this study responded to an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The respondents typically exhibited a reasonable to excellent degree of knowledge about HIV and AIDS. However, the survey revealed some common misconceptions, indicating that tour guides require additional training in the mechanisms of HIV transmission. We also observed some differences in the level of HIV-related knowledge between different demographic groups. The knowledge level of male respondents was better than that of the female respondents. We also observed that knowledge levels increased with both age and work experience. These results are discussed within the framework of critical studies on HIV-related knowledge. Implications for the development of curricula and in-service training programmes for tour guide organisations and institutions are discussed. PMID:21058083

  12. Feasibility of body roundness index for identifying a clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities compared to BMI, waist circumference and other anthropometric indices: the China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2008 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Xu, Yang; Dong, Huimin

    2016-08-01

    The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are commonly used anthropometric measures for predicting cardiovascular diseases risk factors, but it is uncertain which specific measure might be the most appropriate predictor of a cluster of cardiometabolic abnormalities (CMA) in Chinese adults. A body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) have been recently developed as alternative anthropometric indices that may better reflect health status. The main aims of this study were to investigate the predictive capacity of ABSI and BRI in identifying various CMA compared to BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and to determine whether there exists a best single predictor of all CMA.We used data from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and the final analysis included 8126 adults aged 18 to 85 years with available fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to assess the best anthropometric indices to predict the risk of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the OR of each CMA according to anthropometric indices.In women, the ROC analysis showed that BRI and WHtR had the best predictive capability in identifying all of CMA (area under the curves [AUCs] ranged from 0.658 to 0.721). In men, BRI and WHtR were better predictor of hypertension, diabetes, and at least 1 CMA (AUC: 0.668, 0.708, and 0.698, respectively), whereas BMI and WC were more sensitive predictor of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and MetS. Furthermore, the ABSI showed the lowest AUCs for each CMA. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BRI and WHtR were superior in discriminating hyperuricemia and at least 1 CMA while BMI performed better in predicting hypertension, diabetes, and MetS in women. In men, WC and BRI were the 2 best predictor of all CMA

  13. Study of Program Management Procedures in the Basic Grant and Campus Based Programs: Analysis of the Institutional Administration of Student Financial Aid Programs Using Data Collected in the Institutional Mail Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Joseph; Ring, David

    The effectiveness and efficiency of procedures employed by the federal government and participating education institutions to operate and manage the campus based and Basic Educational Opportunity Grant assistance programs are evaluated. Information was obtained by mail surveys of 756 colleges and universities. An overview is presented of the…

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys with large sample sizes of between 5,000 and 30,000 households, typically. DHS surveys provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, a...

  15. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  16. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  17. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  18. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  19. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services. PMID:1602509

  20. Costs of HIV+/AIDS at CD4+ counts disease stages based on treatment protocols.

    PubMed

    Gable, C B; Tierce, J C; Simison, D; Ward, D; Motte, K

    1996-08-01

    We report treatment protocols for HIV+/AIDS patients by CD4+ counts (T-lymphocyte cells/mm3: > or = 500, 499-200, 199-50, and < 50) as a tool to provide better definition and to project annual costs (total charges for services) and lifetimes costs for HIV+/AIDS. The treatment protocols, derived from the literature and an HIV+/AIDS Physician Panel, defined the resource use associated with antiretroviral therapy and opportunistic disease prophylaxis and treatment. Resource use costs were derived from the published literature, insurance database, Medicare fee schedules, surveys, and the Physician Panel. At CD4+ counts, the rates of opportunistic diseases were derived from the Physician Panel experience; the mean occupancy times were derived from the literature. The sensitivity analysis indicated stability of the lifetime costs to variation in mean occupancy times, rates of opportunistic diseases, rates of adverse events (AE), and costs. The total annual costs (1995 dollars) of HIV+/AIDS patients ranged from $1,934 (> or = 500), $6,015 (200-499), and $9,031 (50-199), to $25,239 ( < 50). The annual costs of opportunistic diseases are esophageal candidiasis (EC) ($2,194), tuberculosis (TB) ($2,924), cryptococcal meningitis (CM) ($17,264), toxoplasmosis ($17,631), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (+20,153), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) ($22,329), wasting syndrome ($26,676), central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma ($27,333), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) [mild ($3,545), moderate ($4,889), and severe ($32,609)], Kaposi' sarcoma (KS) [mild/moderate ($5,902), and severe ($10,744)], and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis ($100,337). The projected lifetime costs of HIV+/AIDS are $94,726 (annual costs $7,645). Our lower lifetime costs as compared with recent estimates may be due to including resources only for HIV+/AIDS-related treatment and not for non-HIV+/AIDS conditions, as well as reduced resource use resulting from more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic techniques

  1. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  2. Preferred hearing aid gain in everyday environments.

    PubMed

    Cox, R M; Alexander, G C

    1991-04-01

    Thirty-three hearing-impaired individuals were each fitted with three hearing aids. The instruments conformed to three frequency-gain prescriptions, differing by a total of 8 dB/octave, with the middle prescription derived using the MSU version 3.0 procedure. The subjects were divided into three matched groups of eleven. Each group used the fitted hearing aids in one of three everyday listening environments representing quiet, reverberant, and noisy situations, respectively. In each listening environment, preferred hearing aid gain for conversationally produced speech was measured in each hearing aid condition for each subject. Preferred gain in daily listening situations was compared to prescribed gain. Results indicated that: (1) preferred gain averaged across all three environments was about equal to prescribed gain, (2) mean preferred gain in each separate environment was substantially different from the prescribed level, (3) volume control adjustments of about +/- 8 dB relative to the prescribed level would be necessary to accommodate the preferred gain settings of the typical hearing aid wearer in daily life. Guidelines are presented for establishing recommended volume control settings for hearing aid users who may be unable to set the volume control independently. PMID:2065837

  3. Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--worldwide.

    PubMed

    1988-05-13

    As of March 21, 1988, 136 countries or territories throughout the world had reported a total of 84,256 cases of AIDS to the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) (formerly the Special Programme on AIDS) of the World Health Organization (WHO). 37 countries or territories had reported no AIDS cases. Reports are based on either the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/WHO surveillance definition, the WHO clinical definition, or a physician's diagnosis. From 1979 through March 21, 1988, the number of AIDS cases increased markedly in all geographic regions. The cumulative world total increased from 11,965 in 1984 to 25,150 in 1985 (a 11% increase) and to 48,413 in 1986 (a 92% increase). Because of reporting lags, the global total of AIDS cases reported for 1987 is not yet complete; however, as of March 21, 1988, 34,913 cases had been reported for 1987 (a 72% increase). Data on the distribution of AIDS cases by region are presented, followed by a discussion of the findings. Regions include: Americas, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Asia, and eastern Mediterranean countries. Epidemiologic studies indicate 3 broad yet distinct geographic patterns of transmission. Pattern I is typical of industrialized countries with large numbers of reported AIDS cases, such as North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Latin America. In these areas, most cases occur among homosexual or bisexual males and urban intravenous (IV) drug users. Pattern II is observed in areas of central, eastern, and southern Africa and in some Carribean countries. In these areas, most cases occur among heterosexuals. Pattern III is found in areas of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and most of the Pacific. Only small numbers of cases have been reported in these areas. PMID:3129644

  4. Context and content: the impact of school-leaving and school-based health education on AIDS-relevant cognitions.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D; Sheeran, P; Abraham, C; Spears, R

    1992-01-01

    A survey examined health beliefs and intentions among 690 16-18 year-olds in Dundee. Respondents in the younger cohort (n = 363) were classified according to their educational situation (at school vs left) and self-reports of having received AIDS/HIV-relevant health education. Both remaining in school and receiving AIDS/HIV-relevant health education had independent beneficial effects, but the effects of leaving school also interacted with sex of respondent and with amount of relevant education received prior to leaving. Males' and females' reliance on mass media and other information sources diverged once they left school, indicating that males who leave school early are most likely to disregard useful or important information regarding AIDS. Consistent with this finding, leaving school reduced the difference between males' and females' intention to use condoms with a new partner. The beneficial impact of having previously received AIDS/HIV-relevant education on beliefs concerning the controllability of the epidemic and on feeling worried about everyday contact with a person with HIV/AIDS, was most marked among those who had left school. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for health education strategies. PMID:1525198

  5. Reporting AIDS in Kenya: a personal report. Guidelines for journalists have been issued in the UK. What about Africa?

    PubMed

    Hanssen, N

    1993-01-01

    A Norwegian journalist reports on his experiences covering the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Kenya. Denial by the government has resulted in reduced figures. President Daniel Arap Moi refuses to admit that the epidemic has become national in scope. The public broadcasting services carry little information about the epidemic. A study indicating that 25/1700 prostitutes in Nairobi were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been met with skepticism by the public, who question the survey (what was the relationship between researchers and prostitutes, were the prostitutes paid to risk their lives, why was the study carried out in Africa). Some believe the 25 positive women are 'immune' because of a similar gene pattern. There are 750,000 HIV positive adults and 30,000 AIDS cases in Kenya, including a large number of cases among street urchins. Most AIDS cases are sent home to die because of the short supply of hospital beds (45,000). One of these was Ruth Kasuki, a 36-year-old mother of three and AIDS educator and counselor in Kenya, who is now deceased. In an interview conducted shortly before her death, she criticizes the government for its denial and predicts disastrous results. Ms. Kasuki also blamed the extramarital affairs of men for the spread of AIDS among Kenyan women. 8% of women receiving antenatal care are estimated to have HIV; in Nyanza Coast and Nairobi the estimate reaches 12%. Ms. Kasuki also cited the negative attitude of the clergy. PMID:12287718

  6. AID AND SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody diversity is tightly regulated and coordinated through one protein, activation induced deaminase (AID). AID produces diversity by converting cytosine to uracil within the immunoglobulin loci. The deoxyuracil residue is mutagenic when paired with deoxyguanosine, since it mimics thymidine during DNA replication. Additionally, B cells can manipulate the DNA repair pathways so that deoxyuracils are not faithfully repaired. Therefore, an intricate balance exists which is regulated at multiple stages to promote mutation of immunoglobulin genes, while retaining integrity of the rest of the genome. Here we discuss and summarize the current understanding of how AID functions to cause somatic hypermutation. PMID:20510733

  7. Correction: AIDS commission.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    A recent article by William Booth on the President's AIDS commission (News & Comment, 16 Oct., p. 262) incorrectly states that commission member Cory SerVaas, publisher of the Saturday Evening Post, drives her AIDS Mobile around the country. SerVaas does not drive the traveling van that offers free AIDS testing. Rather, she often flies to meet it as it travels around the country, stopping at shopping malls and churches by prearrangement with local civic and religious groups. SerVaas denies saying that homosexuals are "deviants." "We have helped homosexuals for many years," she says, pointing out that although her group primarily tests people who have a low risk of being infected, such as recipients of blood transfusions and women who may become pregnant, members of high-risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts are not excluded. PMID:17814691

  8. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Edemikpong, N B

    1990-01-01

    While the origin of the AIDS virus remains controversial, it is indisputable that AIDS is spreading worldwide. By June 1987, the World Health Organization estimated that 50 million Africans were infected with HIV and that the disease was epidemic in many parts of the continent. However, African governments chose to deny the threat of the disease. The AIDS crisis has diverted resources from other vital areas of disease prevention, health promotion, and research. Whereas AIDS is spread in developed nations by sexual promiscuity, by drug addicts sharing unclean hypodermic needles, and by homosexual behavior, in Africa cultural factors contribute to the transmission of AIDS. Female genital mutilation leads to extensive laceration of the female genitals upon initiation of sexual intercourse and/or to substitution of anal sex during the weeks and months before vaginal penetration can be achieved. In addition, the reuse of the same knives during the mutilation can spread HIV infection. Other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in Africa include the patriarchal practice of polygamy, the subordinate position of women that makes them unable to insist on protection during intercourse, and a failure to screen blood used in transfusions. With all of these risk factors at play, women at the grassroots level must be equipped with the health education that is the only available tool to fight AIDS. Women's organizations can provide information and education to people at risk of acquiring HIV, counsel infected persons, ensure the safety of the blood supply, and work to overcome harmful traditional practices. PMID:12317073

  9. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  10. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  11. Revolutionising the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

    2011-01-01

    Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

  12. Stressors and rewards for workers in AIDS service organizations.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Craig

    2002-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of recent advances in the treatment of HIV/AIDS on AIDS service providers. The study surveyed the motivations, stressors, and rewards of workers employed in AIDS service organizations. Employees of AIDS service organizations play a valuable role in providing services to people with HIV/AIDS, and their motives and attitudes about their jobs are significantly related to the quality of care provided to clients. A total of 180 employees from nine AIDS service organizations in New York City completed a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic, motivation, stressor, and reward items. This ethnically diverse sample consisted of social service workers (56%), administrative workers (22%), health care workers (18%), and other workers (4%). Forty-two percent of respondents had been working in the AIDS field for 5 or more years. The main reasons for choosing this line of work were a desire to help others, followed by having experienced the loss of a loved one to AIDS. Overall, respondents rated the level of stressors in their jobs as moderate. The main category of stress was "lack of support" (referring to the availability of resources and support for clients). The most important individual stressors were societal attitudes towards AIDS, salary, client deaths, and administrative duties. The most highly valued reward factor associated with AIDS caregiving was "personal effectiveness." Overall, the rewards of AIDS caregiving outweighed the stressors, for respondents. Implications of these findings for administrators of AIDS service organizations are discussed. PMID:12015872

  13. Aiding Vertical Guidance Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; McCrobie, Daniel; Alkin, Martin; Sherry, Lance; Polson, Peter; Palmer, Everett; McQuinn, Noreen

    1998-01-01

    A two-part study was conducted to evaluate modern flight deck automation and interfaces. In the first part, a survey was performed to validate the existence of automation surprises with current pilots. Results indicated that pilots were often surprised by the behavior of the automation. There were several surprises that were reported more frequently than others. An experimental study was then performed to evaluate (1) the reduction of automation surprises through training specifically for the vertical guidance logic, and (2) a new display that describes the flight guidance in terms of aircraft behaviors instead of control modes. The study was performed in a simulator that was used to run a complete flight with actual airline pilots. Three groups were used to evaluate the guidance display and training. In the training, condition, participants went through a training program for vertical guidance before flying the simulation. In the display condition, participants ran through the same training program and then flew the experimental scenario with the new Guidance-Flight Mode Annunciator (G-FMA). Results showed improved pilot performance when given training specifically for the vertical guidance logic and greater improvements when given the training and the new G-FMA. Using actual behavior of the avionics to design pilot training and FMA is feasible, and when the automated vertical guidance mode of the Flight Management System is engaged, the display of the guidance mode and targets yields improved pilot performance.

  14. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Facilities Performance Indicators Survey" ("FPI") supersedes and builds upon the two major surveys APPA conducted in the past: the Comparative Costs and Staffing (CCAS) survey and the Strategic Assessment Model (SAM). The "FPI" covers all the materials collected in CCAS and SAM, along with some select new data points and improved survey…

  15. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to

  16. Aids to Choosing Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Ingeborg

    This document is a selected bibliography of booklists and review media designed to aid librarians, teachers, students of children's literature and parents in book selection. Those items of particular interest to parents have been marked with an asterisk. Prices given are for single copies with indication, where appropriate, that quantity rates are…

  17. Alternative Measures of Fiscal Redistribution: Gross vs. Net Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkin, David; Legler, John

    This study attempts to design a grant-in-aid scheme incorporating transfer of resources in a manner which compensates for differences in the ability of the subordinate government units to finance desirable service levels (equalization). Results indicate that where the bulk of State aid-to-education funds are distributed through flat grants based…

  18. How They Handle It: Young Canadians, Sex, and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobart, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Describes how young unmarried Canadians cope with sexuality in the era of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Responses of 1,775 Anglophone and 493 Francophone college students in Canada indicate that those who are most aware of the risks of AIDS are also the most careless in putting themselves at risk. (SLD)

  19. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  20. Apartheid and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  1. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  2. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

  3. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  4. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  5. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  6. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  7. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  8. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... here Read related blog here Get updates via Facebook Live interviews Join the conversation: #RyanWhite2016​ International AIDS ...

  9. AIDS: Implications for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Eleanor D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and its epidemiology. Discusses implications for families (social stigma and isolation, fears of contagion, infection and abandonment, guilt, anger, grief, and economic hardship) and for human service professionals (public education, voluntary, anonymous testing with counseling, and…

  10. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  11. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  12. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  13. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  14. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  15. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  16. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  17. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  18. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  19. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  20. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)