Fife, Kenneth H.
Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…
Jalowy, A; Flesche, C W; Lorenz, C
Treatment of a patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is very challenging, and makes great demands on the anaesthesiologist. Any of an AIDS patient's vital organ systems may be compromised, either by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself, opportunistic infections, by tumours, or as a result of AIDS-related drug therapies. Infections of the lungs (e.g., Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) are prevalent, and cardiac impairment can be found in as many as 50% of AIDS patients. In addition, disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system and water and electrolyte imbalances are often seen. Perioperatively, the AIDS patient is especially prone to infections as a result of a compromised immune system. The choice of anaesthetic procedure for the AIDS patient-aside from the type of operation-depends on the severity of the illness and progression of organ impairment. All anaesthesia personnel must be careful to avoid infection, as they frequently come in contact with the blood or body fluids of their patients. However, the risk of being infected by an AIDS patient is very low, provided hygiene regulations are followed strictly. The rate of seroconversion after accidental needle-stick injury is below 1%. If exposure does occur, regular serologic controls should be continued for one year. Prophylactic treatment with azidothymidine after exposition to HIV is recommended.
Kulik, J F; de la Tribonnière, X; Bricon-Souf, N; Beuscart, R J; Mouton, Y
People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities.
Kulik, J. F.; de la Tribonnière, X.; Bricon-Souf, N.; Beuscart, R. J.; Mouton, Y.
People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities. PMID:9357652
Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge.
Sachs, K M
Early medical nutrition intervention with in-home AIDS patients can help prolong and improve the quality and quantity of their lives. Teaching the basics of good nutrition both early on as well as in the later stages of AIDS can save thousands of health care dollars through preventive care at home.
Rêgo, T I; Pinheiro, A L
The aim of this study is to analyze periodontal diseases in AIDS patients. Although AIDS was first detected in Brazil in 1982, it is growing steadily and is more frequent in the Southeast. Oral manifestations are common and may represent early signs of the disease. These lesions often precede systemic symptoms. The development of periodontal lesions in AIDS patients differs from that in non-infected patients. This is due to its chronic nature and lack of full recovery in AIDS patients. Characteristically, these lesions are not related to local irritants and progress quickly. Because these lesions do not respond properly to conventional treatment used in non-infected patients, the use of preventive methods is extremely important. These methods must include patient education and periodical professional scaling. It is important to reinforce the use of preventive measures in AIDS patients mainly in those presenting severe manifestations of the disease. The aim of treatment must be to preserve the teeth and periodontal tissues and allow more comfort to the patient during the progression of the disease.
Frieling, E; Kornhuber, H H; Nissl, K
Optical or electronic vision aids enabled 35 of 39 visually handicapped multiple sclerosis patients to read. Six patients had an uncorrected ametropia. 15 could read again with the help of magnifying optical aids and 11 with the help of an electronic television system. An electronic television reader was useful when visual acuities were below 0.1 and in patients with oscillating nystagmus or tremor capitis. Contact lenses helped 3 patients who had a neurogenous visual defect and oscillating nystagmus. Although acquired oscillating nystagmus disappears on eyelid closure and only reappears again on fixation, its amplitude, when unable to read, is greater. On overcoming the neurogenous visual defect with vision aids it becomes smaller.
Telecare--or health care services delivered via telecommunications--can be a valuable adjunct to conventional home care service delivery, particularly to chronic care patients. Technological advances have made it possible for providers to deliver cost-effective telecare to the in-home HIV/AIDS patient.
Wilk, Carole A.
This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…
Silveira, S A; Figueiredo, J F; Jordão Júnior, A; de Unamuno, M do R; Rodrigues M deL; Vannucchi, H
Anthropometric measurements and biochemical determinations were performed on HIV-infected individuals and on patients with AIDS from the Ribeirão Preto region, SP, Brazil, in order to evaluate their nutritional and vitamin A status. Plasma retinol was measured by HPLC, and hepatic vitamin A stores were evaluated by the relative dose response (RDR) test. Patients with AIDS presented significant undernutrition, with more marked alterations in the body fat compartment and a relative preservation of the parameters related to muscle mass (pattern of malnutrition predominantly of the marasmus type). Plasma retinol values below 1.05 mumol/L were observed in 25% of the patients with AIDS and in 17.3% of HIV-infected patients and RDR values indicating low body stores of vitamin A were detected in 28% of the subjects. There was no correlation between serum retinol levels and CD4 lymphocyte counts, clinical diagnosis of AIDS, low BMI or AFI. On the other hand, hypovitaminosis A status was associated with low BMI.
Echavarria, E; Cano, E L; Restrepo, A
A case of disseminated adiaspiromycosis in an AIDS patient is described. The most notable characteristic of the infection was the extensive osteomyelitis exhibited by the patient. Positive cultures for Chrysosporium parvum var. parvum were obtained from pus taken from a lesion of the wrist during surgery as well as from sputum samples and a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with amphotericin B controlled the fungal infection.
Lee, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Yan-Zhong; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating brain disease caused by Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). This disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We report a 34-year-old man infected with HIV-1 who presented with frequent general tonic clonic seizure and left side weakness for 2 months. Clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings with hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging and low density on T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery involving multiple white matter were compatible with PML. He died of sepsis 2 months after diagnosis. Autopsy demonstrated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy according to characteristic histopathologic picture with multifocal demyelination, bizarre astrocytes formation and basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oligodendrocytes. JCV genome was demonstrated in the nucleus of oligodendrocytes using in situ hybridization. In conclusion, in AIDS patients with neurologic signs and typical MRI findings who present with multifocal demyelination lesions, PML should be diagnosed clinically.
With the current overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer resulting from routine screening in Korea, it is necessary to educate the public that not all cancers are malignant. The exposure to patient decision aids (PtDAs) compared to usual care reduced the number of people choosing to undergo prostate-specific antigen screening. This article introduces the definition, usefulness, and developmental processes of PtDAs and suggests the urgent need for a Korean PtDA related to thyroid cancer screening.
Metcalfe, T W; Doran, R M; Rowlands, P L; Curry, A; Lacey, C J
A male patient is described with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed chronic keratoconjunctivitis and chronic sinusitis due to infection with the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic examination of conjunctival epithelial cells and nasal polypectomy specimens. Treatment with propamidine isethionate 0.1% (Brolene) eye drops six times daily led to a prompt resolution of the keratoconjunctivitis. Images PMID:1540567
Corti, Marcelo; Soto, Isabel; Villafañe, María F; Bouzas, Belén; Duarte, Juan Manuel; Yampolsky, Claudio; Schtirbu, Ricardo
In the setting of HIV infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus type 1-2 (HSV 1-2) can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. These agents can involve the spinal cord and produce a necrotizing transverse myelitis. This usually occurs in AIDS patients with severe immunodeficiency: CD4+ lymphocyte counts typically are less than 50 cell/microL. The clinical presentation, CSF and imaging studies can provide a high level of suspicion diagnosis. Prompt initiation of antiviral specific drugs is essential. We report a patient with an acute necrotizing myelitis (cauda equina syndrome) secondary to CMV and HSV infections.
Holmberg, K; Meyer, R D
Persons with AIDS are predisposed to a variety of previously rare bacterial and fungal infections. Improvement in the quality and duration of survival of AIDS patients depends on the efficacy of treatment for these infections. Between 58-81% of AIDS patients contract fungal infections at some time, and 10-20% of AIDS patients die as a direct consequence of such infections. Oral candidiasis, commonly known as thrush, is the most common fungal infection among AIDS and AIDS Related Complex patients, occurring in 80-90% of cases. In a recent U.S. study, 59% of persons with oral candidiasis who were at high risk of contracting AIDS went on to develop Kaposi's sarcoma and other life- threatening infections. The most common life-threatening fungal infection experienced by AIDS patients is cryptococcosis, a disease occurring among 6% of American AIDS patients and having a mortality rate of 17% during initial infections and 75-100% on relapse. Other opportunistic infections associated with AIDS and AIDS Related Complex are bronchial candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, disseminated histoplasmosis, and disseminated coccidioidomycosis. All are treatable but eradication i s difficult and relapse common.
Leder, D.S.; Nazarian, L.N.; Burke, M.
It is well known that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with increased risk of neoplasms, particularly Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There have been several recent reports in the literature describing plasma cell tumors in AIDS patients. We report the imaging findings in a case of widely disseminated plasmacytoma in a patient with known AIDS. 7 refs., 3 figs.
Fraenkel, William A.
One clinical psychologist who worked with terminally ill, end-stage Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in a hospice type setting experienced more than 150 deaths over an 18-month time period. Many of the patients denied that they had AIDS; some distinguished between having AIDS and testing positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus…
Fraenkel, William A.
One clinical psychologist who worked with terminally ill, end-stage Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in a hospice type setting experienced more than 150 deaths over an 18-month time period. Many of the patients denied that they had AIDS; some distinguished between having AIDS and testing positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus…
Roux, Antoine; Canet, Emmanuel; Valade, Sandrine; Gangneux-Robert, Florence; Hamane, Samia; Lafabrie, Ariane; Maubon, Daniéle; Debourgogne, Anne; Le Gal, Soléne; Dalle, Fréderic; Leterrier, Marion; Toubas, Dominique; Pomares, Christelle; Bellanger, Anne Pauline; Bonhomme, Julie; Berry, Antoine; Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Magne, Denis; Pons, Denis; Hennequin, Christophe; Maury, Eric; Roux, Patricia
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without AIDS is increasingly common. We conducted a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients with proven PCP; of 544 patients, 223 (41%) had AIDS (AIDS patients) and 321 (59%) had other immunosuppressive disorders (non-AIDS patients). Fewer AIDS than non-AIDS patients required intensive care or ventilation, and the rate of hospital deaths—17.4% overall—was significantly lower for AIDS versus non-AIDS patients (4% vs. 27%; p<0.0001). Multivariable analysis showed the odds of hospital death increased with older age, receipt of allogeneic bone marrow transplant, immediate use of oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, and longer time to treatment; HIV-positive status or receipt of a solid organ transplant decreased odds for death. PCP is more often fatal in non-AIDS patients, but time to diagnosis affects survival and is longer for non-AIDS patients. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for PCP in immunocompromised patients who do not have AIDS. PMID:25148074
Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Hexum, Melinda
This "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving patient decision aids.This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. It is included in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. And it has received significant attention in the biomedical literature, including a new book, a thematic issue of Health Affairs, and a recent article in the New England Journal of Medicine. Moreover, physicians and health systems across the United States are increasingly integrating decision aids into their clinical practice. Both federal and state laws play a significant role in promoting this expanded use. On the other hand, concerns about liability could stymie development and implementation. We categorize legal developments concerning patient decision aids into the following five sections: 1. Development of decision aids. 2. Effectiveness of decision aids. 3. Federal regulation of decision aids. 4. State regulation of decision aids. 5. Legal concerns regarding decision aids.
Denis, B; Lortholary, O
Fungal infections are the most common opportunistic infections (OI) occurring during the course of HIV infection, though their incidence has decreased dramatically with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART). Most cases occur in untreated patients, noncompliant patients or patients whose multiple antiretroviral regimens have failed and they are a good marker of the severity of cellular immunodepression. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is the second most frequent OI in France and cryptococcosis remains a major problem in the Southern Hemisphere. With the increase in travel, imported endemic fungal infection can occur and may mimic other infections, notably tuberculosis. Fungal infections often have a pulmonary presentation but an exhaustive search for dissemination should be made in patients infected with HIV, at least those at an advanced stage of immune deficiency. Introduction of cART in combination with anti-fungal treatment depends on the risk of AIDS progression and on the risk of cumulative toxicity and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) if introduced too early. Fungal infections in HIV infected patients remain a problem in the cART era. IRIS can complicate the management and requires an optimised treatment regime.
Kayabaşoğlu, Gürkan; Kaymaz, Recep; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Güven, Mehmet
This study aims to investigate hearing aid using rate, patient satisfaction rate and achievements in social communication of patients by assessing the hearing thresholds before and after device use in patients who were determined as suitable for hearing aid use. Hundred eighty patients who were admitted to Otolaryngology Clinic of Sakarya University Medical Faculty and approved of hearing aid usage between January 2013 and May 2013 were included in the study. Patients (21 males, 26 females; mean age 61.91±12.82; range 24 to 85 years) were performed free field audiometry with and without the device by the same audiometrist and Turkish version of the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids by the same otolaryngologist. Of patients, 14.28% did not obtain the hearing aid even though they received a hearing aid approval report. Assessment of the answers of inventory questions revealed that 87% of patients used hearing aid more than four hours a day, 72% benefited significantly from hearing aid, and 64% had no complaint or had few complaints compared to the before-hearing aid period. Using hearing aid affects daily activities of patients slightly or moderately and increases their communication skills.
Samudio-Domínguez, G; Dávila, G; Martínez-Aguilar, G; Santos-Preciado, J I
Since the first cases of childhood AIDS were reported, the neurological involvement has been more frequently recognized. Several motor, intellectual and conductual changes as well as unexplained abnormalities have been described due to CNS infections. Findings have shown HIV to affect the CNS although it is unknown as to when the viral invasion actually occurs. This report describes the neurological manifestations found in pediatric patients with HIV infection at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico and their correlations with CT scans, EEGs, auditory evoked potentials, I.Q.s and postmortem findings. The medical records of 60 symptomatic HIV infected children, stages P0 to P2, are reviewed. Neurological abnormalities were found in 51 patients, 20 of which (39.2%) were due to perinatal infection with symptoms starting, on the average at 11 months 7 days (from the initial contact) taking into consideration in utero exposure. Nine cases (17.6%) were patients infected through transfusions with symptoms appearing on the average at 24 months 8 days; 2 cases (3.9%) were of unknown origin. The CT scans, EEGs and psychometric evaluations of the HIV infected patients correlated well with the clinical findings.
Aldeen, Taha; Lunn, Michael
Toxoplasmosis in immune competent patients usually causes asymptomatic infection or mild symptoms, while in immunocompromised and AIDS patients it can be a life threatening condition. We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS and review the causes of brain ring enhancing lesions. PMID:22132018
Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies
Legrand, L; Catherine, L; Brivet, F; Musset, D
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoal parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It is the most common cause of focal brain lesions in patients with AIDS. The imaging features and endocrine disorders of CNS toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS are reviewed.
Grattan-Smith, D; Harrison, L F; Singleton, E B
The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has involved the pediatric age group and is especially prevalent in babies born of mothers who are intravenous drug abusers or prostitutes. Approximately 30% of children born to mothers who are seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will develop HIV infection. There are several important differences in children and adults with AIDS. The incubation period of the disease is shorter, and initial clinical manifestations occur earlier in children. In addition, certain infections are more common in children, and the different types of malignancy, especially Kaposi's sarcoma, are unusual in the pediatric age group. The altered immune system involves both T cells and humoral immunity and increases susceptibility to a variety of infections, particularly opportunistic organisms. In this publication the complications of pediatric AIDS involving the lungs, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, and neurological system are described. The most common pulmonary complications in our experience are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia. The spectrum of cardiovascular involvement in pediatric AIDS includes myocarditis, pericarditis, and infectious endocarditis. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is usually due to opportunistic organisms that produce esophagitis, gastritis, and colitis. Abdominal lymphadenopathy is a common finding either due to disseminating Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection or nonspecific lymphadenopathy. Although cholangitis is more commonly seen in adults, it may occur in children with AIDS and, in most cases, is due to related opportunistic infections. Genitourinary infections may be the first evidence of HIV disease. Cystitis, pyelonephritis, renal abscesses, and nephropathy with renal insufficiency are complications of pediatric AIDS. A variety of neurological abnormalities may occur in pediatric AIDS. The most common cause of
Cox, Robyn M; Schwartz, Kathryn S.; Noe, Colleen M.; Alexander, Genevieve C.
Objectives Most practitioners believe that use of two hearing aids is the ideal fitting for adults with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss. However, previous research has consistently shown that a substantial proportion of these patients actually prefer to use only one hearing aid. The current study explored whether this pattern of preferences is seen with technologically advanced hearing aids. In addition, a selection of variables that were available pre-fitting were used to attempt to predict which patients will prefer one hearing aid rather than two. Design The study was designed as a 12-week field trial including structured and unstructured use of one and two hearing aids. Ninety-four subjects with mild to moderate bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss were bilaterally fit with 2005-2007 era hearing aids. Potential predictors included demographic, audiometric, auditory lifestyle, personality, and binaural processing variables. After the field trial, each subject stated his/her preference for one or two hearing aids and completed three self-report outcome questionnaires for their preferred fitting. Results Previous research was confirmed with modern technology hearing aids: after the field trial 46% of the subjects preferred to use one hearing aid rather than two. Subjects who preferred two hearing aids tended to report better real-world outcomes than those who preferred one. Subjects who reported more hearing problems in daily life, who experienced more binaural loudness summation, and whose ears were more equivalent in dichotic listening were more likely to prefer to use two hearing aids. Contrary to conventional wisdom (ideas that are generally accepted as true), audiometric hearing loss and auditory lifestyle were not predictive of aiding preference. However, the best predictive approach from these data yielded accurate predictions for only two-thirds of subjects. Conclusions Evidence-based practice calls for a conscientious melding of current evidence
de la Barrera, S; Fainboim, L; Lugo, S; Picchio, G R; Muchinik, G R; de Bracco, M M
The specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was evaluated in AIDS patients and in individuals at risk of AIDS [R-AIDS: male homosexuals (Ho) and haemophiliacs (He)]. Antibodies capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against non-T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (P3HR-1K and Raji) were detected in AIDS patients and in R-AIDS with positive or negative human immune deficiency virus (HIV) serology. Anti-class II antigen specificity was revealed by experiments in which class II antigens on target cells were blocked with monoclonal anti-class II antibody (DA6,231) and the cytotoxic reaction induced by patient's sera was abolished. In contrast, ADCC was not impaired by preincubating the target cells with anti-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32). Prevalence of antibodies to non-T cells was confirmed by standard C-mediated microlymphocytotoxicity. However, with this technique anti-T lymphocyte cytotoxicity was also observed in three AIDS patients with haemophilia. R-AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also cytotoxic against autologous non-T cells, and lysis was slightly increased by sensitization of the target cells with autologous serum. In addition to ADCC and C-mediated cytotoxicity, the specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was assayed by their ability to interfere the binding of fluorescein-labelled anti-class II (HLA-DR) and anti-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibodies to PBMC, non-T cells, P3HR-1K and Raji. Anti-class II specificity was confirmed, and antibody titres tended to be higher in Ho than in He R-AIDS, using non-T cells and Raji as targets. Higher titres of anti-class II antibodies in the Ho group could play a role in the different susceptibility of HIV-infected Ho when compared to HIV (+) He to develop AIDS. PMID:3501399
Wutoh, A. K.; Hidalgo, J.; Rhee, W.; Bareta, J.
This retrospective study evaluated Maryland acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who were > or = 50 years at the time of AIDS diagnosis. All patients diagnosed between January 1987 and June 1996 who were > 50 years were included in the cohort. A total of 610 male (82.7%) and 128 female (17.3%) AIDS patients aged > or = 50 were identified. The most common mode of human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) transmission was male-to-male sexual contact (34.7%). Additionally, 146 (19.8%) patients contracted HIV through blood transfusions, 93 (12.1%) were infected through heterosexual contact, 134 (18.6) were infected through i.v. drug abuse, and the remaining 109 (14.8%) had unknown risk factors. Data from this preliminary study demonstrate that an alarming percentage of AIDS patients (approximately 10%) in Maryland are aged > or = 50. Sexual contact, either male-to-male or heterosexual transmission, was the route of transmission for nearly 47% of this patient population. However, few research projects, educational programs, or public health initiatives are specifically targeted to this patient population. The increasing life expectancy of AIDS patients as well as the advent of new drug treatments highlights the need for further research to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of AIDS and HIV infection among older patients. PMID:9640908
Strasser, Judith A.; Damrosch, Shirley
A sample of nurses (N=183) enrolled in a School of Nursing's master degree program was randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes about a patient who differed only in terms of diagnosis and lifestyle. Possible diagnoses were Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS acquired by a hemophiliac through blood therapy, and leukemia; possible…
Strasser, Judith A.; Damrosch, Shirley
A sample of nurses (N=183) enrolled in a School of Nursing's master degree program was randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes about a patient who differed only in terms of diagnosis and lifestyle. Possible diagnoses were Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS acquired by a hemophiliac through blood therapy, and leukemia; possible…
Ozawa, Martha N.; And Others
Notes that financing care of patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has reached crisis proportions. Discusses how components of U.S. health care financing system attempt to minimize their financial exposure to AIDS. Presents remedies that have been suggested in literature. Points out flaws in current system for dealing with…
Oktay, Julianne S.
Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…
Oktay, Julianne S.
Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…
Joseph, John; Svider, Peter F; Shaigany, Kevin; Eloy, Jean Anderson; McDonald, Paulette G; Folbe, Adam J; Hong, Robert S
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the readability of patient education materials (PEMs) from leading manufacturers of behind-the-ear style hearing aids and popular hearing aid information Web sites to determine if they meet guidelines recommended by public health agencies. Analysis of hearing aid PEMs. Printed user guides from six of the leading manufacturers of BTE hearing aids and 15 of the most popular hearing aid-information Web sites were accessed online and analyzed for readability using the Gunning-Fog Index, New Fog Count, Raygor Estimate Graph, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Flesch Reading Ease score. Overall average grade-level readability for all six printed manufacturer user manuals was calculated to be written at a 10th grade reading level. Overall average grade-level readabilities for all 15 popular online hearing aid-information Web sites representing professional organizations, suppliers, and health information services were calculated to be written at 10th, 10th, and 11th grade reading levels, respectively. Average Flesch Reading Ease scores for all printed guides and online patient information Web sites were calculated to fall within the fairly difficult category for readability. PEMs provided by top hearing aid manufactures and popular hearing aid Web sites are written well above the reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Consideration should be given toward simplifying these materials in order to enhance user experience and increase compliance among behind-the-ear hearing aid users. American Academy of Audiology.
Koop, C. Everett
The tradition of medicine is that physicians do not abandon the sick, whoever they are and whatever they have done. Support must be provided to the individual physician, ensuring that everyone in the profession is informed about AIDS and makes necessary adjustments of behavior and commitment. (Author/MLW)
First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, during her tour of Thailand: 1) joined a panel discussion at New Life Center, a missionary shelter and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) hospice that houses and educates 151 girls from remote hill tribes who were rescued from being, or from becoming, brothel prostitutes or "restaurant hostesses"; 2) inspected a U.S. supported program in Chiang Rai province that provides scholarships, vocational training, and jobs to 1200 girls as income alternatives to their sale; and 3) toured a school that extends the education of girls beyond the mandatory age of 12, the age at which many are sold to Bangkok brothel middlemen. There are 500,000-700,000 prostitutes in Thailand; many die of AIDS. Girls can be sold for $1000 and send money home later; instead of poverty, the family has a new home, a motorcycle, and status. Mrs. Clinton emphasized the lifetime benefit available to a family when a girl is educated.
Background In 2005, the International Patient Decisions Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration developed quality criteria for patient decisions aids; one of the quality dimensions dealt with disclosure of conflicts of interest (COIs). The purposes of this paper are to review newer evidence on dealing with COI in the development of patient decision aids and to readdress the theoretical justification and definition for this quality dimension. Methods The committee conducted a primary systematic literature review to seek published research addressing the question, "What is the evidence that disclosure of COIs in patient decision aids reduces biased decision making?" A secondary literature review included a systematic search for recent meta-analyses addressing COIs in other spheres of health care, including research and publication, medical education, and clinical care. Results No direct evidence was found addressing this quality dimension in the primary literature review. The secondary review yielded a comprehensive Institute of Medicine report, as well as four relevant meta-analyses addressing disclosure of COIs in health care. They revealed a broad consensus that disclosure of COIs is desirable in such areas as research publication, guideline development, medical education, and clinical care. Conclusions The committee recommends the criteria that are currently used to operationally define the quality dimension “disclosing conflicts of interest” be changed as follows (changes in italics): Does the patient decision aid: • report prominently and in plain language the source of funding to develop or exclusively distribute the patient decision aid? • report prominently and in plain language whether funders, authors, or their affiliations, stand to gain or lose by choices patients make after using the patient decision aid? Furthermore, based on a consensus that simple disclosure is insufficient to protect users from potentially biased information, the committee
Barry, Michael J; Chan, Evelyn; Moulton, Benjamin; Sah, Sunita; Simmons, Magenta B; Braddock, Clarence
In 2005, the International Patient Decisions Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration developed quality criteria for patient decisions aids; one of the quality dimensions dealt with disclosure of conflicts of interest (COIs). The purposes of this paper are to review newer evidence on dealing with COI in the development of patient decision aids and to readdress the theoretical justification and definition for this quality dimension. The committee conducted a primary systematic literature review to seek published research addressing the question, "What is the evidence that disclosure of COIs in patient decision aids reduces biased decision making?" A secondary literature review included a systematic search for recent meta-analyses addressing COIs in other spheres of health care, including research and publication, medical education, and clinical care. No direct evidence was found addressing this quality dimension in the primary literature review. The secondary review yielded a comprehensive Institute of Medicine report, as well as four relevant meta-analyses addressing disclosure of COIs in health care. They revealed a broad consensus that disclosure of COIs is desirable in such areas as research publication, guideline development, medical education, and clinical care. The committee recommends the criteria that are currently used to operationally define the quality dimension "disclosing conflicts of interest" be changed as follows (changes in italics): Does the patient decision aid: • report prominently and in plain language the source of funding to develop or exclusively distribute the patient decision aid? • report prominently and in plain language whether funders, authors, or their affiliations, stand to gain or lose by choices patients make after using the patient decision aid? Furthermore, based on a consensus that simple disclosure is insufficient to protect users from potentially biased information, the committee recommends that the IPDAS Collaboration consider
Ladany, Nicholas; Stern, Marilyn
Research has consistently found that health care providers report having negative attitudes and perceptions toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. This study was conducted to examine the independent and joint influences of a patient's mode of acquisition of illness (blood transfusion versus sexual promiscuity), patient blame…
Chiotan, C; Radu, L; Serban, R; Cornăcel, C; Cioboată, M; Anghelie, A
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has the ability to affect any organ in the body. In 70% of HIV -infected patients ocular manifestations were observed, these, in the vast majority reflect the systemic disease and may be the first signs of disseminated infections. The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of posterior segment ocular manifestations in HIV / AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) patients. The study is retrospective, conducted in the Cabinet of Ophthalmology of "Matei Bals" Infectious Diseases Hospital in Bucharest, during the period 1 August 2007 - 1 August 2013 . Each patient was examined thoroughly at the biomicroscope ocular slit by using 90D microscope lens and 20D indirect lens after the administration of topical mydriatics. 348 patients with HIV/AIDS and ocular disorders were followed. There was a high number of children and young people with HIV who had eye disorders (194 patients aged between 14 and 25 years). 44.25% of patients had posterior segment ocular damage, 17.55% of them had the anterior segment affected. 22.90% of the 131 patients with compromised posterior segment microangiopathy have been diagnosed with HIV / AIDS. Doctors should be aware of the existence of ocular damage in HIV / AIDS and to emphasize the importance of regular ophthalmologic examination of patients with HIV / AIDS.
Sani, Mahmoud U.; Okeahialam, Basil N.
A higher prevalence of QT prolongation has been reported among HIV/AIDS patients, possibly related to drugs prescribed for them or to an acquired form of long QT syndrome. A prolonged QTc is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality. We set out to study this interval in a group of AIDS patients. One-hundred consecutive AIDS patients admitted into the Jos University Teaching Hospital and who satisfied the inclusion criteria were recruited. All were evaluated for symptomatology of cardiovascular disease and had a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram recording. QT interval, taken from the onset of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave, was corrected for heart rate. Eighty HIV-negative, healthy persons and 78 HIV-positive, asymptomatic subjects were used as controls. Forty-five percent of the AIDS patients had prolonged QTc interval. Prolonged QTc was present in 28% of HIV-positive controls and 10% of HIV-negative controls. The mean QTc interval differs significantly between the AIDS patients and the two control groups. From our study, Nigerian HIV-positive asymptomatic subjects have higher prevalence of QTc prolongation compared to HIV-negative subjects and, as they move to AIDS, the prevalence of QTc prolongation increases. This makes for increased cardiovascular mortality. PMID:16396057
Koenig, Scott; Gendelman, Howard E.; Orenstein, Jan M.; Canto, Mauro C.; Pezeshkpour, Gholam H.; Yungbluth, Margaret; Janotta, Frank; Aksamit, Allen; Martin, Malcolm A.; Fauci, Anthony S.
One of the common neurological complications in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a subacute encephalopathy with progressive dementia. By using the techniques of cocultivation for virus isolation, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy, the identity of an important cell type that supports replication of the AIDS retrovirus in brain tissue was determined in two affected individuals. These cells were mononucleated and multinucleated macrophages that actively synthesized viral RNA and produced progeny virions in the brains of the patients. Infected brain macrophages may serve as a reservoir for virus and as a vehicle for viral dissemination in the infected host.
Bhagavati, Satyakam; Choi, Jan
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a frequent complication in immunosuppressed patients such as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Frequently, lesions are located deep in the brain which are inaccessible for biopsy making rapid diagnosis dependent on accurate interpretation of neuroimaging findings. The commonest cranial CT findings reported in toxoplasmosis are ring enhancing hypodense lesions in basal ganglia or cortical gray matter. Hemorrhage has only rarely been described and is usually seen following antitoxoplasma treatment. We reviewed the records of 11 AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and found multiple hemorrhagic cerebral, cerebellar, or brain stem lesions in 7 of 11 patients. Six patients had hemorrhage at the time of initial clinical presentation and one developed hemorrhage following 2 weeks of antitoxoplasma treatment. We conclude that hemorrhagic lesions are frequently found on cranial MRI scans in cerebral toxoplasmosis. AIDS patients presenting with hemorrhagic cerebral lesions should be considered for a trial of presumptive antitoxoplasma treatment.
Kavolus, Joseph J; Ritter, Merrill A; Claverie, J Guillermo; Salas, Marcos D; Kavolus, Christopher H; Trousdale, Robert T
Orthopedic aid to developing nations is expanding and becoming a unique facet of the specialty. This investigation seeks to compare patient impressions and concerns regarding the care patients receive as part of an itinerant surgical aid trip in 2 nations. In 2013 and 2014, patients from 2 separate nations completed a Likert scale survey assessing impressions of the care they received at the hands of a surgical team from abroad. Mean response scores were calculated and compared using a t test. This is the first investigation to compare patient concerns across 2 nations in a surgical aid trip setting. The results highlight the importance of culture in understanding patients and the impressions of the care they receive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gumbs, M.; Girishkumar, H.; Yousuf, A.; Levy, L.; Patel, M.; Narasimha, V.
Two cases of jejunal strictures caused by Histoplasma capsulatum in AIDS patients are presented. Both patients were intravenous drug abusers. One patient, who was being treated for Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia, presented with jejunal perforation and the other presented with lower gastrointestinal bleeding and intestinal obstruction. On exploration, both patients were found to have jejunal strictures; one had intestinal perforation, and the other had intestinal obstruction with ulcers and strictures resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In areas where it is endemic, histoplasmosis is rarely disseminated. Dissemination is most commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients. Dissemination and extrapulmonary histoplasmosis is now included in the case definition of AIDS. Keywords: histoplasmosis; AIDS; jejunal perforation PMID:10824055
Llibre, Josep M; Falco, Vicenç; Tural, Cristina; Negredo, Eugenia; Pineda, Juan A; Muñoz, Jose; Ortega, Enrique; Videla, Sebastia; Sirera, Guillem; Martinez, Esteban; Miralles, Celia; Iribarren, Josean; Galindo, Maria J; Domingo, Pere; d'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Miro, Jose M; Clotet, Bonaventura
The spectrum of complications emerging in successfully treated HIV-infected patients has dramatically changed since the advent of HAART. Typical AIDS-defining illnesses have been substituted by new comorbid conditions that threaten even those patients who maintain virologic suppression. Proper management of cardiovascular risk, and early diagnosis of AIDS-related and, particularly, non-AIDS-related malignancies (including papilomavirus-related neoplasms) must be introduced into the routine of care. Hot areas of investigation include HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, hepatitis B and C coinfection, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and tuberculosis. Bone and kidney long-term toxicities and lipoatrophy remain as issues of paramount importance. The identification and early treatment of immune reconstitution disease is also of major interest, specially in those patients starting their antiretroviral treatment with severe CD4 cell depletion. The present review focuses on these twelve areas of increasing interest for physicians currently facing successfully treated HIV+ patients.
España-Gregori, E; Montés-Micó, R; Bueno-Gimeno, I; Díaz-Llopi, M; Menezo-Rozalén, J L
The purpose of this study is to determine horizontal latent ocular deviations in patients with advanced AIDS (CD4+ count <0.050 x 10(9)/l) and to compare with normal values by means of the von Graefe technique. Twenty patients aged between 17 and 44 years with AIDS and aged-matched control groups were submitted to study. The AC/A ratio was also measured in both groups using the Gradient test. The AIDS patients showed a horizontal latent deviation value of 0.28+/-1.07delta exo at near (40 cm.) and 2.12+/-1.37delta eso at distance (6 m). The AC/A ratio obtained was 2.03+/-0.65. Statistically significant differences were obtained in relation to aged-matched control group at near and at distance (p<0.01). The horizontal latent ocular deviation at near and at distance in advanced AIDS patients showed lower values than the expected. The AC/A relationship also was lower. The results obtained in this study indicate that AIDS patients suffer a divergence insufficiency, which could add to other visual complaints such as blurred vision, photophobia, nyctalopia and reading difficulty.
This paper reviews the incidence, pathogenetic mechanisms and management strategies of diabetes mellitus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It classifies patients based on the aetiopathogenetic mechanisms, and proposes rational methods of management of the condition, based on aetiopathogenesis and concomitant pharmacotherapy. PMID:21232158
Fournier, Phillip O; Savageau, Judith A; Baldor, Robert A
With the rapid development (and complex prescribing patterns) of drugs for HIV/AIDS care, it is challenging for physicians to keep current. We conducted a follow-up study to a 1994 cohort study to see how care and referral patterns have changed over the last decade. In this study, we examined how family physicians in Massachusetts were caring for their HIV-infected patients, and to see whether FPs were referring more patients to specialists for care compared with a decade ago. We designed a cross-sectional survey as an 11-year follow-up to a previous study. It was mailed in 2005 to the active membership of the Massachusetts Academy of Family Physicians. Compared with the cohort of 1994, the number of HIV+ patients in individual practices remained about the same, but the number of practices with no AIDS patients was significantly higher. 85.3% of FPs noted that they were more likely to refer HIV/AIDS patients immediately compared with their own practice patterns a decade ago. In this study, 39.0% of current respondents referred HIV+ patients immediately, 57.0% co-managed patients, and 4.1% managed these patients alone (the data for the 1994 cohort was 7.0%, 45.8%, and 47.2%, respectively; P<.0001). Similar changes were seen in regard to care patterns for AIDS patients. Among the current cohort, 61.7% reported that they referred patients immediately, compared with only 18.3% in 1994; 36.8% noted that they co-managed these patients (vs 74.3% in 1994); and only 1.5% reported that they managed these patients alone (vs 7.4% in 1994; P<.0001). A significant shift amongst FPs with regard to their referral patterns for patients with HIV/AIDS has occurred over the last decade. The community health center has emerged as a resource for patients with HIV/AIDS. Funding for specific training programs on HIV/AIDS care should be targeted to community health centers.
Alves, Jane Mary; Magalhães, Vera; Matos, Marcus Augusto Gomes de
Neurotoxoplasmosis is the most common central nervous system disorder in patients with AIDS. The occurrence of ocular toxoplasmosis in neurotoxoplasmosis is not well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of typical or probable toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis in patients with AIDS and neurotoxoplasmosis. A prospective case series was performed, including 70 patients of both genders, aged from 20 to 63 years, hospitalized in three public hospitals in Recife, Pernambuco, with such diagnosis according to the CDC criteria (1992), from January to October, 2008. Patients were characterized by first neurotoxoplasmosis episode (65, 92.9%) or relapse (5, 7.1%), ignorance of AIDS diagnosis (23, 32.9%), mean CD4 T lymphocytes count of 139.8 +/- 3.04 cells/mm(3) and mean viral load of 137,080 +/- 39,380 copies/mL. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examination, consisting of ocular inspection, visual acuity measurement, investigation of ocular extrinsic muscle function and fundoscopy, using binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (model OHN 3.5 (Eyetec) and 20 diopters external lens (Volk). Four (5.7%) patients presented retinochoroiditis scar lesions, characteristic of ocular toxoplasmosis, typical in 3 (75%) of them and bilateral in one. There was no case of typical or probable active retinochoroiditis. Active ocular lesions were rare compared to scarring, which are associated with the presence of retinal cysts. Scarring lesions should be valued in patients with AIDS.
Willoughby, Brian C.
Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time and has focused much attention on the male homosexual community. While AIDS is the most serious of gay-related health concerns, it is only one of several infectious diseases that have particular relevance for this group of patients. In addition, the mere acknowledgement of homosexuality by a male patient evokes unique psychosocial concerns that are important considerations for the primary health-care provider. The author of this article describes an approach to gay male patients for those who provide health care to such men and provides a review of specific infectious diseases (excluding AIDS) for which they are at risk. PMID:21253077
Ocular complication of AIDS are seen in about 75% of patients. Viral infections are predominant and can involve either external segment in the eye (Herpes type 8 in Kaposi sarcoma, molluscum contagiosum, Herpes simplex and zoster), or the posterior segment of the eye (CMV retinitis). The introduction of a Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) which associates two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one antiprotease has changed the evolution of AIDS. The decrease of onset of CMV retinitis in AIDS patient is one of the best exemple. For the first time it was possible to stop the maintenance therapy against CMV retinitis in patients that have a sufficient increase in CD4+ cells and they did not present any relapse of CMV retinitis. But an increase of ocular inflammation can be observed with the onset of HAART such as uveitis or cystoid macular edema.
Wang, W; Thompson, D R; Chow, A; Kowitlawakul, Y
Hospital and home-based cardiac rehabilitation programmes improve the health outcomes of cardiac patients. Both types of programmes include patient education as a core component. However, many patients do not attend cardiac rehabilitation programmes for a variety of reasons. In Singapore, where cardiac rehabilitation is comparatively uncommon, patient education is usually delivered face-to-face by healthcare professionals because educational materials designed specifically for cardiac patients recovering at home are not available. This paper describes the development of a patient education booklet designed to aid recovery at home after a myocardial infarction in Singapore. The conception and development of this evidence-based Heart Recovery Education Booklet was based on patient need and current clinical guidelines pertaining to cardiac rehabilitation and planned in consultation with specialists such as cardiologists, psychiatrists and physiotherapists. The booklet is a patient resource to aid recovery at home after an myocardial infarction. It is interactive, based on identified need and aims to guide and assist the patient in performing their usual activities of daily living and adhering to treatment regimens, including exercise. This booklet is a resource for patients with myocardial infarction and healthcare professionals and its effectiveness in improving health-related quality of life, psychological status and coronary risk profile is to be tested in a randomized controlled trial. Policy makers in health and nursing must find ways of developing and implementing cardiac rehabilitation programmes that aid recovery from myocardial infarction. This education booklet offers one way to do this. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Mihalache, Doina; Lefter, Mihaela; Luca, V; Teodor, Andra; Teodorescu, Irina
Clinic, etiologic and therapeutic study of fungic infection in AIDS patients. The retrospective clinical study of the 10 AIDS patients admitted between 01.01.1994 and 31.12.2000 in Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital of Iaşi. The majority of the cases (7) were registered in the last 3 years: 4 children and 6 adults. HIV infection was known only for 4 patients according to their history, and for the other 6 patients this diagnosis was made concomitantly of fungic infection diagnosis. The disease onset was insidious in 7 cases (2 children and 5 adults) being characterized by manifestations of nervous system involvement and consciousness disturbances (6 cases). The etiological diagnosis was established for alive patients by cerebrospinal fluid culture and hemocultures and Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated for 9 patients and Candida to another one. Fungic infection lead to meningeal injuries to 6 patients and the systemic one in for 4 patients. Although, under antifungical and antiretroviral therapy, the disease was lethal for 4 patients. The fungic infection recrudesces in AIDS patients, possessing systemic or/and meningeal manifestation, long evolution that can be lethal for a lot of them.
Núñez Pérez, Javier; Romera Becerro, Manuel A; Gracia Martínez, José; Bulnes, Olga Alvarez
To report 2 cases of severe keratopathy in patients with AIDS with delayed diagnosis of lagophthalmos. Observational case report. The first patient presented with a corneal abscess attributed to old trauma. He responded poorly to topical treatment and suffered corneal penetration. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed, but persistent epithelial defects appeared. Finally, occult lagophthalmos was discovered. Topical ocular lubrication, eye occlusion, and lateral tarsorrhaphy were insufficient, and the graft became conjunctivalized. The second patient had corneal opacity and severe pannus in his right eye and mild punctate keratopathy in his left eye. The left cornea worsened despite treatment with lubricants. In an examination 2 weeks later, we detected a subtle lagophthalmos, which was complicated by upper eyelid retraction in the right eye. A bilateral upper blepharotomy improved the keratopathy. Patients with AIDS with severe weight loss can present with lagophthalmos because of adipose and muscular atrophy in the so-called wasting syndrome. Lagophthalmos in patients with AIDS can be difficult to detect. Clinically significant lagophthalmos is associated with ocular surface lesions in patients with AIDS with wasting syndrome.
Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.
The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.
Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I
Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104
Alves, Jane Mary; Magalhães, Vera; Matos, de Marcus Augusto Gomes
To describe fundoscopic findings among patients with AIDS and active-phase neurotoxoplasmosis. A prospective study of case series type was developed, including 70 patients of both sexes and ages ranging from 20 to 63 years who were admitted to the wards of three public hospitals in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, from January to October 2008, with diagnoses of AIDS and neurotoxoplasmosis determined according to the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1992). The patients were characterized by a first episode of neurotoxoplasmosis (65; 92.9%) or recurrence (5; 7.1%), unawareness of having AIDS (23; 32.9%), mean T CD4+ count of 139.8 + or - 3.04 lymphocytes/mm(3) and mean viral load of 137,080 + or - 39,380 copies/ml. All patients underwent ophthalmological examination consisting of ocular inspection, gauging of visual acuity, investigation of ocular extrinsic muscle function and fundoscopy using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (model OHM 3.5 Eyetec) and external lens of 20 diopters (Volk). The findings consisted of retinal cotton-wool spot exudates (8.6%), slight diffuse arteriolar constriction (8.6%), retinochoroiditis scars characteristic of ocular toxoplasmosis (5.7%), atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (2.9%), retinal detachment (2.9%), increased papillary excavation (1.4%), retinal peripheral degeneration (1,4%), macroaneurysm (1.4%), bilateral papilledema (1.4%) and vitreous-retinal traction (1.4%). Patients with AIDS and neurotoxoplasmosis may present fundoscopic abnormalities characteristic of ocular toxoplasmosis, either in active or in scar form, related to HIV or even to other opportunist or systemic diseases, which can be of great aid for integral treatment of patients by a multiprofessional team.
de la Fuente, J; Albo, C; Rodríguez, A; Sopeña, B; Martínez, C
Bordetella bronchiseptica is recognised as a respiratory tract pathogen in many mammalian species, but has rarely been implicated in human infection. A case is reported of pneumonia caused by B bronchiseptica in a patient suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Images PMID:8066571
Vendrell, J R; Alcaraz, A; Gutíerrez, R; Rodríguez, A; Barranco, M A; Carretero, P
Contribution of one case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with vesical involvement, that presented clinically with urological symptomatology. Vesical involvement is typical of NHL, and is becoming more frequent in association with the increased number of AIDS patients under immunosuppressive therapy. It should be expected that this currently unusual entity will become more common in the future.
Tortoli, E; Kirschner, P; Bartoloni, A; Burrini, C; Manfrin, V; Mantella, A; Scagnelli, M; Scarparo, C; Simonetti, M T; Böttger, E C
A mycobacterium isolated from a clinical sample of an AIDS patient was identified as Mycobacterium interjectum by direct 16S rRNA sequence determination. High-performance liquid chromatography, however, revealed a mycolic acid pattern which was different from the one shared by the previously analyzed strains of this species. PMID:8862610
Chewning, Betty; Mosena, Pat; Wilson, Dale; Erdman, Harold; Potthoff, Sandra; Murphy, Anita; Kuhnen, Kathleen Kennedy
Discusses a computer-based contraceptive decision aid used with adolescent female family planning clinic patients (N=949). Results show improved short-term knowledge of and confidence in oral contraceptive (OC) efficacy. Higher OC knowledge after one year and fewer pregnancies were seen in one group. Findings suggest the usefulness of informatics…
Vincent, I; D'Hérouville, D; Moulin, P; Bugler, C; Fraval, J; Mallet, D; Salamagne, M H; Vildé, J L; Jodelet, D; Leport, C
This prospective multidisciplinary survey started in October 1994. The survey assessed the modalities of care of hospitalized patients with advanced AIDS in an Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit with regards to the practices of palliative care in a Palliative Care Unit. Seventy-eight (78) AIDS patients with CD4 < or = 30/mm3 who had 102 consecutive hospitalizations were recruited. Types (symptomatic or curative) and number of drugs administered to the patients, as well as biological and radiological investigations performed were recorded. Symptoms were concomitantly assessed on a weekly basis by self-evaluation of the patients themselves and by physicians. The results showed that the practices of care were different in the two units according to the specific goals and norms of each unit. A higher density of care was delivered at the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit. Symptoms assessed by both patients and physicians were underestimated by physicians in frequency and in intensity. In conclusion, an integrated approach including objective and subjective criteria should enable a better adjustment of the palliative and curative therapeutic strategies in advanced AIDS. These would concomitantly take into account the wishes of the patient and the goals regarding care in the unit where the patient is hospitalized.
Vale, Thiago Cardoso; Silva, Rodrigo Alencar E; Cunningham, Mauro César Quintão E Silva; Maia, Débora Palma; Camargos, Sarah Teixeira; Cardoso, Francisco
We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with AIDS who developed opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome during a period different from other cases reported in literature. Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome had already been reported as the initial neurological presentation of AIDS, as well as at the time of HIV-seroconversion and immune reconstitution syndrome. Our case is unique since the patient had an elevated CD4 count and negative viral load in the period when the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome occurred.
Ertunc, Baris; Kaya, Selcuk; Koksal, Iftihar
The aim of this study was to examine clinico-epidemiological properties of HIV/AIDS patients. For this purpose, 115 HIV/AIDS patients monitored in our clinic between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively evaluated. For the 115 patients with a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS that we monitored, the mean age at the time of presentation was 34.5±13.21 (10-79) years. Eighty-nine (76.5%) patients were male and 27 (23.5%), female. In this study, HIV/AIDS was the most prevalent in the young male population with a low educational and sociocultural level. The most common mode of transmission in our patients was heterosexual relations: approximately 1 patient in 3 had a history of traveling to countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, namely, Russia and Ukraine. The examination of diagnosis with respect to years showed an increase in new cases since 2008. Only 21 (18.3%) of our patients were diagnosed through clinical symptoms, while 91 (81.7%) during routine scanning. At first presentation, 68% of our patients were stage A; 4.7%, stage B; and 27.3%, stage C. The mean length of the monitoring of our patients was 2.74 years (2-180 months). Thirteen (11.3%) patients died due to opportunistic infections and malignities. The most common opportunistic infection was tuberculosis (16.5%), followed by syphilis and HBV. Malignity, most commonly intracranial tumor, was seen in 8.6% patients. The disease was generally seen in the young male population with a low sociocultural level, and it was most frequently transmitted by heterosexual sexual contact. This clearly shows the importance of sufficient, accurate information, and education on the subject of the disease and its prevention. The fact that many of our patients were diagnosed in the late stage due to stigma and that diagnosis was largely made through scanning tests confirms the importance of these tests in early diagnosis.
Ertunc, Baris; Kaya, Selcuk; Koksal, Iftihar
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine clinico-epidemiological properties of HIV/AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 115 HIV/AIDS patients monitored in our clinic between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively evaluated. Results: For the 115 patients with a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS that we monitored, the mean age at the time of presentation was 34.5±13.21 (10–79) years. Eighty-nine (76.5%) patients were male and 27 (23.5%), female. In this study, HIV/AIDS was the most prevalent in the young male population with a low educational and sociocultural level. The most common mode of transmission in our patients was heterosexual relations: approximately 1 patient in 3 had a history of traveling to countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, namely, Russia and Ukraine. The examination of diagnosis with respect to years showed an increase in new cases since 2008. Only 21 (18.3%) of our patients were diagnosed through clinical symptoms, while 91 (81.7%) during routine scanning. At first presentation, 68% of our patients were stage A; 4.7%, stage B; and 27.3%, stage C. The mean length of the monitoring of our patients was 2.74 years (2–180 months). Thirteen (11.3%) patients died due to opportunistic infections and malignities. The most common opportunistic infection was tuberculosis (16.5%), followed by syphilis and HBV. Malignity, most commonly intracranial tumor, was seen in 8.6% patients. Conclusion: The disease was generally seen in the young male population with a low sociocultural level, and it was most frequently transmitted by heterosexual sexual contact. This clearly shows the importance of sufficient, accurate information, and education on the subject of the disease and its prevention. The fact that many of our patients were diagnosed in the late stage due to stigma and that diagnosis was largely made through scanning tests confirms the importance of these tests in early diagnosis. PMID:28149137
Stambullian, Marcela; Feliu, Susana; Slobodianik, Nora H
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of adults with HIV infection or with AIDS through the use of biochemical parameters. The study was performed on 43 patients (19 HIV+ and 24 AIDS patients), between 26 and 44 years of age, from low and medium socioeconomic status, with access to health care services; 35 patients were under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment. Body weight and height were determined, and the Body Mass Index calculated (kg/m2). Blood samples were collected from fasting patients. Plasma cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL), triacylglycerol, total protein, apolipoproteins A-I and B, albumin, transthyretin, retinol binding protein, and ceruloplasmin concentrations were determined. Plasma levels of zinc, copper, and selenium were determined in a haemolysis-free sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed with the Student's t-test. AIDS patients showed changes in biochemical parameters, particularly an increase in fibrinogen and a trend to decreased transthyretin levels. These findings stress the importance of the inclusion of functional biochemical parameters in the periodic evaluation of these patients. This would allow an early assessment of the need for appropriate nutritional support, implemented along with the specific retroviral treatment. This would aim at delaying the progression of the disease, and might improve the prospects of survival and quality of life.
Okello, D O
A survey in 1991 of resource use patterns and factors affecting the cost of care for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, revealed that drugs constitute 97% of the mean cost of care of affected individuals in the outpatient and 37% in hospitalized patients. The cost of drugs per treatment episode was Ug.Sh.5785.00 in the outpatient and Ug.Sh.8309.00 for inpatients. (The exchange rate for 1991 was US$ = Ug.Sh.910.00). Analysis of an attempt to provide essential drugs for the growing number of AIDS subjects shows that drugs alone could consume the entire health budget of the Ministry of Health in Uganda. There is therefore need to critically consider options to control the high cost for drugs in AIDS care.
Ferguson, R.; Yee, S.; Finkle, H.; Rose, T.; Schneider, V.; Gee, G.
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic, facultative intracellular gram-positive rod, generally seen in cell-mediated immunocompromised states. In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), it most commonly presents as bacteremia or meningitis. An association with pericarditis has not been described previously in this group of patients. This article describes a case of pericarditis secondary to listeriosis involving a focal pancarditis and necrosis of the A-V node with subsequent refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmias in an immunodeficient patient presenting with altered mental status. Infectious etiologies should be considered for "benign" appearing pericardial effusions in AIDS patients and the diagnosis of listeriosis excluded in the presence of "diphtheroid-like" organisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2A Figure 2B Figure 2C PMID:8474138
Wang, Ying; Yang, Haibo; Dong, Mingmin
To asses hearing loss in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its relationship with AIDS clinical stage. Pure-tone audiometry was carried out in 350 HIV-infected patients determined by ELISA and KIP methods. Among 350 HIV positive patients, 45. 4% (159 case) had hearing loss. The incidence was higher than that (69/350, 19. 7%) in control group. There were 56 cases of sensorineural hearing loss,34 cases of conductive hearing loss and 69 cases of mixed type. Forty-nine patients suffered mild hearing loss with threshold of (30+/-5) dBHL on average, 69 cases suffered moderate hearing loss with threshold of (54+/-7)dBHL and 41 cases suffered severe hearing loss with threshold of (84+/-9)dBHL. The hearing loss was dominant at high frequencies [(37+/-78) : 44, P <0. 05], while it had no relationship with the severity of the AIDS disease itself( P >0. 05). The hearing loss was dominant at high frequencies in HIV infected patients, while it may have no relationship with the severity of the AIDS disease itself.
Rashidian, Hamideh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Gholami, Jaleh; Haghjou, Leila; Abdollahi, Bahar Sadeghi; Davatchi, Fereydoun; Rashidian, Arash
Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians' and patients' viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians' trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities' special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians' inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran--as a developing country.
Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792
Castro, Luz Ángela; Álvarez, María Inés; Martínez, Ernesto
Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast from the oral cavity of HIV/AIDS individuals. The use of fluconazole has increased the number of resistant or less-sensitive Candida species different than C. albicans. The purpose of this study was to identify the Candida species producing pseudomembranous candidiasis in patients suffering from AIDS, their relationship with CD4(+) counts and their sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole. We studied 71 patients at a hospital in the city of Cali. Samples of white plaque were seeded on CHROMagar Candida, yeast identification was done with API 20C Aux, and susceptibility testing was determined by E test. Ninety-three yeast isolates were obtained, 52 single and 41 mixed. C. albicans was the most isolated, followed by C. glabrata. An increased frequency of isolates and variety of Candida species occurred in patients with a CD4(+) cell count ≤100 cells/mm(3) without significant differences (p = 0.29). The susceptibility study showed that 8 (8.6%) isolates were resistant to fluconazole and 11 (11.8%) to itraconazole, while 6 (8.8%) C. albicans were simultaneously resistant. No association was found between the isolates of C. albicans or Candida species different than C. albicans and the use of fluconazole (p = 0.21). The results of this study indicate that in the tested population, fluconazole continues to be the best treatment option for oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients suffering from AIDS (HIV/AIDS); however, susceptibility tests are necessary in patients who present therapeutic failure.
Stewart, Michael W
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CMV retinitis afflicted 25% to 42% of AIDS patients in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, with most vision loss due to macula-involving retinitis or retinal detachment. The introduction of HAART significantly decreased the incidence and severity of CMV retinitis. Optimal treatment of CMV retinitis requires a thorough evaluation of the patient’s immune status and an accurate classification of the retinal lesions. When retinitis is diagnosed, HAART therapy should be started or improved, and anti-CMV therapy with oral valganciclovir, intravenous ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir should be administered. Selected patients, especially those with zone 1 retinitis, may receive intravitreal drug injections or surgical implantation of a sustained-release ganciclovir reservoir. Effective anti-CMV therapy coupled with HAART significantly decreases the incidence of vision loss and improves patient survival. Immune recovery uveitis and retinal detachments are important causes of moderate to severe loss of vision. Compared with the early years of the AIDS epidemic, the treatment emphasis in the post- HAART era has changed from short-term control of retinitis to long-term preservation of vision. Developing countries face shortages of health care professionals and inadequate supplies of anti-CMV and anti-HIV medications. Intravitreal ganciclovir injections may be the most cost effective strategy to treat CMV retinitis in these areas. PMID:20463796
Song, Kyoung Doo; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Chin A; Chung, Myung Jin
Objective We aimed to review the patterns of lung abnormalities of pulmonary cryptococcosis on CT images, position emission tomography (PET) findings of the disease, and the response of lung abnormalities to the therapies in non-AIDS patients. Materials and Methods We evaluated the initial CT (n = 23) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET (n = 10), and follow-up (n = 23) imaging findings of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 23 non-AIDS patients. Lung lesions were classified into five patterns at CT: single nodular, multiple clustered nodular, multiple scattered nodular, mass-like, and bronchopneumonic patterns. The CT pattern analyses, PET findings, and therapeutic responses were recorded. Results A clustered nodular pattern was the most prevalent and was observed in 10 (43%) patients. This pattern was followed by solitary pulmonary nodular (n = 4, 17%), scattered nodular (n = 3, 13%), bronchopneumonic (n = 2, 9%), and single mass (n = 1, 4%) patterns. On PET scans, six (60%) of 10 patients showed higher FDG uptake and four (40%) demonstrated lower FDG uptake than the mediastinal blood pool. With specific treatment of the disease, a complete clearance of lung abnormalities was noted in 15 patients, whereas a partial response was noted in seven patients. In one patient where treatment was not performed, the disease showed progression. Conclusion Pulmonary cryptococcosis most commonly appears as clustered nodules and is a slowly progressive and slowly resolving pulmonary infection. In two-thirds of patients, lung lesions show high FDG uptake, thus simulating a possible malignant condition. PMID:20592924
Lodenyo, Hudson; Segal, Issy
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is now the leading cause of death in the world. Liver involvement in opportunistic infections and neoplasms affecting patients with human immunodeficiency disease syndrome are common. Many of these patients also take many medicines and toxins that are potentially harmful to the liver. This is an overview on the aetiology and possible diagnostic guide to determine liver involvement in patients with HIV infection. A literature review was performed on major published series on the liver and HIV infection between 1985 and 1999, both years inclusive. Data and opinions from 5 general reviews and 31 original articles from MEDLINE on liver disease in patients with HIV infection regarding aetiology, pathology, presentation and patient evaluation are summarised. The liver is frequently affected in patients with AIDS. The majority of the patients have hepatomegaly and abnormal liver enzymes secondary to involvement with opportunities infections, AIDS associated neoplasms and drug therapy. Most of the infections reach the liver by lymphohaematogeneous spread from other sites in the body. Methodical approach in patient evaluation is therefore essential for prompt diagnosis and treatment to minimise morbidity and early mortality.
Corti, M; Villafañe, M F; Cermelj, M; Candela, M; Pérez Blanco, R; Tezanos Pinto, M
Intermediate and highly malignant non-Hodgkin and primary central nervous system lymphomas are marker diseases for AIDS. Cavum and oropharynx involvement by these tumors is uncommon. Although there are few cases reported in the literature, these may be primary localizations of the tumor. We present a hemophilic HIV+ patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cavum. The histologic diagnosis was high-grade, pleomorphic, centroblastic lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy plus intrathecal chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). His evolution has been excellent. One year after diagnosis, the patient is asymptomatic with no evidence of residual tumor, and responding well to HAART.
Gangaputra, Sapna; Drye, Lea; Vaidya, Vijay; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A; Lyon, Alice T.
Purpose To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with AIDS Methods Medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were performed at enrollment and every 6 months subsequently. Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes. Results At enrollment, 37 non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections were diagnosed: 16 patients, herpetic retinitis; 11 patients, toxoplasmic retinitis; and 10 patients, choroiditis. During the follow-up period, the estimated incidences (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of these were: herpetic retinitis, 0.007/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 0.0004, 0.039); toxoplasmic retinitis, 0.007/100 PY (95% CI 0.004, 0.039); and choroiditis 0.014/100 PY (95% CI 0.0025, 0.050). The mortality rates appeared higher among those patients with newly diagnosed or incident herpetic retinitis and choroiditis (rates=21.7 deaths/100 PY [P=0.02] and 12.8 deaths/100 PY [P=0.04]) respectively, than that for patients with AIDS without an ocular opportunistic infection (4.1 deaths/100 PY); Toxoplasmic retinitis did not appear to be associated with greater mortality (6.4/100 PY, P=0.47). Eyes with newly-diagnosed herpetic retinitis appeared to have a poor visual prognosis with high rates of visual impairment (37.9/100 PY) and blindness (17.5/100 PY), whereas those outcomes in eyes with choroiditis appeared to be lower (2.3/100 PY and 0/100 PY, respectively). Conclusions Although uncommon, non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections may be associated with high rates of visual loss and/or mortality. PMID:23068916
Kraai, Tania; Brown, Colin; Neeff, Michel; Fisher, Kate
To describe the range and rate of complications related to bone-anchored hearing aids in pediatric patients. We conducted a retrospective review all children 16 years of age or less who were implanted with a bone-anchored hearing aid from 2002 to 2009. The main outcome measures were post Baha(®) implantation complications including infection, soft tissue hypertrophy, loss of osseointegration, and need for further surgery. Thirty-one patients were identified and 27 had sufficient follow up for complete analysis. Soft tissue reactions were seen in 24 patients (89%), half of which were considered minor. Ten patients (37%) had major complications defined as requiring revision surgery or removal of the implant. Soft tissue overgrowth and infection at the abutment required removal in 5 children (19%) and three implants (11%) failed to osseointegrate. Recurrent antibiotic treatment was required in eight patients (30%). Seven patients (26%) had a history of trauma and one of them lost the implant. To date, three of the children (11%) have been unable to use the device because of chronic infection and overgrowth of the abutment. There was a statistically significant increased risk for major complications in patients from socioeconomically deprived backgrounds and obesity appears to incur additional risk. Complications of bone-anchored hearing aid implants are common in our experience and obesity and socioeconomic factors appear to contribute to a higher risk for complications. Frequent follow up and meticulous care of the implant site may minimize complications but can be challenging in this population. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Nissapatorn, V; Lee, C K C; Cho, S M; Rohela, M; Anuar, A Khirul; Quek, K F; Latt, H M
Three hundred and one sera of HIV/AIDS patients were tested for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody by ELISA technique. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 41.2% (95% CI: 35.5-46.9) in HIV/AIDS patients. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in the Malay (57.9%) than the Chinese (38.7%), followed by the Indian patients (29.6%) (p<0.05). No possible risk factor, such as contact with cats, consumption of uncooked meat, and history of blood transfusions was found to have any significant association with the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibody in the study sample (p>0.05). Multivariate analysis was employed to find any association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and a single subject having single or multiple risk factors. It was found that the association was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Among the HIV/AIDS study samples, 124 (41.2%) samples were found to have positive anti-Toxoplasma antibody, the association between the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibody and CD4 cell count was determined but no statistically significant association was found (p>0.05). During the study period, only one case of active CNS toxoplasmosis was registered and the diagnostic criteria included: clinical presentations, CT scan finding, serological evidence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody, and respose to anti-Toxoplasma therapy.
Background Diarrhea is common in HIV/AIDS patients, caused by both classic enteric pathogens and different opportunistic agents. Infection with these different pathogens may lead to similar radiological findings, thus causing diagnostic confusion. Case presentation A 30-yr-old female with AIDS presented with chronic diarrhea of 4 months duration. She had diffuse small bowel thickening present on CT scan of her abdomen, with stool examination showing no parasites. She was erroneously diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis and given antituberculosis drugs with which she showed no improvement. Repeat stool examination later at a specialized laboratory revealed Cryptosporidium parvum infection. The patient was given an extended course of nitazoxanide treatment, as her stool examination was positive for Cryptosporidium parvum even after 2 weeks of drug consumption. Parasite clearance was documented after 10 weeks of treatment. Interestingly, the bowel thickening reversed with parasitological clearance. Conclusions Cryptosporidium parvum may lead to small bowel thickening in AIDS patients. This small bowel thickening may reverse following parasitological clearance. PMID:21029408
Lestari, Yeni Dwi; Sitompul, Ratna; Edwar, Lukman; Djoerban, Zubairi
We conducted a survey of ocular diseases among HIV/AIDS outpatients in Jakarta, Indonesia. This cross sectional study was conducted among 311 HIV/ AIDS patients presenting to three referral hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia from September 2008 to May 2009. All subjects underwent ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity, intraocular pressure, eye movement, Schirmer's test and anterior and posterior segment evaluation. Most subjects (86%) were aged 20-40 years; and 77% were male. Intravenous drug use was the most common risk factor (48.9%) for HIV infection. At the time of enrollment, 85% of subjects were receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART); the median CD4+ T cell count prior to ART was 56 (0-757) cells/microl. The most common ocular manifestations were dry eye syndrome (54%), followed by toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (8.4%) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (5.8%). Risk factors associated with ocular diseases were late HIV clinical stage (OR = 4.35 for clinical stage 4 vs 1; p = 0.001), co-infection (OR = 2.67 for 2 co-infections vs no co-infection; p = 0.009) and low CD4+ T cell count prior to ART (< 50 cells/microl vs > or = 200 cells/microl; p = 0.003). The CD4+ count at the first visit (p = 0.041) and clinical stage (p = 0.049) were associated with dry eyes. This study shows dry eyes were the most prevalent ocular disease among HIV/ AIDS patients in Jakarta. HIV clinical stage 3 or 4, co-infection with tuberculosis and hepatitis C infection and a CD4+ T cell count of <50 cells/microl were risk factors for ocular disease in HIV/AIDS patients.
Maltos, André Luiz; Silva, Luciana Ligia da; Bernardes Junior, Aderbal Garcia; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Cunha, Daniel Ferreira da
We report the case of a 35-year-old homeless alcoholic and illicit drug user, with AIDS, who was admitted to the emergency unit complaining of asthenia and a weight loss of 30 kg over the preceding three months. Clinical and laboratory data confirmed a diagnosis of marasmus, bacterial pneumonia, chorioretinitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and oral Candida infection. The patient also presented loss of tongue papillae, gingival hypertrophy, perifollicular hyperkeratosis and hemorrhage, coiled, corkscrew-like hair, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, increased C-reactive protein levels and low serum vitamin C levels. The patient developed severe gastric hemorrhage, with hemodynamic instability and terminal disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
Pereira da Silva, Renata; Santos Borges de Araújo, Isis Lucilia; Coelho Cabral, Poliana; Pessoa de Araújo Burgos, Maria Goretti
The emergence of more effective therapies for the treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has reduced the rates of illness, mortality and malnutrition among infected patients. However, reduced food intake, nutrient malabsorption and metabolic alterations induced by fever and infection are seen in cases of hospital malnutrition. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral nutritional support (ONS) on hospitalized patients with AIDS. The following variables were analyzed: weight, body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF), arm circumference (AC), arm muscle circumference (AMC), albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and total serum lymphocytes. Significant improvements were found in weight, BMI, TSF, AC, albumin and lymphocytes after 19.27 ± 7.45 days of ONS, whereas no significant improvements were found in AMC, hemoglobin or hematocrit. Dietary intervention with nutritional counseling and the use of supplements led to an improvement in the nutritional status of malnourished individuals with AIDS, but with an increase in adipose tissue and no impact on lean muscle mass or anemia. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Watkins, Crystal C; Treisman, Glenn J
The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the life expectancy of HIV patients and decreased the number of adults who progress to AIDS and HIV-associated dementia. However, neurocognitive deficits remain a pronounced consequence of HIV/AIDS. HIV-1 infection targets the central nervous system in subcortical brain areas and leads to high rates of delirium, depression, opportunistic central nervous system infections, and dementia. Long-term HIV replication in the brain occurs in astrocytes and microglia, allowing the virus to hide from antiviral medication and later compromise neuronal function. The associated cognitive disturbance is linked to both viral activity and inflammatory and other mediators from these immune cells that lead to the damage associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, a general term given for these disturbances. We review the severity and prevalence of the neuropsychiatric complications of HIV including delirium, neurobehavioral impairments (depression), minor cognitive-motor dysfunction, and HIV-associated dementia. PMID:25678819
Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn
Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8-11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6-9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn
Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638
Justina, Lunara Basqueroto Della; Luiz, Magali Chaves; Maurici, Rosemeri; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana
The published literature shows an increased occurrence of adverse events, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome, that are associated with the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy. This study was performed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with lipodystrophy in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study between October 2012 and February 2013. The sample consisted of patients with AIDS who attended the Outpatient Treatment Center for Infectious Diseases at Nereu Ramos Hospital, Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We collected information on demographics, lifestyle, HIV infection, and clinical aspects of the disease. Self-reported signs of lipodystrophy and body measurements were used for lipodystrophy diagnosis. We studied 74 patients (mean age 44.3±9.2 years; 60.8% men). Among the patients, 45.9% were smokers, 31.1% consumed alcoholic beverages, and 55.4% were sedentary. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 32.4%, and sedentary subjects had a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy compared with physically active individuals. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 32.4%. Physical activity was considered an independent protective factor against the onset of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.
Salomon, Jérôme; de Truchis, Pierre; Melchior, Jean-Claude
Undernutrition is a frequent complication of evolutive and chronic HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection characterized by bodyweight loss and changes in body composition. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention define AIDS wasting as involuntary loss of more than 10% of body weight, plus more than 30 days of either diarrhea, or weakness and fever. Wasting syndrome has been considered as a case definition of the AIDS disease since 1987. Wasting syndrome is clearly linked to disease progression and death. Despite the progress under the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), wasting is still a problem for people with AIDS. A small part of the weight lost is fat. More important is the loss of "lean body mass", which is mostly muscle. Body composition changes during HIV infection are different from those observed in food deprivation. Under the era of HAART, a HIV-associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) was described that associates subcutaneous lipoatrophy and abdominal obesity linked to various metabolic disorders. Several factors contribute to wasting syndrome. Not only low food intake and poor nutrient absorption, but mainly altered metabolism (increased resting energy expenditure) and specific disturbances in protein turnover, which is also increased. Nutritional evaluation of HIV-infected patients should include the measurement of body composition and analysis of nutritional parameters, including albumin, transthyretin and C-reactive protein. Transthyretin seems to be particularly useful to follow the recovery period of malnutrition.
Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William; Gibson, Christopher; Kramer, Michael; Tomarken, Alexis; Nelson, Christian; Pessin, Hayley; Esch, Julie; Galietta, Michele; Garcia, Nerina; Brechtl, John; Schuster, Michael
The recent debate over legalization of physician-assisted suicide has fueled interest in understanding factors that lead medically ill patients to seek a hastened death. The authors investigated the prevalence and predictors of desire for hastened death in 372 patients with advanced AIDS who were newly admitted to a palliative-care facility. Clinician-rated and self-report measures of desire for hastened death, depression, hopelessness, spiritual well-being, social support, pain, and physical symptom burden were administered to assess the factors that correspond to a high desire for death. The prevalence ranged from 4.6% to 8.3%, significantly lower than in previous studies of patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Multivariate models revealed significant and unique effects for both hopelessness and depression, with these variables accounting for a large proportion of the variance in each model. Authors discuss the implications of these findings for palliative care practice and the assisted-suicide debate.
Ratyńska, Joanna; Szkielkowska, Agata; Markowska, Renata; Kurkowski, Marek; Mularzuk, Marzena; Skarzyński, Henryk
The Digital Speech Aid (DSA) is a portable device used to reduce stuttering. It incorporates delayed auditory feedback (DAF) and frequency-shifted auditory feedback (FAF). Due to its small size, the DSA can be used by the stutterer in everyday life. Three hundred thirty-five stutterers aged 6-64 years were included in the study. A subgroup of 100 stutterers who had used the device for at least six months was asked to fill out a questionnaire of 25 questions about their opinion of the device. The data were analyzed and the factors determining the patients' satisfaction with the device were investigated. The analysis showed that the patients used the DSA regularly for about 3 hours daily. Most patients applied the device at home; only small number used it at work or at school. Most patients (70%) reported decreased fear of speaking and improved self-confidence during communication when using the device (78%). Eighty-eight percent of the patients described the device as very useful or useful in everyday life. That patients' satisfaction with the device was not related to objective speech improvement but to a subjective feeling of increased self-confidence and decreased fear of speaking. The DSA is positively judged by patients as an option in stuttering therapy. Its effect can be attributed not only to fluency improvement, but also to increased self-confidence and reduced fear of speaking.
Severe, Patrice; Leger, Paul; Charles, Macarthur; Noel, Francine; Bonhomme, Gerry; Bois, Gyrlande; George, Erik; Kenel-Pierre, Stefan; Wright, Peter F; Gulick, Roy; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean William; Fitzgerald, Daniel W
The one-year survival rate of adults and children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), without antiretroviral therapy, has been about 30 percent in Haiti. Antiretroviral therapy has recently become available in Haiti and in other developing countries. Data on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in developing countries are limited. High rates of coinfection with tropical diseases and tuberculosis, along with malnutrition and limited laboratory monitoring of therapy, may decrease the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in these countries. We studied the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in the first 1004 consecutive patients with AIDS and without previous antiretroviral therapy who were treated beginning in March 2003 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. During a 14-month period, three-drug antiretroviral therapy was initiated in 1004 patients, including 94 children under 13 years of age. At enrollment, the median CD4 T-cell count in adults and adolescents was 131 per cubic millimeter (interquartile range, 55 to 211 per cubic millimeter); in children, a median of 13 percent of T cells were CD4-positive (interquartile range, 8 to 20 percent). According to a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, 87 percent of adults and adolescents and 98 percent of children were alive one year after beginning treatment. In a subgroup of 100 adult and adolescent patients who were followed for 48 to 56 weeks, 76 patients had fewer than 400 copies of human immunodeficiency virus RNA per milliliter. In adults and adolescents, the median increase in the CD4 T-cell count from baseline to 12 months was 163 per cubic millimeter (interquartile range, 77 to 251 per cubic millimeter). In children, the median percentage of CD4 T cells rose from 13 percent at baseline to 26 percent (interquartile range, 22 to 36 percent) at 12 months. Treatment-limiting toxic effects occurred in 102 of the 910 adults and adolescents (11 percent) and 5 of the 94 children (5 percent). This report documents the
The operating assumption in most discussions of health policy is that government has some responsibility for the health of its citizens and that it may legitimately tax, subsidize, and regulate its citizens in the exercise of that responsibility. On this assumption, public obligations to HIV/AIDS patients are a function of their needs in relationship to other health needs. This paper challenges the operating assumption by arguing that it cannot be grounded in the obligations that individuals have to each other. The paper rests on its own assumption: the moral theory of individualism. On this theory, individuals are ends in themselves who have the right to choose their own actions and uses of their resources; they do not have unchosen obligations to help others. In regard to HIV/AIDS patients, consequently, individuals have no duty to help, nor any other obligation beyond that of respecting their rights; and there is no valid basis for government regulations or subsidies on their behalf. The paper argues against the two approaches commonly used to defend a more expansive view of individual obligations and the role of government. The first is the assumption of welfare rights to goods and services; the second is the assumption that distributive justice requires some redistribution of health care resources.
Cantisano, Nicole; Rimé, Bernard; Muñoz-Sastre, María T
Studies have shown that chronic illness patients encounter difficulties in the social sharing of emotions. Do HIV/AIDS patients present distinguishing traits in the inhibition of illness and non-illness-related emotions? The differences in the social sharing of emotion between 35 HIV/AIDS, 35 diabetic and 34 cancer outpatients were studied. A questionnaire assessed illness-related emotions, social sharing of emotion and emotional inhibition. The HIV/AIDS group significantly presented superior scoring in shame, guilt and non-sharing of illness-related emotions, lower frequencies of social sharing of emotion and less sharing partners. These findings could lead to future research examining the emotional expression of guilt and shame in HIV/AIDS.
Background The original version of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) recommended that patient decision aids (PtDAs) should be carefully developed, user-tested and open to scrutiny, with a well-documented and systematically applied development process. We carried out a review to check the relevance and scope of this quality dimension and, if necessary, to update it. Methods Our review drew on three sources: a) published papers describing PtDAs evaluated in randomised controlled trials and included in the most recent Cochrane Collaboration review; b) linked papers cited in the trial reports that described how the PtDAs had been developed; and c) papers and web reports outlining the development process used by organisations experienced in developing multiple PtDAs. We then developed an extended model of the development process indicating the various steps on which documentation is required, as well as a checklist to assess the frequency with which each of the elements was publicly reported. Results Key features common to all patient decision aid (PtDA) development processes include: scoping and design; development of a prototype; ‘alpha’ testing with patients and clinicians in an iterative process; ‘beta’ testing in ‘real life’ conditions (field tests); and production of a final version for use and/or further evaluation. Only about half of the published reports on the development of PtDAs that we reviewed appear to have been field tested with patients, and even fewer had been reviewed or tested by clinicians not involved in the development process. Very few described a distribution strategy, and surprisingly few (17%) described a method for reviewing and synthesizing the clinical evidence. We describe a model development process that includes all the original elements of the original IPDAS criterion, expanded to include consideration of format and distribution plans as well as prototype development. Conclusions The case for including
Agudelo, Carlos A.; Restrepo, Carlos A.; Molina, Diego A.; Tobón, Angela M.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Murillo, Carolina; Restrepo, Angela
Coinfection with tuberculosis in some countries occurs in 8–15% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected patients who have histoplasmosis. This coinfection interferes with prompt diagnosis, and treatment is difficult because of drug interactions. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 14 HIV-infected patients who had concomitant tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The most frequent clinical manifestations were weight loss (85.7%), asthenia (78.5%), and fever (64.2%). The diagnosis of histoplasmosis was made primarily by histopathology (71.4%), and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by means of direct microscopic examination (71.4%). Death occurred in two patients, and relapse of both infections occurred in one patient. Moxifloxacin was substituted for rifampicin in six patients, with good outcomes noted for both infections. The clinical presentation does not readily identify acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who have tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The use of a fluoroquinolone as an alternative agent in place of rifampicin for tuberculosis allows effective therapy with itraconazole for histoplasmosis. PMID:23128292
Agudelo, Carlos A; Restrepo, Carlos A; Molina, Diego A; Tobón, Angela M; Kauffman, Carol A; Murillo, Carolina; Restrepo, Angela
Abstract. Coinfection with tuberculosis in some countries occurs in 8-15% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected patients who have histoplasmosis. This coinfection interferes with prompt diagnosis, and treatment is difficult because of drug interactions. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 14 HIV-infected patients who had concomitant tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The most frequent clinical manifestations were weight loss (85.7%), asthenia (78.5%), and fever (64.2%). The diagnosis of histoplasmosis was made primarily by histopathology (71.4%), and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by means of direct microscopic examination (71.4%). Death occurred in two patients, and relapse of both infections occurred in one patient. Moxifloxacin was substituted for rifampicin in six patients, with good outcomes noted for both infections. The clinical presentation does not readily identify acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who have tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The use of a fluoroquinolone as an alternative agent in place of rifampicin for tuberculosis allows effective therapy with itraconazole for histoplasmosis.
Vandercam, B; Hermans, M P; Coumans, P; Jacques, D; Gala, J L; Kolanowski, J
A 33-year-old woman with AIDS was treated with somatostatin (continuous infusion 6 mg/day) for intractable diarrhoea. Improvement was insufficient and the dose was increased to 12 mg/day 5 days later. Hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma occurred two days later (blood glucose 53 mmol/l, bicarbonate 8 mmol/l, pH of arterial blood 7.2). Search for urinary ketones was negative. Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated in the urine sample. Somatostatin was withdrawn and the patient improved with parenteral nutrition and intravenous insulin. Glucose tolerance was verified after recovery and was normal. Somatostatin is known to impair glucose tolerance and as shown in this case should also be recognized as a cause of hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma. Increasing use of somatostatin, particularly in HIV patients often given other hyperglycaemia inducing drugs such as didanosine, pentamidine, dapsone, and phenytoin should be accompanied with careful monitoring of blood glucose levels.
Cameselle, D; Hernández, J; Francès, A; Montenegro, T; Cañas, F; Borrego, L
We report a case of primary cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium haemophilum after the bite of an aquarium fish in a severely immunodepressed AIDS patient. Clinical features consisted in nodular and ulcerative lesions that followed a sporotrichoid pattern. Histological study of nodular lesions showed a granulomatous dermatitis with numerous acid-fast bacilli. The mycobacterium was identified 3 months later by genetic hybridization from a cultive in solid medium. Combined therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, clarithromycin, ethambutol, amikacin and ciprofloxacin resulted in complete resolution of the lesions. Infection by Mycobacterium haemophilum is a rare mycobacteriosis that usually affects immunodepressed patients. The most common clinical manifestations are cutaneous lesions but the development of sporotrichoid nodular lymphangitis is exceptional.
Cotton, Sian; Puchalski, Christina M; Sherman, Susan N; Mrus, Joseph M; Peterman, Amy H; Feinberg, Judith; Pargament, Kenneth I; Justice, Amy C; Leonard, Anthony C; Tsevat, Joel
Spirituality and religion are often central issues for patients dealing with chronic illness. The purpose of this study is to characterize spirituality/religion in a large and diverse sample of patients with HIV/AIDS by using several measures of spirituality/religion, to examine associations between spirituality/religion and a number of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables, and to assess changes in levels of spirituality over 12 to 18 months. We interviewed 450 patients from 4 clinical sites. Spirituality/religion was assessed by using 8 measures: the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spirituality-Expanded scale (meaning/peace, faith, and overall spirituality); the Duke Religion Index (organized and nonorganized religious activities, and intrinsic religiosity); and the Brief RCOPE scale (positive and negative religious coping). Covariates included demographics and clinical characteristics, HIV symptoms, health status, social support, self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms. The patients' mean (SD) age was 43.3 (8.4) years; 387 (86%) were male; 246 (55%) were minorities; and 358 (80%) indicated a specific religious preference. Ninety-five (23%) participants attended religious services weekly, and 143 (32%) engaged in prayer or meditation at least daily. Three hundred thirty-nine (75%) patients said that their illness had strengthened their faith at least a little, and patients used positive religious coping strategies (e.g., sought God's love and care) more often than negative ones (e.g., wondered whether God has abandoned me; P<.0001). In 8 multivariable models, factors associated with most facets of spirituality/religion included ethnic and racial minority status, greater optimism, less alcohol use, having a religion, greater self-esteem, greater life satisfaction, and lower overall functioning (R2=.16 to .74). Mean levels of spirituality did not change significantly over 12 to 18 months. Most patients with HIV/AIDS belonged to
Johnston, S R; Corbett, E L; Foster, O; Ash, S; Cohen, J
The clinical course of cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS shows some important differences from the features of the illness in non-AIDS patients. Complications such as raised intracranial pressure and visual impairment that are recognised in non-AIDS patients may be less frequent in those with AIDS. Persistent intracranial hypertension should be managed actively to prevent visual impairment. In AIDS patients, in whom ventriculo-peritoneal shunts carry additional risks, acetazolamide can be used successfully to lower the CSF pressure and prevent visual loss.
Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lee, Christopher; Quek, Kia Fatt; Leong, Chee Loon; Mahmud, Rohela; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar
The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among 505 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients was 226 (44.8%; 95% CI 42.64-51.76): 27 (47.4%) and 199 (44.4%) showed Toxoplasma seropositivity with and without toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), respectively (P <0.05). The majority of these patients were in the 25-34 age group (44 versus 39%), male (86 versus 76%), and Chinese (49 versus 53%), though no statistical significance was found between the two. Significant differences between these two groups were noted, however, in terms of marital status, occupation, and present address. The heterosexual exhibited the most frequent behavior at risk for HIV infection, and accounted for 51 and 59% of patients with and without TE, respectively. Only 17/260 (6.5%) and 1/137 (0.7%) of them later acquired TE after receiving primary chemoprophylaxis (cotrimoxazole) and antiretroviral therapy including HAART (P <0.05). Fifty-seven (11.3%) out of those 505 patients were diagnosed with AIDS-related TE. The most common clinical manifestation was headache (56%). The computed tomography scan findings showed most lesions to be multiple (96.4%), hypodense (66.7%), and in the parietal region (39.3%). Twenty-seven (47.4%) patients had chronic (latent) Toxoplasma infection as evidenced by seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma (IgG) antibody. At the time of diagnosis, the range of CD4 cell count was from 0-239 with a median of 25 cells/cumm. We also found that a CD4 count of less than 100 cells/cumm was significantly associated with development of TE (P <0.05). Clinical outcomes showed that among those who survived, 21 (36.8%), 16 (28.1%), and 2 (3.5%) of patients had completed treatment, transferred out, and were lost to follow up, respectively. Unfortunately, 18 (31.6%) of the cases were officially pronounced dead. Overall, 7 (12.3%) patients were detected as recurrent TE in this study.
Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina
This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528
Luque, Amneris E.; Orlando, Mark S.; Leong, U-Cheng; Allen, Paul D.; Guido, Joseph J.; Yang, Hongmei; Wu, Hulin
Background During the earlier years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, initial reports described sensorineural hearing loss in up to 49% of individuals with HIV/AIDS. During those years, patients commonly progressed to advanced stages of HIV disease, and frequently had neurological complications. However, the abnormalities on pure-tone audiometry and brainstem evoked responses outlined in small studies were not always consistently correlated with advanced stages of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, these studies could not exclude the confounding effect of concurrent opportunistic infections and syphilis. Additional reports also have indicated that some antiretroviral (ARV) medications may be ototoxic, thus it has been difficult to make conclusions regarding the cause of changes in hearing function in HIV-infected patients. More recently, accelerated aging has been suggested as a potential explanation for the disproportionate increase in complications of aging described in many HIV-infected patients, hence accelerated aging associated hearing loss may also be playing a role in these patients. Methods We conducted a large cross-sectional analysis of hearing function in over 300 patients with HIV-1 infection and in 137 HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected participants and HIV-uninfected controls underwent a two-hour battery of hearing tests including the Hearing Handicap Inventory, standard audiometric pure-tone air and bone conduction testing, tympanometric testing and speech reception and discrimination testing. Results Three-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis of 278 eligible HIV-infected subjects stratified by disease stage in early HIV disease (n= 127) and late HIV disease (n=148) and 120 eligible HIV-uninfected controls revealed no statistical significant differences among the three study groups in either overall 4-PTA or hearing loss prevalence in either ear. Three-way ANOVA showed significant differences in word recognition scores (WRS) in the right ear among groups; a
Luque, Amneris E; Orlando, Mark S; Leong, U-Cheng; Allen, Paul D; Guido, Joseph J; Yang, Hongmei; Wu, Hulin
During the earlier years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, initial reports described sensorineural hearing loss in up to 49% of individuals with HIV/AIDS. During those years, patients commonly progressed to advanced stages of HIV disease and frequently had neurological complications. However, the abnormalities on pure-tone audiometry and brainstem-evoked responses outlined in small studies were not always consistently correlated with advanced stages of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, these studies could not exclude the confounding effect of concurrent opportunistic infections and syphilis. Additional reports also have indicated that some antiretroviral medications may be ototoxic; thus, it has been difficult to make conclusions regarding the cause of changes in hearing function in HIV-infected patients. More recently, accelerated aging has been suggested as a potential explanation for the disproportionate increase in complications of aging described in many HIV-infected patients; hence, accelerated aging-associated hearing loss may also be playing a role in these patients. We conducted a large cross-sectional analysis of hearing function in over 300 patients with HIV-1 infection and in 137 HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected participants and HIV-uninfected controls underwent a 2-hr battery of hearing tests including the Hearing Handicap Inventory, standard audiometric pure-tone air and bone conduction testing, tympanometric testing, and speech reception and discrimination testing. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analysis of 278 eligible HIV-infected subjects stratified by disease stage in early HIV disease (n = 127) and late HIV disease (n = 148) and 120 eligible HIV-uninfected controls revealed no statistically significant differences among the three study groups in either overall 4-frequency pure-tone average (4-PTA) or hearing loss prevalence in either ear. Three-way ANOVA showed significant differences in word recognition scores in the right ear
Yari, Niloofar; Malone, C Helen; Rivas, Antonio
Crusted scabies is a severe, highly contagious form of classic scabies caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. Crusted scabies is more common in immunosuppressed populations and overcrowded environments. In this condition, the host's immune system is overwhelmed and unable to defend against the mites on the skin, resulting in hyperinfestation of the host. Diagnosis can be challenging because the condition resembles other common skin conditions, such as plaque psoriasis. Furthermore, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment can lead to worsening of the condition. We report a case of crusted scabies that was initially misdiagnosed in a 34-year-old incarcerated man with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. The patient had a complicated but complete recovery after treatment with permethrin and ivermectin was instituted.
Laszig, P; Clement, U; Gramatikov, L
An explorative meta-analytic study analysed all published empirical studies on social support of HIV/AIDS patients (n = 57 studies with 347 data sets). Empirical and conceptual questions are addressed. The focus of the empirical questions is to identify meta-analytically confirmed correlates of social support. The conceptual question aims at differentiating the large-scale construct "social support". Results indicate that social support 1. is independent of objective physical parameters, 2. is positively correlated with approach coping and negatively with avoidance coping, 3. shows a substantial negative correlation with indicators of psychological distress, 4. is positively correlated with condom use. The conceptual analysis shows that 5. there is no consensus on how to operationalise the construct of "social support".
Klein, Krystal A; Watson, Lindsey; Ash, Joan S; Eden, Karen B
We characterized patients' comprehension, memory, and impressions of risk communication messages in a patient decision aid (PtDA), Mammopad, and clarified perceived importance of numeric risk information in medical decision making. Participants were 75 women in their forties with average risk factors for breast cancer. We used mixed methods, comprising a risk estimation problem administered within a pretest-posttest design, and semi-structured qualitative interviews with a subsample of 21 women. Participants' positive predictive value estimates of screening mammography improved after using Mammopad. Although risk information was only briefly memorable, through content analysis, we identified themes describing why participants value quantitative risk information, and obstacles to understanding. We describe ways the most complicated graphic was incompletely comprehended. Comprehension of risk information following Mammopad use could be improved. Patients valued receiving numeric statistical information, particularly in pictograph format. Obstacles to understanding risk information, including potential for confusion between statistics, should be identified and mitigated in PtDA design. Using simple pictographs accompanied by text, PtDAs may enhance a shared decision-making discussion. PtDA designers and providers should be aware of benefits and limitations of graphical risk presentations. Incorporating comprehension checks could help identify and correct misapprehensions of graphically presented statistics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Leblanc, Stéphanie
Studies have shown that unilateral cochlear implant users who have residual hearing in the contralateral ear can benefit from combining a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear with their cochlear implant. The purpose of this study was to better understand the factors influencing decision making by adults. Adults who had discontinued hearing aid use shortly after cochlear implantation were selected from one Canadian cochlear implant program. An examination of hearing aid use revealed that of 96 patients, who used hearing aids preimplant, 49 had discontinued hearing aid use. Patient perspectives on the decision and experience of combining a hearing aid and a cochlear implant were collected through 12 individual semistructured interviews. The interviews were analyzed qualitatively to identify key themes. Questionnaires, based on the interview findings, were developed and sent to the 49 adults to further explore the factors affecting hearing aid decisions. Interview and questionnaire findings from 28 adults indicated that three factors primarily influenced patients' decision to discontinue hearing aid use: their perceptions of the experience with hearing aids prior to implantation, their views of superiority of a unilateral cochlear implant in comparison with hearing aids, and their perceptions of interference with sound quality when a cochlear implant and hearing aid were combined. This study provides information about patient perceptions, experiences, and understanding of the potential difficulties of a bimodal fitting that may assist clinicians in pre- and postimplant counseling. PMID:21406420
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Leblanc, Stéphanie
Studies have shown that unilateral cochlear implant users who have residual hearing in the contralateral ear can benefit from combining a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear with their cochlear implant. The purpose of this study was to better understand the factors influencing decision making by adults. Adults who had discontinued hearing aid use shortly after cochlear implantation were selected from one Canadian cochlear implant program. An examination of hearing aid use revealed that of 96 patients, who used hearing aids preimplant, 49 had discontinued hearing aid use. Patient perspectives on the decision and experience of combining a hearing aid and a cochlear implant were collected through 12 individual semistructured interviews. The interviews were analyzed qualitatively to identify key themes. Questionnaires, based on the interview findings, were developed and sent to the 49 adults to further explore the factors affecting hearing aid decisions. Interview and questionnaire findings from 28 adults indicated that three factors primarily influenced patients' decision to discontinue hearing aid use: their perceptions of the experience with hearing aids prior to implantation, their views of superiority of a unilateral cochlear implant in comparison with hearing aids, and their perceptions of interference with sound quality when a cochlear implant and hearing aid were combined. This study provides information about patient perceptions, experiences, and understanding of the potential difficulties of a bimodal fitting that may assist clinicians in pre- and postimplant counseling.
Rane, Sharada R; Agrawal, Preeti B; Kadgi, Nalini V; Jadhav, Meenal V; Puranik, Shaila C
Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop various skin diseases. These skin manifestations not only act as markers but also reflect the patient's underlying immune status. Investigating CD4 counts is costly and not always possible. Thus, the potential value to be gained by using skin manifestations as predictors of low CD4 counts and disease progression should be explored. The present study attempted to correlate the association of various cutaneous disorders found in HIV patients with CD4 and CD8 counts, the CD4 : CD8 ratio and stage of HIV infection. This was a prospective study involving 61 patients who were HIV-positive and demonstrated skin lesions. Punch biopsies of skin were taken for histopathological diagnosis. CD4 and CD8 T cell counts were performed. The study sample included a majority of male patients, most of whom were aged 21-40 years. Pruritic papular dermatitis was the most common skin manifestation, followed by molluscum contagiosum, eosinophilic folliculitis, and Hansen's disease. Most of the lesions were associated with CD4 counts of <220/μl (n = 38). All skin lesions associated with HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) showed a CD4 : CD8 ratio of <0.50. The study findings demonstrate an inverse relationship between CD4 counts and the occurrence of skin lesions. The majority of lesions were associated with stage 3 or stage 4 infection. Thus, specific cutaneous manifestations can be considered as good clinical indicators for predicting underlying immune status in resource-poor countries. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.
Baig, Mirza Rafi
Introduction The current study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and perception of hospital pharmacists towards HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the hospital pharmacists in three government hospitals in Kedah, using a self-administered 43-item questionnaire. Data analysis was done using non-parametric and multinomial regression. Results A total of 75 respondents participated in this study, resulting in a response rate of 60.8%. The majority were found to be well aware of the causes of HIV/AIDS. However, about 34 (45.3%) believed erroneously that HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted through tattooing or body piercing. Nearly 25 (33.3%) of the respondents believed that preventing the use of intravenous drugs may not be effective to prevent HIV/AIDS and endorsed social isolation as a measure to prevent HIV/AIDS. The majority (66.6%) had negative attitudes and about 20% held extremely negative attitudes. Findings from regression modelling revealed that hospital (–2 log likelihood = 215.182, χ2 = 18.060, Df = 8, p = 0.021) and gender (–2 log likelihood = 213.643, χ2 = 16.521, Df = 8, p = 0.035) were more likely to affect the attitudes of respondents. Conclusions Overall, more than one third of the respondents were found to have negative attitudes towards PLWHA. Gender, job experience, and hospitals with more HIV/AIDS patient visits were the main factors affecting attitudes. PMID:24482660
Klepser, M E; Zhu, Z; Nicolau, D P; Banevicius, M A; Belliveau, P P; Ross, J W; Broisman, L; Quintiliani, R; Nightingale, C H
To determine the bioavailability of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Open-label, randomized, two-way crossover trial. Outpatient clinical research center affiliated with a community-based teaching hospital. Ten individuals diagnosed with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with CD4+ counts less than 200 cells/mm3, receiving TMP-SMX one double-strength tablet 3 times/week as prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and without documented gastroenteropathy or diarrhea agreed to participate in the trial. One patient withdrew from the study secondary to development of symptomatic PCP. Data were available for analysis from the remaining nine subjects. Participants received TMP 160 mg and SMX 800 mg orally or intravenously during two study periods. Following dose administration, blood samples were collected at predetermined time points over 36 hours. Analysis of TMP-SMX pharmacokinetic parameters (half-life, total body clearance, area under the serum concentration versus time curve, and peak concentration) failed to reveal any significant differences between intravenous and oral preparations. The calculated bioavailabilities of oral TMP and SMX (mean +/- SD) were 102.7% +/- 19.8% and 109.4% +/- 19.4%, respectively. The absorption of TMP-SMX is not adversely affected by HIV infection in the absence of HIV-induced gastroenteropathy or diarrhea.
Uehara, Masae; Sano, Ayako; Yarita, Kyoko; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Haketa, Makio; Ide, Kyoko; Nagai, Keiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Kazuko
Penicillium marneffei was isolated from three blood cultures of a Thai woman with AIDS and then identified as such. The patient, 41 a year-old female from northeast Thailand came to Japan 10 years ago and married a Japanese man. She was reportedly the third patient infected with this fungal species in Japan, and considered to be the first case from whom the causative fungus was successfully cultured, which led to the diagnosis of penicilliosis marneffei. The colony of the isolate, which was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 25-27 degrees C, was initially white and pannose, gradually turned in color from yellow to yellow-green, and diffused a deep red pigment into the medium. Conidial heads were divergent, and chains of conidia were formed from phialides. Colonies of the isolate, which was cultured on brain-heart infusion agar at 35 degrees C, had a grayish white, membranous yeast-like form with fine plicae and microscopically consisted of short hyphae. Furthermore, 560 bases of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene including the 5.8S region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) (DDBJ accession number AB298970) were sequenced and allowed an unequivocal species identification.
Morris, Debra; Drake, Elizabeth; Saarimaki, Anton; Bennett, Carol; O'Connor, Annette
To determine if people could find patient decision aids (PtDAs) on the Internet using the most popular general search engines. We chose five medical conditions for which English language PtDAs were available from at least three different developers. The search engines used were: Google (www.google.com), Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com), and MSN (www.msn.com). For each condition and search engine we ran six searches using a combination of search terms. We coded all non-sponsored Web pages that were linked from the first page of the search results. Most first page results linked to informational Web pages about the condition, only 16% linked to PtDAs. PtDAs were more readily found for the breast cancer surgery decision (our searches found seven of the nine developers). The searches using Yahoo and Google search engines were more likely to find PtDAs. The following combination of search terms: condition, treatment, decision (e.g. breast cancer surgery decision) was most successful across all search engines (29%). While some terms and search engines were more successful, few resulted in direct links to PtDAs. Finding PtDAs would be improved with use of standardized labelling, providing patients with specific Web site addresses or access to an independent PtDA clearinghouse.
Klein, Krystal A.; Watson, Lindsey; Ash, Joan S.; Eden, Karen B.
Objectives We characterized patients’ comprehension, memory, and impressions of risk communication messages in a patient decision aid (PtDA), Mammopad, and clarified perceived importance of numeric risk information in medical decision making. Methods Participants were 75 women in their forties with average risk factors for breast cancer. We used mixed methods, comprising a risk estimation problem administered within a pretest–posttest design, and semi-structured qualitative interviews with a subsample of 21 women. Results Participants’ positive predictive value estimates of screening mammography improved after using Mammopad. Although risk information was only briefly memorable, through content analysis, we identified themes describing why participants value quantitative risk information, and obstacles to understanding. We describe ways the most complicated graphic was incompletely comprehended. Conclusions Comprehension of risk information following Mammopad use could be improved. Patients valued receiving numeric statistical information, particularly in pictograph format. Obstacles to understanding risk information, including potential for confusion between statistics, should be identified and mitigated in PtDA design. Practice implications Using simple pictographs accompanied by text, PtDAs may enhance a shared decision-making discussion. PtDA designers and providers should be aware of benefits and limitations of graphical risk presentations. Incorporating comprehension checks could help identify and correct misapprehensions of graphically presented statistics PMID:26965020
Fournier, P O; Baldor, R A; Warfield, M E; Frazier, B
This study investigated Massachusetts family physicians' current care and referral practices with respect to HIV/AIDS patients and examined actors that might influence family physicians in referring these patients to specialists. Educational opportunities for physicians with regard to HIV were also examined. In 1994, a 2-page survey was mailed to the 468 members of the Massachusetts Academy of Family Physicians. The survey questionnaire examined such factors as whether the respondents were teaching or nonteaching, rural or urban; number of years since medical school or residency training; and knowledge and attitudes with regard to HIV/AIDS patients. The data were analyzed using Student's t test, chi-square, and correlation analysis. Usable responses were returned by 281 (60%) of the physicians surveyed. Of these, 65% reported having HIV patients in their practice, and 46% reported having AIDS patients was being managed alone by 53% of these physicians, and 11% managed their patients with AIDS. Physicians providing care for HIV/AIDS patients were more likely to be practicing in urban locations, have three or more HIV/AIDS patients in their practice, or recently graduated from residency. Additionally, they were more likely to be involved in residency teaching programs. Those who did not care for HIV/AIDS patients felt less knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS care, and felt that they had no time in their practice to care for this population of patients. Physicians with HIV patients learn more about HIV care from their colleagues than those without HIV patients. Family physicians are increasingly seeing HIV/AIDS patients in their offices. The majority are continually caring for these patients, either by themselves or co-managing their care with a specialist. Local CME programs relying on colleagues and community resources to discuss management of these patients may be one of the best ways of ensuring that increasing numbers of family physicians obtain the appropriate
Cuttle, Leila; Kravchuk, Olena; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy M
This study describes the first aid used and clinical outcomes of all patients who presented to the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia in 2005 with an acute burn injury. A retrospective audit was performed with the charts of 459 patients and information concerning burn injury, first-aid treatment, and clinical outcomes was collected. First aid was used on 86.1% of patients, with 8.7% receiving no first aid and unknown treatment in 5.2% of cases. A majority of patients had cold water as first aid (80.2%), however, only 12.1% applied the cold water for the recommended 20 minutes or longer. Recommended first aid (cold water for >or=20 minutes) was associated with significantly reduced reepithelialization time for children with contact injuries (P=.011). Superficial depth burns were significantly more likely to be associated with the use of recommended first aid (P=.03). Suboptimal treatment was more common for children younger than 3.5 years (P<.001) and for children with friction burns. This report is one of the few publications to relate first-aid treatment to clinical outcomes. Some positive clinical outcomes were associated with recommended first-aid use; however, wound outcomes were more strongly associated with burn depth and mechanism of injury. There is also a need for more public awareness of recommended first-aid treatment.
Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; Assad, Elisa Caroline Pereira; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Giannetti, Alexandre Varella; Santos Filho, José Augusto Malheiros Dos; Xavier, Marcelo Antonio Pascoal
Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains the most important neurological opportunistic infection and the most common cause of intracerebral mass lesion in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report a case of an adult AIDS patient with an atypical pattern of toxoplasma encephalitis, presenting with ventriculitis and obstructive hydrocephalus without any focal parenchymal lesion.
Currey, Charles J.; And Others
This 1988-89 survey of 319 students in the medical, dental, nursing, and allied health-care professions revealed that over one-third had reservations about treating AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) patients. Unwillingness to treat AIDS patients was strongly associated with homophobic attitudes. Education should emphasize methods for the…
Currey, Charles J.; And Others
This 1988-89 survey of 319 students in the medical, dental, nursing, and allied health-care professions revealed that over one-third had reservations about treating AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) patients. Unwillingness to treat AIDS patients was strongly associated with homophobic attitudes. Education should emphasize methods for the…
O’Neil, W M; Pezzullo, J C; Di Girolamo, A; Tsoukas, C M; Wainer, I W
Aims To gauge the effect of disease state and disease progression on the glucuronidation and sulphation of paracetamol (APAP) among HIV-positive patients and patients with AIDS. Methods The extent of APAP glucuronidation and APAP sulphation was assessed using a spot urine sample collected 4 h after the oral administration of 500 mg of APAP to 108 patients with AIDS or HIV infection. The molar concentrations of APAP and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites were determined using a validated h.p.l.c. method and glucuronidation and sulphation indices were constructed using APAP metabolite/APAP molar concentration ratios. Results No effect of disease state, AIDS vs asymptomatic HIV positive vs control, on APAP glucuronidation or sulphation was observed. The patient population was studied over time and disease progression also did not significantly alter the calculated glucuronidation and sulphation indices. The effect of the concomitant administration of other therapeutic agents was assessed and in the cross sectional portion of the study dapsone appeared to significantly decrease APAP sulphation as did lamivudine. In the longitudinal portion of the study the latter effect was not observed but zidovudine was seen to increase APAP glucuronidation. The data also indicates that APAP glucuronidation may be reduced in patients who are >10% below their ideal body weight. PMID:10594484
O'Neil, W M; Pezzullo, J C; Di Girolamo, A; Tsoukas, C M; Wainer, I W
To gauge the effect of disease state and disease progression on the glucuronidation and sulphation of paracetamol (APAP) among HIV-positive patients and patients with AIDS. The extent of APAP glucuronidation and APAP sulphation was assessed using a spot urine sample collected 4 h after the oral administration of 500 mg of APAP to 108 patients with AIDS or HIV infection. The molar concentrations of APAP and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites were determined using a validated h.p.l.c. method and glucuronidation and sulphation indices were constructed using APAP metabolite/APAP molar concentration ratios. No effect of disease state, AIDS vs asymptomatic HIV positive vs control, on APAP glucuronidation or sulphation was observed. The patient population was studied over time and disease progression also did not significantly alter the calculated glucuronidation and sulphation indices. The effect of the concomitant administration of other therapeutic agents was assessed and in the cross sectional portion of the study dapsone appeared to significantly decrease APAP sulphation as did lamivudine. In the longitudinal portion of the study the latter effect was not observed but zidovudine was seen to increase APAP glucuronidation. The data also indicates that APAP glucuronidation may be reduced in patients who are >10% below their ideal body weight.
Ferré, C; Mascaró, J; Benasco, C; Ramos, E; Pérez, J L; Podzamczer, D
Two cases of acute abdomen--because of acute appendicitis and paralytic ileus--due to cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients are reported. In both patients evolution was subacute and cytomegalic inclusions were seen in the histologic examination of the surgical samples. The two patients died after surgery. The possibility of cytomegalovirus infection must be kept in mind in AIDS patients who undergo urgent abdominal laparatomy and early treatment should be instituted.
Belkora, Jeff; Volz, Shelley; Loth, Meredith; Teng, Alexandra; Zarin-Pass, Margot; Moore, Dan; Esserman, Laura
Decision aids educate patients about treatment options and outcomes. Communication aids include question lists, consultation summaries, and audio-recordings. In efficacy studies, decision aids increased patient knowledge, while communication aids increased patient question-asking and information recall. Starting in 2004, we trained successive cohorts of post-baccalaureate, pre-medical interns to coach patients in the use of decision and communication aids at our university-based breast cancer clinic. From July 2005 through June 2012, we used the RE-AIM framework to measure Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance of our interventions. 1. Reach: Over the study period, our program sent a total of 5,153 decision aids and directly administered 2,004 communication aids. In the most recent program year (2012), out of 1,524 eligible patient appointments, we successfully contacted 1,212 (80%); coached 1,110 (73%) in the self-administered use of decision and communication aids; sent 958 (63%) decision aids; and directly administered communication aids for 419 (27%) patients. In a 2010 survey, coached patients reported self-administering one or more communication aids in 81% of visits 2. Effectiveness: In our pre-post comparisons, decision aids were associated with increased patient knowledge and decreased decisional conflict. Communication aids were associated with increased self-efficacy and number of questions; and with high ratings of patient preparedness and satisfaction 3. Adoption: Among visitors sent decision aids, 82% of survey respondents reviewed some or all; among those administered communication aids, 86% reviewed one or more after the visit 4. Through continuous quality adaptations, we increased the proportion of available staff time used for patient support (i.e. exploitation of workforce capacity) from 29% in 2005 to 84% in 2012 5. Maintenance: The main barrier to sustainability was the cost of paid intern labor. We addressed this by
Poznansky, M. C.; Coker, R.; Skinner, C.; Hill, A.; Bailey, S.; Whitaker, L.; Renton, A.; Weber, J.
OBJECTIVES--To study the presentation and survival of patients who present with their first diagnosis of being HIV positive at the same time as their AIDS defining illness. DESIGN--Retrospective study of patients presenting with AIDS between 1991 and 1993. SETTING--Department of genitourinary medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--AIDS defining illness at presentation and survival after diagnosis of AIDS. RESULTS--Between January 1991 and December 1993, 97 out of 436 patients (22%) presented with their first AIDS defining illness coincident with their first positive result of an HIV test (group B). The remaining 339 patients (78%) had tested positive for HIV-1 infection within the previous eight years and had consequently been followed up in clinics before developing their first AIDS defining illness (group A). The two groups of patients did not differ in age and sex distribution, risk factors for HIV-1 infection, nationality, country of origin, or haematological variables determined at the time of the AIDS defining illness. However, the defining illnesses differed between the two groups. Illnesses associated with severe immunodeficiency (the wasting syndrome, cryptosporidiosis, and cytomegalovirus infection) were seen almost exclusively in group A whereas extrapulmonary tuberculosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were more common in group B. The survival of patients in group B after the onset of AIDS was significantly longer than that of patients in group A as determined by Kaplan-Meier log rank analysis (P = 0.0026). CONCLUSIONS--Subjects who are HIV positive and present late are a challenge to the control of the spread of HIV infection because they progress from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS without receiving health care. The finding that presentation with an AIDS defining illness coincident with a positive result in an HIV test did not have a detrimental effect on survival gives insights into the effects of medical intervention on
Ulusoy, Seçkin; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; San, Turhan; Cingi, Cemal
We retrospectively investigated patient satisfaction with different types of hearing aids in 107 patients-60 males and 47 females, aged 8 to 84 years (mean: 53.8)-with unilateral or bilateral hearing loss, each of whom used two different hearing devices for at least 3 years per device. The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids, Turkish edition (IOI-HA-TR) was used to evaluate satisfaction levels; we also calculated our own total individual subjective satisfaction (TISS) scores. We divided 16 different hearing devices into two types: device 1 and device 2; on average, device 2 had more channels, a lower minimum frequency, and a higher maximum frequency. We found that the IOI-HA-TR scores and TISS scores were higher and usage time was greater during device 2 use, and that there was a positive correlation between IOI-HA-TR and TISS scores. A total of 69 patients (64.5%) used device 2 for more than 8 hours per day, while 38 patients (35.5%) used it for 4 to 8 hours per day during the final 2 weeks of the trial. In contrast, 40 patients (37.4%) used device 1 for more than 8 hours, 50 (46.7%) used it for 4 to 8 hours, and the remaining 17 (15.9%) used it for less than 4 hours; the difference in the duration of use of the two devices was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Younger patients and patients with more education were more satisfied with their devices than were older patients and those who were not as well educated. We conclude that devices with good technologic features such as more channels, a lower minimum frequency, and a higher maximum frequency result in better hearing. Also, based on the age difference that we observed, we recommend that psychological support be provided to older patients with aided hearing to enhance their mental health and quality of life.
Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan; Bayır, Ömer; Er, Serap; Işık, Eray; Saylam, Güleser; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Özdek, Ali
The aims of this study are to reveal patient compliance and satisfaction in hearing aid-prescribed adult population and to determine the relevant clinical factors. The study was designed retrospectively, and those patients who have been using hearing aid for at least 6 months were invited for evaluation. Demographical data, hearing aid type (digital vs analog), general satisfaction, and daily usage time were asked. Then, the Hearing Aid Satisfaction Questionnaire (HASQ) was applied to all patients which included visual analog scale (VAS)-based 10 questions about the effects of hearing aid on social communication, efficiency, cosmetics, life quality and cost. Totally 400 patients were included in the study. The HASQ was confirmed to be highly reliable by "Kaiser Meyer Olkin and Bartlett Sphericity" tests after exclusion of aid-cost question. There was a negative correlation between age and satisfaction, and a positive correlation between hearing aid usage time (years) and satisfaction (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between mean HASQ scores regarding gender, employment status, hearing aid type and the site of hearing aid wearing. HASQ scores were significantly worse in pure sensorineural loss type, lower educational status, shorter daily usage time, but better in higher pure tone threshold levels (p < 0.05). Age, time of hearing aid usage daily, type of hearing impairment, the threshold of hearing and education were the factors affecting satisfaction. Regular daily usage of hearing aid should be encouraged in patients, since by this way aid usage and satisfaction may be improved.
Panciera, D; Menoni, O; Ricci, M G; Occhipinti, E
A fundamental part of the prevention strategies aimed at reducing risk due to manual handling of patients is the use of appropriate aids. This paper defines the basic types of aids for hospital wards: patient lifting devices, aids for hygiene and minor aids; and also proposes a procedure for choice of the type of aid: the procedure uses a specific protocol and also analyzes work organization and the environmental features of the ward. The proposed criteria for choice concern in the first place the fundamental requirements of the equipment: safety for operator and patient, simplicity of use and comfort for the patient. Secondly the basic determinants for choice of the type of aid are the type of disabled patient usually present in the ward and the analysis of the movements made in handling patients. On this basis, for each type of aid, the specific features are defined which direct the choice of supply for the various wards that will be adequate and effective both in reducing risk due to manual handling of patients and in improving the comfort of the patients.
Rudek, Michelle A.; Flexner, Charles; Ambinder, Richard F.
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have reduced morbidity and mortality of AIDS-related complications. However, there is an increase in the prevalence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers. This article provides an up-to-date review of management of HAART pharmacotherapy in the context of cytotoxic chemotherapy or targeted antineoplastic agents. PMID:21570912
Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Maneira, Frederico Ricardo Zago; De Oliveira, Renata Mônica; Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge
This report describes a 29-year-old man with AIDS and disseminated lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis diagnosis presenting a poor therapeutic adhesion to itraconazole therapy that later evolved to neurological impairment and death. Necropsy showed granulomatous reaction and yeast-like forms similar to Sporothrix schenckii in meninges, lymph nodes, marrow bone, skin, testicles, epididymides and pancreas. Meningeal sporotrichosis cases associated to AIDS are reviewed in brief.
Corti, Marcelo; Solari, Rubén; De Carolis, Luis; Palmieri, Omar; Rollet, Raquel; Shah, Haroun N
Rhodococcus equi is a gram positive coccoid rod that causes pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients. We retrospectively analyzed epidemiological, clinical, microbiological, radiological, and immunological features as well as the outcomes of 13 AIDS patients with R. equi infection. Between January 1994 and December 2012, 13 patients attending the AIDS department of the Infectious Diseases reference hospital in Buenos Aires were diagnosed with R. equi infection. All were men, the median age was 27 years. At the time of diagnosis, the median of CD4+ T cell counts was 11 cells/μl Twelve patients presented pulmonary disease with isolation of the microorganism from sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage; in the other patient the diagnosis was postmortem with positive culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The most frequent clinical manifestations were fever, haemoptysis, and weight loss. The predominant radiological finding was lobe consolidation with cavitation. Nine patients died after a median survival of 5.5 months. In all of them, cultures persisted positive until the last admission. The other 4 patients did continue clinical follow-ups. The insidious course of R. equi disease and the difficulties in the isolation of the microorganism contribute to the delay in the diagnosis and to the high mortality rate of this opportunistic infection.
McKay, Richard A
This article contextualizes the production and reception of And the Band Played On, Randy Shilts's popular history of the initial recognition of the American AIDS epidemic. Published over twenty-five years ago, the book and its most notorious character, "Patient Zero," are in particular need of a critical historical treatment. The article presents a more balanced consideration-a "patient's view"-of Gaétan Dugas's experience of the early years of AIDS. I oppose the assertion that Dugas, the so-called Patient Zero, ignored incontrovertible information about the condition and was intent on spreading his infection. Instead I argue that scientific ideas in 1982 and 1983 about AIDS and the transmissibility of a causative agent were later portrayed to be more self-evident than they were at the time. The article also traces how Shilts's highly selective-and highly readable-characterization of Dugas rapidly became embedded in discussions about the need to criminalize the reckless transmission of HIV.
O'Neill, Elizabeth S; Grande, Stuart W; Sherman, Ariel; Elwyn, Glyn; Coylewright, Megan
Atrial fibrillation is a common irregular heart rhythm that increases patients' risk of stroke. Aspirin, warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants, and an implantable device can reduce this risk. Given the availability of multiple comparable options, this decision depends on patient preferences and is appropriate for the use of decision aids and other efforts to promote shared decision making. The objective of this review was to examine the existence and accessibility of, as well as select outcomes associated with, published, formally evaluated patient decision aids for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Six databases were searched from inception to March 2016 with a research librarian. Two authors independently reviewed potential articles, selected trials meeting inclusion criteria, and assessed outcome measures. Outcomes included patient knowledge, involvement, choice, and decisional conflict. The search resulted in 666 articles; most were excluded for not examining stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 7 studies were eventually included. Six decision aids displayed combinations of aspirin, warfarin, or no therapy; 1 included a direct oral anticoagulant. Interventions were associated with increased patient knowledge, increased likelihood of making a choice, and low decisional conflict. Use of decision aids in this review was associated with less selection of warfarin. None of the tested decision aids are currently available. Published patient decision aids for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation are not accessible for clinical use. Given the availability of multiple comparable options, there is a need to develop and test new patient decision aids in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alfonso, Yenisey; Fraga, Jorge; Fonseca, Carlos; Jiménez, Narciso; Pinillos, Taimy; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Cox, Raymundo; Capó, Virginia; Pomier, Olga; Bandera, Francisco; Ginorio, Dora
Background Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In Cuba, despite the highly active antiretroviral therapy, TE is still the most important cause of cerebral mass lesions in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR may facilitate the diagnosis and follow-up of TE in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients by direct identification of parasite DNA in clinical samples. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a rapid PCR method using the B1 gene to detect T. gondii in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with suspected TE. Methods CSF samples from AIDS and HIV-negative patients were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for AIDS-related TE: AIDS patients with suspected neurotoxoplasmosis and AIDS and HIV-negative patients with other confirmed neurological diseases but no suspicions of TE. Predictive values, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the PCR B1 method were calculated. Results The results obtained from 190 patients showed that this assay has a good sensitivity and specificity (83.3% and 95.7%, respectively) for the diagnosis of TE in AIDS patients. Conclusion PCR using the B1 gene and B22/B23 set of primers is a single, rapid and reliable method that may be valuable for discrimination between toxoplasmosis and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. PMID:19267913
Grace, E. G.; Cohen, L. A.; Ward, M. A.
A telephone survey of 1477 households in Maryland examined the public's attitudes toward physicians and the treatment of AIDS patients. The results indicated that most respondents (86%) want to know their physician's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and that 65% would change physicians if that physician had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Approximately 50% did not know if their doctor treated AIDS patients, but the majority (68%) responded they would not change doctors because they treated AIDS patients. Significant differences were found in respondents' opinions related to age and education. It was also found that the majority of respondents (57%) received their information about AIDS from the mass media and that very few received their information from medical or other health sources. PMID:1507258
Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…
Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…
Brashers, Dale E.; Haas, Stephen M.; Klingle, Renee S.; Neidig, Judith L.
Describes parallel persuasive processes between social or political activism and personal self-advocacy in a study of AIDS activism and communication patterns between people with HIV or AIDS and health care personnel. Encourages greater patient education about the illness and treatment options. Promotes a more assertive stance toward health care,…
Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.
Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.
Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María F; Palmieri, Omar; Negroni, Ricardo
Disseminated histoplasmosis is a relatively common AIDS-defining illness, occurring in almost 4% of patients living in endemic areas and it may be the first clinical expression of the HIV infection. A broad spectrum of clinical skin lesions associated with Histoplasma capsulatum infection have been described in AIDS patients, such as erythematous macules, papules, nodules, and pustules. Herpetic, acneiform, erythema multiforme-like, molluscum contagiosum-like, vasculitic, and exfoliative forms have also been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient presented as a rupioid eruption.
In 2003, the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration was established to enhance the quality and effectiveness of patient decision aids by establishing an evidence-informed framework for improving their content, development, implementation, and evaluation. Over this 10 year period, the Collaboration has established: a) the background document on 12 core dimensions to inform the original modified Delphi process to establish the IPDAS checklist (74 items); b) the valid and reliable IPDAS instrument (47 items); and c) the IPDAS qualifying (6 items), certifying (6 items + 4 items for screening), and quality criteria (28 items). The objective of this paper is to describe the evolution of the IPDAS Collaboration and discuss the standardized process used to update the background documents on the theoretical rationales, evidence and emerging issues underlying the 12 core dimensions for assessing the quality of patient decision aids. PMID:24624947
Volk, Robert J; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Stacey, Dawn; Elwyn, Glyn
In 2003, the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration was established to enhance the quality and effectiveness of patient decision aids by establishing an evidence-informed framework for improving their content, development, implementation, and evaluation. Over this 10 year period, the Collaboration has established: a) the background document on 12 core dimensions to inform the original modified Delphi process to establish the IPDAS checklist (74 items); b) the valid and reliable IPDAS instrument (47 items); and c) the IPDAS qualifying (6 items), certifying (6 items + 4 items for screening), and quality criteria (28 items). The objective of this paper is to describe the evolution of the IPDAS Collaboration and discuss the standardized process used to update the background documents on the theoretical rationales, evidence and emerging issues underlying the 12 core dimensions for assessing the quality of patient decision aids.
Skrzypek, Aleksandra; Sekula, Alicja; Deryło, Maria Bratumiła; Kuśmierczyk, Joanna; Talar, Marcin
To assess the hearing impairment in people over 60 years old using hearing aids. This was a single-center study, but it is planned to extend it further to the whole country. The study was focused on patients with hearing aids. During the assessment 57 people were included in the observation in order to control the status of their hearing loss and benefit from traditional hearing aids as well as the possibility to apply the auditory implants in case of a little benefit from hearing aids. The otoscopy and pure tone audiometry were performed as well as the questionnaires on demographic and epidemiological data of patients were collected as well as the quality of their life with hearing aids was subjectively assessed. The results show that 91% of patients have sensorineural hearing loss (SHL), the remaining 9%--severe mixed hearing loss. Severe SHL was found in 22 patients, the moderate hearing loss was observed in 37%, and the profound SHL was the case in 5 patients. Minimal SHL was observed in 7% of patients (n=4). More than 73% of the study subjects were male (n=38). The average age of the patients who completed the survey was 74 years old. Thirty-five patients used their hearing aid over 3 years and less than 70% of them used it every day all day. Hearing aid was not actively used by 10 patients. Over the last year 51.92% of the patients underwent a hearing examination. The bone anchored hearing aid was suggested to 2% of subjects and the cochlear implant was offered to 10 patients. The data analysis shows the need to educate and inform the elderly about alternative methods of hearing loss treatment. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.
Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Constance, P; Nitz, R
Lymphocytopenia is often present in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and has been suggested as a useful screening test for AIDS. Of 625 patients consecutively admitted to an acute care university teaching hospital 91 (15%) were found to have a lymphocyte count of less than 1 X 10(9)/L, and 25 (4%) had a count of less than 0.5 X 10(9)/L. The corresponding figures for 32 patients at the hospital in whom AIDS had been diagnosed were 13 (41%) and 4 (13%). Absolute lymphocyte counts in hospitalized patients should not be used as the sole means of identifying patients at high risk for AIDS. PMID:4016638
Arevalo, J. Fernando; Garcia, Reinaldo A.; Arevalo, Fernando A.; Fernandez, Carlos F.
To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics of ischemic maculopathy in two patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis developed ischemic maculopathy. Both patients presented with central visual loss and active granular CMV retinitis. The presence of opacification of the superficial retina in the macular area and intraretinal edema suggested the diagnosis. Fluorescein angiography changes were similar in the two cases with enlargement of the foveal avascular zone and late staining of juxtafoveal vessels. OCT changes were suggestive of retinal ischemia: Increased reflectivity from the inner retinal layer and decreased backscattering from the retinal photoreceptors due to fluid and retinal edema. Ischemic maculopathy may cause a severe and permanent decrease in vision in AIDS patients. Fluorescein angiography and OCT should be considered in any patient with AIDS and unexplained visual loss. The mechanism of ischemic maculopathy may be multifactorial. PMID:27051496
Dhukaram, Anandhi Vivekanandan; Baber, Chris
Patients make various healthcare decisions on a daily basis. Such day-to-day decision making can have significant consequences on their own health, treatment, care, and costs. While decision aids (DAs) provide effective support in enhancing patient's decision making, to date there have been few studies examining patient's decision making process or exploring how the understanding of such decision processes can aid in extracting requirements for the design of DAs. This paper applies Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) to analyse patient's decision making in order to inform requirements for supporting self-care decision making. This study uses focus groups to elicit information from elderly cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients concerning a range of decision situations they face on a daily basis. Specifically, the focus groups addressed issues related to the decision making of CVD in terms of medication compliance, pain, diet and exercise. The results of these focus groups are used to develop high level views using CWA. CWA framework decomposes the complex decision making problem to inform three approaches to DA design: one design based on high level requirements; one based on a normative model of decision-making for patients; and the third based on a range of heuristics that patients seem to use. CWA helps in extracting and synthesising decision making from different perspectives: decision processes, work organisation, patient competencies and strategies used in decision making. As decision making can be influenced by human behaviour like skills, rules and knowledge, it is argued that patients require support to different types of decision making. This paper also provides insights for designers in using CWA framework for the design of effective DAs to support patients in self-management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colombet, I.; Chatellier, G.; Jaulent, M. C.; Degoulet, P.
We performed an overview of published controlled trials to assess the overall effectiveness of decision aids directed at improving triage of patients with acute chest pain. Searches of the Medline database identified 11 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials testing various decision aids: risk stratification system (n = 6), practice guidelines (n = 3), and formalized protocols of care (n = 2). Sensitivity, specificity of the decision aid and length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were the main outcomes. Decision aids slightly modified sensitivity and specificity (available in 5 studies), but sensitivity was already high in reference groups. Among the 9 studies providing information on LOS, 7 showed a statistically significant difference favoring the decision aid. The level of evidence concerning the efficacy of decision aids in this domain is relatively low. Larger and appropriately designed clinical trials are required to show an impact on acute cardiac ischaemia complications and mortality. PMID:10566355
Colombet, I.; Chatellier, G.; Jaulent, M. C.; Degoulet, P.
We performed an overview of published controlled trials to assess the overall effectiveness of decision aids directed at improving triage of patients with acute chest pain. Searches of the Medline database identified 11 randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials testing various decision aids: risk stratification system (n = 6), practice guidelines (n = 3), and formalized protocols of care (n = 2). Sensitivity, specificity of the decision aid and length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were the main outcomes. Decision aids slightly modified sensitivity and specificity (available in 5 studies), but sensitivity was already high in reference groups. Among the 9 studies providing information on LOS, 7 showed a statistically significant difference favoring the decision aid. The level of evidence concerning the efficacy of decision aids in this domain is relatively low. Larger and appropriately designed clinical trials are required to show an impact on acute cardiac ischaemia complications and mortality. PMID:10566454
da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz
The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.
Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Patient Recall of Their Clinical Care Team; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Clinician-patient Communication; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Overall Patient Satisfaction
Johnson, J L; Shiratsuchi, H; Toba, H; Ellner, J J
Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare is a frequent cause of late disseminated infection in patients with AIDS. The ability of human peripheral blood monocytes to phagocytose and kill M. avium was examined in an in vitro model. Monocytes were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers and 11 patients with AIDS, three of whom had documented disseminated M. avium infection. Monocytes were precultured for 2 days before infection with two AIDS-associated and two non-AIDS-associated strains of M. avium. Uptake of M. avium as measured by counting intracellular acid-fast bacilli did not differ among healthy subjects, patients with AIDS, or patients with AIDS and previously documented disseminated M. avium infection. Intracellular growth of M. avium was examined by a CFU assay of cell lysates from M. avium-infected monocytes after 0, 4, and 7 days of culture. Intracellular growth inhibition of M. avium at 7 days after infection was comparable between patients with AIDS and healthy donors for all M. avium strains tested. The effects of the addition of recombinant gamma interferon on M. avium uptake and intracellular growth in monocytes also were studied. Pretreatment of monocytes with gamma interferon prior to infection suppressed monocyte phagocytosis of M. avium. Continuously coculturing of monocytes with gamma interferon after infection augmented killing of M. avium among both patients with AIDS and healthy controls for three of the four strains of M. avium tested. The magnitude of this effect, however, was variable from donor to donor and strain to strain. No significant differences were noted between the growth-inhibiting abilities of gamma-interferon-treated monocytes obtained from healthy volunteers and those obtained from patients with AIDS. PMID:1910011
Amancio, Rodrigo T; Japiassu, Andre M; Gomes, Rachel N; Mesquita, Emersom C; Assis, Edson F; Medeiros, Denise M; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Bozza, Patrícia T; Castro-Faria Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Fernando A
In recent years, the incidence of sepsis has increased in critically ill HIV/AIDS patients, and the presence of severe sepsis emerged as a major determinant of outcomes in this population. The inflammatory response and deregulated cytokine production play key roles in the pathophysiology of sepsis; however, these mechanisms have not been fully characterized in HIV/AIDS septic patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included HIV/AIDS and non-HIV patients with septic shock. We measured clinical parameters and biomarkers (C-reactive protein and cytokine levels) on the first day of septic shock and compared these parameters between HIV/AIDS and non-HIV patients. We included 30 HIV/AIDS septic shock patients and 30 non-HIV septic shock patients. The HIV/AIDS patients presented low CD4 cell counts (72 [7-268] cells/mm(3)), and 17 (57%) patients were on HAART before hospital admission. Both groups were similar according to the acute severity scores and hospital mortality. The IL-6, IL-10 and G-CSF levels were associated with hospital mortality in the HIV/AIDS septic group; however, the CRP levels and the surrogates of innate immune activation (cytokines) were similar among HIV/AIDS and non-HIV septic patients. Age (odds ratio 1.05, CI 95% 1.02-1.09, p=0.002) and the IL-6 levels (odds ratio 1.00, CI 95% 1.00-1.01, p=0.05) were independent risk factors for hospital mortality. IL-6, IL-10 and G-CSF are biomarkers that can be used to predict prognosis and outcomes in HIV/AIDS septic patients. Although HIV/AIDS patients are immunocompromised, an innate immune response can be activated in these patients, which is similar to that in the non-HIV septic population. In addition, age and the IL-6 levels are independent risk factors for hospital mortality irrespective of HIV/AIDS disease.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major public health problem. Considering their high morbidity and potential short and long term after effects, physicians must have enough knowledge on the management of these infections for a correct prevention, diagnosis and treatment. HIV infection is associated with STI, not only because they share route of transmission, but also because they lead to an increased risk of HIV transmission. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines, for the evaluation, management and prevention of STI in HIV-infected patients, from a panel of experts in HIV, dermatologists, proctologic surgeons, and microbiologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan (PNS).
Sjamsoedin, D A; Molendijk, G; Schulten, E A; ten Kate, R W; van der Waal, I
Every dentist should accept the responsibility of treating HIV-infected and AIDS' patients in his own office. By taking the appropriate hygienic measures, the risk of HIV-transmission in the dental office can be almost completely eliminated.
Lebovits, A H; Lefkowitz, M; McCarthy, D; Simon, R; Wilpon, H; Jung, R; Fried, E
In light of the lack of any prior systematic evaluations of the prevalence and types of pain syndromes and treatments found in patients with AIDS, a chart review study was undertaken to evaluate this issue. Fifty-two of 96 charts reviewed (54%) had at least one note on nonprocedural pain or analgesic prescription. Although chest pain was the most prevalent pain location (22%), presumably because of the high incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, other possible AIDS-related entities, such as peripheral neuropathy and thrombophlebitis, were also found. No specific AIDS syndromes could be identified that were related to a higher incidence of pain. Nearly one-third of patients with pain received codeine (31%), others received acetaminophen (27%), and 17% of patients received acetaminophen and oxycodone HCl. Specific pain management interventions must be evaluated and applied to control the nontrivial occurrence of pain in patients who have AIDS symptoms that may be overlooked by the physician given the overwhelming disease process.
Biancardi, Ana L; Freitas, Dayvison F S; Valviesse, Vitor R G de A; Andrade, Hugo B; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M; Galhardo, Maria C G; Curi, Andre L L
In this article, the authors describe multifocal choroiditis related to disseminated sporotrichosis in patients with HIV/AIDS. We conducted a retrospective observational study of three patients infected with HIV who presented with disseminated sporotrichosis characterized by cutaneous lesions, multifocal choroiditis, and other manifestations, including osteomyelitis and involvement of the bone marrow, larynx, pharynx, and nasal and oral mucosa. Five eyes of three patients with HIV/AIDS showed multifocal choroiditis related to disseminated sporotrichosis. The CD4 counts ranged from 25 to 53 mm. All patients were asymptomatic visually. The ocular disease was bilateral in two patients. The lesion size ranged from 1/3 to 2 disc diameters. None of the patients had vitritis. Of the 12 lesions, 9 were localized in the posterior pole (Zone 1) and 3 were localized in the mild periphery (Zone 2). Multifocal choroiditis due to disseminated sporotrichosis can occur in profoundly immunosuppressed patients with HIV/AIDS.
Zoufaly, Alexander; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Reekie, Joanne; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens; Reiss, Peter; Jevtovic, Djordje; Machala, Ladislav; Zangerle, Robert; Mocroft, Amanda; Van Lunzen, Jan
The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated. Patients in EuroSIDA starting at least 1 new antiretroviral drug with CD4<350 cells/µl and viral load (VL)>500 copies/mL were followed-up from the first day of VL< = 50 copies/ml until a new fatal/non-fatal non-AIDS/AIDS event. Considered non-AIDS events included non-AIDS malignancies, pancreatitis, severe liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy (>grade 3), cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and end-stage renal disease. Patients were classified over time according to whether current CD4 count was above (non-ID) or below (ID) baseline level. Relative rates (RR) of events were calculated for ID vs. non-ID using adjusted Poisson regression models. 2,913 patients contributed 11,491 person-years for the analysis of non-AIDS. 241 pre-specified non-AIDS events (including 84 deaths) and 89 AIDS events (including 10 deaths) occurred. The RR of developing pre-specified non-AIDS events for ID vs. non-ID was 1.96 (95% CI 1.37-2.81, p<0.001) in unadjusted analysis and 1.43 (0.94-2.17, p = 0.095) after controlling for current CD4 count. ID was not associated with the risk of AIDS events (aRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.41-1.38, p = 0.361). Compared to CD4 responders, patients with immuno-virological discordance may be at increased risk of developing non-AIDS events. Further studies are warranted to establish whether in patients with ID, strategies to directly modify CD4 count response may be needed besides the use of ART.
Vandemheen, Katherine L; O'Connor, Annette; Bell, Scott C; Freitag, Andreas; Bye, Peter; Jeanneret, Alphonse; Berthiaume, Yves; Brown, Neil; Wilcox, Pearce; Ryan, Gerard; Brager, Nancy; Rabin, Harvey; Morrison, Nancy; Gibson, Peter; Jackson, Mary; Paterson, Nigel; Middleton, Peter; Aaron, Shawn D
We developed an evidence-based decision aid for patients with advanced cystic fibrosis considering referral for lung transplantation. To prospectively evaluate whether use of the decision aid increased knowledge about the options, improved realistic expectations, and decreased decisional conflict in adult patients. We performed a single-blind randomized controlled trial involving 149 adult patients with cystic fibrosis with an FEV(1)
Vidal, José E; Colombo, Fabio Antonio; de Oliveira, Augusto C Penalva; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia
Highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the incidence of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system in AIDS patients. However, neurological abnormalities still remain important causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In Brazil, cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients. For these reasons, early, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests must be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA, and to determine if the association of PCR with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We studied two sample groups. First, we analyzed stored CSF samples from 29 newborns and from 39 adults with AIDS without a definitive diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The goal of this step was to standardize the methodology with a simple and economical procedure to recover the T. gondii DNA. Next, we prospectively evaluated CSF samples from 12 AIDS patients with a first episode of cerebral toxoplasmosis and 18 AIDS patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases and without previous cerebral toxoplasmosis. In all PCR samples, an indirect immunofluorescent assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed. Samples from all patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis presented positive PCR results (sensitivity, 100%), and a sample from one of the 18 AIDS patients with other neurological diseases also presented positive PCR results (specificity, 94.4%). These findings suggest the clinical utility of PCR in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in developing countries.
Vidal, José E.; Colombo, Fabio Antonio; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C.; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia
Highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the incidence of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system in AIDS patients. However, neurological abnormalities still remain important causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In Brazil, cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients. For these reasons, early, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests must be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA, and to determine if the association of PCR with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We studied two sample groups. First, we analyzed stored CSF samples from 29 newborns and from 39 adults with AIDS without a definitive diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The goal of this step was to standardize the methodology with a simple and economical procedure to recover the T. gondii DNA. Next, we prospectively evaluated CSF samples from 12 AIDS patients with a first episode of cerebral toxoplasmosis and 18 AIDS patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases and without previous cerebral toxoplasmosis. In all PCR samples, an indirect immunofluorescent assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed. Samples from all patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis presented positive PCR results (sensitivity, 100%), and a sample from one of the 18 AIDS patients with other neurological diseases also presented positive PCR results (specificity, 94.4%). These findings suggest the clinical utility of PCR in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in developing countries. PMID:15472338
Hoffman, Aubri S; Volk, Robert J; Saarimaki, Anton; Stirling, Christine; Li, Linda C; Härter, Martin; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary
In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension-the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet-is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evidence, and discusses emerging research areas. An international, multidisciplinary panel of authors examined the relevant theoretical literature and empirical evidence through 2012. The updated definition distinguishes Internet-delivery of patient decision aids from online health information and clinical practice guidelines. Theories in cognitive psychology, decision psychology, communication, and education support the value of Internet features for providing interactive information and deliberative support. Dissemination and implementation theories support Internet-delivery for providing the right information (rapidly updated), to the right person (tailored), at the right time (the appropriate point in the decision making process). Additional efforts are needed to integrate the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence from health technology perspectives, such as consumer health informatics, user experience design, and human-computer interaction. As of 2012, the updated theoretical rationale and emerging evidence suggest potential benefits to delivering patient decision aids on the Internet. However, additional research is needed to identify best practices and quality metrics for Internet-based development, evaluation, and dissemination, particularly in the areas of interactivity, multimedia components, socially-generated information, and implementation strategies.
Badie, Banafsheh Moradmand; Soori, Tahereh; Kheirandish, Parastoo; Izadyar, Saeed; SeyedAlinagh, SeyedAhmad; Foroughi, Maryam; Rostamian, Alireza; Mohraz, Minoo
Bone disorders have emerged as a worrisome complication in HIV-infected patients in recent years. It is not clear that HIV infection itself or antiretroviral treatment or both are causes of bone loss. However, most studies have found a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV/AIDS patients. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients either untreated or receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy as compared with HIV negative persons. We also assessed the factors associated with these conditions. Bone Mineral Density was assessed by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry scans at the hip and lumbar spine in 36 AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and 44 HIV infected patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy (naïve patients) and 40 HIV negative individuals as control. Factors that affect BMD were also determined. Prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in different regions was significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients compared with HIV negative subjects (77.3% in HIV positive naïve patients, 86.1% in HAART-treated patients and 60% in the control group, P=0.002). Mean serum alkaline phosphatase was higher in HIV/AIDS patients than the control group (P=0.003). Osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients were associated with duration of HIV infection (P<0.0001) and antiretroviral treatment (P=0.012). Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV/AIDS patients was higher than HIV negative individuals. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV/AIDS patients was associated with duration of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment.
Wachsmannova, Lenka; Ciernikova, Sona; Majek, Juraj; Mego, Michal; Stevurkova, Viola; Zajac, Vladimir
Bacteria from the intestinal tract of Slovak and American HIV/AIDS patients and Slovak colon cancer patients were tested for the capacity to be internalized by cells of the HL-60 cell line as well as by normal human lymphocytes. They were anticipated to possess a specific characteristic, i.e. a vigorous ability to be internalized by HL-60 cells and human lymphocytes. This assumption was confirmed by gentamicin protection assay. Internalization of bacteria from HIV/AIDS patients frequently resulted in partial (patients SKM1, SKM22) or complete lysis (patients SKK1-1, SKM12) of HL-60 cells. In comparison with intramucosal bacteria isolated from patients with colorectal cancer (TSG, 883, 660, 838, 536, MZRa), their capacity to internalize HL-60 cells was found to be 15-20 times higher (USP15/7, USP1/4, USP3/3, SK725/5). Partial lysis (patients USP15/7, USP3/3 and SKM22) and complete lysis (patients USP1/4, SKK1-1/1, SKM1/6, SKM12/5) were detected also after internalization of bacteria by normal human lymphocytes. Compared to the amount of intracellular bacteria isolated from patients with HIV/AIDS, the ability of bacteria from patients with colorectal cancer to internalize normal human lymphocytes was significantly lower (10-15 times), yet still higher than that of bacteria isolated from healthy people. Our results present the ability of bacteria of colon cancer patients and HIV/AIDS patients to internalize HL-60 cells and normal human lymphocytes. The findings underline the potentially important function of bacteria in the induction of colorectal cancer and immunodeficiency. The particularly high detection ability of bacteria from HIV/AIDS patients to internalize normal human cells emphasizes their potentially important role in the process of AIDS.
Schlesinger, I; Oelrich, D M; Tyring, S K
Crusted (Norwegian) scabies in AIDS patients can be manifested in both typical and atypical forms. Although the classic, hyperkeratotic, nonpruritic lesions are most common, reported cases have ranged in spectrum from crusting with pruritus to a pruritic, papular dermatitis to those resembling Darier's disease or psoriasis. We report two additional cases of crusted scabies in AIDS patients, one with typical crusted, hyperkeratotic though pruritic lesions and one with severe pruritus and rare papules, initially misdiagnosed as "pruritus of AIDS." Because of the extremely contagious nature of crusted scabies, as well as its potential for complete cure with appropriate therapy, a high degree of suspicion for this disorder should be maintained in AIDS patients, even when the lesions do not have the classical appearance. The discovery of crusted scabies, whether in its common or its atypical form should prompt testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Lauria, F N; Petrecchia, A; Girardi, E; Ippolito, G
We reviewed data on hospital care of HIV/AIDS patients at Lazzaro Spallazani Institute between 1991 and 1999. The number of newly diagnosed AIDS cases increased until 1995 and decreased constantly thereafter. The proportion of AIDS cases diagnosed at our institution over the total number of cases reported in our region and in our country increased from 31.2 to 59.8% and from 3.9 to 8.7% respectively (p<0.001). In the entire study period, 10044 out of 18,434 (54.5%) of patients admitted to acute care wards were diagnosed with HIV related pathologies. The number of admission of HIV/AIDS patients to acute-care wards increased until 1995 and remained constant thereafter. Our data suggest that a consistent need for inpatient hospital care remains even in the era of HAART.
Sibley, M R
Mark is a 45-year-old man with advanced AIDS. His care partner, Gary, has a full-time job in the design industry. A home care aide visits Mark five days a week for 10 hours at a time to provide personal care while Gary is at work. A visiting nurse sees Mark weekly and has taught Gary how to prepare Mark's ganciclovir infusion. Every six weeks Mark meets with a nutritionist, who evaluates his dietary status and advises Gary on purchasing high-calorie foods for Mark. In May Gary must attend a conference out of town and he is worried:who will care for Mark for those three days? Gary calls the At Home Options (AHOP) nurse and explains the situation. She arranges for nighttime nursing coverage for those three days, and ensures that Mark's home care aide can stay for the weekend. Gary is able to attend his conference and concentrate on his work, secure in the knowledge that Mark will be well cared for and that scheduled respite care, although not a benefit with traditional insurance, is covered through the AHOP program.
Seacat, Jason P; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
This study investigated dental and dental hygiene students' a) perceptions of their education about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS, b) knowledge of universal precautions, c) attitudes towards treating these patients and patients perceived to be at risk for HIV infections, and d) evaluations of potential curricular activities such as discussion groups with HIV-infected patients. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires from 315 dental and 89 dental hygiene students. On average, dental students reported having learned about this topic in fever courses than dental hygiene students. However, dental students answered significantly more knowledge questions about universal precautions correctly than did dental hygiene students. This knowledge increased over the program course. Male students had significantly stronger negative attitudes towards patients at risk for or with HIV infections/AIDS than female students. Overall, dental and dental hygiene students responded positively to the suggested methods for including more material about patients with HIV infections/AIDS such as case studies, discussion groups, and closely supervised clinical experiences. This study shows that dental and dental hygiene students are interested in learning more about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS. It also adds information to previous research on factors involved in the dental healthcare providers' decisions to treat patients at risk for or with HIV infections/AIDS. The implications of these findings for curriculum development efforts are discussed.
Wu, Robert Chi; Boushey, Robin Paul; Scheer, Adena Sarah; Potter, Beth; Moloo, Husein; Auer, Rebecca; Tadros, Shaheer; Roberts, Patricia; Stacey, Dawn
In rectal cancer surgery, low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection have equivocal impact on overall quality of life. A rectal cancer decision aid was developed to help patients weigh features of options and share their preference. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a patient decision aid for mid to low rectal cancer surgery on the patients' choice and decision-making process. A before-and-after study was conducted. Baseline data collection occurred after surgeon confirmation of eligibility at the first consultation. Patients used the patient decision aid at home (online and/or paper-based formats) and completed post questionnaires. This study was conducted at an academic hospital referral center. Adults who had rectal cancer at a maximum of 10 cm proximal to the anal verge and were amenable to surgical resection were considered. Those with preexisting stoma and those only receiving abdominoperineal resection for technical reasons were excluded from the study. Patient with rectal cancer were provided with a decision aid. The primary outcomes measured were decisional conflict, knowledge, and preference for a surgical option. Of 136 patients newly diagnosed with rectal cancer over 13 months, 44 (32.4%) were eligible, 36 (81.9%) of the eligible patients consented to participate, and 32 (88.9%) patients completed the study. The mean age of participants was 61.9 ± 9.7 years and tumor location was on average 7.3 ± 2.1 cm above the anal verge. Patients had poor baseline knowledge (52.5%), and their knowledge improved by 37.5% (p < 0.0001) after they used the patient decision aid. Decisional conflict was reduced by 24.2% (p = 0.0001). At baseline, no patients preferred a permanent stoma, and after decision aid exposure, 2 patients (7.1%) preferred permanent stoma. Over 96% of participants would recommend the patient decision aid to others. This study was limited by the lack of control for potential confounders and potential response bias. The
Thaker, H J; Gobetti, J P; Green, T G
The purpose of the study was to gain information about patients' and dental students' attitudes concerning AIDS and dentistry. Opinions of patients and students at a Midwestern dental school were surveyed. The dental students' responses were not as consistent as the patient responses. Both groups felt there was a risk to patients and dentists of HIV infection. Both groups had confidence in the CDC infection control guidelines. The patient responses to the testing questions were significantly more positive than the student responses. The patients responded positively to the concept that healthcare professionals had the right to ask patients to be tested and to being required to be tested if a healthcare provider is accidentally stuck by a needle used on a patient. The dental students were more cautious with both issues. Patients would use knowledge about a healthcare provider's HIV status and the office treatment of AIDS patients to determine if they should continue treatment at that dental office.
Lasso B, Martín
The following guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections (OI) in adult HIV/AIDS patients represent the first approach to standardize the management of this patient group in Chile. The guidelines are based on scientific evidence. They intend to serve as a practical and easy-to-use tool for physicians during the process of selecting appropriate diagnostic tests and effective treatments for their patients. They also include the local experience in Chile related to OI in HIV/AIDS patients. Regular up-dates to include new scientific knowledge are proposed.
Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira; Filho, Dalmo Correia; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; dos Santos, Vitorino Modesto; da Costa, José Carlos; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Gonçalves, Jussara; de Carvalho da Cunha, Selma Freire; Jordão, Alceu A; Chiarello, Paula Garcia; Vannucchi, Helio
Malnourished patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can develop pellagra-like manifestations such as dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that patients with AIDS and diarrhea would have niacin depletion. This study compared 24-h urine excretion of N1-methyl-nicotinamide (N1MN) among patients with pellagra and patients with AIDS who did and did not have diarrhea. Three groups were studied: G1 (patients with AIDS and diarrhea, n = 5); G2 (patients with AIDS and no diarrhea, n = 7), and G3 (patients with alcoholic pellagra and without the human immunodeficiency virus, n = 8). Diarrhea was defined as the production of at least three liquid stools per day over 3 to 5 d. Studies included mucosal intestinal biopsy, malabsorption tests, detection of parasites in stool, and serum albumin measurements. Semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, anthropometry, and daily urinary N1MN excretion were also determined. Groups were matched in relation to age, sex, presence of parasites in stool, and intestinal absorption results. G1 had normal intestinal examination by light microscopy and no parasites in stools. G2 group showed lower levels of serum albumin (2.6 +/- 0.3 g/dL) when compared with G1 (3.4 +/- 0.3 g/dL) and G3 (3.1 +/- 0.7 g/dL). Except for patients with pellagra, groups met their energy requirements. Patients in G3 (0.013, 0.01-0.081 mg/dL) and G1 (0.062, 0.001-0.33 mg/dL) excreted smaller amounts of N1MN in urine than did those in G2 (0.63, 0.02-2.9 mg/dL). Patients with AIDS and diarrhea excreted less N1MN in urine than did those without diarrhea. These patients may have an impaired niacin nutritional status, possibly associated with increased metabolic needs.
Barreto, J A; Palaci, M; Ferrazoli, L; Martins, M C; Suleiman, J; Lorenço, R; Ferreira, O C; Riley, L W; Johnson, W D; Galvão, P A
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection has not been reported as a major opportunistic infection among patients with AIDS in Latin America or Africa. In this study, 125 AIDS patients who had persistent fever, anemia, and leukopenia were examined among 2628 AIDS patients admitted to Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas between May 1990 and April 1992. From the bone marrow aspirates of the 125 patients, MAC was isolated from 23 (18.4%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 9 (7.2%). Between 1985 and 1990, only 11 MAC isolations among 60,000 cultures obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative patients were documented in São Paulo. Hence, the minimal estimated rate of MAC infection in AIDS patients in this city was 23/2628, or 0.88%. These findings suggest that MAC infection is an important opportunistic infection, especially among a subset of patients with AIDS in Brazil who have clinical characteristics and risk activities similar to those associated with MAC infections in North America and Europe.
We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospi...
We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospit...
We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospi...
We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospit...
Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan
This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of <0.05. The average of innovativeness variables (M:74.12), harm avoidance (M: 65.17), reward dependence (M:50.030), and self-directedness (M:35.02) in case group in comparison with control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS.
Hoyt, M J; Staats, J A
It is important for healthcare professionals caring for HIV-infected individuals to understand the relationship among nutrition, HIV infection, and the immune system. Progressive weight loss is a major component of the clinical syndrome in persons with HIV infection and AIDS. Weight loss occurs for a variety of reasons, which, when recognized, may be preventable or treatable. Malnutrition occurring with weight loss may adversely affect the function of the immune system and further impair the infected individual's ability to avoid or recover from infection. Nursing interventions in nutritional care, outlined in this article, can help these clients improve both the quantity and quality of their lives.
Al-Itejawi, Hoda H M; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Vis, André N; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A; Hofstee, Myrna J A; van Moorselaar, Reindert Jeroen A; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M
To develop a patient decision aid and to prepare an overview of requirements for implementation. We developed a decision aid that fits the preferences of patients and health care professionals to ensure adequate uptake in clinical practice. A participatory design approach was used to acquire insight into preferences regarding the content and design of a decision aid and into barriers and aspects of the decision aid that facilitate implementation in clinical practice. Three focus group interviews with patients, their partners and health care professionals were conducted. A prototype of the decision aid was developed and presented to patients (n = 14) and health care professionals (n = 13) in semi-structured interviews. Patients (n = 5) participated in a usability study. Data were analysed by two independent coders. Health care professionals considered medical information on treatments and side effects as the most important aspect to be included in the decision aid. Patients also focused on nonmedical considerations, such as location. Both expected the decision aid to support patients in making a treatment choice. According to health care professionals, the oncology nurse was the most suitable to discuss the decision aid with patients, while some patients preferred to discuss the patient decision aid with the urologist. The main barrier to implementation of the decision aid was said to be the expectation that it is time and money consuming, while the incorporation of the decision aid into clinical guidelines and basing the content on these guidelines, would promote implementation. By using a participatory design approach a patient decision aid was designed to meet patients' and health care professionals' needs. Insight was also gained on requirements for implementation. Wide-scale implementation of decision aids is desirable. An overview is provided of requirements for implementation to successfully incorporate a decision aid into clinical practice. © 2016 John
Wu, Weiwei; Shi, Kai; Jin, Zhenghua; Liu, Shuang; Cai, Duo; Zhao, Jingchun; Chi, Cheng; Yu, Jiaao
This study explored the effect of a first aid model employing two nurses on the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. A two-nurse model of first aid was designed for major burn patients. The model includes a division of labor between the first aid nurses and the re-organization of emergency carts. The clinical effectiveness of the process was examined in a retrospective chart review of 156 cases of major burn patients, experiencing shock and low blood volume, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of the department of burn surgery between November 2009 and June 2013. Of the 156 major burn cases, 87 patients who received first aid using the double personnel model were assigned to the test group and the 69 patients who received first aid using the standard first aid model were assigned to the control group. The efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for the patients were compared between the two groups. Student's t tests were used to the compare the mean difference between the groups. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were found on both measures (P's < 0.05), with the test group having lower times than the control group. The efficient rescue operation time was 14.90 ± 3.31 min in the test group and 30.42 ± 5.65 min in the control group. The efficient resuscitation time was 7.4 ± 3.2 h in the test group and 9.5 ± 2.7 h in the control group. A two-nurse first aid model based on scientifically validated procedures and a reasonable division of labor can shorten the efficient rescue operation time and the efficient resuscitation time for major burn patients. Given these findings, the model appears to be worthy of clinical application.
Volk, Robert J; Linder, Suzanne K; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Reuland, Daniel S; Saraykar, Smita S; Leal, Viola B; Pignone, Michael P
Decision aids prepare patients to make decisions about healthcare options consistent with their preferences. Helping patients choose among available options for colorectal cancer screening is important because rates are lower than screening for other cancers. This systematic review describes studies evaluating patient decision aids for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults and their impact on knowledge, screening intentions, and uptake. Sources included Ovid MEDLINE, Elsevier EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL Plus, Ovid PsycINFO through July 21, 2015, pertinent reference lists, and Cochrane review of patient decisions aids. Reviewers independently selected studies that quantitatively evaluated a decision aid compared to one or more conditions or within a pre-post evaluation. Using a standardized form, reviewers independently extracted study characteristics, interventions, comparators, and outcomes. Analysis was conducted in August 2015. Twenty-three articles representing 21 trials including 11,900 subjects were eligible. Patients exposed to a decision aid showed greater knowledge than those exposed to a control condition (mean difference=18.3 of 100; 95% CI=15.5, 21.1), were more likely to be interested in screening (pooled relative risk=1.5; 95% CI=1.2, 2.0), and more likely to be screened (pooled relative risk=1.3; 95% CI=1.1, 1.4). Decision aid patients had greater knowledge than patients receiving general colorectal cancer screening information (pooled mean difference=19.3 of 100; 95% CI=14.7, 23.8); however, there were no significant differences in screening interest or behavior. Decision aids improve knowledge and interest in screening, and lead to increased screening over no information, but their impact on screening is similar to general colorectal cancer screening information. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shen, Guoqiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Hui; Gao, Yaying
Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P>0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between males and females. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody was 8.0%, 13.2%, 5.5%, and 0% in patients with normal immune function (CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count ≥500 cells/ml), immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥200 and <500 cells/ml), severely immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥50 and <200 cells/ml), and advanced AIDS patients, respectively (cell count <50 cells/ml), while only 3 immunocompromised patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients in eastern China, and a preventive therapy for toxoplasmosis may be given to HIV/AIDS patients based on CD4(+) T lymphocyte count.
Saki, Mandana; Mohammad Khan Kermanshahi, Sima; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mohraz, Minoo
Background: Stigma and discrimination among patients with HIV/AIDS cause various problems for the patients and their health systems. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explain the perceived experiences of the patients from stigma and discrimination and their roles on health-seeking services among patients. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative research using content analysis approach and semi-structured interviews, conducted on patients living with HIV/ADS, during 2013 - 2014 in Iran. Sampling started purposefully and continued in a snowball. Results: The experiences of patients with HIV/AIDS from stigma and discrimination led to exploring three main themes and nine subthemes. The main themes were multidimensional stigma, rejection, and insult and discrimination in receiving health services. Conclusions: Stigma and discrimination play an important role in patients' lives and hinder them from accessing the treatment. The patients' responses to this event by secrecy strategy can be an important factor in the disease prevalence. PMID:26290751
Carter, Wendy W; Gompf, Sandra G; Toney, John F; Greene, John N; Cutolo, Edward P
Acanthamoeba, a free-living ameba, has been reported to infect humans with subacute encephalitis, sinusitis, or keratitis. Multiple cases of Acanthamoeba sinusitis with dissemination have been reported in association with AIDS, with high mortality. We report successful treatment of a 35-year-old woman who presented with sinusitis that progressed to disseminated acanthamebiasis as her initial manifestation of AIDS. To our knowledge, our patient was one of the few and longest-lived survivors of disseminated Acanthamoeba infection with AIDS. As with other opportunistic infections, early aggressive therapy including HAART may alter the outcome in this almost uniformly fatal disease.
Kaimenyi, J T; Ndung'u, F L
The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive and AIDS patients amongst 71 dental auxiliaries using on a self administered questionnaire. 65 (91.5%) returned the questionnaire. In general, respondents' knowledge was fair. 87.7% felt that dentistry as practised in Kenya today carries a high risk of transmission of HIV primarily because of improper sterilization of instruments. 72.3% had changed their sex habits since they became aware of the dangers posed by indiscriminate sex. Over 67% used gloves and masks routinely when assisting in the management of AIDS patients. Over 33% did not use protective eye wear and protective covers on operatories routinely because they were not provided by the employer. 27.7% felt that AIDS and HIV positive health workers should stop treating patients. 64.6% advocated that the cost of buying materials and equipment to prevent cross infection be met by the patient and the employer or dentist. 23.1% supported the idea that HIV positive and AIDS patients be isolated from uninfected individuals. In conclusion, a substantial number of dental auxiliaries were wanting in their knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive/AIDS patients.
Ekberg, Katie; Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise
It has long been documented that patients may experience emotional reactions to a diagnosis of hearing impairment and recommendation of hearing aids. Because of this, patients may raise psychosocial concerns regarding their hearing rehabilitation during audiology appointments, particularly in relation to getting hearing aids. However, thus far there has been little systematic research exploring how patients' concerns about hearing aids are addressed by audiologists within appointments. This study used conversation analysis to examine a corpus of 63 video-recorded initial audiology appointments with older adults with hearing impairment. The findings demonstrated that when patients expressed concerns regarding hearing aids, these concerns were typically psychosocial in nature and expressed in a way that carried a negative emotional stance. These types of turns thus invited an empathic response. However, patients' concerns were not typically addressed by audiologists during the appointment. As a consequence, patients persistently re-raised their concerns in subsequent turns, leading to expanded sequences of interaction during the management phase of the appointment. Older adults' psychosocial concerns regarding hearing aids may not always be sufficiently addressed within audiology appointments. A greater emphasis on emotionally focused communication within audiology could result in improved outcomes from hearing health care services.
da Silva, Leila Cristina Ferreira; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; da Silva, Roberto Moreira; Mira, Marcelo Távora; Talhari, Carolina; Talhari, Sinésio
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare disorder characterized by persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Here, we describe a 48-year-old, black, married male with AIDS, presenting a 1-year history of asymptomatic hypopigmented lesions that appeared 3 years after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Pre-ART, the initial CD4 count was 32 cells/mm(3) and the skin lesions appeared when the CD4 count reached 122 cells/mm(3). Dermatological examination demonstrated thin, scaly, slightly verrucous hypopigmented macules and papules, isolated or presenting with a linear aspect (Köbner phenomenon) in some areas, distributed on the neck, trunk, and superior and inferior members. Skin biopsy of a macular lesion revealed epidermal acanthosis with vacuolated keratinocytes presenting blue-gray pallor, arranged in clusters at the granular and upper spinous layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of p16( INK4a) with diffuse positivity in the upper third of the epithelium, corresponding to the vacuolated keratinocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for type 12 HPV, and a diagnosis of EV-like associated to AIDS was made. EV-like is a rare disease and in this patent might be a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
Anwar, Muhammad N; Oakes, Michael P
This paper describes the analysis of a database of over 180,000 patient records, collected from over 23,000 patients, by the hearing aid clinic at James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough, UK. These records consist of audiograms (graphs of the faintest sounds audible to the patient at six different pitches), categorical data (such as age, gender, diagnosis and hearing aid type) and brief free text notes made by the technicians. This data is mined to determine which factors contribute to the decision to fit a BTE (worn behind the ear) hearing aid as opposed to an ITE (worn in the ear) hearing aid. From PCA (principal component analysis) four main audiogram types are determined, and are related to the type of hearing aid chosen. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, masker, mould and individual audiogram frequencies are combined into a single model by means of logistic regression. Some significant keywords are also discovered in the free text fields by using the chi-squared (χ(2)) test, which can also be used in the model. The final model can act a decision support tool to help decide whether an individual patient should be offered a BTE or an ITE hearing aid. The final model was tested using 5-fold cross validation, and was able to replicate the decisions of audiologists whether to fit an ITE or a BTE hearing aid with precision in the range 0.79 to 0.87. A decision support system was produced to predict the type of hearing aid which should be prescribed, with an explanation facility explaining how that decision was arrived at. This system should prove useful in providing a "second opinion" for audiologists.
Espinoza-Gómez, F; Newton-Sánchez, O A; Melnikov, V; Virgen-González, O; Unrau, J
The purpose of the present work was to inform about the first case of meningitis associated to the bacteria Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with HIV/AIDS. The patient was a 46-year-old male, with the antecedent of have been diagnosed for HIV/ AIDS, who attended in the Hospital Universitario de Colima, Mexico, with fever, shock and meningismus. The study of the cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis, elevated protein levels and hypoglycorrhachia. The culture yielded the presence of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans with sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. After 14 days of treatment with this antibiotic, the patient showed neurologic improvement and was able to continue with his outpatient antiretroviral treatment. The present case shows the importance of the inclusion of this bacterium in the differential diagnosis of the neurological infections in HIV/AIDS patients and emphasizes the importance of considering the bacterial meningitis in this population.
Yoo, Thomas W; Mlikotic, Anton; Cornford, Marcia E; Beck, C Keith
We report a case of concurrent cerebral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A 22-year-old El Salvadoran man initially improved during receipt of antitoxoplasmosis therapy, but he had rapidly progressive hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal finding in the left internal capsule, and cytological analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Despite prompt therapy with nifurtimox, the patient's mental status declined, and he died of nosocomial complications. Although infrequent, T. cruzi infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain lesions in patients with AIDS from regions of endemicity.
Huh, Jin-Gook; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jong-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yeob; Ryu, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Moon, Jeong-Seop; Kang, Yun-Kyung; Shim, Myung-Shup; Oh, Myoung-Don
Chronic diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastro-intestinal manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Protozoa and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that can easily infect these patients. Among the NTM, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequently observed pathogen in HIV-infected patients. However, NTMs other than MAC have not been reported as a gastrointestinal pathogen as yet. We present a case of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient in whom Mycobacterium ulcerans and cryptosporidium co-infection is evidenced from colonic tissue.
Rubenstein, David; Sorrentino, Diane
Successful psychotherapy with patients who test positive for HIV/AIDS involves a sensitive, careful, and thorough biopsychosocial assessment with specific, detailed attention to the impact that a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS has on overall level of patient functioning. Careful evaluation and review of a patient's level of functioning in the areas of mental health and/or substance abuse, intimate relationships, family relationships, social support and peer relationships, work, and overall health are critical to an accurate assessment. Once the clinician fully evaluates these areas, a treatment plan that identifies specific problem areas can be developed. Clear goals, objectives, and treatment modalities, which address areas of concern, can then be established.
Ng, Stella L; Phelan, Shanon; Leonard, MaryAnn; Galster, Jason
Innovations in hearing aid technology influence clinicians and individuals who use hearing aids. Little research, to date, explains the innovation adoption experiences and perspectives of clinicians and patients, which matter to a field like audiology, wherein technology innovation is constant. By understanding clinician and patient experiences with such innovations, the field of audiology may develop technologies and ways of practicing in a manner more responsive to patients' needs, and attentive to society's influence. The authors aimed to understand how new innovations influence clinician and patient experiences, through a study focusing on connected hearing aids. "Connected" refers to the wireless functional connection of hearing aids with everyday technologies like mobile phones and tablets. The authors used a qualitative collective case study methodology, borrowing from constructivist grounded theory for data collection and analysis methods. Specifically, the authors designed a collective case study of a connected hearing aid and smartphone application, composed of two cases of experience with the innovation: the case of clinician experiences, and the case of patient experiences. The qualitative sampling methods employed were case sampling, purposive within-case sampling, and theoretical sampling, and culminated in a total collective case n = 19 (clinician case n = 8; patient case n = 11). These data were triangulated with a supplementary sample of ten documents: relevant news and popular media collected during the study time frame. The authors conducted interviews with the patients and clinicians, and analyzed the interview and document data using the constant comparative method. The authors compared their two cases by looking at trends within, between, and across cases. The clinician case highlighted clinicians' heuristic-based candidacy judgments in response to the adoption of the connected hearing aids into their practice. The patient case revealed
Dolan, James G.; Cherkasky, Olena A.; Chin, Nancy; Veazie, Peter J.
Background Conscious and unconscious biases can influence how people interpret new information and make decisions. Current standards for creating decision aids, however, do not address this issue. Method Using a 2×2 factorial design we sent surveys to members of two Internet survey panels containing a decision scenario involving a choice between aspirin or a statin drug to lower risk of heart attack and a decision aid. Each aid presented identical information about reduction in heart attack risk and likelihood of a major side effect. They differed in whether the options were labeled and amount of decisional guidance: information only (a balance sheet) versus information plus values clarification (a multicriteria decision analysis). After using the decision aid, participants indicated their preferred medication. Those using a multicriteria decision aid also judged differences in the comparative outcome data provided for the two options and the relative importance of achieving benefits versus avoiding risks in making the decision. Results The study sample size is 536. Participants using decision aids with unlabeled options were more likely to choose a statin: 56% versus 25%, p < 0.001. The type of decision aid made no difference. This effect persists after adjusting for differences in survey company, age, gender, education level, health literacy, and numeracy. Participants using unlabeled decision aids were also more likely to interpret the data presented as favoring a statin with regard to both treatment benefits and risk of side effects (p ≤ 0.01). There were no significant differences in decision priorities (p=0.21). Conclusion Identifying the options in patient decision aids can influence patient preferences and change how they interpret comparative outcome data. PMID:26229084
Riera, M; Altés, J; Villalonga, C; Salas, A; Homar, F; Picco, G; Leyes, M; Rifà, J
Longitudinal follow-up studies in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS, which are fundamental for the knowledge of variations the natural history of this disease, have generally been carried out by Public Health Departments and in populations in which homosexual males predominate. The aim of the present study was to analyze the changes in the natural history of the patients diagnosed with AIDS in the islands of Mallorca and Ibiza. A prospective study of the adult patients diagnosed with AIDS in Mallorca and Ibiza, from 1986 to 1992 was performed. The annual incidence of the cases of AIDS increased throughout the study. The mean age of the patients did not vary, and neither did that in relation to sexes. A progressive decrease was observed in CD4 lymphocytes at the time of diagnosis (from 0.168 x 10(9)/l in 1986 to 0.079 x 10(9)/l in 1992). There was an increase in heterosexual transmission patients with no known risk factors also increased over the period studied. The incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis decreased both as the form of presentation and in its global frequency. Pneumonia by Pneumocystis carinii increased mainly as a initial feature. The median survival was 547 days and did not vary significantly throughout the study. The epidemiologic and clinical study of AIDS in Mallorca and Ibiza, Spain is similar to that observed in other Mediterranean regions. The incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis has decreased.
Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Tremont, Katie; Vachani, Anil; Schapira, Marilyn M; Vapiwala, Neha; Simone, Charles B; Berman, Abigail T
Cancer treatment decisions are complex and may be challenging for patients, as multiple treatment options can often be reasonably considered. As a result, decisional support tools have been developed to assist patients in the decision-making process. A commonly used intervention to facilitate shared decision-making is a decision aid, which provides evidence-based outcomes information and guides patients towards choosing the treatment option that best aligns with their preferences and values. To ensure high quality, systematic frameworks and standards have been proposed for the development of an optimal aid for decision making. Studies have examined the impact of these tools on facilitating treatment decisions and improving decision-related outcomes. In radiation oncology, randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that decision aids have the potential to improve patient outcomes, including increased knowledge about treatment options and decreased decisional conflict with decision-making. This article provides an overview of the shared-decision making process and summarizes the development, validation, and implementation of decision aids as patient educational tools in radiation oncology. Finally, this article reviews the findings from decision aid studies in radiation oncology and offers various strategies to effectively implement shared decision-making into clinical practice.
Saint-Marc Girardin, M F; Le Minor, M; Alperovitch, A; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Metreau, J M; Dhumeaux, D
A model has been developed for ordering diagnostic tests in jaundiced patients. The system proceeds in two steps: (i) diagnostic hypotheses are calculated for each patient from the results of physical examination and routine biological investigations; (ii) given these hypotheses, the most efficient test (out of 22) for reaching the final diagnosis is selected using four criteria: diagnostic value, risk, financial cost, and time in obtaining the result. This model was tested in 62 patients. In 43 of them (69%), the selected test was sufficient for reaching a diagnostic accuracy of 100%. In this group of patients, a mean of 3.7 (range 1-6) tests per patient was ordered by physicians. In the 19 remaining patients, the selected test was not sufficient for the final diagnosis, thus requiring a multiple choice process. It is suggested that such a system could help physicians to improve the care of patients by more efficient ordering of diagnostic tests. PMID:3896962
Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.
Rokx, Casper; van der Ende, Marchina E; Verbon, Annelies; Rijnders, Bart J A
In this observational cohort study, 10 patients with extensive or treatment-refractory AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma were treated with peginterferon alfa-2a. Tumor responses were observed in 9 patients with a median progression-free survival of 645 days. Peginterferon alfa-2a could be an effective therapy for extensive or treatment-resistant Kaposi sarcoma.
Li, Yu-Ye; Jin, Yong-Mei; He, Li-Ping; Bai, Jin-Song; Liu, Jun; Yu, Min; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wen, Jing; Kuang, Yi-Qun
Drug eruption is the most common clinical presentation in patients with HIV/AIDS. The systemic clinical and risk factors associated with drug eruption remain unknown. A retrospective analysis in HIV/AIDS patients with drug eruption was carried out with demographic data, epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, laboratory data and follow-up data. The risk factors correlated with prognosis were assessed by case control analysis. A total of 134 out of 1817 HIV/AIDS patients (7.4%) presented drug eruptions. The major class of sensitizing drug was HAART drugs (47.7%), followed by antibiotics (47.0%). Nevirapine (39.6%) was the most common sensitizing drug in the HAART regimens. The patients received HAART or had allergic history were prone to develop drug eruption. The alanine aminotransferase, albumin, globulin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lymphocytes, red blood cells (RBC) and eosinophils of the drug eruption patients were significantly different the control patients. The allergic history, opportunistic infection, viral load, CD4 cell count, high globulin and low albumin were the risk factors correlated with death in HIV/AIDS patients with drug eruption. It is proposed that patients with higher viral loads, higher globulin levels and lower white blood cells (WBC) should be given special attention for the prevention of complications and death. PMID:27796328
Aquino-García, S I; Rivas, M A; Ceballos-Salobreña, A; Acosta-Gio, A E; Gaitán-Cepeda, L A
Oral lesions (OL) have an important prognostic value for HIV/AIDS patients. However, the behavior of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz (HAART/EFV) has not been documented. Our objective was to establish the prevalence of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV and to compare it with the prevalence of OL in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI). Seventy-three HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment for at least for 6 months at "La Raza" Medical Center's Internal Medicine Unit (IMSS, Mexico City) were included. To detect OL, a detailed examination of oral soft tissues was performed in each patient. Patient records recorded gender, seropositivity time, route of contagion, antiretroviral therapy type and duration, CD4 lymphocyte count/ml, and viral load. Two groups were formed: 38 patients receiving HAART/EFV [two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTI) plus efavirenz] and 35 patients receiving HAART/PI (two NARTIs plus one PI). OL prevalence was established in each study group. The Chi-square test was applied (p < 0.05(IC95%)). OL prevalence in the HAART/EFV group (32%) was lower (p < 0.007) than in the HAART/PI group (63%). Candidosis was the most prevalent OL in both groups. Herpes labialis, HIV-associated necrotizing periodontitis, xerostomia, hairy leukoplakia, and nonspecific oral sores were identified. The highest prevalence for all OL was found in the HAART/PI group. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV show a lower prevalence of oral lesions than patients undergoing HAART/PI.
Laskawi, R; Winterhoff, J; Blum, J; Matthias, C
The production of sweat in the temporal skin region may be a serious problem for patients with hearing aids, active middle ear implants or cochlear implants. We report on two patients suffering from a loss of function of their hearing aid and a reduction of the "wear comfort" of an active middle ear implant. The patients underwent intracutaneous botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment of the temporal skin region. In both patients a distinct improvement of their complaints occurred, enabling them to use their hearing aids and active middle ear implants continuously. BTX injections are suited to improve sweat-caused complaints in patients with hearing aids, active middle ear implants and cochlear implants.
The aim of this paper is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal disorders, their diagnosis and treatment to the scientific community and the professionals in charge of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These recommendations have been agreed by a panel of experts from the National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA). The group have reviewed the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort studies and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented at conferences. Three levels of evidence have been defined according to the sources of data: level A, randomized controlled trials; level B, cohort or case-control; and level C, descriptive studies and expert opinion. Based on this evidence, the authors have decided to recommend, consider or not recommend for each situation. The decrease in bone mineral density is common in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, especially during the first year (from 2 to 4%), with a subsequent partial recovery. A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is recommended in patients over 50 years old with HIV infection, history of bone fractures and/or risk factors. Treatment with bisphosphonates has been shown to be effective. Osteoarticular infections are more frequent than in the non-infected population. The level of immunosuppression, risk practice, and antiretroviral treatment should be considered for a proper diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Laboratory and imaging procedures recommended for the study of musculoskeletal processes in HIV infected subjects are the same as in the general population. Osteonecrosis and decreased bone mineral density are the most frequent alterations in children. An early diagnosis of bone disorders is needed. The influence of modifiable risk factors must be avoided and initiate treatment when necessary. Bisphosphonates have been effective in osteoporosis.
Mohraz, Minoo; Mehrkhani, Farhad; Jam, Sara; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Sabzvari, Duman; Fattahi, Fatemeh; Jabbari, Hossain; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh
Toxoplasma gondii has arisen as an important opportunistic agent especially in the central nervous system and in advanced HIV disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among HIV-positive patients in Iran. Blood samples were collected from 201 HIV-positive patients and anti-toxoplasma antibodies were detected by using conventional ELISA. An antibody titer of >3 IU/ml was considered positive. The majority of studied patients were male (male to female ratio: 5 to 1) with the mean age of 36 ± 1 yrs. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients was 49.75%. The mean CD4 count in HIV patients with positive toxoplasma serology was 332.5 ± 22.4 cells/µl. Only 1% of the patients had IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies and 10% of the patients had clinical toxoplasma encephalitis. The mean CD4 count in this group was 66.4 ± 15.5 cells/µl and there was a significant association between CD4 count and rate of toxoplasma encephalitis (P<0.001). Previous reports suggested that toxoplasma encephalitis could be prevented by appropriate chemoprophylaxis. In view of the relatively high prevalence of toxoplasma infection found among the HIV-infected patients in our study, we suggest that routine screening for toxoplasma should be undertaken for all HIV-infected patients in Iran.
Longo, D L; Steis, R G; Lane, H C; Lotze, M T; Rosenberg, S A; Preble, O; Masur, H; Rook, A H; Fauci, A S; Jacob, J
Almost 40% of the 3000 US patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have a malignancy at the time of reporting, and the incidence of AIDS patients who develop a malignancy during the course of the disease may be 65-70%. 2 types of malignancies have been noted with increased frequency in AIDS victims: Kaposi's sarcoma and malignant lymphomas. About 35% of all AIDS patients and 50% of homosexual or bisexual victims have developed Kaposi's sarcoma, and those with coincident opportunistic infection have 2.5 times the mortality of those without such infection. There are 2 essential features to the histopathology of Kaposi's sarcoma: 1) vascular proliferation and 2) spindle-shaped neoplastic cells in a network of reticulin fibers that appear to be of endothelial origin. The treatment of the epidemic form of Kaposi's sarcoma has not been successful, and the projected 2-year survival is only 30%. The causes of death in the majority of such patients are overwhelming opportunistic infections, especially cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis carinii, and irreversible cachexia and wasting. Interferon therapy has had a beneficial effect in patients with disease limited to skin, with T4/T8 ratios over 0.5, and without a prior history of opportunistic infection; however, there is no evidence that interferon exerts any beneficial effects on the underlying immune defects. An aggressive 6-drug combination chemotherapy regimen has been tried on patients whose tumors appeared to be life-threatening and was effective in controlling the Kaposi's sarcoma, but again did not appreciably alter immune parameters. Several other approaches to the treatment of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma are under evaluation, including gamma interferon, interleukin-2, and plasmapheresis. Patients who develop malignant lymphomas require combined treatment with central nervous system radiation and systemic combination chemotherapy. There is no evidence that the antitumor responses obtained in AIDS
Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Kramer, Michael; Li, Yuelin; Tomarken, Alexis; Nelson, Christian; Pessin, Hayley; Esch, Julie; Galietta, Michele; Garcia, Nerina; Brechtl, John; Schuster, Michael
Background Despite the development of multi-drug regimens for HIV, palliative care and quality-of-life issues in patients with advanced AIDS remain important areas of clinical investigation. Objective Authors assessed the impact of treatment for depression on desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. Method Patients with advanced AIDS (N=372) were interviewed shortly after admission to a palliative-care facility, and were reinterviewed monthly for the next 2 months. Patients diagnosed with a major depressive syndrome were provided with antidepressant treatment and reinterviewed weekly. Desire for hastened death was assessed with two questionnaire measures. Results Desire for death was highly associated with depression, and it decreased dramatically in patients who responded to antidepressant treatment. Little change in desire for hastened death was observed in patients whose depression did not improve. Although improved depression was not significantly associated with the use of antidepressant medication, those individuals prescribed antidepressant medication showed the largest decreases in desire for hastened death. Discussion Successful treatment for depression appears to substantially decrease desire for hastened death in patients with advanced AIDS. The authors discuss implications of these findings for palliative-care treatment and the physician-assisted suicide debate. PMID:20332284
Gibson, Bryan; Butler, Jorie; Doyon, Katherine; Ellington, Lee; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng, Qing
Patient decision aids are tools intended to facilitate shared decision-making. Currently development of a patient decision aid is resource intensive: it requires a decision-specific review of the scientific literature by experts to ascertain the potential outcomes under different treatments. The goal of this project was to conduct a formative evaluation of a generalizable, scalable decision aid component we call Veterans Like Me (VLme). VLme mines EHR data to present the outcomes of individuals "like you" on different treatments to the user. These outcome are presented through a combination of an icon array and simulated narratives. Twenty-six patients participated in semi-structured interviews intended to elicit feedback on the tool's functional and interface design. The interview focused on the filters users desired with which to make cases similar to them, the kinds of outcomes they wanted presented, and their envisioned use of the tool. The interview also elicited participants information needs and salient factors related to the therapeutic decision. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an iteratively refined coding schema and content analysis. . Participants generally expressed enthusiasm for the tool's design and functionality. Our analysis identified desired filters for users to view patients like themselves, outcome types that should be included in future iterations of the tool (e.g. patient reported outcomes), and information needs that need to be addressed for patients to effectively participate in shared decision making. Implications for the integration of our findings into the design of patient decision aids are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Siau, D; Dhillon, B; Andrews, R; Green, K M J
This study aimed to report the bone-anchored hearing aid uptake and the reasons for their rejection by unilateral sensorineural deafness patients. A retrospective review of 90 consecutive unilateral sensorineural deafness patients referred to the Greater Manchester Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Programme between September 2008 and August 2011 was performed. In all, 79 (87.8 per cent) were deemed audiologically suitable: 24 (30.3 per cent) eventually had a bone-anchored hearing aid implanted and 55 (69.6 per cent) patients declined. Of those who declined, 26 (47.3 per cent) cited perceived limited benefits, 18 (32.7 per cent) cited reservations regarding surgery, 13 (23.6 per cent) preferred a wireless contralateral routing of sound device and 12 (21.8 per cent) cited cosmetic reasons. In all, 32 (40.5 per cent) suitable patients eventually chose the wireless contralateral routing of sound device. The uptake rate was 30 per cent for audiologically suitable patients. Almost half of suitable patients did not perceive a sufficient benefit to proceed to device implantation and a significant proportion rejected it. It is therefore important that clinicians do not to rush to implant all unilateral sensorineural hearing loss patients with a bone-anchored hearing aid.
Angoff, N. R.
This paper responds to the question: Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)? First, the social and political milieu in which this question arises is sampled. Here physicians as well as other members of the community are found declaring an unwillingness to be exposed to people with AIDS. Next, laws, regulations, ethical codes and principles, and the history of the practice of medicine are examined, and the literature as it pertains to these areas is reviewed. The obligation to care for patients with AIDS, however, cannot be located in an orientation to morality defined in rules and codes and an appeal to legalistic fairness. By turning to the orientation to morality that emerges naturally from connection and is defined in caring, the physicians' ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS is found. Through an exploration of the writings of modern medical ethicists, it is clear that the purpose of the practice of medicine is healing, which can only be accomplished in relationship to the patient. It is in relationship to patients that the physician has the opportunity for self-realization. In fact, the physician is physician in relationship to patients and only to the extent that he or she acts virtuously by being morally responsible for and to those patients. Not to do so diminishes the physician's ethical ideal, a vision of the physician as good physician, which has consequences for the physician's capacity to care and for the practice of medicine. PMID:1788990
Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de
Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids.
Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de
Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids. PMID:26722343
Oster, Natalia V; Jackson, Sara L; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Mejilla, Roanne; Ralston, James D; Leveille, Suzanne; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Janice D; Bell, Sigall K; Elmore, Joann G
Patients living with HIV/AIDS face large societal and medical challenges. Inviting patients to read their doctors' visit notes via secure electronic portals may empower patients and improve health. We investigated whether utilization and perceptions about access to doctors' notes differed among doctors and patients in an HIV/AIDS clinic versus primary care setting. We analyzed pre- and 1-year postintervention data from 99 doctors and 3819 patients. HIV clinic patients did not report differences in perceived risks and benefits compared to primary care clinic patients, however, they were more likely to share notes with friends (33% versus 9%, P=.002), other health professionals (24% versus 8%, P=.03), or another doctor (38% versus 9%, P<.0001). HIV clinic doctors were less likely than primary care doctors to change the level of candor in visit notes (P<.04). Our findings suggest that HIV clinic patients and doctors are ready to share visit notes online. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wheeler, D W; Baigrie, R J
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) can present with acute abdominal surgical problems, either with intra-abdominal opportunistic infection as a result of their immunosuppression, or with associated malignancies. We report a 39-year-old man who developed intermittent nausea and vomiting, which was originally thought to be a side-effect of the chemotherapy he was receiving for facial Kaposi's sarcoma. However, he was found to have intraperitoneal Kaposi's sarcoma causing small bowel obstruction, which was successfully excised at laparotomy. There were no perioperative complications despite AIDS-related respiratory disease. The patient remained free of abdominal symptoms until his death. HIV infections or AIDS alone should not be contraindications to surgery for such problems, as careful patient selection can yield good results and significantly improve quality of life.
Lee, Ji-Yong; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Song, Jae-Uk; Yim, Seo-Hyung; Shin, Dong-Suk; Yu, Jung-Hee; Ju, Deok-Yun; Yim, Jae-Wan; Song, Young-Seok; Sohn, Yoon-Jeong; Do, Sung-Im
Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (AT), an unusual form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), is characterized by pseudomembrane formation, ulcer or obstruction that is predominantly confined to tracheobronchial tree. Hematologic malignancies, neutropenia, solid organ transplantation, chronic corticosteroid therapy and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are known to be major predisposing conditions. However, since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, there is only one reported case of AT in AIDS patient. After pandemic of influenza A/H1N1 2009, there are several reports of IPA in patient with influenza and most of them received corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy before the development of IPA. We present a 45 year-old AIDS patient with influenza A infection who developed pseudomembranous AT without corticosteroid use or immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25298912
Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza
Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide.
Amadi, K; Sabo, A M; Ogunkeye, O O; Oluwole, F S
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the final and most serious stage of the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus. The Immune system is the target of AIDS. We investigate presently any possible involvement of thyroid hormone, the deficiency of which gives rise to oedema and susceptibility to nonspecific infections; with a view to finding the primary factor seeding the disease. It has been reported that circumcision reduced the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection. Beyond circumcision however there might be some constitutional factor that comprises HIV infection to clinical AIDS. It is against this background that our research team turned to possible dyshormonopoisis and to thyroid hormone as a prime suspect among other possible factors that cause clinical AIDS. Moreover the hormone has been reported to be crucial for optimum immune function. A population of 200 seropositive AIDS patients were investigated against a control of 50 subjects made up of 25 healthy circumcised males and 25 healthy females; all of who were seronegative for the disease. The parameters investigated include thyrotropin (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Total protein (TP), Albumin (Alb), Globulin (Glob), Immune complex (IC3) and Bence Jones proteins (BJP) levels in serum or urine. All seropositive clinically HIV/AIDS patients were hypothyroid. Seronegatives had significantly higher T4, TP, and Alb levels at P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 for Glob than seropositives. Seropositive females exhibited significant (P < 0.001) higher levels of IC3 than seronegative males. The globulin levels of all HIV patients were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than control. BJP was also isolated in the urine of patients. The findings suggest that thyroid hormone deficiency is a primary culprit for the other inert or dormant factors to be activated.
Edmunds, L H; Mac Vaugh, H; Stevens, J; Wechsler, A B; Worthington, G M
The medical and economic benefits of a computer-aided monitoring system were evaluated in a prospective, randomized study of 810 patients after open-heart surgery. The design of the study separated benefits of systematized postoperative care from benefits unique to the computer system and established measurable criteria by which computer-aided monitoring systems could be objectively evaluated. Criteria for comparison included the rapidity, safety, and smoothness of convalescence and time spent for various nursing activities. The study showed that the computer-aided monitoring system did not provide discernible medical benefits nor favorably affect nursing activities. Downtime of the system averaged 1 day per week. Reliability and accuracy of the system were inadequate and the benefit/cost ratio was low. Future development of computer-aided monitoring systems for open cardiac surgery should stress reliability, accuracy and relevance of the monitored measurements.
George, Tracy P.; DeCristofaro, Claire; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Murphy, Pamela F.
Unintended pregnancies are an important public health issue. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs) are reliable, safe, highly effective methods for most women; however they are underutilized in the United States. Shared decision aids were added to usual care in five public health family planning clinics in the Southeastern United States, staffed by advance practice nurses and registered nurses. All five sites showed an increase in the use of LARCs during the time period that shared decision aids were used (results statistically significant to p < 0.001). It is important for women to make informed choices about contraception, and shared decision aids can be utilized to support this decision making. This resource has been adopted for statewide use in all public health clinics, and implications for practice suggest that the use of shared decision aids is an effective method to support informed patient decision making and acceptance of LARC methods of contraception. PMID:27417757
Ohemeng, Fidelia N A; Tonah, Steve
This article examines the views of persons living with AIDS about how they want to die and how they are planning for their deaths. Participants for the study were purposefully drawn from an HIV clinic in an urban town in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 persons living with AIDS. Three preferences of death were identified by the participants. These include the desire for a quick death, death at home, and death without emaciating. Planning for death involved attending church and taking care of children. Inherent in the responses of the participants is the concern for cost of care, dwindling network of family carers, and stigmatization and shame. The article concludes that the government needs to provide support for home-based care, establish a pension for AIDS patients, support families to pay for the funeral expenses of their relatives, and scale up effort to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma.
May, Michael Clayton; Andrews, Paul Nielsen; Daher, Shadi; Reebye, Uday Nitin
Oral health care of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a growing area of concern, taking into consideration the increased life expectancy of patients resulting from antiretroviral therapy. There is insufficient literature regarding the impact of dental implants in AIDS patients. This study investigated the long-term clinical outcome of implant placement in patients diagnosed with AIDS. This monocentric study included AIDS patients with CD4 <200 cells/μL, age 18 years or older, and a minimum of one edentulous space requiring implant. All patients in the study were undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART includes nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). Typical treatment includes two different NTRIs, along with a third drug, either an INSTI, a PI, or an NNRTI. Bicon dental implants were placed in the patients after medical clearance and were followed up for 5 years. Bicon system implants were chosen because of availability and previous experience with this brand. Implant success criteria are defined as implants that had no clinical mobility at uncovering, no radiographic radiolucency, and allowed for loading and abutment placement. Implant success in AIDS patients was measured over a period of 5 years. Descriptive statistics were used. Sixteen adults met the inclusion criteria (12 males and 4 females) with mean CD4 count as 141.25 (sd 35.5). Thirty-three implants were placed in selected patients. Average time to uncovering was 151 days (sd 25 days). Two of the three failures were maxillary implants in the anterior arch, and the third was in the mandibular posterior arch. The study found a slightly higher failure rate of 10 % in patients with AIDS, compared to widely accepted failure rates in healthy patients at 5-7 %. With
Background Nigeria has an estimated 3.6 million people with HIV/AIDS and is home to one out of every 11 people with HIV/AIDS worldwide. This study is the first population-based assessment of discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS in the health sector of a country. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and extent of discriminatory practices and attitudes in the health sector and indicate possible contributing factors and intervention strategies. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 1,021 Nigerian health-care professionals (including 324 physicians, 541 nurses, and 133 midwives identified by profession) in 111 health-care facilities in four Nigerian states. Methods and Findings Fifty-four percent of the health-care professionals (550/1,021) were sampled from public tertiary care facilities. Nine percent of professionals reported refusing to care for an HIV/AIDS patient, and 9% indicated that they had refused an HIV/AIDS patient admission to a hospital. Fifty-nine percent agreed that people with HIV/AIDS should be on a separate ward, and 40% believed a person's HIV status could be determined by his or her appearance. Ninety-one percent agreed that staff and health-care professionals should be informed when a patient is HIV-positive so they can protect themselves. Forty percent believed that health-care professionals with HIV/AIDS should not be allowed to work in any area of health-care that requires patient contact. Twenty percent agreed that many with HIV/AIDS behaved immorally and deserve the disease. Basic materials needed for treatment and prevention of HIV were not adequately available. Twelve percent agreed that treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients wastes resources, and 8% indicated that treating someone with HIV/AIDS is a waste of precious resources. Providers who reported working in facilities that did not always practice universal precautions were more likely to favor restrictive policies toward
Haddy, Richard I; Richmond, Bradley W; Trapse, Felix M; Fannin, Kristopher Z; Ramirez, Julio A
Patients with AIDS incur higher rates of infection than the general population. However, little evidence exists to guide family physicians in selecting antibiotics for initial empiric therapy for suspected septicemia. We recorded the causative organisms of septicemia (defined here as bacteremia, fungemia, or both) in 83 patients with AIDS admitted to the teaching hospitals of the University of Louisville from 1996 to 2006. All patients fulfilled the requirements for a diagnosis of AIDS on the basis of the 1993 Centers for Disease Control criteria. In addition to the causative organism, demographic information, immunologic data, portal of entry, and mortality were collected. Only 53% of the patients presented with fever and the median leukocyte count was 4400 cells/mm(3). The most common organisms causing septicemia were, in decreasing order, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; n = 21; 21.4%), Mycobacterium avium complex (n = 10; 10.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 9; 9.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9; 9.2%). Other pathogens included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and MRSA. Polymicrobial septicemia was identified in 12 cases (14.5% of the episodes). The portals of entry of the organism were (in decreasing order) primary, lung, intravascular line, and skin. The types of organisms found in patients with primary septicemia patterned those found overall. The mortality rate was 12.1%. AIDS patients with septicemia may not present with the signs that would a non-AIDS patient with septicemia. On the basis of the range of organisms identified in this study, antibiotic coverage of AIDS patients with suspected septicemia, both in primary septicemia and septicemia overall, should take into consideration bacteremia with a wide range of organisms: Gram-positive organisms including MRSA and M. avium complex and Gram-negative organisms including Pseudomonas species. In addition, physicians should be aware that polymicrobial septicemia
Andrewin, Aisha; Chien, Li-Yin
This study, conducted from August to September 2007, utilized a population-based survey to investigate stigmatizing attitudes and acts of discrimination against HIV/AIDS patients among doctors and nurses working in public hospitals in Belize. A total of 230 subjects (81.0%) completed the survey. The mean age was 36.8 years; 75% were women; 61% were nurses; 74% were Belizean. Stigmatization was greatest for "attitudes of blame/judgment"; disclosing a patient's HIV/AIDS status to colleagues was the most frequent act of discrimination (29%). Formal HIV/AIDS training was significantly associated with less stigmatization for "attitudes towards imposed measures" (p < .01); "attitudes of blame/judgment" (p < 0.05); and testing without consent (p < 0.05). Doctors showed more stigmatization in "attitudes towards imposed measures," conducted HIV tests without consent and disclosed patient status to colleagues more frequently than nurses (p < 0.05) while nurses gave differential care to patients based on HIV status more frequently (p < 0.01) than doctors. Female and religious health care workers (HCWs) were more stigmatizing in their "attitudes of blame/judgment" than male and nonreligious HCWs (p < 0.05). Cuban HCWs were more stigmatizing in their "attitudes toward imposed measures" and were less comfortable dealing with HIV/AIDS patients than their Belizean counterparts (p < 0.01). Older age was associated with less frequent disclosure of patients' HIV status (p < 0.05). HIV/AIDS training that incorporates stigma reduction strategies tailored to the target groups identified is needed. Additionally, we recommend that the effectiveness of national HIV/AIDS policies be investigated.
Dellepiane, M; Medicina, MC; Mora, R; Salami, A
Summary Alterations of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, optokinetic nystagmus, and visuo-vestibular-ocular reflex, have already been described in patients with AIDS and HIV-1 positive asymptomatic subjects. The introduction to the clinical practice of posturographic techniques allows us to study, with precision, postural perturbation that may be present when performing Romberg’s test and to study the vestibulo-spinal reflex as a component of the vestibular system. The relative lack of studies on posturography and AIDS, encouraged us to continue our research on the vestibular system both in asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive patients and in patients with AIDS (IV stage according to the classification proposed by the Centre for Disease Control). Recordings were made in group 1 (control group, 55 normal subjects), in group 2 (15 asymptomatic HIV-positive subjects), and in group 3 (15 patients with AIDS stage IV). Static and dynamic posturography were carried out using Tonnies platform system (Tonnies GmbH & Co., Wurzburg, Germany) and the data were analysed with Tonnies Posturographic Tübingen (TPOST) software vers. 5.19. In asymptomatic HIV+ subjects, we observed an increase in RW, RA and M3 reflex latency. AIDS patients (stage IV) exhibited significant alterations in almost all the posturographic parameters and the electromyographic potentials. Our results validate static and dynamic posturography as a method for otoneurological investigation and appear to confirm that the entire vestibular system is involved since the earliest stages of the HIV infection. In the HIV+ subjects, a variable dysfunction in the reflex control to long latency was observed, which is correlated with the alteration of the central dopaminergic system; in AIDS patients, the central nervous system damage appears more important, globally distributed and correlated also with immunosuppression. PMID:16749603
Liu, Yang; Patel, Anish A.; Shaw, Janet C.; Fillman, Eric P.; Lamb, Paul B.
Gastrointestinal cryptococcosis is extremely rare with only a few case reports found in the literature and involvement primarily identified post-mortem. This is a case of 54-year-old man with a 20-year history of poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus presented with constitutional symptoms along with melena. Diagnostic work up with esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed 4 irregular ulcers in the stomach notable for red-pigmented lesions within the ulcers, erythematous mucosa in the antrum and patchy friable mucosa in the duodenum. H&E staining and Mucicarmine staining showed findings consistent with C. neoformans. Blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid studies also revealed C. neoformans. Cryptococcus neoformans is an AIDS defining illness that most commonly presents as meningoencephalitis and pneumonitis. Key management principles includes: induction of antifungal therapy followed by consolidation and maintenance; management of elevated intracranial pressure and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Although the organism can infect nearly all organs, gastrointestinal involvement is rarely described. Our case highlights the fact that gastrointestinal C. neoformans infection can be associated with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and may be the initial presentation of disseminated cryptococcosis. PMID:27785222
del Rio-Chiriboga, C; Orzechowski-Rallo, A; Sanchez-Mejorada, G
Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most common cause of intracerebral lesions in patients with AIDS. It is now standard clinical practice to treat empirically, based on clinical and radiographic findings, and to perform a biopsy of the lesion only in those patients who fail to have a clinical and radiographic response after two weeks of therapy. This study describes the presentation and response to therapy of central nervous system toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS at a private practice in Mexico City. A retrospective chart and radiology review of all patients with AIDS treated empirically for toxoplasmosis between 1988 and 1993 was performed. A total of 177 patients with AIDS were seen, nine (5.1%) had toxoplasmosis. Patients with toxoplasmosis were males with a median age of 39 years (range 26 - 65). In two patients, toxoplamosis of the CNS was the initial manifestation of HIV infection, all others had a prior diagnosis of AIDS with a mean of 10 months between their first AIDS defining event and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The median CD4+ T-cell count at the time of the diagnosis of toxoplamsosis was 78 cells/microL. Most patients had headache associated with other focal neurological symptoms such as hemiplegia (2), hemiparesis (2) or seizures (4). Only 4 out of 9 patients had fever as part of their initial clinical presentation. Serum IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were positive in 6 out of 7 patients tested, while IgM antibodies were negative in all patients. On imaging studies (Computerized Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging), 4 patients had a single lesion while the rest had two or more lesions. Two patients were initially treated with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine and were later changed to pyrimethamine/clindamycin, which was the treatment given from the beginning to all other patients. One patient died of an intralesional hemorrhage two weeks after the diagnosis despite adequate therapy. The probability of surviving
Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Davidson, Bronwyn
Patient-centred care is a term frequently associated with quality health care. Despite extensive literature from a range of health-care professions that provide description and measurement of patient-centred care, a definition of patient-centredness in audiological rehabilitation is lacking. The current study aimed to define patient-centred care specific to audiological rehabilitation from the perspective of older adults who have owned hearing aids for at least one year. Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of older adults concerning their perceptions of patient-centredness in audiological rehabilitation, and qualitative content analysis was undertaken. The participant sample included ten adults over the age of 60 years who had owned hearing aids for at least one year. Data analysis revealed three dimensions to patient-centred audiological rehabilitation: the therapeutic relationship, the players (audiologist and patient), and clinical processes. Individualised care was seen as an overarching theme linking each of these dimensions. This study reported two models: the first model describes what older adults with hearing aids believe constitutes patient-centred audiological rehabilitation. The second provides a guide to operationalised patient-centred care. Further research is required to address questions pertaining to the presence, nature, and impact of patient-centred audiological rehabilitation.
Siau, Richard T K; Dhillon, Baljeet; Siau, Derrick; Green, Kevin M J
This study aimed to report the bone-anchored hearing aid uptake rate and the reasons for their rejection by patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. A retrospective review was performed of 113 consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss referred to the Greater Manchester bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) programme between September 2008 and August 2011. 98 (86.7 %) patients were deemed audiologically suitable for BAHA implantation. Of these, 38 (38.8 %) had BAHA implanted; 60 (61.2 %) patients declined. Of those who declined, 27 (45 %) cited anxiety over surgery, 18 (30 %) cited cosmetic reasons, 16 (26.7 %) perceived limited benefit from the device and six (10 %) preferred conventional hearing aids. Our study highlights a 38.8 % BAHA uptake rate in audiologically suitable patients. The main reasons cited for rejection of BAHA were anxiety over surgery and cosmetic concerns. It is important that clinicians address these early during consultation with prospective BAHA recipients and avoid rushing to implant these patients with a bone-anchored hearing aid.
Magnano San Lio, M; Mancinelli, S; Palombi, L; Buonomo, E; Altan, A Doro; Germano, P; Magid, N A; Pesaresi, A; Renzi, E; Scarcella, P; Zimba, I; Marazzi, M C
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a holistic model for treating people living with AIDS in Africa; the model aims to improve knowledge about AIDS prevention and care, increase trust in the health centre, impact behaviour, and promote a high level of adherence to HAART. The study took place in the context of the DREAM (Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) programme in Mozambique, designed by the Community of Sant'Egidio to treat HIV patients in Africa. It provides patients with free anti-retroviral drugs, laboratory tests (including viral load), home care and nutritional support. This is a prospective study involving 531 patients over a 12-month period. The patients, predominantly poor and with a low level of education, demonstrated a good level of knowledge about AIDS (more than 90% know how it is transmitted) and trust in the treatment, with a relatively small percentage turning to traditional healers. Overall the patients had a low level of engaging in risky sexual behaviour and a very good level of adherence to HAART (69.5% of the 531 subjects had a pill count higher than 95%). The positive results of the programme's educational initiatives were confirmed with the patients' good clinical results.
Krebs, Hermano I.; Hogan, Neville; Aisen, Mindy L.; Volpe, Bruce T.
This paper summarizes our efforts to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neuro-rehabilitation. It reviews a pilot clinical trial involving twenty stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at MIT and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital. In particular, we present a few results: (a) on the patient's tolerance of the procedure, (b) whether peripheral manipulation of the impaired limb influences brain recovery, (c) on the development of a robot-aided assessment procedure.
Background In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension—the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet—is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evidence, and discusses emerging research areas. Methods An international, multidisciplinary panel of authors examined the relevant theoretical literature and empirical evidence through 2012. Results The updated definition distinguishes Internet-delivery of patient decision aids from online health information and clinical practice guidelines. Theories in cognitive psychology, decision psychology, communication, and education support the value of Internet features for providing interactive information and deliberative support. Dissemination and implementation theories support Internet-delivery for providing the right information (rapidly updated), to the right person (tailored), at the right time (the appropriate point in the decision making process). Additional efforts are needed to integrate the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence from health technology perspectives, such as consumer health informatics, user experience design, and human-computer interaction. Despite Internet usage ranging from 74% to 85% in developed countries and 80% of users searching for health information, it is unknown how many individuals specifically seek patient decision aids on the Internet. Among the 86 randomized controlled trials in the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of patient decision aids, only four studies focused on Internet-delivery. Given the limited number of published studies, this paper particularly focused on identifying gaps in the empirical evidence base and
Hernández Vallejo, G; García, M D; López, A; Mendieta, C; Moskow, B S
This report deals with a case of AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma in which some of the earliest findings were dental and periodontal in nature. The patient presented initially with painless and extremely loose teeth accompanied by progressive paresthesia of the lower jaw. Unique radiographic findings included extensive periodontal ligament space widening and bulbous, granuloma-like lesions about the apices of the teeth. These findings were associated with progressive tumor infiltration of the mandible and do not appear to be related to other reports of aggressive periodontitis associated with impaired immunologic functions in AIDS patients.
Grilli, E; Baiocchini, A; Del Nonno, F; Petrosillo, N; Galati, V
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically causes a benign disease in childhood. However, VZV can lead to severe complication in immunocompromised patients, involving skin and nearly every organ system, with significant morbidity and mortality. VZV infection occurs more frequently in patients treated with steroids. Herein, we describe a case of rapidly fatal disseminated VZV infection with cutaneous and visceral involvement in an adult AIDS patient treated with steroids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miller, D; Green, J
The growing numbers of patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in England had led to the development of a counselling service for patients, their sexual partners, contacts, and others. The nature of the counselling is described with reference to the primary qualitative issues arising from diagnosis. The necessity for preventative education for patients and those at risk is stressed, and guidelines for low risk sexual activities are outlined. PMID:2991121
Atav, A Serdar; Sendir, Merdiye; Darling, Rosa; Acaroglu, Rengin
Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a complex healthcare problem. Research has demonstrated that negative attitudes affect healthcare provision. The purpose of this study was to compare nursing students' attitudes using the AIDS Attitude Scale (AAS). A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey, and in Upstate New York (NY). Baccalaureate nursing students (n = 613) from both countries completed the questionnaire. Demographic data, overall AAS attitudes, and attitudes within each subscale were compared. Analyses included frequency and percentages of the grouped variables, arithmetic means and standard deviations, t-test for independent samples, and multiple analysis of variance. Upstate NY students' mean total AAS scores were significantly more positive toward HIV+ patients than Turkish students'. Scores for Professional Resistance and Emotions subscales were significantly more positive for the Upstate NY students, but Fear of Contagion was not. Upstate NY students had more negative attitudes in the contexts of job risk and eating in a restaurant where the chef has AIDS; more professional resistance to referring patients and training specialists for HIV/AIDS patients; and lower tender feelings for people with HIV/AIDS (p < .01 for each). Improvement in students' attitudes is beneficial for promoting nonjudgmental, compassionate care for the HIV+ population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cox, Christopher E.; Lewis, Carmen L.; Hanson, Laura C.; Hough, Catherine L.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; White, Douglas B.; Song, Mi-Kyung; Tulsky, James A.; Carson, Shannon S.
Objective Shared decision making is inadequate in intensive care units (ICUs). Decision aids can improve decision making quality, though their role in an ICU setting is unclear. We aimed to develop and pilot test a decision aid for shared decision makers of patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation. Setting ICUs at three medical centers. Subjects 53 surrogate decision makers and 58 physicians. Design and interventions We developed the decision aid using defined methodological guidelines. After an iterative revision process, formative cognitive testing was performed among surrogate-physician dyads. Next, we compared the decision aid to usual care control in a prospective, before/after design study. Measurements and main results Primary outcomes were physician-surrogate discordance for expected patient survival, comprehension of relevant medical information, and the quality of communication. Compared to control, the intervention group had lower surrogate-physician discordance (7  vs 43 ), greater comprehension (11.4 [0.7] vs 6.1 [3.7]), and improved quality of communication (8.7 [1.3] vs 8.4 [1.3]) (all p<0.05) post-intervention. Hospital costs were lower in the intervention group ($110,609 vs $178,618; p=0.044); mortality did not differ by group (38% vs 50%, p=0.95). 94% of surrogates and 100% of physicians reported that the decision aid was useful in decision making. Conclusion We developed a prolonged mechanical ventilation decision aid that is feasible, acceptable, and associated with both improved decision making quality and less resource utilization. Further evaluation using a randomized controlled trial design is needed to evaluate the decision aid's effect on long-term patient and surrogate outcomes. PMID:22635048
Rakhmanova, A G; Stepanova, E V; Romanova, E I; Evseeva, I D
The course of the combined infection (tuberculosis plus HIV-infection) has been analysed in 41 patients. Of them, 24 patients developed tuberculosis in the presence of HIV-infection (group 1) and 17 were infected with HIV when they already had tuberculosis running up to 5 years. HIV-infection in group 1 ran a more severe course, the patients developed generalized, disseminated and complicated forms of tuberculosis with more frequent lethal outcome. 39 patients of both groups received specific antituberculous therapy including 1-5 drugs. A response to treatment was achieved in 23 (60%) patients (52 and 47.8% at early and late HIV-infection stages, respectively). Treatment failure was explained by development of severe opportunistic infections and secondary diseases (generalized cytomegalovirus infection, advanced candidiasis, toxoplasmosis), poor compliance, asocial life style, advanced tuberculosis process, late diagnosis, inadequate treatment. It is shown that in late HIV-infection positive results of treatment can be expected only in early detection of tuberculosis and active long-term treatment.
Szaflarski, Magdalena; Ritchey, P Neal; Leonard, Anthony C; Mrus, Joseph M; Peterman, Amy H; Ellison, Christopher G; McCullough, Michael E; Tsevat, Joel
Spirituality/religion is an important factor in health and illness, but more work is needed to determine its link to quality of life in patients with HIV/AIDS. To estimate the direct and indirect effects of spirituality/religion on patients' perceptions of living with HIV/AIDS. In 2002 and 2003, as part of a multicenter longitudinal study of patients with HIV/AIDS, we collected extensive demographic, clinical, and behavioral data from chart review and patient interviews. We used logistic regression and path analysis combining logistic and ordinary least squares regression. Four hundred and fifty outpatients with HIV/AIDS from 4 sites in 3 cities. The dependent variable was whether patients felt that life had improved since being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Spirituality/religion was assessed by using the Duke Religion Index, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being-Expanded, and Brief RCOPE measures. Mediating factors included social support, self-esteem, healthy beliefs, and health status/health concerns. Approximately one-third of the patients felt that their life was better now than it was before being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. A 1-SD increase in spirituality/religion was associated with a 68.50% increase in odds of feeling that life has improved--29.97% due to a direct effect, and 38.54% due to indirect effects through healthy beliefs (29.15%) and health status/health concerns (9.39%). Healthy beliefs had the largest effect on feeling that life had improved; a 1-SD increase in healthy beliefs resulted in a 109.75% improvement in feeling that life changed. In patients with HIV/AIDS, the level of spirituality/religion is associated, both directly and indirectly, with feeling that life is better now than previously. Future research should validate our new conceptual model using other samples and longitudinal studies. Clinical education interventions should focus on raising awareness among clinicians about the importance of spirituality
Meerwaldt, J H; Haije, W G; Cooper, E H; Pidcock, N B; v d Burg, M E
A study of possible biochemical markers of tumor recurrence and progression was made in 93 patients with ovarian cancer followed longitudinally for up to 2 years during treatment by moderate or aggressive chemotherapy regimens. A panel of potential indicators was tested; the combination of serum albumin, C-reactive protein, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, and phosphohexose isomerase levels was found to provide information that is useful as an adjunct to the clinical assessment of patients with advanced disease. However, the system could not detect a small tumor burden. The level of beta 2-microglobulin may have value in those patients whose tumor is associated with an increase of this analyte (77%), but it would appear to reflect a large tumor mass. Serum CEA, carcino-placental alkaline phosphatase, transferrin, and prealbumin were not found to be helpful.
Witteman, Holly O; Dansokho, Selma Chipenda; Colquhoun, Heather; Coulter, Angela; Dugas, Michèle; Fagerlin, Angela; Giguere, Anik Mc; Glouberman, Sholom; Haslett, Lynne; Hoffman, Aubri; Ivers, Noah; Légaré, France; Légaré, Jean; Levin, Carrie; Lopez, Karli; Montori, Victor M; Provencher, Thierry; Renaud, Jean-Sébastien; Sparling, Kerri; Stacey, Dawn; Vaisson, Gratianne; Volk, Robert J; Witteman, William
Providing patient-centered care requires that patients partner in their personal health-care decisions to the full extent desired. Patient decision aids facilitate processes of shared decision-making between patients and their clinicians by presenting relevant scientific information in balanced, understandable ways, helping clarify patients' goals, and guiding decision-making processes. Although international standards stipulate that patients and clinicians should be involved in decision aid development, little is known about how such involvement currently occurs, let alone best practices. This systematic review consisting of three interlinked subreviews seeks to describe current practices of user involvement in the development of patient decision aids, compare these to practices of user-centered design, and identify promising strategies. A research team that includes patient and clinician representatives, decision aid developers, and systematic review method experts will guide this review according to the Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA reporting guidelines. A medical librarian will hand search key references and use a peer-reviewed search strategy to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the ACM library, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar. We will identify articles across all languages and years describing the development or evaluation of a patient decision aid, or the application of user-centered design or human-centered design to tools intended for patient use. Two independent reviewers will assess article eligibility and extract data into a matrix using a structured pilot-tested form based on a conceptual framework of user-centered design. We will synthesize evidence to describe how research teams have included users in their development process and compare these practices to user-centered design methods. If data permit, we will develop a measure of the user-centeredness of development processes and identify practices that are likely
Sherman, Deborah Witt; Norman, Robert; McSherry, Christina Beyer
As an existential crisis, death anxiety may create suffering and impact quality of life. Based on a sample of 101 patients (63 patients with AIDS and 38 with advanced cancer) and 79 family caregivers (43 AIDS patients' caregivers and 36 cancer patients' caregivers), this study examined the death anxiety of patients with advanced cancer and patients with AIDS and that of their family caregivers and the relationship of death anxiety and quality of life. The results indicated that AIDS patients expressed greater death anxiety than cancer patients, but death anxiety was not different among family caregivers. Both AIDS and cancer patients experienced greater death anxiety than their caregivers. Greater death anxiety was associated with lower quality of life, particularly in the psychological domain for AIDS patients. There were significant correlations between the death anxiety subscales and the quality of life subscales for family caregivers, especially for AIDS caregivers. Interventions that lessen death anxiety may enhance quality of life as death approaches, particularly for AIDS patients and their family caregivers. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yee, R W; Tio, F O; Martinez, J A; Held, K S; Shadduck, J A; Didier, E S
A patient with a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) titer and cryptococcal meningitis suffered bilateral epithelial keratopathy caused by Encephalitozoon, which did not respond to sulfas, erythromycin, bacitracin, tobramycin, neomycin, polymyxin B, or fluconazole. Eventual administration of itraconazole for the meningitis apparently produced resolution of the long-lasting (2-month) ocular infection. This new oral triazole antifungal may be valuable against the increasingly prevalent microsporidial infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Debulking of the infection by corneal scraping may have contributed to the authors' success.
A case of a 45-year-old HIV-infected male who developed a severe throat infection with serious complications is reported. Despite a low CD4 count, the patient suffered only one significant illness in ten years since his diagnosed HIV infection. Overly aggressive antibiotic therapy caused fungal and thrush infections, leading to dehydration and extreme weight loss. The patient was treated with rehydration therapy, antifungal agents, and TMP-SMX, after which other complications, including multiple infections and B-cell lymphoma, were diagnosed. He refused chemotherapy after one course of treatment and was sent home with hospice care.
Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Lima, Paulo Henrique; de Souza, Pollyana Carvalho; Costa, Vanessa Viana; Cornetta, Maria da Conceição de Mesquita; Fernandes, José Veríssimo; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine
After highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became widespread, several studies demonstrated changes in the incidence of defining and non-defining AIDS cancers among HIV/AIDS patients. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies evaluating the incidence of malignancies before and after the introduction of HAART in people with HIV/AIDS. Eligible studies were searched up to December 2012 in the following databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo, Cancerlit and Google Scholar. In this study, we determined the cancer risk ratio by comparing the pre- and post-HAART eras. Twenty-one relevant articles were found, involving more than 600,000 people with HIV/AIDS and 10,891 new cases of cancers. The risk for the development of an AIDS-defining cancer decreased after the introduction of HAART: Kaposi's sarcoma (RR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.28-0.33) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.48-0.56), in contrast to invasive cervical cancer (RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.94). Among the non-AIDS-defining cancers, the overall risk increased after the introduction of HAART (RR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.79-2.23). The incidence of AIDS-defining cancers decreased and the incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers increased after the early use of HAART, probably due to better control of viral replication, increased immunity and increased survival provided by new drugs.
Garza-Garza, D; Buendía-Uribe, J L; Martínez-Cruz, E; Argüero-Licea, B
In Mexico cryptococosis ranks third in frequency among the mycoses ocurring as complications in AIDS patients. Neither the prevalence of the two varieties of C. neoformans in these patients nor the morphological and physiological changes suffered by these strains in AIDS patients are known. A total of 60 isolates were obtained from patients with AIDS from the Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico "La Raza" IMSS. The identity of each isolate was established by: growth at 37 degrees C, colony and microscopic characteristics, urease and phenoloxidase activity, carbon sources assimilation. The canavanine glycine-bromothymol blue agar was used to distinguish C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii. Pathogenicity in mice was also tested. Fifty one isolates of C. neoformans var. neoformans and nine of C. neoformans var. gattii were identified. All strains grew well at 37 degrees C, urease and phenoloxidase were positive, the morphology and the auxanographic profile were variable. C. neoformans var. neoformans was more virulent in mouse than C. neoformans var. gattii. This study has confirmed the presence of the two varieties of C. neoformans in Mexico with 85% prevalence of var. neoformans and 15% of var. gattii in AIDS patients. This frequency was higher than in reports from other countries.
Elwyn, Glyn; Dannenberg, Michelle; Blaine, Arianna; Poddar, Urbashi; Durand, Marie-Anne
Objective Our aim in this study was to examine the competing interest policies and procedures of organisations who develop and maintain patient decision aids. Design Descriptive and thematic analysis of data collected from a cross-sectional survey of patient decision aid developer's competing interest policies and disclosure forms. Results We contacted 25 organisations likely to meet the inclusion criteria. 12 eligible organisations provided data. 11 organisations did not reply and 2 declined to participate. Most patient decision aid developers recognise the need to consider the issue of competing interests. Assessment processes vary widely and, for the most part, are insufficiently robust to minimise the risk of competing interests. Only half of the 12 organisations had competing interest policies. Some considered disclosure to be sufficient, while others imposed differing levels of exclusion. Conclusions Patient decision aid developers do not have a consistent approach to managing competing interests. Some have developed policies and procedures, while others pay no attention to the issue. As is the case for clinical practice guidelines, increasing attention will need to be given to how the competing interests of contributors of evidence-based publications may influence materials, especially if they are designed for patient use. PMID:27612542
Irigoyen, M; Zepeda, M; López-Cámara, V
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and infection control practices of dentists in Mexico City in relation to their willingness to treat AIDS/HIV-positive patients. The population study encompassed Mexico City dentists who were selected according to a geographic criterion. A questionnaire was delivered personally to each participant, and multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. A total of 598 dentists participated in the study. The response rate was 99.3% (598/602). Seventy-four percent (444) of the dentists said they would be willing to treat AIDS/HIV-positive patients. Among the variables associated with the prediction of willingness to treat these patients were glove-wearing patterns (odds ratio, 2.39; confidence interval, 1.4-4.2), types of available sterilization equipment (odds ratio = 2.42; confidence interval, 1.4-4.1), fear of losing non-AIDS/HIV-positive patients (odds ratio = 4.28; confidence interval, 2.3-8.4), and risk perception of HIV transmission (odds ratio = 2.66; confidence interval, 1.5-4.9). An interaction was found between perception of risk of HIV transmission and increase in costs (odds ratio = 3.35; confidence interval, 1.3-8.9). Approximately 26% of the Mexico City dentists included in the study were not willing to treat AIDS/HIV-positive patients. Educational programs aimed at misperceptions appear to be warranted.
de Vasconcelos, Monica Ferreira; da Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo; Lopes, Maria Emília Limeira; Abrão, Fátima Maria da Silva; Batista, Patricia Serpa de Souza; Oliveira, Regina Celia
This study sought to investigate the principles of bioethics considered by nurses involved in research while caring for patients with HIV/Aids under palliative care. An exploratory study, with a qualitative approach, was conducted with twelve nurses in a public hospital in the municipality of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. A form was used for data collection and the empirical material was analyzed qualitatively using the content analysis technique. The following categories emerged from the qualitative analysis: Respect for the autonomy of HIV/Aids patients under palliative care; and Enhancement of the principles of charity, non-malevolence and justice in providing palliative care to HIV/Aids patients. The results revealed that the participants acknowledge the importance of bioethical principles while caring for patients with HIV/Aids under palliative care. The work provides a reflection on and elicits the pursuance of further studies which can contribute to improve the quality of life of these patients with care based on ethical principles.
Shah, R M; Kaji, A V; Ostrum, B J; Friedman, A C
Specific infections and neoplasms that are complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur within various CD4 lymphocyte count ranges. Knowledge of how these counts correlate with radiographic appearances of these entities can limit the differential diagnosis because certain conditions are uncommon above a specific count. In patients with CD4 lymphocyte counts above 200 cells/mm3 and radiographic findings of cavitary and noncavitary consolidation, bacterial pneumonia and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the major diagnostic considerations. As the CD4 lymphocyte count falls, these infections are still common; however, cavitation is seen less frequently with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and unusual bacterial infections, including those caused by Rhodococcus equi and Nocardia asteroides, should be considered. In patients with counts below 200 cells/mm3, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common infection, usually manifesting radiographically as a reticular interstitial pattern. At CD4 lymphocyte counts of 50-200 cells/mm3, disseminated fungal infection and Kaposi sarcoma become prevalent. In patients with advanced AIDS and counts below 50 cells/mm3, radiographic nodular or reticular patterns may indicate AIDS-related lymphoma and cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections. When CD4 lymphocyte counts are applied to interpretation of chest radiographs in AIDS patients, the working differential diagnosis of a radiographic pattern can be tailored to the clinical situation of a given patient.
Coutinho, M B; Marques, C; Mendes, G J; Gonçalves, C
To report a case of successful bone-anchored hearing aid implantation in an adult patient with type III osteogenesis imperfecta, which is commonly regarded as a contraindication to this procedure. A 45-year-old man with type III osteogenesis imperfecta presented with mixed hearing loss. There was a mild sensorineural component in both ears, with an air-bone gap between 45 and 50 dB HL. He was implanted with a bone-anchored hearing aid. The audiological outcome was good, with no complications and good implant stability (as measured by resonance frequency analysis). To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of bone-anchored hearing aid implantation in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.
Mathez, D.; Paul, D.; de Belilovsky, C.; Sultan, Y.; Deleuze, J.; Gorin, I.; Saurin, W.; Decker, R.; Leibowitch, J. )
Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials.
Iarŭmov, N; Viiachki, I; Topov, Ia; Rachev, P
A case is reported of acquired immunodeficiency, in whom operative intervention was performed. A series of problems of surgical and deontologic aspect are raised, which ought to be solved without inducing mental trauma to the patients. Paralleling this, measures should be taken, to reduce to a minimum the risk of nosocomial infection to the medical staff.
Urazbakhtina, Z A; Tuktarova, R R; Ivanov, V B; Sarmanaev, S Kh
This clinical observation demonstrates difficulty of differential diagnostics of botulism in a patient suspected to have acute pancreatitis and admitted to a multifield medical institution. Difficulties of interpretation of urgent clinical and instrumental examination are discussed. The therapeutic strategy is described.
Landay, A; Poon, M C; Abo, T; Stagno, S; Lurie, A; Cooper, M D
Asymptomatic hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate were found to have normal natural killer (NK) cells and B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to an increase in cells of T suppressor phenotype. In contrast, a hemophilia patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) exhibited nonfunctional NK cells, low B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to very low numbers of T helper cells. Hemophilia patients on cryoprecipitate therapy exhibited normal immune parameters. A high percentage of hemophilia patients on both treatments had antibody to hepatitis B virus. The isolated finding of elevated levels of T suppressor cells in hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate has not been recognized as an early indicator of impending AIDS, and longitudinal studies will be required to determine its clinical significance.
Cox, Robyn M; Johnson, Jani A; Xu, Jingjing
difference in outcomes between premium- and basic-feature devices. Participants did not report better outcomes with premium processing with any measure. It could reasonably be asserted that the patient's perspective is the gold standard for hearing aid effectiveness. While the acoustical processing provided by premium features can potentially improve scores on tests conducted in contrived conditions in a laboratory, or on specific items in a questionnaire, this does not ensure that the processing will be of noteworthy benefit when the hearing aid is used in the real world challenges faced by the patient. If evidence suggests the patient cannot detect that premium features yield improvements over basic features in daily life, what is the responsibility of the provider in recommending hearing aid technology level? In the present research, there was no evidence to suggest that premium-feature devices yielded better outcomes than basic-feature devices from the patient's point of view. All of the research hearing aids were substantially, but equally, helpful. Further research is needed on this topic with other hearing aids and other manufacturers. In the meantime, providers should insist on scientifically credible independent evidence to support effectiveness claims for any hearing help devices.
Wanyiri, Jane W.; Kanyi, Henry; Maina, Samuel; Wang, David E.; Ngugi, Paul; O'Connor, Roberta; Kamau, Timothy; Waithera, Tabitha; Kimani, Gachuhi; Wamae, Claire N.; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Ward, Honorine D.
Background Diarrhoea is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the aetiological agents, risk factors and clinical features associated with diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya. Methods Sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical data were obtained for 164 HIV/AIDS patients (70 with and 94 without diarrhoea) recruited from Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Stool samples were examined for enteric pathogens by microscopy and bacteriology. Results Intestinal protozoa and fungi were identified in 70% of patients, more frequently in those with diarrhoea (p<0.001). Helminths were detected in 25.6% of patients overall, and bacterial pathogens were identified in 51% of patients with diarrhoea. Polyparasitism was more common in patients with diarrhoea than those without (p<0.0001). Higher CD4+ T-cell count (OR = 0.995, 95% CI 0.992–0.998) and water treatment (OR = 0.231, 95% CI 0.126–0.830) were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, while close contact with cows (OR = 3.200, 95% CI 1.26–8.13) or pigs (OR = 11.176, 95% CI 3.76–43.56) were associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Conclusions Multiple enteric pathogens that are causative agents of diarrhoea were isolated from stools of antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV/AIDS patients, indicating a need for surveillance, treatment and promotion of hygienic practices. PMID:24026463
Wanyiri, Jane W; Kanyi, Henry; Maina, Samuel; Wang, David E; Ngugi, Paul; O'Connor, Roberta; Kamau, Timothy; Waithera, Tabitha; Kimani, Gachuhi; Wamae, Claire N; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Ward, Honorine D
Diarrhoea is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the aetiological agents, risk factors and clinical features associated with diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya. Sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical data were obtained for 164 HIV/AIDS patients (70 with and 94 without diarrhoea) recruited from Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Stool samples were examined for enteric pathogens by microscopy and bacteriology. Intestinal protozoa and fungi were identified in 70% of patients, more frequently in those with diarrhoea (p<0.001). Helminths were detected in 25.6% of patients overall, and bacterial pathogens were identified in 51% of patients with diarrhoea. Polyparasitism was more common in patients with diarrhoea than those without (p<0.0001). Higher CD4(+) T-cell count (OR = 0.995, 95% CI 0.992-0.998) and water treatment (OR = 0.231, 95% CI 0.126-0.830) were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, while close contact with cows (OR = 3.200, 95% CI 1.26-8.13) or pigs (OR = 11.176, 95% CI 3.76-43.56) were associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Multiple enteric pathogens that are causative agents of diarrhoea were isolated from stools of antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV/AIDS patients, indicating a need for surveillance, treatment and promotion of hygienic practices.
Longo-Mbenza, B; Seghers, L; Vita, E; Tonduangu, K; Bayekula, M
Objective—To investigate the prevalence of left ventricular dysfunction in African patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The hypothesis was that HIV infected patients with left ventricular dysfunction are asymptomatic. Methods—M mode, cross sectional, and Doppler echocardiography were performed in 49 consecutive patients (30 HIV positive (HIV+) carriers and 19 AIDS patients). None of the patients or 58 controls had a medical history of cardiovascular abnormalities. Results—Cardiac abnormalities were not suspected on physical, electrocardiographic, and radiological examination. Forty two of the HIV infected patients had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; this was more pronounced in AIDS patients than in HIV+ carriers. Systolic function was normal in both stages of HIV infection. Left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (mean (SD)) increased from 87.2 (12.4) ms in the carrier state to 103.9 (19.3) ms in AIDS (p < 0.05, Bonferoni correction), peak early filling velocity declined from 0.54 (0.1) to 0.44 (0.1) m/s (p < 0.05), and late velocity increased from 0.64 (0.1) to 0.69 (0.2) m/s. A restrictive filling pattern was explained by concentric hypertrophy in 23 HIV infected patients, and by systemic amyloidosis with left ventricular dilatation in 12 of 49 HIV infected patients. Conclusions—Echocardiography is a useful technique for detecting left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in HIV infected patients with clinically unsuspected cardiac lesions. Systolic function was normal despite the presence of such cardiac abnormalities. Keywords: HIV infection; AIDS; diastolic dysfunction; black Africans; echocardiography PMID:9813567
AIDS-Related Burkitt Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Plasmablastic Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Primary Effusion Lymphoma; HIV Infection; AIDS Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Barbosa, Carlos José Dornas Gonçalves; Molina, Rodrigo Juliano; de Souza, Murilo Barcelos; Silva, Ana Cristina A; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; dos Reis, Marlene Antonia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Silva-Vergara, Mario León
This report describes two patients who presented acute disseminated and severe toxoplasmosis as the first opportunistic disease related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At admission, clinical and laboratory findings were similar to sepsis or septic shock and a fast evolutive course to death occurred in both cases. At necropsy, an inflammatory reaction and presence of a great number of Toxoplasma gondii cysts and tachyzoites were observed in most organs examined.
Pynka, M; Wnuk, A; Bander, D; Syczewska, M; Boroń, A; Prost, B; Wrzecion, S
A 47-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome was found to have disseminated Saccharomyces kluyveri infection. The yeast was isolated from blood and cerebro-spinal fluid. An autopsy revealed the presence of the microorganism in many organs including liver, kidneys, pancreas, spleen, lung, and brain. The case confirms a potential pathogenicity of yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces in patients with profound immune deficiency, especially in advanced HIV infection.
McDougall, R J; Tandy, M W; Boreham, R E; Stenzel, D J; O'Donoghue, P J
Light microscopic examination of feces from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy revealed the presence of numerous refractile bodies resembling microsporidian spores. They were subsequently identified as belonging to the genus Nosema on the basis of their ultrastructural characteristics. However, the microsporidia were enclosed within striated muscle cells, suggesting that they were probably ingested in food; thus, this represented an incidental finding rather than a true infection. Images PMID:8432833
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid devices; professional and patient... a waiver statement declining the medical evaluation for religious or personal beliefs that preclude... strongly discouraged. children with hearing loss In addition to seeing a physician for a medical...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid devices; professional and patient... a waiver statement declining the medical evaluation for religious or personal beliefs that preclude... strongly discouraged. children with hearing loss In addition to seeing a physician for a medical...
REINA, Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues; RIBEIRO, Camila Aparecida; de ARAÚJO, Ronalda Silva; MATTÉ, Maria Helena; CASTANHO, Roberto Esteves Pires; TANAKA, Ioshie Ibara; VIGGIANI, Ana Maria Ferreira Sornas; MARTINS, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves
We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment. PMID:27007564
Müller, F; Frøland, S S; Hvatum, M; Radl, J; Brandtzaeg, P
Secretory IgA (SIgA), the isotypes IgA1 and IgA2, and IgM were measured by ELISA in stimulated parotid saliva from patients with AIDS (n = 16), subjects with asymptomatic HIV infection (n = 28), and HIV-seronegative healthy controls (n = 19). SIgA was significantly reduced in the AIDS group (10.4 micrograms/ml) compared with the asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects (17.1 micrograms/ml) and the controls (23.0 micrograms/ml). This decrease comprised both IgA1 and IgA2 to a similar extent on a relative basis. The SIgA decrease in AIDS patients was in striking contrast to their serum IgA level, which was significantly increased (6.9 g/l) compared with the asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects (2.9 g/l) as well as the controls (2.8 g/l). Low parotid output of SIgA in patients with HIV infection was associated with low numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood as well as the presence of oral infections. The parotid output of IgM was similar in all groups. A low level of SIgA in the external secretions of patients with AIDS may well contribute to their frequent mucosal infections of opportunistic microorganisms. PMID:1899629
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.
This document demonstrates the relationships among four Florida nursing education programs (home health aide, nursing assistant, patient care assistant, and practical nursing) by listing student performance standards and indicating which ones are required in each program. The 268 student performance standards are arranged in 23 areas of…
Kross, Carolyn Sue
In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…
Kross, Carolyn Sue
In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…
Cox, Lisa E.
This article presents data from an AIDS clinical trial that evaluated 238 (60 percent nonwhite) patients infected with HIV and their clinician's perceptions of medication adherence and visit attendance in relationship to lifestyle, psychosocial, and health belief model (HBM) variables. Twelve sites collected data via a prospective, multisite…
Chou, Po-Han; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chan, Chin-Hong
We report a 78-year-old man without past psychiatric history who experienced his first manic episode successfully treated with quetiapine and lorazepam, but was ultimately found to have AIDS and Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. Our presented case highlights the importance of comprehensive differential diagnoses to rule out secondary causes of psychiatric symptoms presenting for the first time in elderly patients.
Metadilogkul, Orapun; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S
Death, rather than surrogate markers, is a single and most straightforward clinical endpoint, defining unequivocally the merit of a therapeutic intervention. As there is still neither a cure for AIDS nor a vaccine to prevent HIV infection, an AIDS diagnosis remains associated with a death sentence. V-1 Immunitor (V1) is an experimental, oral, therapeutic AIDS vaccine licensed as a dietary supplement. As part of a charity program V1 has been offered at Wat Phra Baht Nam Phu--a Buddhist hospice for end-stage AIDS patients. Out of 117 approached individuals, 53 decided to take V1 and 64 declined the treatment. Patients in both groups did not differ in age, gender, or severity of disease. All patients were in WHO terminal stage 4 at study entry and had received similar palliative care. None of the patients had received conventional antiviral drugs. At 9 weeks the last two patients in the non-V1 group died. In contrast, 56.6% (30/53) in the V1 group remained alive. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that median short-term survival time for non-treated and treated patients was 4 and 10 weeks, respectively. The difference was statistically significant by Wilcoxon signed rank test (P=0.000089). Patients who remained alive were followed until the last patient died at 142 weeks. Based on the main outcome, i.e. time to death, patients on V1 had a 15.8 times longer life expectancy than the control group (P<0.000001). Observed results are encouraging and V1 needs to be tested in controlled clinical trials as a life-saving immunotherapy.
Himakalasa, Woraluck; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Phuangsaichai, Sasipen
The objective of this study is to investigate the access to antiretroviral treatment among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Access to antiretroviral treatment is defined in terms of availability, affordability, and acceptability. The data for the study were collected during the period of April 1, 2012–May 31, 2012 from a sample of 380 HIV/AIDS patients in eight hospitals who had received antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months at the time of data collection. The results of the study show that for most patients, the average traveling time to access health care was acceptable, but the nearly half day waiting time caused them to be absent from their work. In particular, it took longer for patients in the rural and lower income groups to access the treatment than the other groups. Their travel times and food costs relating to the treatment were found to be relatively high and therefore these patients had a higher tendency to borrow or seek financial assistance from their relatives. However, due to improvements in the access to treatment, most patients were satisfied with the services they received. The results imply that policy should be implemented to raise the potential of subdistrict hospitals where access to antiretroviral treatment is available, with participating HIV/AIDS patients acting as volunteers in providing services and other forms of health promotion to new patients. Privacy issues could be reduced if the antiretroviral treatment was isolated from other health services. Additionally, efforts to educate HIV/AIDS patients and society at large should be made. PMID:23986652
Kalinin, V A; Temin, P A; Arkhipov, B A; Zavadenko, N N
The paper summarizes experience gained for many years by the All-Union Research Methodological Center for Study of Hereditary Neuromuscular Diseases. The specialists of the Center render counselling and therapeutic assistance to patients afflicted with neuromuscular diseases. The counselling and diagnostic services are characterized by the fact that it is based on the activity of a large hospital intended for the treatment of various diseases. The problems which are being solved by the out- and inpatient services of the Center are considered in detail. The advantages of the setting up of the common in- and outpatient complex on the basis of the hospital intended for the treatment of various diseases are described.
Wu, Shiau-Yu; Wu, Pi-Chi
This article concerns an Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patient who had contracted the disease through casual sex. The secret of the nature of his disease was accidentally divulged to his family and friends by his care provider. The patient was rejected by his family and friends. The nursing experience of caring for the physical and psychological symptoms of the patient was reported. The author collected data through observation, physical assessment, interview, and telephone communication from January 20, 2005 to January 31, 2005. Because of the disease and his alienation from family and friends, the patient felt a lack of trust for his care provider, as well as anxiety, fear, a sense of guilt, self-recrimination, sadness and low self-esteem. The psychological symptoms were aggravated by the divulgence to family and friends of the fact that his disease was AIDS. The nursing problems were studied. The Watson theory of care was applied carefully. The patient was cared for with empathy and a positive attitude. A relationship of trust was established and the objective of quality care was accomplished. The nursing experience of caring for AIDS patients is unique. The privacy of the patient must be respected.
Gaona-Flores, Verónica; García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Valerio-Minero, Maricela; González-Veyrand, Emma; Navarrete-Castro, Rogelio; Palacios-Jiménez, Norma; Del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César; Monasta, Lorenzo
Atherosclerosis is a multifactor disease. Lately, infectious factors such as C. pneumoniae have been found to be involved. To determine whether the infection by C. pneumoniae is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with AIDS. Case-control study on 43 patients with AIDS under HAART (16 cases and 27 controls). To document atherosclerosis, a carotid and transcranial Doppler ultrasound was performed. Anti-C pneumoniae antibodies were searched using a microimmunofluorescence test for IgM and IgG levels. To study the associations with risk of atherosclerosis, Odds Ratios were calculated for each IgG anti-C. pneumoniae antibody titre. A titre of 1:64 significantly increased the risk of atherosclerosis. These results suggest that hypertriglyceridemia and C. pneumoniae infection coexistence significantly increases the risk of atherosclerosis. The inverse geometric average of the antibodies titre against C. pneumoniae in individuals with atheromatous plaque fell to 64, two titres above the controls. This difference turned out to be statistically significant. Exposure to C. pneumoniae with antibodies (IgG) should be considered in any HIV diagnosed patient as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, having found that the inverse geometric averages of antibodies titre are significantly different comparing cases and controls, especially in patients with dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia or in patients whose treatments could cause these conditions. In patients with concomitant hypertriglyceridemia, the association increases up to three times. It is advisable that AIDS patients take a serological test to determine exposure to C. pneumoniae, and to assess treatment options.
Wang, Yifei; Jin, Fujun; Wang, Qiaoli
Abstract Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016, while the remaining patient had a low viral load of 29 copies/ml. The CD4+ counts (170–592 cells/μl) and CD4+/CD8+ ratios (0.21–0.90) of the nine patients are excellent, contributing to their current good health. Thus, the case study suggests that the TCM has the potential to become a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:28067535
Cidral, Silvana; Silva, Waldirene Fernandes; Visentin, Angelita; Borghi, Angela Cristina da Silva; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Hey, Ana Paula
to assess the risk of pressure ulcer development among hospitalized HIV/Aids. Metod: study quantitative descriptive with 35 patients admitted to an infectious diseases hospital in Curitiba-PR-BR. Characterized clinical and epidemiological of patients using a data collection instrument and the Braden Scale. Data was compiled using Excel® and a simple descriptive analysis. two patients were found to have pressure ulcers and the most common comorbidities associated with HIV/Aids were pneumocystis pneumonia, caused by pneumocisti cariini (16), and pulmonary tuberculosis (13). The lowest scores were obtained in the friction and shear subscale, followed by the activity, nutrition, mobility and moisture subscales. The highest score was obtained in the sensory perception subscale. Two patients were classified as 'very high risk', six as 'high risk', three as 'low risk', and the rest as 'no risk'. risk assessment using scales provides objective information to assist with systemized and targeted nursing decision-making.
Heiden, David; Saranchuk, Peter; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ford, Nathan; Lowinger, Alan; Yen, Michael; McCune, Joseph; Rao, Narsing A
Choroidal tuberculosis is present in 5-20% of patients with disseminated tuberculosis, and point-of-care dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy eye examination can provide immediate diagnosis. In geographical areas of high tuberculosis prevalence and in susceptible patients (CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL) detection of choroidal granulomas should be accepted as evidence of disseminated tuberculosis. With training and proper support, eye screening can be done by HIV/AIDS clinicians, allowing early tuberculosis treatment. In regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, we recommend that eye screening be a standard part of the initial assessment of susceptible patients, including at a minimum all patients with HIV/AIDS with CD4 less than 100 cells per μL with or without eye symptoms, and with or without suspicion of disseminated tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To improve the nursing care quality in acute care hospitals in Taiwan after the 2003 SARS epidemic, the Taipei City Government Department of Health has allocated about US dollars 6 million for nurse aides' salaries and costs for recruitment, training, and administration of this program. Yet, there have been no corresponding changes in payments for nursing services by the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan such as increasing nurse fees for inpatient services. This article examines the roles of nurse aides and family members in providing acute patient care in Taiwan and discusses issues of nursing care quality as related to nurse staffing in acute care hospitals.
Finestone, H; Goldfarb, C R; Ongseng, F; Wasserman, I; Garcia, H
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a serious though infrequently reported pulmonary complication of AIDS. An unsuspected lung collapse was discovered via gallium scintigraphy for the study of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Neither the pneumonia nor the pneumothorax were apparent on the most recent chest roentgenogram. In evaluating gallium images during the work-up of AIDS patients with associated pulmonary pathology, the possible complication of lung collapse should be considered. If pneumothorax is suspected on gallium imaging, a chest roentgenogram in expiration must be obtained for prompt delineation of this serious, yet correctable, condition.
Finestone, H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.; Wasserman, I.; Garcia, H. )
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a serious though infrequently reported pulmonary complication of AIDS. An unsuspected lung collapse was discovered via gallium scintigraphy for the study of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Neither the pneumonia nor the pneumothorax were apparent on the most recent chest roentgenogram. In evaluating gallium images during the work-up of AIDS patients with associated pulmonary pathology, the possible complication of lung collapse should be considered. If pneumothorax is suspected on gallium imaging, a chest roentgenogram in expiration must be obtained for prompt delineation of this serious, yet correctable, condition.
Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.
Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.
Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H
Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.
Ward-Able, C; Phillips, P; Tsoukas, C M
OBJECTIVE: To recommend the appropriate use of oral ganciclovir as an alternative to intravenous (i.v.) maintenance therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. OPTIONS: i.v. infusion of ganciclovir and foscarnet have been the only approved choices for maintenance therapy until the introduction of oral ganciclovir. OUTCOMES: Ease of administering maintenance therapy and improved quality of life for patients with AIDS. VALUES: The medical advisory group comprised physicians treating patients with AIDS therapy. Ease of administration of maintenance therapy and quality of patients' lives were considered important. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Oral ganciclovir is a safe and convenient alternative to i.v. maintenance therapy for patients with CMV retinitis. However, its low bio-availability precludes its use for induction therapy and necessitates careful monitoring for compliance. Compared with i.v. administration of ganciclovir, oral maintenance therapy is cost effective. EVIDENCE: Evidence for the guidelines was gathered from data presented at a symposium on CMV retinitis and oral ganciclovir, clinical trials of oral ganciclovir and input from a visiting expert. It was presented at a meeting of the advisory board whose members are involved in the care of patients with AIDS and the management of CMV retinitis. The guidelines were approved by each member of the advisory board. RECOMMENDATIONS: Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of CMV retinitis should always be in consultation with an ophthalmologist who is experienced in treating this disease. The patient should be fully informed about the limitations of the oral form of ganciclovir; he or she should be involved in decision making and carefully monitored. Oral ganciclovir should not be used for induction therapy or for maintenance therapy in high-risk patients. VALIDATION: Similar guidelines have been produced in England where the drug has been available since January 1995. SPONSOR: The
Kuhls, Thomas L.; And Others
Female health care workers with exposure to AIDS patients were studied. Two of the 246 workers showed evidence of opportunistic infections. This analysis confirms the low risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection when hospital infection control practices are employed around AIDS patients. (Author/VM)
Kuhls, Thomas L.; And Others
Female health care workers with exposure to AIDS patients were studied. Two of the 246 workers showed evidence of opportunistic infections. This analysis confirms the low risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection when hospital infection control practices are employed around AIDS patients. (Author/VM)
Burges Watson, Duika; Thomson, Richard G; Murtagh, Madeleine J
Background Patient decision aids are increasingly regarded as important components of clinical practice that enable shared decision making (SDM) and evidence based patient choice. Despite broad acceptance of their value, there remains little evidence of their successful implementation in primary care settings. Methods Health care practitioners from five general practice surgeries in northern England participated in focus group sessions around the themes of patient decision aids, patient and practitioner preferences and SDM. Participants included general practitioners (n = 19), practice nurses (n = 5) and auxiliary staff (n = 3). Transcripts were analysed using a framework approach. Results We report a) practitioners' discussion of the current impetus towards sharing decisions and their perspectives on barriers to SDM, and b) the implementation of patient decision aids in practice and impediments such as lack of an evidence base and time available in consultations. Conclusion We demonstrate two orientations to sharing decisions: practitioner-centred and patient-centred with the former predominating. We argue that it is necessary to rethink the changes required in practice for the implementation of SDM. PMID:18190683
Coitinho, C; Brandes, E; Pardiñas, M; Rivas, C
One thousand-forty blood cultures corresponding to 451 Uruguayan patients with AIDS and clinic diagnosis of disseminated mycobacterial infection were evaluated between 1999 and 2003. Samples were processed in the National Reference Center for Mycobacteria (Montevideo, Uruguay), using the automated blood culture system for mycobacteria MB-BacT (BioMérieux). Forty-five positive samples were detected (4.3%) corresponding to 26 patients with AIDS (average 2.3 samples per patient). In 10/26 patients M. avium complex (MAC) was identified and in 13/26 the isolated germ was M. tuberculosis. The average time of incubation was of 12.4 days (range 6-19 days) for MAC and of 22.6 days (range 7-35 days) for M. tuberculosis. Blood culture has demonstrated to be the best sample for the bacteriological confirmation of the disseminated mycobacterial infections when at least 2 samples by patient are studied. The frequency of isolates of M. tuberculosis and MAC in AIDS patients is according with a moderate prevalence of tuberculosis in Uruguay.
Rocha, Laura Penna; de Melo E Silva, Ana Teresa; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Olegário, Janaínna Grazielle Pacheco; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini
Previous studies have shown that males who have AIDS are more frequently affected by infectious diseases than females. The esophagus is the organ in the digestive tube that is more commonly affected by opportunistic infections during the syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AIDS and of gender on local immunity of the esophageal epithelium. Fragments of the esophagus from 29 autopsied women and 37 autopsied men were collected at a university hospital from 1980 to 2009 and were divided in groups with and without AIDS. The IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells and Langerhans cells (LCs) were immunostained, respectively, with anti-IgA, anti-IgG, anti-IgM, and anti-S100. The software Image J was used to measure the esophageal epithelium and to count the epithelium cellular layers. Patients with AIDS, apart from gender, showed an increase in IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells and a reduction of Langerhans cells, in thickness and in number of cellular layers in the esophageal epithelium. However, among individuals with AIDS, men presented lower secretory expression of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells than women and more intense reduction of LCs. Women have naturally presented better local esophageal immunity than men. Although AIDS possibly causes immunological and morphological alterations in the esophageal epithelium in both genders, women have better esophageal immunity, which may explain a greater frequency of hospital admissions due to infection of men with AIDS when compared with women.
Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.
Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221
Kamburoğlu, K; Cebeci, A R I; Paksoy, C S
To assess the knowledge of and attitudes to AIDS among patients referred to the Ankara University Faculty of Dentistry, Turkey. A random sample of 500 patients participated and completed a questionnaire which comprised of six basic questions aimed at assessing the respondent's general knowledge and attitude towards AIDS. The questionnaire also collected demographic information about each patient, including age, gender and level of education. : Out of 500 respondents, 65 (13%) had been tested for HIV. The majority of respondents, 479 (95.8%) were aware that AIDS was a transmissible disease, and of these, 410 (85.6%) knew that semen and blood were modes of transmission. In addition, 451 (90.2%) respondents were in favour of requiring AIDS testing for all patients undergoing dental treatment. Educational level was found to be the main factor affecting the number of correct answers regarding transmission of the disease. The study highlighted dental patients' misconceptions, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.
Zhang, Ji-bo; Fu, Kai; Gong, Rui; Liu, Xue-meng; Chen, Li-dao; Zhang, Yong-xi; Yang, Gui-fang; Zhang, Jie
Abstract Rationale: The aim of the study was to evaluate stereotactic biopsy for diagnosing intracranial lesions in patients with AIDS. Patient concerns: Seven AIDS patients with an intracranial lesion who underwent stereotactic biopsy were included in this retrospective study (4 males and 3 females, 15 to 49 years old). The patients’ disease history ranged from 1 month to 1 year. The samples were examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemical examination. Diagnoses, interventions and outcomes: All patients were successfully sampled, and the histological results showed inflammation in 4 cases, toxoplasma gondii infection in 1 case, astrocytoma in 1 case, and abscess in 1 case. The clinical diagnosis included toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) in 2 cases, cryptococcus encephalitis in 2 cases, cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis in 2 case, tubercular abscess in 1 case, astrocytoma in 1 case, and co-infection of TE with Cryptococcus infection in 1 patient. The clinical diagnosis was made according to the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory testing, the imaging data and the histological findings. The diagnostic yield was 100%, and the post-operation morbidity was 14.3% (1/7) with an asymptomatic haemorrhage and seizure in 1 case. There was no operation-related mortality. Patients were followed up for 6 months to 6 years; 1 case fully recovered, 4 cases significantly improved in symptoms, and 2 died. Lessons: Stereotactic biopsy is a safe and effective way of diagnosing intracranial lesions in patient with AIDS. It is helpful for the differential diagnosis and for choosing a suitable therapy. Due to the broad spectrum of nervous system abnormalities in AIDS, histological findings are very valuable. However, histology is not a unique tool for making a definite diagnosis, whereas the combination of molecular pathology and stereotactic biopsy should play a more important role in the future. PMID:27930545
DPT, Bryan Gibson; Butler, Jorie; Doyon, Katherine; Ellington, Lee; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng, Qing
Patient decision aids are tools intended to facilitate shared decision-making. Currently development of a patient decision aid is resource intensive: it requires a decision-specific review of the scientific literature by experts to ascertain the potential outcomes under different treatments. The goal of this project was to conduct a formative evaluation of a generalizable, scalable decision aid component we call Veterans Like Me (VLme). VLme mines EHR data to present the outcomes of individuals “like you” on different treatments to the user. These outcome are presented through a combination of an icon array and simulated narratives. Twenty-six patients participated in semi-structured interviews intended to elicit feedback on the tool’s functional and interface design. The interview focused on the filters users desired with which to make cases similar to them, the kinds of outcomes they wanted presented, and their envisioned use of the tool. The interview also elicited participants information needs and salient factors related to the therapeutic decision. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an iteratively refined coding schema and content analysis. . Participants generally expressed enthusiasm for the tool’s design and functionality. Our analysis identified desired filters for users to view patients like themselves, outcome types that should be included in future iterations of the tool (e.g. patient reported outcomes), and information needs that need to be addressed for patients to effectively participate in shared decision making. Implications for the integration of our findings into the design of patient decision aids are discussed. PMID:27623534
Balayan, M S; Fedorova, O E; Mikhailov, M I; Rytick, P G; Eremin, V F; Danilova, T I; Shevelev, B I; Gorbacheva, E C; Pankova, G Y
Antibody to hepatitis E virus of IgG class (anti-HEV IgG) is regularly detected in industrialized countries, where HEV is non-endemic, at levels not exceeding 2-3%; seropositive individuals are often found in certain groups of patients and professionals exposed to an increased risk of blood-borne infections. The present study was aimed at the identification of anti-HEV IgG in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), living in Russia and Belarus, an area of low anti-HEV prevalence with a moderate spread of HIV infection and AIDS. In Russia, 13 out of 117 HIV-infected patients (11.1%) were found to be anti-HEV seropositive. This differed significantly from the frequency observed in the normal population (1.7%) but not from the frequency in a matching control, high-risk group consisting of male prisoners (8.0%). No difference in the frequency of anti-HEV IgG seropositivity was found between groups of HIV-infected men subdivided by sexual orientation. The rate of anti-HEV seropositivity increased with the progression of HIV infection, reaching 43.3% in AIDS patients and 38.1% in those who died from AIDS. In Belarus, anti-HEV IgG seropositivity was not found among 20 HIV-infected subjects nor among individuals from the control risk group, which consisted of 25 intravenous drug users. In conclusion, HEV infection may have common transmission mechanisms (risk factors) with HIV infection rather than represent an additional opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Vidal, José E; Fink, Maria C; Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale; Dauar, Rafi F; Filho, Francisco Bonasser; Nogueira, Roberta Schiavon; Calore, Eduardo E; Pannuti, Claudio S; Trujillo, J Roberto; de Oliveira, Augusto C Penalva
A severely immune-suppressed AIDS patient was suspected of suffering from BK virus (BKV) meningoencephalitis, after being studied for common causes of neurological complications of co-infectious origin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and brain samples, confirmed the presence of BKV. His clinical condition improved along with the regression of brain lesions, after modifications on his antiretroviral regime. Five months after discharge, the patient was readmitted because of frequent headaches, and a marked inflammatory reaction was evidenced by a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The symptoms paralleled a rising CD4+ lymphocyte count, and immune reconstitution syndrome was suspected. This is the first non-postmortem report of BKV meningoencephalitis in an AIDS patient, showing clinical and radiographic improvement solely under HAART. PMID:17559655
Chayt, K.J.; Harper, M.E.; Marselle, L.M.; Lewin, E.B.; Rose, R.M.; Oleske, J.M.; Epstein, L.G.; Wong-Staal, F.; Gallo, R.C.
A majority of pediatric patients and rare adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop a chronic respiratory disorder referred to as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP). Efforts to identify an infectious agent responsible for this process so far have failed. In this study, frozen sections of lungs from patients with AIDS and pulmonary disease were tested by in situ molecular hybridization for the presence of cells infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) and expressing viral RNA. In the case of an infant with LIP, a relatively high frequency (0.1%) of cells in the lung were found to be positive for HTLV-III RNA. This number is the lower limit of total cells infected since the in situ hybridization technique as applied in this study depends on expression of HTLV-III genes, and previous evidence indicates that a proportion of cells infected with HTLV-III may not express viral RNA. Moreover, this degree of infection of the lung is likely limited to LIP, since in ten patients with AIDS and pulmonary diseases other than LIP, only 0% to 0.002% of cells in lung were positive for viral RNA expression. Thus, HTLV-III may play a direct causal role in the development of LIP in infected patients, implicating its involvement in yet another of the diverse clinical diseases associated with this virus.
Friend, John; Chun, Maria BJ
Background: As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawai‘i's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawai‘i were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to the clinical use of DAs. One hundred and seventy four valid surveys were analyzed. Reported awareness and use of DAs were low, but recognition of the benefits of SDM and openness to the use of DAs were very high. The leading perceived barriers to the implementation of DAs were lack of awareness, lack of resources, and limited physician time to learn about DA technology. However, a significant majority of the respondents reported that DAs could empower patients by improving knowledge (88%), increasing satisfaction with the consultation process (81%), and increasing compliance (74%). Among physicians currently employing DAs, use of brochures or options matrix sheets was the most common aid tool. However, leading recommended DA formats were paper-based brochures for clinic use (75%) and interactive online website programs for outside clinic use (73.5%). Given growing emphasis on the PCC model and the recognized desire of many patients to participate in the medical decision making process, positive responses toward SDM and the use of DAs by Hawai‘i physicians are promising. PMID:24251086
Pungrassami, P; Kipp, A M; Stewart, P W; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Strauss, R P; Van Rie, A
Delay in presentation to a health facility is an important concern for tuberculosis (TB) control. The effect of stigma on delay in seeking care for TB symptoms is not well studied, especially in the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemic. To estimate the association of TB and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) stigma on delay in seeking care for TB symptoms. For 480 newly diagnosed patients with TB, time from first TB symptom to the first visit to a qualified provider was calculated. Stigma scales were administered to each patient to obtain a stigma score. Among men, those with higher TB stigma had a small increase in delay times, while women had a small decrease in delay. Among patients presenting with hemoptysis, higher TB stigma was associated with a small increase in delay, while among patients presenting with fever or extra-pulmonary symptoms only, higher TB and AIDS stigma resulted in shorter delay times. In a population with a relatively short median delay (26 days), the impact of TB and AIDS stigma translates into a minimal change in delay time. This suggests that stigma does not have a clinically relevant effect on TB patient delay in southern Thailand.
Jeon, Jae Woong; Kim, Joo Seok; Ryu, Il Hwan; Choi, Ji Wook; Kim, Min Gyu; Na, Young Min; Yun, Hyeon Jeong
Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at higher risks of bacterial pneumonia than the general population, and the pathogen is the most commonly involved Streptococcus pneumoniae. We hereby report a case of pneumococcal pneumonia associated with leptomeningitis, osteomyelitis and epidural abscess in a patient with AIDS. He is being successfully treated with ampicillin/sulbactam and clindamycin. And because the pneumococcal infection is usually associated with morbidity and mortality rates in the setting of AIDS, we should consider for pneumococcal vaccinations among the AIDS populations. PMID:24624217
Chin, T W; Vandenbroucke, A; Fong, I W
Current dosage regimens of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole used to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients have been based on data from healthy subjects or patients without AIDS. The clearance and absorption characteristics of the drugs may potentially be different between patients with and without AIDS. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in critically ill and non-critically ill AIDS patients treated for P. carinii pneumonia. Patients received trimethoprim at 15 mg/kg of body weight and sulfamethoxazole at 75 mg/kg of body weight daily intravenously in three to four divided doses and were switched to the oral route when the regimen was tolerated. Serum samples for determination of drug concentrations were obtained over 12 h after intravenous and oral dosing. The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole were compared in eight critically ill versus nine non-critically ill male patients and were as follows, respectively: clearance, 1.88 +/- 0.44 versus 1.73 +/- 0.64 ml/min/kg for trimethoprim and 0.40 +/- 0.12 versus 0.34 +/- 0.11 ml/min/kg for sulfamethoxazole; volume of distribution, 1.6 +/- 0.5 versus 1.5 +/- 0.5 liters/kg for trimethoprim and 0.5 +/- 0.3 versus 0.4 +/- 0.1 liters/kg for sulfamethoxazole; and half-life, 10.9 +/- 7.4 versus 11.3 +/- 4.0 h for trimethoprim, and 15.5 +/- 9.5 versus 14.3 +/- 4.7 h for sulfamethoxazole. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between patient groups, although there was wide intersubject variability. Absorption appeared to be similar between the critically ill and non-critically patients: bioavailability was 97.5% +/- 22.4% versus 101.8% +/- 22.7% for trimethoprim and 86.2% +/- 17.9% versus 99.1% +/- 20.5% for sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Because of the similar pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in critically ill and non-critically ill AIDS patients, the two groups of patients may receive similar dosages. Dosage
Hinder, Dominik; Linder, Thomas E; Schlegel-Wagner, Christoph; Candreia, Claudia
Cochlear implant (CI) surgery is the standard of care for postlingual deafness in adults. A hearing aid (HA) for the non-implanted ear is normally used if residual hearing is available. There is limited data on bimodal stimulation in elderly patients. We compare the outcome of bimodal stimulation and analyzed the correlation of bimodal benefit and residual hearing in elderly patients. 22 patients≥70 years were implanted with a single-sided CI from 2002 till 2014. 17 patients use a HA on the non-implanted ear (bimodal). In a retrospective chart review we analyzed the audiological benefit (pure tone average, speech recognition). Time to follow-up was 6 month to 12 years. The subjective benefit was assessed using a structured questionnaire. The speech recognition (monosyllabic word testing in quiet @ 65 dB SPL) showed a score of 61% in bimodal condition vs. 53% with CI alone (p=0.35). There was no statistically significant correlation between residual hearing in the lower frequencies (250 Hz, 500 Hz and 1 kHz) and bimodal benefit. Most elderly patients benefit from bimodal stimulation. In quiet and in comparison with CI alone, most patients showed some improvement in word recognition scores using bimodal fitting, and all of them were using the contralateral hearing aid all day long. Postlingual deafened elderly patients fitted with a unilateral CI require a short rehabilitation period. In case of contralateral hearing aid fitting, regular control of the hearing aid should not be overlooked. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Guevara-Rojas, Godoberto; Figl, Michael; Schicho, Kurt; Seemann, Rudolf; Traxler, Hannes; Vacariu, Apostolos; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ewers, Rolf; Watzinger, Franz
In the present study, we report an innovative workflow using polyetheretherketone (PEEK) patient-specific implants for esthetic corrections in the facial region through onlay grafting. The planning includes implant design according to virtual osteotomy and generation of a subtraction volume. The implant design was refined by stepwise changing the implant geometry according to soft tissue simulations. One patient was scanned using computed tomography. PEEK implants were interactively designed and manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques. Positioning intraoperatively was assisted by computer-aided navigation. Two months after surgery, a 3-dimensional surface model of the patient's face was generated using photogrammetry. Finally, the Hausdorff distance calculation was used to quantify the overall error, encompassing the failures in soft tissue simulation and implantation. The implant positioning process during surgery was satisfactory. The simulated soft tissue surface and the photogrammetry scan of the patient showed a high correspondence, especially where the skin covered the implants. The mean total error (Hausdorff distance) was 0.81 ± 1.00 mm (median 0.48, interquartile range 1.11). The spatial deviation remained less than 0.7 mm for the vast majority of points. The proposed workflow provides a complete computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer-aided surgery chain for implant design, allowing for soft tissue simulation, fabrication of patient-specific implants, and image-guided surgery to position the implants. Much of the surgical complexity resulting from osteotomies of the zygoma, chin, or mandibular angle might be transferred into the planning phase of patient-specific implants. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Patient decision aids support people to make informed decisions between healthcare options. Personal stories provide illustrative examples of others’ experiences and are seen as a useful way to communicate information about health and illness. Evidence indicates that providing information within personal stories affects the judgments and values people have, and the choices they make, differentially from facts presented in non-narrative prose. It is unclear if including narrative communications within patient decision aids enhances their effectiveness to support people to make informed decisions. Methods A survey of primary empirical research employing a systematic review method investigated the effect of patient decision aids with or without a personal story on people’s healthcare judgements and decisions. Searches were carried out between 2005-2012 of electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO), and reference lists of identified articles, review articles, and key authors. A narrative analysis described and synthesised findings. Results Of 734 citations identified, 11 were included describing 13 studies. All studies found participants’ judgments and/or decisions differed depending on whether or not their decision aid included a patient story. Knowledge was equally facilitated when the decision aids with and without stories had similar information content. Story-enhanced aids may help people recall information over time and/or their motivation to engage with health information. Personal stories affected both “system 1” (e.g., less counterfactual reasoning, more emotional reactions and perceptions) and “system 2” (e.g., more perceived deliberative decision making, more stable evaluations over time) decision-making strategies. Findings exploring associations with narrative communications, decision quality measures, and different levels of literacy and numeracy were mixed. The pattern of findings was similar for both experimental and real
Bekker, Hilary L; Winterbottom, Anna E; Butow, Phyllis; Dillard, Amanda J; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Fowler, Floyd J; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Shaffer, Victoria A; Volk, Robert J
Patient decision aids support people to make informed decisions between healthcare options. Personal stories provide illustrative examples of others' experiences and are seen as a useful way to communicate information about health and illness. Evidence indicates that providing information within personal stories affects the judgments and values people have, and the choices they make, differentially from facts presented in non-narrative prose. It is unclear if including narrative communications within patient decision aids enhances their effectiveness to support people to make informed decisions. A survey of primary empirical research employing a systematic review method investigated the effect of patient decision aids with or without a personal story on people's healthcare judgements and decisions. Searches were carried out between 2005-2012 of electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO), and reference lists of identified articles, review articles, and key authors. A narrative analysis described and synthesised findings. Of 734 citations identified, 11 were included describing 13 studies. All studies found participants' judgments and/or decisions differed depending on whether or not their decision aid included a patient story. Knowledge was equally facilitated when the decision aids with and without stories had similar information content. Story-enhanced aids may help people recall information over time and/or their motivation to engage with health information. Personal stories affected both "system 1" (e.g., less counterfactual reasoning, more emotional reactions and perceptions) and "system 2" (e.g., more perceived deliberative decision making, more stable evaluations over time) decision-making strategies. Findings exploring associations with narrative communications, decision quality measures, and different levels of literacy and numeracy were mixed. The pattern of findings was similar for both experimental and real-world studies. There is insufficient evidence
Nadal, Sidney R; Calore, Edenilson E; Manzione, Carmen R; Horta, Sergio C; Ferreira, Aurea F; Almeida, Lis V
Five patients (4 males; mean age, 46.4 years) with painful verrucous perianal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus are described. All patients had had AIDS for a long time and were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. CD4+ counts ranged from 73 to 370/mm3. All lesions were submitted to resection under subdural anesthesia. Histologic examinations revealed epithelial hyperplasia and dense inflammatory process, composed mainly of lymphocytes and plasma cells, extended just to the hypodermis. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpes simplex virus Type 2 in four patients and for herpes simplex virus Type 1 in one patient, and did not detect human papillomavirus antigens. Three patients had recurrences after 3, 10, and 12 months. Resection was performed on two patients; one had a new recurrence after three months. Oral acyclovir eliminated the lesion in the third patient. The analysis of our patients suggests that herpes simplex virus, Types 1 and 2, may cause verrucous lesions simulating neoplasia in patients with AIDS using antiretroviral therapy.
Dhawan, Jayata; Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Tangri, Karan
Abstract Introduction Topical anaesthetic agents enable pain free intraoral procedures, symptomatic pain relief for toothache, superficial mucosal lesions and pain related to post extraction time. Most common anxiety provoking and fearful experience for children in dental operatory is administration of local anaesthesia because on seeing the needle, children usually become uncooperative. One of recent trend of behaviour management technique is using non-aversive techniques out of which audiovisual distraction has emerged as a very successful technique for managing children in dental settings. Audio visual distraction could decrease the procedure related anxiety of patients undergoing dental treatment and can be very relaxing for highly anxious patients. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of topical anaesthetics EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics) cream and benzocaine (20%) gel in reducing the pain during the needle insertion with and without the use of Audio Visual (AV) aids. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 120 children, the age range of 3-14 years attending the outpatient department for their treatment. EMLA and benzocaine gel (20%) were assessed for their effectiveness in reducing the pain on needle insertion during local anaesthesia administration. Based on the inclusion and the exclusion criteria, children requiring local anaesthesia for the dental treatment were randomly divided into four equal groups of 30 children based upon whether AV aids were used or not. AV aids were given using Sony Vaio laptop with earphones with nursery rhymes and cartoon movies DVD. The pain assessment was done by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale and measurement of the physiological responses of pulse rate and oxygen saturation were done by pulse oximeter. Results There was a statistically significant difference in the mean pain score, pulse rate and mean oxygen saturation rate when it was compared between the four
Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira dos; Almeida, Ana Maria Rampeloti
Even with current highly active antiretroviral therapy, individuals with AIDS continue to exhibit important nutritional deficits and reduced levels of albumin and hemoglobin, which may be directly related to their cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell counts. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and relate the findings to the albumin level, hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count. Patients over 20 years of age with AIDS who were hospitalized in a university hospital and were receiving antiretroviral therapy were studied with regard to clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and sociodemographic characteristics. Body mass index, percentage of weight loss, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and arm muscle circumference were analyzed. Data on albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 cell count were obtained from patient charts. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test for independent variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of significance was set to 0.05 (α = 5%). Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 software for Windows. Of the 50 patients evaluated, 70% were male. The prevalence of malnutrition was higher when the definition was based on arm circumference and triceps skinfold measurement. The concentrations of all biochemical variables were significantly lower among patients with a body mass index of less than 18.5kg/m2. The CD4 cell count, albumin, hemoglobin and hematocrit anthropometric measures were directly related to each other. These findings underscore the importance of nutritional follow-up for underweight patients with AIDS, as nutritional status proved to be related to important biochemical alterations.
Migo, Ellen M; Haynes, Becky I; Harris, Lara; Friedner, Kim; Humphreys, Kate; Kopelman, Michael D
The use of mobile devices to deliver healthcare has not yet been exploited in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Smartphones have the potential to serve as multi-functional memory aids. To investigate whether patients attending a clinic for mixed memory problems own smartphones, to determine whether this could be a widely applicable medium to use as a memory aids device. A questionnaire on smartphone ownership was given to an opportunity sample of consecutive patients attending a neuropsychiatry and memory disorders outpatient clinic. Data were collected in 2012 and repeated 12 months later in 2013 to assess changes over time. Ownership of mobile phones was stable between 2012 (81%) and 2013 (85%), but ownership of smartphones showed a significant increase (from 26% to 40%). Age negatively predicted smartphone ownership. Despite cognitive or psychiatric problems, our patient group are as likely to own a mobile phone as a member of the general population. Ownership levels are at 40% and likely to increase in the future. Exploring how smartphones and their apps could function as memory aids is likely to be useful for a large enough number of patients to be clinically worthwhile.
Correia, Carolina C; Melo, Heloísa R L; Costa, Vláudia M A
Cerebral toxoplasmosis among individuals with AIDS may be difficult to diagnose and needs to be differentiated from other neurological diseases. A validation study was performed on real-time PCR for detecting the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. The study included 135 AIDS patients divided into two groups: Group I comprised 85 patients with neurotoxoplasmosis; and Group II comprised 50 patients with non-toxoplasmic neurological diseases. Real-time PCR on blood showed a sensitivity of 1.5%, specificity of 100.0%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 36.5%. CSF testing produced better results, with a sensitivity of 35.3%, specificity of 100.0%, PPV of 100.0% and NPV of 44.7%. The group presenting with pleocytosis and four or more encephalic lesions was associated with greater CSF positivity on PCR. In conclusion, real-time PCR on blood was not useful for diagnosis. CSF testing showed low sensitivity but high specificity. Greater numbers of lesions and greater CSF cellularity may improve the sensitivity of the method.
Ott, M; Wegner, A; Caspary, W F; Lembcke, B
The relation of small intestinal dysfunction and malnutrition (body composition and serum index parameters of nutrition) was investigated in 36 male patients with AIDS. Mucosal absorptive capacity was assessed by the 25 g D-xylose test. D-xylose absorption (2 h - serum profile and 5 h - urine) classified 17 patients as having impaired and 19 patients as having normal absorption. In both groups body weight, body mass index as well as body composition analysis indicated malnutrition when compared to healthy male controls (n = 340) or asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (n = 26). Patients with abnormal D-xylose test had more severe malnutrition indicated by a lower body cell mass (17.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 22.5 +/- 4.5 kg; p < 0.01) and an increased ratio of extracellular mass to body cell mass (1.99 +/- 0.82 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.46 p < 0.01). Total serum protein, albumin, cholinesterase activity, cholesterol and LDL were significantly diminished in AIDS-patients with abnormal D-xylose test compared to those with normal D-xylose absorption. Intestinal dysfunction indicated by decreased D-xylose Intestinal dysfunction indicated by decreased D-xylose absorption thus represents an important feature of malnutrition and wasting, and patients with abnormal D-xylose absorption have more profound impairment of body composition, visceral proteins and lipids reflecting malnutrition than patients with unaffected intestinal absorption.
Velásquez, J N; Carnevale, S; Guarnera, E A; Labbé, J H; Chertcoff, A; Cabrera, M G; Rodríguez, M I
Microsporidia are protozoa parasites responsible for significant gastrointestinal disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We evaluated a PCR assay of stool samples, duodenal aspirates, and biopsy specimens from patients with Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection. A 210-bp DNA fragment of the unique rRNA intergenic spacer could be amplified from all samples infected with E. bieneusi, but no amplification was seen by using DNA purified from samples with Septata intestinalis or other parasites and from negative control human cells. These results suggest that the PCR in stool samples may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with AIDS. PMID:8940480
Bukasa, K S; Sindic, C J; Bodeus, M; Burtonboy, G; Laterre, C; Sonnet, J
CSF and serum samples from 16 AIDS patients were tested for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies either by classical serological methods or by an immunoblot technique based on agarose gel isoelectric focusing and transfer of the specific IgG antibodies onto HIV antigens-loaded nitrocellulose sheets. This method enabled the demonstration of an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HIV oligoclonal IgG antibodies, often superimposed on diffuse polyclonal production, in 14 patients. The two negative cases were devoid of neurological signs or symptoms. However, two patients classified in stage II of the disease (asymptomatic infection) displayed an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HIV antibodies. Images PMID:3216207
Salami, A K; Olatunji, P O; Oluboyo, P O
Opportunistic diseases (ODs) of varying types and severities have been reported amongst HIV infected patients around the world, this made us to define the incidence, spectrum and effects of ODs on HIV infected Nigerians' CD4+cells count and survival rate. Retrospective analyses of HIV register from February 2002 to July 2004. ODs developed in 201 (68.6%) patients, 107 (53.2%) were AIDS-defining viz; TB, HIV-encephalopathy, scopulariopsis meningitis, cutaneous kaposis sarcoma and pulmonary candidiasis. Mean CD4+ count was lower with ODs compared to the controls, 138/ul vs 211/ul, p < -0.0006. It was low with non-AIDS-defining infection, 221.6/ul, lower with non-infectious AIDS-defining diseases, 192.4/ul and lowest with AIDS-defining infections, 117.7/ul. Mortality rate was 29.4%; 51 infectious and 8 non-infectious ODs against 19 (18.4%) from the controls. Risk of death was four folds higher with ODs over the controls, 59 vs 19, OR=3.98, 95%CI= 2.20- 7.27, X=24.2, p-<0.0001. This risk was also higher with infectious AIDS-defining illnesses compared to non-infectious ones, 48 vs 8, RR=4.83, 95 %CI=2.80- 8.34, X= 51.7, p-<0.0001. Death from TB was over 2(1/2) times higher than deaths from other AIDS-defining diseases, 45 vs 14, RR=2.7,95%CI=2.01-3.73,x=37.3, p-<0.0001. Average survival was shorter with ODs; 12.3weeks compared to controls, 37.8weeks, p-< -0.039. Mean survival was longest with EPTB, 29.8weeks and shortest with fungal meningitis, 1.9weeks. incidence of ODs was high, 68.6%; it was associated with lower CD4+ count and shorter patient's survival especially when it was infectious and AIDS defining.
Johnson, Carole E; Danhauer, Jeffrey L; Ellis, Blakely B; Jilla, Anna Marie
Untreated sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is associated with chronic health-care conditions, isolation, loneliness, and reduced quality of life. Although hearing aids can minimize the negative effects of SNHL, only about one in five persons with SNHL seeks help for communication problems. Many persons wait 10 yr or more from the time they first notice a problem before pursuing amplification. Further, little information about the benefits of amplification is available for persons with mild SNHL (MSNHL), who likely defer treatment even longer. To conduct a systematic review to weigh the evidence regarding benefits derived from the use of amplification by adults with MSNHL. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Adult hearing aid wearers with bilateral average pure-tone thresholds ≤45 dB HL at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied-Health Literature, Cochrane Collaboration, and Google Scholar were searched independently by the authors during September 2013. The authors used a consensus approach to assess the quality and extract data for the meta-analysis. Of 106 articles recovered for full-text review, only 10 met inclusion criteria (at least Level IV of evidence and involved and reported separate pre-/postfitting hearing aid outcomes for patients with MSNHL). Included studies involved mainly middle-aged to elderly patients using hearing aids of various styles and circuitry. Results from all of the studies indicated positive benefits from amplification for patients with MSNHL. Data from five studies were suitable for a meta-analysis, which produced a small-to-medium effect size of 0.85 (95% confidence intervals = 0.44-1.25) after adjusting for a small publication bias. This evidence confirmed benefits from the use of amplification in adults with MSNHL. Evidence exists supporting the notion that adults with MSNHL benefit from hearing aids. This information is important and useful to audiologists, patients, and third-party payers
Hawley, Sarah T; Newman, Lisa; Griggs, Jennifer J; Kosir, Mary Ann; Katz, Steven J
Early-stage breast cancer patients face a series of complex treatment decisions, with the first typically being choice of locoregional treatment. There is a need for tools to support patients in this decision-making process. We developed an innovative, online locoregional treatment tool based on International Patient Decision Aids Standards criteria. We evaluated its impact on patient knowledge about treatment and appraisal of decision making in a pilot study using a clinical sample of newly diagnosed, breast cancer patients who were randomized to view the decision aid website first or complete a survey prior to viewing the decision aid. Differences in knowledge and decision appraisal between the two groups were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests. Computer-generated preferences for treatment were compared with patients' stated preferences using chi-square tests. One hundred and one newly diagnosed patients were randomized to view the website first or take a survey first. Women who viewed the website first had slightly higher, though not significantly, knowledge about surgery (p = 0.29) and reconstruction (p = 0.10) than the survey-first group. Those who viewed the website first also appraised their decision process significantly more favorably than did those who took the survey first (p < 0.05 for most decision outcomes). There was very good concordance between computer-suggested and stated treatment preferences. This pilot study suggests that an interactive decision tool shows promise for supporting early-stage breast cancer patients with complicated treatment decision making.
Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil
The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.
van den Horn, G J; Meenken, C; Troost, D
BACKGROUND: A patient with AIDS who developed the clinical picture of bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in combination with varicella zoster encephalitis is described. The picture developed more than 2 years after an episode of ophthalmic zoster infection, and following intermittent exposure to oral acyclovir because of recurrent episodes of cutaneous herpes simplex infection. METHODS: Aqueous humour, obtained by paracentesis of the anterior chamber, was analysed using immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Postmortem analysis of eye and brain tissue was performed by using conventional techniques and in situ hybridisation. RESULTS: While conventional techniques all failed to detect a causative agent, analysis of the aqueous humour using PCR, and histological examination of necropsy specimens from eyes and brain using in situ hybridisation were conclusive for the diagnosis varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. CONCLUSION: This case documents the presumed association of PORN and VZV encephalitis in a severely immunocompromised AIDS patient. Images PMID:8976726
A large percentage of patients with HIV/AIDS will develop dermatological complications. Consequently, all practising clinicians and pathologists in regions with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS must be familiar with the diverse cutaneous manifestations of the disease. This paper highlights the fact that biopsy material in this clinical context may occasionally reveal more than one pathological process. The potential spectrum includes two or more infections in a single skin biopsy (e.g., herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus infection), neoplastic lesions containing infective organisms (Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and cryptococcosis), dermatoses in association with neoplastic lesions (e.g., KS and interface dermatitis), or more than one dermatosis in a given specimen (e.g., papulopruritic eruption and nodular prurigo). Rare biopsies may even demonstrate triple pathology. The importance of careful examination of skin biopsies in this clinical context is emphasised. Failure to recognise an undiagnosed concomitant opportunistic infective pathogen could have potentially disastrous consequences for the patient. PMID:21789262
de Gans, J; Portegies, P; Reiss, P; Troost, D; van Gool, T; Lange, J M
We retrospectively assessed the efficacy of maintenance therapy with pyrimethamine alone in 38 patients with AIDS and central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation and compatible CT scan abnormalities with subsequent response to therapy. Survival analysis was performed by the product limit method of Kaplan-Meier. Fourteen patients received maintenance therapy with 25 mg pyrimethamine per day (group 1), and 24 patients were treated with 50 mg per day (group 2). The median survival from initiation of maintenance therapy until death or end of the study for the entire study population was 32 weeks. Median survival in group 1 was 28 weeks, as compared with 36 weeks in group 2 (p = 0.34). Relapses occurred in 12 patients, six in group 1 and six in group 2. There was no significant difference in failure-free survival between the two treatment groups (p = 0.09). One patient in group 1 and two patients in group 2 experienced severe toxicity, requiring discontinuation of therapy. All three patients relapsed and died. Two patients in group 2 who stopped treatment on their own initiative also had relapses. Thus, all five patients who discontinued therapy had relapses. Five of 13 patients in group 1 and two of 20 patients in group 2 relapsed during continuous therapy with pyrimethamine (p = 0.13); these seven patients responded to reintroduction of combination therapy (n = 6) or treatment with 50 mg pyrimethamine per day (n = 1). The results of our retrospective analysis suggest that maintenance therapy with oral pyrimethamine, 50 mg per day, in AIDS patients with CNS toxoplasmosis is effective.
Hall, M; Trachtenberg, F; Dugan, E
Objective: Little empirical evidence exists to support either side of the ongoing debate over whether legalising physician aid in dying would undermine patient trust. Design: A random national sample of 1117 US adults were asked about their level of agreement with a statement that they would trust their doctor less if "euthanasia were legal [and] doctors were allowed to help patients die". Results: There was disagreement by 58% of the participants, and agreement by only 20% that legalising euthanasia would cause them to trust their personal physician less. The remainder were neutral. These attitudes were the same in men and women, but older people and black people had more agreement that euthanasia would lower trust. However, overall, only 27% of elderly people (age 65+) and 32% of black people thought that physician aid in dying would lower trust. These views differed with physical and mental health, and also with education and income, with those having more of these attributes tending to view physician aid in dying somewhat more favourably. Again, however, overall views in most of these subgroups were positive. Views about the effect of physician aid in dying on trust were significantly correlated with participants' underlying trust in their physicians and their satisfaction with care. In a multivariate regression model, trust, satisfaction, age, and white/black race remained independently significant. Conclusion: Despite the widespread concern that legalising physician aid in dying would seriously threaten or undermine trust in physicians, the weight of the evidence in the USA is to the contrary, although views vary significantly. PMID:16319229
Xavier, Graciela Augusto; Cademartori, Beatris Gonzalez; Cunha Filho, Nilton Azevedo da; Farias, Nara Amélia da Rosa
Toxoplasmosis is considered one of the opportunistic infections for individuals with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of neurotoxoplasmosis, ocular toxoplasmosis and antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii in HIV-positive patients attending the SAE (Specialized Assistance Service for HIV/AIDS), as well as to associate their serological profile with epidemiological and clinical data. A total of 250 patients participated in the study from December, 2009 to November, 2010. Serological analysis was performed using the indirect immunofluorescent technique; epidemiological data were gathered by a questionnaire, and clinical history was based on the analysis of medical charts. Prevalence of seropositivity was 80%, with history of neurotoxoplasmosis in 4.8% and of ocular toxoplasmosis in 1.6% of the patients. The Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) was not used by 32% of the patients, 18.4% of the patients had CD4+ T- lymphocyte count less than 200 cells/mm³ and 96.8% of them were not aware of the modes of disease transmission. These findings led us to conclude that the study population is at high risk of clinical toxoplasmosis, because of both reactivation of infection in the seropositive patients who do not make a regular use of HAART, and primo-infection in seronegative patients worsened by an unawareness of the modes of infection reported in this study.
Aïm, F; Rosier, L; Dumontier, C
A 63-year-old woman with long-standing AIDS and previous Kaposi sarcomas of the lower limb presented to our consultation complaining of a painful left ring finger with pulp enlargement. X-rays revealed an osteolytic lesion of the distal phalanx. We suspected an isolated osseous Kaposi sarcoma and at surgery we found a hemorrhagic lesion with bone extension into the phalanx. Bone involvement is rare in Kaposi sarcoma and even rarer in patients without a cutaneous location.
Poonwan, N; Kusum, M; Mikami, Y; Yazawa, K; Tanaka, Y; Gonoi, T; Hasegawa, S; Konyama, K
Forty strains of nocardioform microorganisms were isolated as clinical specimens including several from AIDS patients in Thailand. Among them, 37 strains were found to belong to the genus Nocardia. Our identification studies revealed that most of the strains (25 strains) belong to the N. asteroides group, i.e., N. asteroides sensu stricto and N. farcinica. Three strains were identified as N. otitidiscaviarum and two strains N. brasiliensis. In addition, 7 strains of rare pathogenic N. transvalensis were also isolated.
Tortoli, E; Piersimoni, C; Bacosi, D; Bartoloni, A; Betti, F; Bono, L; Burrini, C; De Sio, G; Lacchini, C; Mantella, A
Mycobacterium celatum is a recently described species which, on the basis of conventional tests, may be misidentified as Mycobacterium xenopi or as belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex. Only genomic sequencing or high-performance liquid chromatography of cell wall mycolic acids can presently allow a correct identification of this mycobacterium. Two cases of infection due to M. celatum, in AIDS patients, are described here. The quantitative susceptibility pattern of the isolates to a wide spectrum of drugs is also reported. PMID:7699029
Bualert, Lertwut; Charungkiattikul, Wiwat; Thongsuksai, Paramee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Siripattanapipong, Suradej; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Naaglor, Tawee; Ravel, Christophe; El Baidouri, Fouad; Leelayoova, Saovanee
We report the first establishment of in vitro cultivation and genotypic characterization of Leishmania siamensis isolated from an autochthonous disseminated dermal and visceral leishmaniasis in a Thai acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. The molecular identification has shown that the parasite was identical to L. siamensis, a recently described Leishmania species reported in the southern provinces of Thailand. The phylogenetic analysis has confirmed L. siamensis as closely related to the zoonotic Leishmania species L. enrietti.
Poudel, B N; Dhungana, G P
With the increase in the severity of immunosupression, due to HIV infection, there is increase in the flow of patients seeking care and support services. Antiretroviral drugs minimize chance of developing AIDS related opportunistic infection and therefore there would be the prolongation of life of the patients. The objectives of this study are to assess the chief complaints, major opportunistic infections, complications of ART and treatment outcome of hospital admitted HIV patients. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2008 to May 2009 among 66 HIV patients undergoing indoor treatment in Seti Zonal Hospital, Dhangadhi. Of the total cases, 36 (54.5%) were male and 30 (45.5%) were females with predominant age group of 31- 40 years (47%). About 24% of admitted patients had CD4 count less than 50/cu mm blood. Thirty five (53%) cases presented fever as the major clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS due to different opportunistic infections followed by cough (28.8%), loss of appetite (28.8%), weight loss (27.3%), and diarrhea (24.2%). Tuberculosis was found to be the major opportunistic infection accounting 27.3% followed by gastroenteritis (21.2%) and oral candidiasis (15.5%). Treatment outcome of hospital admitted patients showed the 83.3% recovery rate and 4.3% death rate. Hospital admission was found to be efficient to treat the major opportunistic infections and management of ART hypersensitivity reactions. While tuberculosis was the leading opportunistic infection, the most common clinical manifestation was found to be fever among the admitted HIV/AIDS patients.
Govender, Veloshnee; Fried, Jana; Birch, Stephen; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Cleary, Susan
In South Africa, HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem. In a context of chronic unemployment and deepening poverty, social assistance through a Disability Grant (DG) is extended to adults with HIV/AIDS who are unable to work because of a mental or physical disability. Using a mixed methods approach, we consider 1) inequalities in access to the DG for patients on ART and 2) implications of DG access for on-going access to healthcare. Data were collected in exit interviews with 1200 ART patients in two rural and two urban health sub-districts in four different South African provinces. Additionally, 17 and 18 in-depth interviews were completed with patients on ART treatment and ART providers, respectively, in three of the four sites included in the quantitative phase. Grant recipients were comparatively worse off than non-recipients in terms of employment (9.1 % vs. 29.9 %) and wealth (58.3 % in the poorest half vs. 45.8 %). After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, site, treatment duration, adherence and concomitant TB treatment, the regression analyses showed that the employed were significantly less likely to receive the DG than the unemployed (p < 0.001). Also, patients who were longer on treatment and receiving concomitant treatment (i.e., ART and tuberculosis care) were more likely to receive the DG (significant at the 5 % level). The qualitative analyses indicated that the DG alleviated the burden of healthcare related costs for ART patients. Both patients and healthcare providers spoke of the complexity of the grants process and eligibility criteria as a barrier to accessing the grant. This impacted adversely on patient-provider relationships. These findings highlight the appropriateness of the DG for people living with HIV/AIDS. However, improved collaboration between the Departments of Social Development and Health is essential for preparing healthcare providers who are at the interface between social security and potential
Gilbert, C; Handfield, J; Toma, E; Lalonde, R; Bergeron, M G; Boivin, G
To evaluate the prevalence of the most common cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL97 mutations associated with ganciclovir resistance directly in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) of patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis. Also to correlate the presence (or absence) of these mutations with the systemic CMV viral load and the ophthalmologic outcome of these subjects. Monthly blood samples were obtained from 19 patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis who had been treated with systemic ganciclovir for > or = 2 months. Detection of CMV UL97 mutations was done using nested PCR amplification followed by restriction enzyme analysis. The viral load was assessed with a polymerase chain reaction-based assay and non-isotopic hybridization detection. CMV UL97 mutations were detected in PMNL of four of 13 (30.8%) patients who had been treated with ganciclovir for > or = 3 months but in none of six patients who had been treated for < 3 months. All four patients with detectable UL97 mutations were presenting evidence of retinitis progression at the time those mutations were first detected (mean, 145.7 days of ganciclovir) and three of four patients had a viral DNA load > 10000 copies per 10(5) PMNL contrasting with the copy numbers in the 15 subjects without mutations (mean, 492.9 copies per 10(5) PMNL after a mean of 146.8 days of ganciclovir). The prevalence of the most common CMV UL97 mutations associated with ganciclovir resistance in PMNL of patients with AIDS treated for > or = 3 months (30.8%) appears to be higher than the rate of emergence of ganciclovir-resistant CMV isolates as previously reported using phenotypic assays (about 8%). Moreover, the detection of these mutations is associated with a considerable increase in the CMV DNA load in the blood as well as with progression of CMV retinitis during ganciclovir therapy.
Ancuta, Petronela; Kamat, Anupa; Kunstman, Kevin J; Kim, Eun-Young; Autissier, Patrick; Wurcel, Alysse; Zaman, Tauheed; Stone, David; Mefford, Megan; Morgello, Susan; Singer, Elyse J; Wolinsky, Steven M; Gabuzda, Dana
Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+) T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.
Adamu, Haileeyesus; Petros, Beyene; Zhang, Guoqing; Kassa, Hailu; Amer, Said; Ye, Jianbin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua
Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause for chronic diarrhea and death in HIV/AIDS patients. Among common Cryptosporidium species in humans, C. parvum is responsible for most zoonotic infections in industrialized nations. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of C. parvum and role of zoonotic transmission in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in developing countries remain unclear. In this cross-sectional study, 520 HIV/AIDS patients were examined for Cryptosporidium presence in stool samples using genotyping and subtyping techniques. Altogether, 140 (26.9%) patients were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, belonging to C. parvum (92 patients), C. hominis (25 patients), C. viatorum (10 patients), C. felis (5 patients), C. meleagridis (3 patients), C. canis (2 patients), C. xiaoi (2 patients), and mixture of C. parvum and C. hominis (1 patient). Sequence analyses of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene revealed a high genetic diversity within the 82 C. parvum and 19 C. hominis specimens subtyped, including C. parvum zoonotic subtype families IIa (71) and IId (5) and anthroponotic subtype families IIc (2), IIb (1), IIe (1) and If-like (2), and C. hominis subtype families Id (13), Ie (5), and Ib (1). Overall, Cryptosporidium infection was associated with the occurrence of diarrhea and vomiting. Diarrhea was attributable mostly to C. parvum subtype family IIa and C. hominis, whereas vomiting was largely attributable to C. hominis and rare Cryptosporidium species. Calf contact was identified as a significant risk factor for infection with Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. parvum subtype family IIa. Results of the study indicate that C. parvum is a major cause of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and zoonotic transmission is important in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in Ethiopia. In addition, they confirm that different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are linked to different clinical manifestations.
Lavalle, C; Aguilar, J C; Peña, F; Estrada-Aguilar, J L; Aviña-Zubieta, J A; Madrazo, M
The objective of this study was to analyze hospitalization costs, morbidity, disability, and mortality in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with protease inhibitors (PI). This is a self-controlled, ambispective study of a total of 581 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS seen at the Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico La Raza, IMSS, in Mexico City during 1997. A total of 210 (36.14%) patients initiated protease inhibitor (PI) treatment at the onset of the study. Thirty-eight patients satisfied the inclusion criteria for this study and were analyzed retrospectively during the year prior to PI treatment, and then prospectively throughout the year on PI treatment. As concerns main outcome measures, financial costs, number of hospitalizations, number of infections, and productivity and laboratory parameters (CD4(+) counts and viral load) were analyzed during the year prior to PI treatment and then prospectively during the year on PI prescription. Our hypothesis was that the hospital costs, morbidity, disability, and mortality of patients with AIDS decreased while on PI treatment. During the year prior to PI prescription, the 38 patients enrolled in the study were admitted on a total of 59 occasions (1.55 hospitalizations/patient), whereas during the year on PI therapy, all 38 patients had only seven admissions (0.18 hospitalizations/patient). Hospitalization costs decreased 35% when annual PI costs for the 38 patients studied were taken into account. The number of microorganisms detected during hospitalization decreased from 24 prior to PI to five on PI. The number of disability days involved in patients on PI decreased significantly (p <0.0002). None of the 38 patients studied died during the year of follow-up under PI treatment. Mortality decreased significantly, from 116/481 (23.2%) in 1996, to 77/581 (13.2%) in 1997, to 40/740 (6.4%) in 1998. There were no deaths among the 38 patients studied during the 1-year
Abhyankar, Purva; Volk, Robert J; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; Bravo, Paulina; Buchholz, Angela; Ozanne, Elissa; Vidal, Dale Colins; Col, Nananda; Stalmeier, Peep
Standards for patient decision aids require that information and options be presented in a balanced manner; this requirement is based on the argument that balanced presentation is essential to foster informed decision making. If information is presented in an incomplete/non-neutral manner, it can stimulate cognitive biases that can unduly affect individuals' knowledge, perceptions of risks and benefits, and, ultimately, preferences. However, there is little clarity about what constitutes balance, and how it can be determined and enhanced. We conducted a literature review to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence related to balancing the presentation of information and options. A literature search related to patient decision aids and balance was conducted on Medline, using MeSH terms and PubMed; this search supplemented the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration's review of patient decision aids trials. Only English language articles relevant to patient decision making and addressing the balance of information and options were included. All members of the team independently screened clusters of articles; uncertainties were resolved by seeking review by another member. The team then worked in sub-groups to extract and synthesise data on theory, definitions, and evidence reported in these studies. A total of 40 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, six explained the rationale for balancing the presentation of information and options. Twelve defined "balance"; the definition of "balance" that emerged is as follows: "The complete and unbiased presentation of the relevant options and the information about those options-in content and in format-in a way that enables individuals to process this information without bias". Ten of the 40 articles reported assessing the balance of the relevant decision aid. All 10 did so exclusively from the users' or patients' perspective, using a five-point Likert-type scale. Presenting information in a side-by-side display form was
Wong, M S
ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.
Malloy, Suzanne E.
This study examined the attitudes of undergraduate and graduate nursing students (N=282) towards caring for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. A 57-item Likert type AIDS attitude questionnaire focused on the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in the comfort level of juniors, seniors, or graduate students caring for…
Lenz, Matthias; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid
Development and testing of a decision aid about prevention of myocardial infarction for persons with type 2 diabetes. Development and testing were guided by the UK Medical Research Council's guidance for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. This comprised a systematic literature review, a focus group of 9 potential providers, modelling a prototype, interviews to qualitatively explore understanding and additional information needs, and revision of the decision aid. The decision aid includes evidence-based information, a tool for individual risk-assessment, worksheets, and an action plan. Five diabetes educators and 15 patients underwent two 60-minutes face-to-face interviews, firstly browsing the decision aid for the first time and then after using it. Both groups differed in their ratings. Overall, the decision aid was rated to present essential information in a complex but understandable and unbiased manner. Difficulties involved understanding of terminology and risk interpretation. "Social status as a risk factor" was the most challenged content by educators but considered as highly important by patients. The risk assessment tool was used inadequately. 5 patients allocated themselves into false risk categories. After revision of the tool, all 12 patients who were recruited for reassessment used the tool correctly. The decision aid was evaluated with diabetes educators and patients. Qualitative data analysis revealed aspects for revision. The decision aid is planned to be part of a shared decision making programme, comprising a strategy for patient counselling and educational modules addressed to providers. Quantitative evaluation is required to assess its effectiveness.
Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Jamayet, Nafij; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Luddin, Norhayati; Abdullah, Johari Yap; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Yahya, Suzana
Facial defects are either congenital or caused by trauma or cancer where most of them affect the person appearance. The emotional pressure and low self-esteem are problems commonly related to patient with facial defect. To overcome this problem, silicone prosthesis was designed to cover the defect part. This study describes the techniques in designing and fabrication for facial prosthesis applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM). The steps of fabricating the facial prosthesis were based on a patient case. The patient was diagnosed for Gorlin Gotz syndrome and came to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for prosthesis. The 3D image of the patient was reconstructed from CT data using MIMICS software. Based on the 3D image, the intercanthal and zygomatic measurements of the patient were compared with available data in the database to find the suitable nose shape. The normal nose shape for the patient was retrieved from the nasal digital library. Mirror imaging technique was used to mirror the facial part. The final design of facial prosthesis including eye, nose and cheek was superimposed to see the result virtually. After the final design was confirmed, the mould design was created. The mould of nasal prosthesis was printed using Objet 3D printer. Silicone casting was done using the 3D print mould. The final prosthesis produced from the computer aided method was acceptable to be used for facial rehabilitation to provide better quality of life.
Kazanjian, P; Armstrong, W; Hossler, P A; Burman, W; Richardson, J; Lee, C H; Crane, L; Katz, J; Meshnick, S R
This study was conducted to determine whether Pneumocystis carinii dyhydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) are affected by duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis and influence response to sulfa or sulfone therapy. The P. carinii DHPS genes from 97 AIDS patients with PCP between 1991 and 1999 from 4 medical centers were amplified, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequenced. Mutations were observed in 76% of isolates from patients exposed to sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis compared with 23% of isolates from patients not exposed (P=.001). Duration of prophylaxis increased the risk of mutations (relative risk [RR] for each exposure month, 1.06; P=.02). Twenty-eight percent of patients with mutations failed sulfa or sulfone treatment; mutations increased the risk of sulfa or sulfone treatment failure (RR, 2.1; P=0.01). Thus, an increased duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis increases the chance of developing a P. carinii mutation. The majority of patients with mutations respond to sulfa or sulfone therapy.
Anderson, Albert M.; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W.; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N.; Bamberger, David M.; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N.; Wheat, L. Joseph
Abstract Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p < 0.0001) and 5% death (p = 0.28) in the PC group. Relapse occurred in 53% of the nonadherent patients but not in the adherent patients (p < 0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients with initial central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis relapsed compared to 15% of patients without CNS involvement (p = 0.0004), which may be accounted for by nonadherence. In addition, patients with antigenuria above 2.0 ng/mL at 1-year follow-up were 12.82 times (95% confidence interval, 2.91–55.56) more likely to relapse compared to those with antigenuria below 2.0 ng/mL. Discontinuation of antifungal therapy was safe in adherent patients who completed at least 1 year of antifungal treatment, and had CD4 counts >150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis. PMID:24378739
Puhan, Milo A.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Palella, Frank J.; Addessi, Adrienne; Meinert, Curtis
Background Excess mortality has declined among HIV infected patients but without evidence of a decline in patients with AIDS. We assessed temporal changes in excess mortality and elucidated risk factors for excess mortality in patients with AIDS diagnosed in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods We included 1,188 patients of the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS who were between 25-64 years old at enrollment and diagnosed with AIDS after 1995. We calculated excess mortality as the age-, year- and sex-adjusted difference in mortality rates between patients with AIDS and persons in the US general population, between 1999 and 2007, and used a relative survival model to identify risk factors for excess mortality. Results There were an average of 50 excess deaths (95% CI 44-57) per 1,000 person years between 1999 and 2007. Excess mortality almost halved with an annual decline of 8.0% per year (3.0-12.7 p=0.002) but remained high at 36 excess deaths per 1,000 person years in 2007. Viral load >400 vs. ≤400 copies/mL (risk ratio 3.4 [2.3-5.0]), CD4+ count <200 vs. ≥200 cells/μL (2.7 [1.9-3.9]) and cytomegalovirus retinitis (1.6 [1.2-2.1]) were the strongest risk factors for excess mortality. Conclusions Excess mortality among patients with AIDS was nearly halved in the HAART era and most strongly linked to stage of HIV disease. These results reflect the continuing improvements in AIDS management but also highlight that excess mortality remains about five times higher in patients with AIDS than in patients with HIV-infection but no AIDS. PMID:20825306
Puhan, Milo A; Van Natta, Mark L; Palella, Frank J; Addessi, Adrienne; Meinert, Curtis
Excess mortality has decreased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients but without evidence of a decrease among patients with AIDS. We assessed temporal changes in excess mortality and elucidated risk factors for excess mortality in patients with AIDS diagnosed in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We included 1188 patients of the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS who were aged 25-64 years at enrollment and who received a diagnosis of AIDS after 1995. We calculated excess mortality as the age-, year-, and sex-adjusted difference in mortality rates between patients with AIDS and persons in the US general population during the period 1999-2007. We used a relative survival model to identify risk factors for excess mortality. There were a mean of 50 excess deaths per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 44-57 excess deaths per 1000 person-years) during 1999-2007. Excess mortality almost halved, with an annual decrease of 8.0% per year (95% CI, 3.0%-12.7%; P = .002) but remained high at 36 excess deaths per 1000 person-years in 2007. Viral load >400 copies/mL (compared with
Karagiannis, Thomas; Liakos, Aris; Branda, Megan E; Athanasiadou, Eleni; Mainou, Maria; Boura, Panagiota; Goulis, Dimitrios G; LeBlanc, Annie; Montori, Victor M
Objective To assess the efficacy of the Diabetes Medication Choice Decision Aid among patients with type 2 diabetes in Greece. Design Open-label cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary and secondary care practices across Greece. Participants 5 sites allocated to the decision aid (n=101 patients) and 4 sites to control (n=103 patients). Intervention Clinicians and patients in the intervention arm used a decision aid, based on outcomes that both consider important when choosing among antihyperglycaemic medications. Patients in the control arm received usual care. Outcome measures The primary outcome was patient's level of decisional comfort after the initial clinical encounter. Secondary outcomes included patient's knowledge about type 2 diabetes and medications, and patient's and clinician's satisfaction. Adherence to prescribed antihyperglycaemic medication and change in glycated haemoglobin were assessed at 24 weeks. Results Patients in both arms had similar scores in overall decisional comfort (mean difference between the usual care and decision aid arms −6.9, 95% CI −21.5 to 7.7) and its subscales. Patients' knowledge was high in both arms (mean difference 2.3%, 95% CI −15.7% to 20.4%). Patients and clinicians in both groups were equally satisfied with the decision-making. No significant difference in medication adherence and glycaemic control was found across arms. Clinicians found the decision aid useful and reported that its integration in their daily routine was easy. Conclusions The decision aid was implemented and positively received in the clinical setting in Greece, in line with the patient-centred approach endorsed by current guidelines. However, this trial yielded imprecise results in terms of patient outcomes. Further research is needed to investigate the interaction between the patient and the clinician in order to clarify the association between the use of decision aids and implementation of shared decision-making. Trial
Gomez, Alexandra; Montero, Alberto J; Hurley, Judith
The purpose of the study is to describe what is the presentation of breast cancer in women with HIV, their tolerance to therapy, the most common complications of treatment and their outcomes. Retrospective chart review of patients with HIV diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2013 at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital (UM/JMH) 47 females and 1 male were included in the analysis. The median age of diagnosis was 46 years (IQR 41-52) and 64% of the women were premenopausal. Median CD4(+) count was 330 cells/µL (IQR 131-589 cells/µL). 41% had AIDS at time of diagnosis. 94% of patients presented with locoregional disease and 6% with late stage breast cancer. 52% had ER(+) tumors. 6% had HER-2/neu tumor expression and 21 % had triple negative disease. The 5 year PFS was 50% (95% CI 34-64%), the 5 year OS was 44% (95% CI 29-58%), and the Breast cancer-specific survival was 57% (95% CI 40-70%). Death was attributed to breast cancer in 22 patients, AIDS progression in 6 patients, other medical condition in 1, and for 4, the cause was unknown. Serious adverse events were documented in 46% of patients treated with chemotherapy. Targeted therapy was well tolerated. Patients with HIV/AIDS and breast cancer pose a major challenge for oncologists. Surgery, radiation, and endocrine therapy are well tolerated. Standard dose chemotherapy can have life-threatening side effects which can be managed with growth factor support and antimicrobial prophylaxis. All cancer therapy can be given while continuing with antiviral therapy at full dose.
Patel, Twisha S; Crutchley, Rustin D; Tucker, Anne M; Cottreau, Jessica; Garey, Kevin W
Diarrhea is a common comorbidity present in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) who are treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. With a multifactorial etiology, this diarrhea often becomes difficult to manage. In addition, some antiretrovirals are associated with chronic diarrhea, which potentially creates an adherence barrier to antiretrovirals and may ultimately affect treatment outcomes and future therapeutic options for HIV. A predominant type of diarrhea that develops in HIV patients has secretory characteristics, including increased secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen. One proposed mechanism that may lead to this type of secretory diarrhea is explained by the activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and calcium-activated chloride channels. Crofelemer is a novel antidiarrheal agent that works by inhibiting both of these channels. The efficacy and safety of crofelemer has been evaluated in clinical trials for various types of secretory diarrhea, including cholera-related and acute infectious diarrhea. More recently, crofelemer was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the symptomatic relief of noninfectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy. Results from the ADVENT trial showed that crofelemer reduced symptoms of secretory diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients. Because crofelemer is not systemically absorbed, this agent is well tolerated by patients, and in clinical trials it has been associated with minimal adverse events. Crofelemer has a unique mechanism of action, which may offer a more reliable treatment option for HIV patients who experience chronic secretory diarrhea from antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23888120
Magone, M T; Nussenblatt, R B; Whitcup, S M
To investigate an alteration of the blood-ocular barriers by laser flare photometry in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Serial laser flare photometry measurements from 31 eyes of 31 patients with AIDS and newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis were compared with measurements from 31 control patients with AIDS but without documented eye disease. Location and extent of retinitis, presence of visual symptoms, and CD4 lymphocyte counts were also compared with laser flare photometry readings. Laser flare readings (mean +/- SE) were significantly higher in eyes with (13.0 +/- 1.5 photon counts per msec) than without cytomegalovirus retinitis (4.9 +/- 0.3 photon counts per msec) (P < .001). Lesions within the arcade vessels resulted in significantly higher laser flare photometry readings (17.3 +/- 2.5 photon counts per msec) compared with peripheral retinitis (9.8 +/- 1.5 photon counts per msec) (P = .01). A significant correlation was found between area of involvement of peripheral retinitis and laser flare photometry readings (P = .008). Readings in patients without cytomegalovirus retinitis increased significantly 10 months after the first measurement (9.5 +/- 1.9 photon counts per msec) (P = .04). Readings in patients with cytomegalovirus remained elevated 3 months after successful treatment of retinitis (12.3 +/- 2.3 photon counts per msec) (P = .6). Laser flare photometry readings are significantly elevated in eyes with cytomegalovirus retinitis, suggesting a breakdown of the blood-ocular barriers. Increasing laser flare photometry readings over time in patients without known ocular disease suggests that HIV infection may cause progressive breakdown of the blood-ocular barrier.
Navit, Saumya; Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana
Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham's Picture Test (VPT), Venham's Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group. The conclusion derived from the present study was that audio distraction
Ju, L H; Lyu, P; Xu, P; Chen, W Y; He, H J; Ma, L P
Objective: To investigate the features and influencing factors of self-discrimination among patients with HIV/AIDS according to sex. Methods: A total of 2 432 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited in Yunnan, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shanxi, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia provinces by a multistage stratified cluster sampling method, based on HIV epidemic and transmission modes, from May 2013 to October 2013. All participants were ≥18 years old, and we excluded those with mental disorders, hearing loss or other factors that prevented them from properly answering questions, and those who were unwilling to participate. A self-designed questionnaire was conducted to collect information about self-discrimination features and social behavior changes among HIV/AIDS patients. Differences in performance and self-discrimination features between participants of different sexes were compared using the chi-squared test. Factors influencing self-discrimination were analyzed by sex, using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Of the 2 432 cases, 78.9%(1 918 cases)were male and 21.1%(514 cases)female. The proportion of self-discrimination overall was 76.1%(1 850 cases); this proportion among female HIV/AIDS patients was 80.5%(414 cases), which was higher than that among men(74.9%, 1 436 cases)(χ(2)=7.17, P=0.007). Of the 11 forms of self-discrimination performance, proportions of feeling guilt, shame, and self-abasement among participants were greater than 50%. Proportions of feeling shame, inferiority, and blaming others among females were 61.3%, 59.5%, and 45.3%, respectively, which were higher than these among males(49.8%, 50.0%, 28.4%, respectively)(P<0.01). Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of self-discrimination among those with HIV confirmatory testing time ≥1 year was higher than those with HIV confirmatory testing time <1 year(females: OR=35.67, 95%CI:17.28-73.64; males: OR=8.74, 95% CI:6.79-11.25). Compared with other occupations
Moretti, F; Uberti-Foppa, C; Quiros-Roldan, E; Fanti, L; Lillo, F; Lazzarin, A
Human herpesvirus oesophagitis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients is caused by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus; no cases of oesophagitis and oesophagobrochial fistula as a result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) have been reported to date. This report describes the case of a patient with a 2–3 mm deep oesophageal ulcer whose viral culture was positive for VZV. The patient was treated with acyclovir with resolution of the symptomatology. After the end of the induction treatment, because of the onset of fever and fits of coughing during eating, the patient underwent oesophagography, which showed an ulcer with an oesophagobronchial fistula in the middle and lower third of the oesophagus. This case report stresses the role of VZV infection as a possible cause of oesophagobronchial fistula, a rare but benign condition in patients with AIDS. PMID:11986352
da Costa, Juliana Palhano; da Silva, Lucilane Maria Sales; da Silva, Maria Rocineide Ferreira; Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima
This study aimed at verifying the expectations of patients with HIV serum-positive patients, regarding to nursing care. This is a study with qualitative approach developed in the inpatient unit of a state public hospital in the municipal district of Fortaleza, CE. Data were collected in the period of September to October of 2003 through semi-structured interview, applied to 12 patients, randomly selected among the patients with diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. For data analysis it was used the Collective Subject's Speech (DSC) through emission of central ideas and/or key-expression. It was conclude that the patients expectations are for a more human care, more attention, contact verbal, more affectivity of the nursing team, a qualified and worthy attention. Besides their needs they should be informed daily about the vulnerabilities that they are submitted during the hospitalization.
de Macêdo, Simara Moreira; Sena, Márcia Cristina dos Santos; Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima
The study aims to understand the patients' perception regarding the nursing consultation at an outpatient clinic for Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the city of Fortaleza-CE (State of Ceará). This is an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with fifteen patients of this institution and analyzed with the support of content analysis. The nursing consultation was reported by patients as a learning moment, focused onproviding information. The trust and emotional support provided by the professional act as a support to the conflicts experienced by the patients, allowing the construction of a new perspective of the disease. We believe that the implementation of the nursing consultation in a dialogic perspective can provide a new meaning to the conflicts surrounding the patients' illness.
Villafañe, Maria F; Corti, Marcelo E; Candela, Miguel; Perez Bianco, Raul; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel
Avascular osteonecrosis (AON) has increased in the last few years in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The most commonly affected bone is the femoral head and neck. Frequently these bilateral and clinical findings include moderate to severe pain and functional impotence of the affected joints. The etiology is multifactorial and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with protease inhibitors (PI) is probably related to its development. In the evolution, a total hip replacement may be needed. We present an hemophilic patient with AIDS, who developed a bilateral AON of the femoral head and neck during HAART.
Ishigami, Kousei; Decker, Gerald T; Bolton-Smith, Jody A; Samuel, Isaac; Wilson, Scott R; Brown, Bruce P
We encountered a case of pneumoperitoneum caused by a gas-forming splenic abscess in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Plain abdominal films and computed tomography demonstrated a large amount of free air. Pneumoperitoneum was eventually shown to represent gas liberated from fermentation by gas-forming organisms within the splenic abscess. Gas-containing necrotic tissue from the ruptured spleen mimicked the spillage of feces from colon perforation. The authors emphasize that a ruptured abscess should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in an immunocompromised patient.
Montagnier, Luc; Aïssa, Jamal; Lavallée, Claude; Mbamy, Mireille; Varon, Joseph; Chenal, Henri
Electromagnetic signals of low frequency have been shown to be durably produced in aqueous dilutions of the Human Imunodeficiency Virus DNA. In vivo, HIV DNA signals are detected only in patients previously treated by antiretroviral therapy and having no detectable viral RNA copies in their blood. We suggest that the treatment of AIDS patients pushes the virus towards a new mode of replication implying only DNA, thus forming a reservoir insensitive to retroviral inhibitors. Implications for new approaches aimed at eradicating HIV infection are discussed.
Kumar, Shishir; Ghosh, Manab Kumar; Sarkar, Somenath; Mallik, Sudeshna; Biswas, Pradyot Narayan; Saha, Bibhuti
Here we report a unique case of tuberculoid leprosy and cytomegalovirus retinitis in a 27-year-old female patient with AIDS, suggestive of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced immune restoration disease. After initiation of HAART, the patient presented with decreased visual acuity, hypoesthetic patch with local nerve thickening, and an increase in her CD4+ T cell count. On further investigations cytomegalovirus retinitis and tuberculoid leprosy were confirmed. To our knowledge no case with such a co-existence has previously been reported.
de Jesus, Christopher; Stacey, Dawn; Dervin, Geoffrey F
Many patients with isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis are candidates for either unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A novel patient decision aid (PDA) was developed to educate patients on both interventions and prepare them for making the decision with their surgeon. The study objective was to evaluate the acceptability and usefulness of a PDA for informing and helping patients reach a surgical preference without increasing decisional conflict. A PDA was developed in accordance with the criteria listed by Ottawa Decision Support Framework and prospectively tested in UKA and TKA patients, who were mailed the PDAs to complete at home along with outcome measures before surgeon consultation. Of 50 patients who consented to participate, 45 patients (26 men, 19 women) used the PDA. Quantitative analysis of acceptability, decisional conflict, knowledge, and preferred surgical option was then performed. Mean patient age was 64.6 years (range, 50-80 years). Patients rated the PDA as acceptable: 84.4% indicated balanced presentation of information and 77.8% asserted that PDA helped them to make decisions between UKA and TKA. Mean knowledge score was 86.6% and total decisional conflict was 19.7 out of 100. Of 45, 33 stated a preferred option (24 UKA; 9 TKA; 12 unsure). Patients understood the majority of the benefits and risks for each surgical option without increasing decisional conflict. The decision aid for advanced medial compartment osteoarthritis is shown to be acceptable and useful for choosing between UKA and TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blackmore, K J; Kernohan, M D; Davison, T; Johnson, I J M
Bone-anchored hearing aids are well established in the treatment of patients with a conductive or mixed hearing loss. However, one of the main problems is that of sound localisation. This can be improved with a directional microphone. This study compared the quality of life of bone-anchored hearing aid wearers before and after the use of a directional microphone. Eleven patients were included. They were required to wear the directional microphone for 12 weeks. Quality of life was measured using the Glasgow benefit inventory questionnaire, before and after the study period. The response rate was 82 per cent. The total benefit from the directional microphone was +49.7. The three components of the Glasgow benefit inventory were analysed separately, as follows: general subscale +57.4; physical health +42.6; and social scale +25.9. This is the first study to demonstrate a significant improvement in quality of life from a directional microphone fitted to a bone-anchored hearing aid.
Palmer, C V; Adams, S W; Bourgeois, M; Durrant, J; Rossi, M
Studies and clinical procedures related to patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) largely have ignored the hearing ability of either the patient or caregiver. Yet the majority of treatment and investigation depends on or presupposes communication ability. Further, caregiver complaints often center around communication-based issues. Hearing deficits may be the most frequently unrecognized condition in patients with AD because patients either communicate adequately in quiet or the impairment is masked by other behavioral symptoms of AD. The current investigation identified individuals with AD with perceived and measured hearing impairment, provided amplification management, and evaluated the impact of treatment on caregiver-identified problem behaviors believed to be related to hearing status. Specifically, treatment compliance (hearing-aid use) and treatment efficacy (reduction in perceived hearing handicap and problem behaviors) were measured in the current investigation. A multiple-baseline design across individuals with multiple dependent variables was used to evaluate the reduction of problem behaviors post-hearing-aid treatment. Eight participants were included and 1 to 4 problem behaviors were significantly reduced for each patient after hearing-aid treatment. All participants were able to complete the necessary evaluation for hearing-aid fitting and wore their hearing aids between 5 and 15 hours per day by the end of the study. This investigation employed novel methodology in the areas of on-site hearing evaluation and hearing-aid selection, advanced hearing-aid technology, and primary data recording of caregiver-identified problem behaviors by caregivers.
Yue, Fan; Yibei, Wang; Zhen, Wang; Pu, Wang; Xiaowei, Chen
Using questionnaires to evaluate the audiological benefit and satisfaction of bilateral aural atresia patients with bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha). Implanted Baha user questionnaire was applied to 19 patients suffering bilateral aural atresia, and 15 of the patients were evaluated with abbreviated profile of hearing aid benefit (APHAB). Glasgow children's benefit inventory (GCBI) was used to measure subjective benefit of patients under the age of 18. The Baha user questionnaire demonstrated great satisfaction. The mean Baha scores for the subdomains of ease of communication (EC), backgroud noise (BN) and revereration (RV) were decreased by 54.6 ± 10.2 (t = 20.6, P < 0.05), 46.9 ± 11.1 (t = 16.4, P < 0.05) and 58.8 ±15.4 (t = 21.4, P < 0.05) compared to the unaided scores. For the subdomain of aversiveness (AV), the Baha score was 56.7 ± 9.9 (t = 10.8, P < 0.05) higher than the unaided score. The general benefit score GCBI was 41.1 ± 13.0. Baha can significantly improve hearing ability and quality of life of patients with bilateral aural atresia.
Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Zullo, Valeria; Schirone, Simona; Prisco, Raffaella; Denitto, Floriana
This study assessed a simple computer-aided program for helping patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease engage in verbal reminiscence. In practice, the program was aimed at fostering the patient's verbal engagement on a number of life experiences/topics previously selected for him or her and introduced in the sessions through a friendly female, who appeared on the computer screen. The female asked the patient about the aforementioned experiences/topics, and provided him or her with positive attention, and possibly verbal guidance (i.e., prompts/encouragements). Eight patients were involved in the study, which was carried out according to non-concurrent multiple baseline designs across participants. Seven of them showed clear improvement during the intervention phase (i.e., with the program). Their mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence ranged from close to zero to about 15 during the baseline and from above 50 to above 75 during the intervention. The results were discussed in relation to previous literature on reminiscence therapy, with specific emphasis on the need for (a) replication studies and (b) the development of new versions of the technology-aided program to improve its impact and reach a wider number of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zulu, Isaac; Hassan, Ghaniah; Njobvu R N, Lungowe; Dhaliwal, Winnie; Sianongo, Sandie; Kelly, Paul
Mortality in Zambian AIDS patients is high, especially in patients with diarrhoea, and there is still unacceptably high mortality in Zambian patients just starting anti-retroviral therapy. We set out to determine if high concentrations of serum cytokines correlate with mortality. Serum samples from 30 healthy controls (HIV seropositive and seronegative) and 50 patients with diarrhoea (20 of whom died within 6 weeks) were analysed. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor receptor p55 (TNFR p55), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by ELISA, and correlated with mortality after 6 weeks follow-up. Apart from IL-12, concentrations of all cytokines, TNFR p55 and CRP increased with worsening severity of disease, showing highly statistically significant trends. In a multivariable analysis high TNFR p55, IFN-gamma, CRP and low CD4 count (CD4 count <100) were predictive of mortality. Although nutritional status (assessed by body mass index, BMI) was predictive in univariate analysis, it was not an independent predictor in multivariate analysis. High serum concentrations of TNFR p55, IFN-gamma, CRP and low CD4 count correlated with disease severity and short-term mortality in HIV-infected Zambian adults with diarrhoea. These factors were better predictors of survival than BMI. Understanding the cause of TNFR p55, IFN-gamma and CRP elevation may be useful in development of interventions to reduce mortality in AIDS patients with chronic diarrhoea in Africa.
Knutsen, Dorothy A; Roidad, Nasira; Sarwari, Arif R; Coombs, Tabatha; Fisher, Melanie A
Many HIV/AIDS patients rely on the Ryan White CARE Act, a federally-funded program to cover the costs of their medical care. The dispersal of this funding is dependent on a complex algorithm, which factors in the number of people that test positive for HIV in each state. However, demographic and migration studies have suggested that HIV/AIDS patients in rural America are first diagnosed in urban areas and then later moved to more rural areas. The participant pool was identified from adult patients who have received care from the West Virginia University (WVU) Positive Health Clinic from January 1, 2004 to July 26, 2012 and knew the location where they had initially tested positive for HIV. The place of initial HIV diagnosis could be determined for 398 out of 433 patients and fewer than half (48%) were initially diagnosed in West Virginia. Because over half of the patients who are treated at WVU were initially tested outside of West Virginia, this could negatively impact the federal funding opportunities for our state through the Ryan White CARE Act using the current algorithm.
Liu, Kaixiong; Ding, Haibo; Xu, Bing; You, Ruixiong; Xing, Zhen; Chen, Jianfeng
Background Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) was not a rare infectious disease in non-AIDS patients. However, data on the immune status were lacking in southern China for comparative analysis of differences between immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. This study was to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and treatment profiles for patients with PC. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 88 patients diagnosed with tissue-confirmed PC who were not HIV-infected from 2003 to 2013. Results Of 88 patients, 35(39.7%) were immunocompromised host. Fever and CNS symptom were significantly common in immunocompromised patients compared to immunocompetent patients (P=0.019 and P=0.036, respectively). The most frequent radiologic abnormalities were solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules, and masses or consolidations, and most lesions were located in the peripheral lung field. Cavitations and halo sign were significantly frequent in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients (P<0.05). The most frequently applied and reliable diagnostic procedure was CT-guided percutaneous translung biopsy. Treatment included antifungal drug alone in 20 patients, surgery alone in 20 including 3 treated by VATS, surgery plus antifungal drugs in 20 patients. Conclusions PC was not rare in immunocompetent host in southern China. Special differences remained in clinical manifestation and radiological findings of PC between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Future work on the mechanisms of possible differences is required. PMID:27867557
Elwyn, Glyn; O'Connor, Annette; Stacey, Dawn; Volk, Robert; Edwards, Adrian; Coulter, Angela; Thomson, Richard; Barratt, Alexandra; Barry, Michael; Bernstein, Steven; Butow, Phyllis; Clarke, Aileen; Entwistle, Vikki; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Moumjid, Nora; Mulley, Al; Ruland, Cornelia; Sepucha, Karen; Sykes, Alan; Whelan, Tim
Objective To develop a set of quality criteria for patient decision support technologies (decision aids). Design and setting Two stage web based Delphi process using online rating process to enable international collaboration. Participants Individuals from four stakeholder groups (researchers, practitioners, patients, policy makers) representing 14 countries reviewed evidence summaries and rated the importance of 80 criteria in 12 quality domains ona1to9 scale. Second round participants received feedback from the first round and repeated their assessment of the 80 criteria plus three new ones. Main outcome measure Aggregate ratings for each criterion calculated using medians weighted to compensate for different numbers in stakeholder groups; criteria rated between 7 and 9 were retained. Results 212 nominated people were invited to participate. Of those invited, 122 participated in the first round (77 researchers, 21 patients, 10 practitioners, 14 policy makers); 104/122 (85%) participated in the second round. 74 of 83 criteria were retained in the following domains: systematic development process (9/9 criteria); providing information about options (13/13); presenting probabilities (11/13); clarifying and expressing values (3/3); using patient stories (2/5); guiding/coaching (3/5); disclosing conflicts of interest (5/5); providing internet access (6/6); balanced presentation of options (3/3); using plain language (4/6); basing information on up to date evidence (7/7); and establishing effectiveness (8/8). Conclusions Criteria were given the highest ratings where evidence existed, and these were retained. Gaps in research were highlighted. Developers, users, and purchasers of patient decision aids now have a checklist for appraising quality. An instrument for measuring quality of decision aids is being developed. PMID:16908462
Menashe, Leo; Kerr, Leslie Dubin; Hermann, George
Mycobacterium kansasii is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that primarily causes pulmonary disease in AIDS patients, however it has also been known, rarely, to result in skeletal infection. When skeletal infection occurs, the time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis is up to 5 years in previously reported cases. We describe a 48-year-old woman with HIV/AIDS who presented with chronic, isolated left knee pain and swelling of over two decades which had recently worsened. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated marked subarticular erosions, synovial thickening, and bone marrow edema, which had progressed compared with prior imaging done seven years earlier. Synovial biopsy grew Mycobacterium kansasii. Following the presentation of our case, clinical and imaging findings, including the differential diagnosis, of monoarticular arthritis caused by Mycobacterium kansasii are reviewed and discussed.
Shirley, Daniel K.; Kaner, Robert J.; Glesby, Marshall J.
Tobacco smoking has many adverse health consequences. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection smoke at very high rates, and many of the comorbidities associated with smoking in the general population are more prevalent in this population. It is likely that a combination of higher smoking rates along with an altered response to cigarette smoke throughout the body in persons with HIV infection leads to increased rates of the known conditions related to smoking. Several AIDS-defining conditions associated with smoking have been reviewed elsewhere. This review aims to summarize the data on non-AIDS-related health consequences of smoking in the HIV-infected population and explore evidence for the potential compounding effects on chronic systemic inflammation due to HIV infection and smoking. PMID:23572487
Menashe, Leo; Kerr, Leslie Dubin; Hermann, George
Mycobacterium kansasii is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that primarily causes pulmonary disease in AIDS patients, however it has also been known, rarely, to result in skeletal infection. When skeletal infection occurs, the time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis is up to 5 years in previously reported cases. We describe a 48-year-old woman with HIV/AIDS who presented with chronic, isolated left knee pain and swelling of over two decades which had recently worsened. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated marked subarticular erosions, synovial thickening, and bone marrow edema, which had progressed compared with prior imaging done seven years earlier. Synovial biopsy grew Mycobacterium kansasii. Following the presentation of our case, clinical and imaging findings, including the differential diagnosis, of monoarticular arthritis caused by Mycobacterium kansasii are reviewed and discussed. PMID:26629306
Martinez-Sandoval, B; Ceballos-Hernández, H; Téllez-Rodríguez, J; Xochihua-Díaz, L; Durán-Ibarra, G; Pozos-Guillen, A J
HIV infection is a major global health problem affecting developing and developed countries alike. HIV infection is associated with multiple oral lesions, some of which are of value in diagnosing the disease. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical manifestations and their multidisciplinary management, in a 6-year-old girl with AIDS. The findings of this case report indicate that, it is essential to be familiar with the early oral manifestations of AIDS in order to understand the patient's dental health needs, apply preventive methods, control caries, and understand the value of oral lesions as diagnostic markers of disease progression in children with HIV infection. A multidisciplinary management is fundamental.
Dobke, Marek K; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Gosman, Amanda; De Neve, Joan; De Neve, Brian
The study goal was to evaluate the impact of the telemedicine consult on patients with chronic wounds. Thirty patients from long-term care skilled nursing facilities, referred to the ambulatory wound care program for wound assessment and preparation of management plans, were the subject of this prospective, randomized trial. To facilitate communication with a surgical wound care specialist, telemedicine feedback was provided prior to face-to-face consultation to 15 patients. The telemedicine consult included (1) wound assessment, (2) rationale for the suggested wound management with emphasis on wound risk projections, and (3) prevention and benefits of surgical intervention. This was communicated to the patient by the field wound care nurse. The telemedicine impact was measured by assessing the duration of the subsequent face-to-face consultation and patient satisfaction with further care decisions as well as by validation of a decisional conflict scale. The average duration of the face-to-face consultation was 50 +/- 12 minutes versus 35 +/- 6 (p < 0.01) minutes for patients subjected to the telemedicine feedback preceding the direct contact with the specialist. The telemedicine consult was found to be a useful aid in increasing the satisfaction rate from care decisions ultimately made during the direct consult (acceptance rate 93% vs. 47% in those subjected to treatment without the intermediate telemedicine consult, p < 0.01). The decisional conflict as a state of uncertainty about the course of action to take was reduced in patients subjected to telemedicine decision aid. The average Decisional Conflict Scale score was 14 +/- 1.73 in patients subjected to telemedicine feedback as opposed to 35 +/- 4.26 (p < 0.001) in no-telemedicine contact. The telemedicine consult preceding face-to-face evaluation improved patient satisfaction and understanding of their care as well as increased the perception of shared decision making regarding the wound care.
Zhang, Fang; He, Shenghua; Jin, Jieqi; Dong, Guangyan; Wu, Hongkun
Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at high risk of opportunistic infections. Oral manifestations have been associated with the level of immunosuppression, these include periodontal diseases, and understanding the microbial populations in the oral cavity is crucial for clinical management. The aim of this study was to examine the salivary bacterial diversity in patients newly admitted to the AIDS ward of the Public Health Clinical Center (China). Saliva samples were collected from 15 patients with AIDS who were randomly recruited between December 2013 and March 2014. Extracted DNA was used as template to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA. Sequencing of the amplicon library was performed using a 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. Reads were optimized and clustered into operational taxonomic units for further analysis. A total of 10 bacterial phyla (106 genera) were detected. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were preponderant in the salivary microbiota in AIDS patients. The pathogen, Capnocytophaga sp., and others not considered pathogenic such as Neisseria elongata, Streptococcus mitis, and Mycoplasma salivarium but which may be opportunistic infective agents were detected. Dialister pneumosintes, Eubacterium infirmum, Rothia mucilaginosa, and Treponema parvum were preponderant in AIDS patients with periodontitis. Patients with necrotic periodontitis had a distinct salivary bacterial profile from those with chronic periodontitis. This is the first study using advanced sequencing techniques focused on hospitalized AIDS patients showing the diversity of their salivary microbiota. PMID:26191508
Ganekal, Sunil; Jhanji, Vishal; Dorairaj, Syril; Nagarajappa, Ashwini
To report the prevalence of ocular manifestations in patients with HIV/AIDS and their correlation with the clinical stage of disease as well as the CD4 cell count. 100 HIV-positive patients, who presented to a tertiary care hospital, were included. The WHO clinical staging of HIV/AIDS, CD4 count, duration of disease, and presence and type of ocular manifestations were noted. Overall, 46 patients (46%) had ocular manifestations related to HIV/AIDS. The most common manifestations were HIV retinopathy (12%) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (7%). The prevalence of ocular manifestations correlated significantly with the WHO clinical stages 3 and 4 of HIV/AIDS (p = .001) and with low CD4 count (p = .001). CD4 cell counts and WHO clinical stage of HIV disease are important predictors for the occurrence of ocular morbidity in HIV-positive individuals. Routine comprehensive ophthalmic screening and appropriate initiation of therapy in these patients can potentially decrease ocular morbidity.
Fahik, F T; Reichert, M C; Gabriel, R; Marin, H F
In Brazil, approximately 45 thousand cases had been reported until the end of 1993, with an estimated 50% underreport. According to the Ministry of Health, until the year 2,000 from 2 to 8 million Brazilians citizens will be infected with HIV. The basic aspect of the educational campaigns regarding AIDS does not refer only to information on forms of transmission and prevention measures, but also attempts to fight against the mystification and the enormous resistance of the public to definitely accept the fact that transmission does not occur by simple means such as having a drink from the same glass, independently of its socioeconomic and cultural level. In addition to the lack of information, prejudice and discrimination appear strongly rooted in the population to the point of a tendency of social and effective rejection of the HIV-infected patient. Fighting against prejudice, against which there is also no vaccine, is a task as gigantic as fighting against the virus. For both, investments in education of and information to the population in general, is very important. Development of a software which would fulfill the function of explaining, and providing the correct information about AIDS, would be extremely valuable for any part of the society and could also be used as a complementary element by health professionals. The objective was to develop an interactive software in order to demonstrate prevention measures and universal precaution in AIDS; to inform about the necessary care to people that are living together an HIV-infected patient. To develop this software with animation and elucidating text regarding AIDS for the general population, we are using the Storyboard live to be run in Windows environment.
Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou
In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient's mindset and behavior is the most significant reason for a patient's reluctance to seek treatment or disclose his/her status. If the individual patient's mindset and behavior are not dealt with effectively, then HIV/AIDS can continue to spread and threaten additional lives and even the fabric of society. This paper analyzes the reasons why patients are hesitant to receive antiviral therapy, but this paper also suggests steps healthcare personnel can take to encourage patients to seek treatment. Such steps can save the lives of current patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, sound public health measures and a rational approach to treatment are important to helping potential patients with HIV/AIDS.
Wen, Yi; Shi, Yun; Jiang, Chengqin; Detels, Roger; Wu, Di
Background Since the launch of China’s Free Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Program in 2002, more than 100,000 HIV/AIDS patients have been treated with highly actively antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, the current evaluation system for this program mainly focused on its medical outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the medical and psychosocial needs of HIV/AIDS patients after initiating HAART. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 499 HIV/AIDS patients who were currently being treated with HAART in three designated hospitals in Luxi City, Yunnan Province. A questionnaire was used to collect information about participants’ demographic characteristics, perceived HIV-related stigma, physician-patient relationship, quality of life, family functioning, etc. Patients’ medical records in the National HIV Information System were linked with their questionnaire by their ART identification number. Results Patients on HAART who were infected with HIV through injection drug use and were current smokers typically had poorer physical health than other participants on HAART. Better financial status and better physician-patient relationship were associated with both physical and psychological well-being. Family awareness of the patient’s HIV status was negatively associated with the patient’s psychological well-being. Higher levels of perceived HIV-related stigma were associated with poorer psychological health and poorer family functioning. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of assuring a caring environment in China’s AIDS treatment program and re-enforces the need to combat the stigma encountered with health providers and the public. PMID:23061980
Nota, Ingrid; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; Vonkeman, Harald E; Haagsma, Cees J; van de Laar, Mart A F J
According to international guidelines, treatment of inflammatory arthritis should be based on a shared decision between patient and rheumatologist. Furthermore, patients with inflammatory arthritis have high need of information and want to be more actively involved in medical decision-making. To facilitate shared decision-making and support patients in choosing between disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), a web-based patient decision aid (PtDA) was developed. This study evaluated use, appreciation and effect of this PtDA. A post-test only study with a historical comparison group was conducted. In a two-year period, all patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis, who were deciding whether to start a (different) DMARD were invited to participate. In the first year, patients received standard information (comparison group). In the second year, patients were referred to the PtDA (intervention group). In both groups, a questionnaire was sent four weeks after consulting the rheumatologist. Patient characteristics included sociodemographic, health-related and preference-related variables. Process measures were for use and appraisal of the PtDA (intervention group only). The primary outcome measure was patients' perceived role in medical decision-making. Secondary outcome measures comprised satisfaction with the decision-making process and the decision, beliefs about medication, adherence to medication and trust in the physician. We received 158/232 questionnaires (68 %) from the comparison group and 123/200 (61 %) from the intervention group. The PtDA was used by 69/123 patients (57 %) in the intervention group. Patients who used the PtDA highly appreciated it and perceived it as easy to use and helpful. Relative to the comparison group, patients in the intervention group perceived a more active role in medical decision-making and decisions were more in line with patients' personal preferences. Other outcomes
Rachlis, Anita; Angel, Jonathan; Harris, Marianne; Lalonde, Richard; Smaill, Fiona; Tremblay, Cecile; Tsoukas, Chris; Walmsley, Sharon
Background and Objectives An eight-member group consisting of Canadian infectious disease and immunology specialists and a family physician with significant experience in HIV management was convened to update existing recommendations, specifically intended for use by Canadian HIV-treating physicians, on the appropriate use of enfuvirtide in HIV/AIDS patients with resistance to other antiretroviral drugs. Methods Evidence from the literature and expert opinions of the group members formed the basis of the guidelines. Comments on the draft guidelines were obtained from other physicians across Canada with HIV expertise. The final guidelines represent the group’s consensus agreement. Results and Conclusions The recommendations were developed to guide physicians in optimal practices in patient selection for enfuvirtide treatment and subsequent patient management. The issues considered include positive predictors of response to enfuvirtide, stage of disease, optimization of the background regimen, early indicators of enfuvirtide response, and patient education and support. PMID:18418493
Namisango, Eve; Harding, Richard; Katabira, Elly T; Siegert, Richard J; Powell, Richard A; Atuhaire, Leonard; Moens, Katrien; Taylor, Steve
Symptom clusters are gaining importance given HIV/AIDS patients experience multiple, concurrent symptoms. This study aimed to: determine clusters of patients with similar symptom combinations; describe symptom combinations distinguishing the clusters; and evaluate the clusters regarding patient socio-demographic, disease and treatment characteristics, quality of life (QOL) and functional performance. This was a cross-sectional study of 302 adult HIV/AIDS outpatients consecutively recruited at two teaching and referral hospitals in Uganda. Socio-demographic and seven-day period symptom prevalence and distress data were self-reported using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Schedule. QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcome Scale and functional performance using the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Symptom clusters were established using hierarchical cluster analysis with squared Euclidean distances using Ward's clustering methods based on symptom occurrence. Analysis of variance compared clusters on mean QOL and functional performance scores. Patient subgroups were categorised based on symptom occurrence rates. Five symptom occurrence clusters were identified: Cluster 1 (n=107), high-low for sensory discomfort and eating difficulties symptoms; Cluster 2 (n=47), high-low for psycho-gastrointestinal symptoms; Cluster 3 (n=71), high for pain and sensory disturbance symptoms; Cluster 4 (n=35), all high for general HIV/AIDS symptoms; and Cluster 5 (n=48), all low for mood-cognitive symptoms. The all high occurrence cluster was associated with worst functional status, poorest QOL scores and highest symptom-associated distress. Use of antiretroviral therapy was associated with all high symptom occurrence rate (Fisher's exact=4, P<0.001). CD4 count group below 200 was associated with the all high occurrence rate symptom cluster (Fisher's exact=41, P<0.001). Symptom clusters have a differential, affect HIV/AIDS patients' self-reported outcomes, with the subgroup experiencing high
Zirpoli, Josefina Cláudia; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos; Albuquerque, Valéria Maria Gonçalves de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Miranda Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Monteiro, Verônica Soares; de Barros, Isly Lucena; de Arruda Junior, Evanízio Roque; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar
The incidence of ischemic heart disease is higher in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the frequency of angina pectoris in these patients is still not known. Literature about this subject is still scarce. To evaluate the prevalence of angina pectoris and risk factors for coronary disease and to examine the association between traditional risk factors and HIV-related risk factors and angina pectoris. An epidemiological cross-sectional study, analyzed as case-control study, involving 584 patients with HIV/AIDS. Angina pectoris was identified by Rose questionnaire, classified as definite or possible. Information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire, biochemical laboratory tests, medical records and anthropometric measures taken during consultations at AIDS treatment clinics in Pernambuco, Brazil, from June 2007 to February 2008. To adjust the effect of each factor in relation to others, multiple logistic regression was used. There was a preponderance of men (63.2%); mean ages were 39.8 years for men, 36.8 years for women. The prevalence of definite and possible angina were 11% and 9.4%, respectively, totaling 20.4%, with independent associations between angina and smoking (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.69-4.90), obesity (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 0.97-2.70), family history of heart attack (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.00-2.88), low schooling (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.24-3.59), and low monthly income (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.18-7.22), even after adjustment for age. This study suggests that angina pectoris is underdiagnosed, even in patients with medical monitoring, revealing lost opportunities in identification and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity.
Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Chen, Ruoling; Li, Niannian; Chen, Ren; Hu, Zhi
Background With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL) among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV) questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. Results The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS) score of 50.13±9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS) score of 41.64±11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02) or PHS score (OR = 6.90). Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR = 2.30, OR = 4.17, respectively). Conclusions This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration. PMID:23139823
Souza, Paola Nóbrega; de Miranda, Erique José Peixoto; Cruz, Ronaldo; Forte, Daniel Neves
Objective To describe the characteristics of patients with HIV/AIDS and to compare the therapeutic interventions and end-of-life care before and after evaluation by the palliative care team. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the intensive care unit of the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas who were evaluated by a palliative care team between January 2006 and December 2012. Results Of the 109 patients evaluated, 89% acquired opportunistic infections, 70% had CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mm3, and only 19% adhered to treatment. The overall mortality rate was 88%. Among patients predicted with a terminally ill (68%), the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy decreased from 50.0% to 23.1% (p = 0.02), the use of antibiotics decreased from 100% to 63.6% (p < 0.001), the use of vasoactive drugs decreased from 62.1% to 37.8% (p = 0.009), the use of renal replacement therapy decreased from 34.8% to 23.0% (p < 0.0001), and the number of blood product transfusions decreased from 74.2% to 19.7% (p < 0.0001). Meetings with the family were held in 48 cases, and 23% of the terminally ill patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. Conclusion Palliative care was required in patients with severe illnesses and high mortality. The number of potentially inappropriate interventions in terminally ill patients monitored by the palliative care team significantly decreased, and 26% of the patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. PMID:27737420
Souza, Paola Nóbrega; Miranda, Erique José Peixoto de; Cruz, Ronaldo; Forte, Daniel Neves
To describe the characteristics of patients with HIV/AIDS and to compare the therapeutic interventions and end-of-life care before and after evaluation by the palliative care team. This retrospective cohort study included all patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the intensive care unit of the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas who were evaluated by a palliative care team between January 2006 and December 2012. Of the 109 patients evaluated, 89% acquired opportunistic infections, 70% had CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mm3, and only 19% adhered to treatment. The overall mortality rate was 88%. Among patients predicted with a terminally ill (68%), the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy decreased from 50.0% to 23.1% (p = 0.02), the use of antibiotics decreased from 100% to 63.6% (p < 0.001), the use of vasoactive drugs decreased from 62.1% to 37.8% (p = 0.009), the use of renal replacement therapy decreased from 34.8% to 23.0% (p < 0.0001), and the number of blood product transfusions decreased from 74.2% to 19.7% (p < 0.0001). Meetings with the family were held in 48 cases, and 23% of the terminally ill patients were discharged from the intensive care unit. Palliative care was required in patients with severe illnesses and high mortality. The number of potentially inappropriate interventions in terminally ill patients monitored by the palliative care team significantly decreased, and 26% of the patients were discharged from the intensive care unit.
Mazzoleni, S; Puzzolante, L; Zollo, L; Dario, P; Posteraro, F
The aim of this article is to propose a methodology for analyzing different recovery mechanisms in subacute and chronic patients through evaluation of biomechanical parameters. Twenty-five post-stroke subjects, eight subacute and seventeen chronic, participated in the study. A 2-DoF robotic system was used for upper limb training. Two clinical scales were used for assessment. Forces and velocities at the robot's end-effector during the execution of upper limb planar reaching movements were measured. Clinical outcome measures show a significant decrease in motor impairment after the treatment both in chronic and subacute patients (MSS-SE, p<0.001; FM, p<0.05). Movement velocity increases after the robot-aided treatment in both groups. Mean values of forces exerted by subacute patients are lower than those observed in chronic patients, both at the beginning and at the end of robotic treatment, as in the latter the pathological pattern is already structured. Our results demonstrate that the monitoring of the forces exerted on the end-effector during robot-aided treatment can identify the specific motor recovery mechanisms at different stages. If the pathological pattern is not yet structured, rehabilitative interventions should be addressed toward the use of motor re-learning procedures; on the other hand, if the force analysis shows a strong pathological pattern, mechanisms of compensation should be encouraged.
Wanyiri, Jane W.; Kanyi, Henry; Maina, Samuel; Wang, David E.; Steen, Aaron; Ngugi, Paul; Kamau, Timothy; Waithera, Tabitha; O'Connor, Roberta; Gachuhi, Kimani; Wamae, Claire N.; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Ward, Honorine D.
We investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of cryptosporidiosis, the molecular characteristics of infecting species and serum antibody responses to three Cryptosporidium-specific antigens in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in Kenya. Cryptosporidium was the most prevalent enteric pathogen and was identified in 56 of 164 (34%) of HIV/AIDS patients, including 25 of 70 (36%) with diarrhea and 31 of 94 (33%) without diarrhea. Diarrhea in patients exclusively infected with Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with the number of children per household, contact with animals, and water treatment. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most prevalent species and the most prevalent subtype family was Ib. Patients without diarrhea had significantly higher serum IgG levels to Chgp15, Chgp40 and Cp23, and higher fecal IgA levels to Chgp15 and Chgp40 than those with diarrhea suggesting that antibody responses to these antigens may be associated with protection from diarrhea and supporting further investigation of these antigens as vaccine candidates. PMID:24865675
Goldberg, B A
If patients who have AIDS or ARC, or who are seropositive for HIV antibody, refuse to engage in "safe sex" to protect their sexual partners, may physicians warn those partners? Must they warn them? Does the law apply equally to symptomatic and asymptomatic patients? The law is not only confusing but in a state of flux. Both physicians and lawyers are cautioned against answering these questions categorically on general principles derived from the famous (or infamous) Tarasoff case. If the questions can be answered at all, they must be preceded by minute examination of the laws of each jurisdiction. The difficulty lies in knowing whether and how the law should be changed. A physician may be required to warn certain contacts of certain patients, and forbidden to warn other contact equally at risk from other patients equally infectious. Issues of morality and politics are posed: Is AIDS to be treated as a sickness or a sin? Of the measures physicians recommend to protect public health, which will be politically acceptable to various pressure groups? And if the laws are enacted, will they survive widespread resistance and evasion?
Silva, Thaísa C; Treméa, Carolina M; Zara, Ana Laura S A; Mendonça, Ana Flávia; Godoy, Cássia S M; Costa, Carolina R; Souza, Lúcia K H; Silva, Maria R R
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis that is considered an important public health problem. In this work, we performed a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study with a secondary data analysis of medical records from 2000 to 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The study sample consisted of 275 patients with laboratory-confirmed Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH)/AIDS. The results showed that the prevalence of DH associated with AIDS was 4.4%. The majority of patients were young adult men with fever in 84.2%, cough in 63.4%, weight loss in 63.1%, diarrhoea in 44.8% and skin manifestations in 27.6% of patients. In the overall cohort, the CD4 counts were low, but not significantly different in survivors and non-survivors. Higher levels of urea and lower levels of haemoglobin and platelets were observed in non-survivor patients (<.05). The global lethality was 71.3% (196/275). The results with high prevalence and lethality highlight the need to adopt measures to facilitate early diagnosis, proper treatment and improved prognosis.
Lee, J M; Jeon, J H; Moon, I S; Choi, J Y
In this retrospective chart review we compared the subjective and objective benefits of active middle ear implants (AMEIs) with conventional hearing aids (HAs) in patients with sloping high tone hearing loss. Thirty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss were treated with AMEIs. Of these, six had sloping high tone hearing loss and had worn an HA for more than 6 months. Objective assessments, a pure-tone audiogram, as well as a word recognition test, and the Korean version of the Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT), and a subjective assessment, the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) questionnaire, were performed. Tests were conducted under three circumstances: 1) the unaided state before surgery; 2) the HA-aided state before surgery; and 3) the AMEI-aided state 3 months after surgery. The average high-frequency hearing gain (≥ 2 kHz) was significantly better with AMEIs than with HAs. Although the result had no statistical significance, AMEIs showed a superior word recognition score (WRS) compared to HAs. However, the most comfortable hearing level at which the WRS was tested was significantly decreased with an AMEI compared to an HA. In the K-HINT, patients with an AMEI showed greater recognition than those fitted with an HA under both quiet and noisy conditions. The APAHB scores revealed that patients were more satisfied with an AMEI rather than an HA on all subscales. The use of vibroplasty in patients with sloping high tone loss resulted in positive hearing outcomes when compared to conventional HAs. Based on the data from this study, AMEIs provided better objective and subjective results and could, therefore, be a better alternative for the treatment of sloping hearing loss. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.
Vijayalaxmi, Nimma; Reddy, Lavanya; Swapna, Lingam Amara; Reddy, Sudhakara; Ramesh, T; Padmareddy, M
India is one of the largest and most populated country in the world, with over one billion inhabitants. Of this number, it is estimated that around 23.9 lakh people are currently suffering with HIV. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) require increasingly competent and compassionate health care, including oral health care. The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the response of dental health care professionals (staff and students) in willingness to provide treatment to HIV/AIDS patients and whether the training and education provided to them is sufficient to handle such patients, or whether there is necessity for advanced curriculum to be implemented. An anonymous survey with the permission from ethical committee of dental institution was conducted with the use self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on self-rated HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, infection control practices, occupational risk perception and willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients. An increase in level of knowledge was observed with the increase in year of study from first BDS to post graduation and MDS staff. It was observed that interns and post graduate students were willing to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. Staff of the institution showed greater concern to undergo training to provide efficient treatment to patients with HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that there was a positive attitude and willingness of staff and students to treat a patient suffering with HIV/AIDS. Also, there was willingness and interest of the staff and students of the dental institution to participate in training programmes to provide better and more efficient treatment to HIV/AIDS patients.
Posse, Mariana; Baltussen, Rob
Food insecurity is one of the main factors affecting access and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in middle- and low-income countries. To mitigate this problem, food assistance interventions are being integrated in ART programmes. As evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed, evaluating their implementation is important. We measured the satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients with a food assistance programme in Sofala province in Mozambique. This was an observational study that used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. HIV/AIDS patients receiving food assistance took part in focus group discussions (FDGs) and completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their opinions about the programme. Data were analysed using content and factor analysis, percentages of the maximum attainable scores (PMAS) and regression. Patients were satisfied with food assistance and rated it well above 60% of PMAS. Four factors were identified as underlying factors of satisfaction with food assistance. From these factors, patients were satisfied with 2, product availability and the distribution process, and rated these above 60%. They were dissatisfied with the other 2, quantity of products and the enrolment period, and rated these below 60%. From the four factors, only the distribution process was significantly associated with satisfaction with food assistance (p = 0.001). Satisfaction and the helpfulness of food assistance in adherence to ART, as perceived by patients, were significantly associated (p < 0.001). Patients were satisfied with food assistance. Programme managers should focus on the distribution process, quantity of products and enrolment period to further improve satisfaction of patients receiving food assistance.
Yin, Min; Li, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jing; Huang, Xue-Hua; Tao, Qing-Lan; Luo, Xi
In the aftermath of the 7.0 earthquake that struck Lushan in China's Sichuan Province on April 20, 2013, a psychological crisis intervention working group was established in a hospital that was treating earthquake victims. Patients at this hospital received psychological first aid that was delivered in accordance with scientific, systematic, and standardized principles. This first aid employed a "rooting mode" methodology and was designed as a supportive psychological intervention. Mental assessment results showed that the general mental health, acute stress reactions, and anxiety and depression status of all of the 131 injured who received the psychological intervention had significantly improved (p < .05) during the two-week intervention period. This paper introduces the basic principles used to develop and provide this first aid, the approach used to organize the working groups, the main contents of the intervention, specific methods used, and intervention outcomes. This information is provided as a reference for providing localized psychological assistance in the aftermath of a disaster incident.
Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin
This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients.
Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Results: HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. Conclusion: HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients. PMID:27830031
Sepucha, Karen R; Simmons, Leigh H; Barry, Michael J; Edgman-Levitan, Susan; Licurse, Adam M; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K
Shared decision making is a core component of population health strategies aimed at improving patient engagement. Massachusetts General Hospital's integration of shared decision making into practice has focused on the following three elements: developing a culture receptive to, and health care providers skilled in, shared decision making conversations; using patient decision aids to help inform and engage patients; and providing infrastructure and resources to support the implementation of shared decision making in practice. In the period 2005-15, more than 900 clinicians and other staff members were trained in shared decision making, and more than 28,000 orders for one of about forty patient decision aids were placed to support informed patient-centered decisions. We profile two different implementation initiatives that increased the use of patient decision aids at the hospital's eighteen adult primary care practices, and we summarize key elements of the shared decision making program. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Byrnes, Edmond J; Li, Wenjun; Ren, Ping; Lewit, Yonathan; Voelz, Kerstin; Fraser, James A; Dietrich, Fred S; May, Robin C; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chatuverdi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chatuverdi, Vishnu; Heitman, Joseph
Cryptococcus gattii infections in southern California have been reported in patients with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we examined the molecular epidemiology, population structure, and virulence attributes of isolates collected from HIV/AIDS patients in Los Angeles County, California. We show that these isolates consist almost exclusively of VGIII molecular type, in contrast to the VGII molecular type isolates causing the North American Pacific Northwest outbreak. The global VGIII population structure can be divided into two molecular groups, VGIIIa and VGIIIb. Isolates from the Californian patients are virulent in murine and macrophage models of infection, with VGIIIa significantly more virulent than VGIIIb. Several VGIII isolates are highly fertile and produce abundant sexual spores that may serve as infectious propagules. The a and α VGIII MAT locus alleles are largely syntenic with limited rearrangements compared to the known VGI (a/α) and VGII (α) MAT loci, but each has unique characteristics including a distinct deletion flanking the 5' VGIII MATa alleles and the α allele is more heterogeneous than the a allele. Our studies indicate that C. gattii VGIII is endemic in southern California, with other isolates originating from the neighboring regions of Mexico, and in rarer cases from Oregon and Washington state. Given that >1,000,000 cases of cryptococcal infection and >620,000 attributable mortalities occur annually in the context of the global AIDS pandemic, our findings suggest a significant burden of C. gattii may be unrecognized, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications. These results signify the need to classify pathogenic Cryptococcus cases and highlight possible host differences among the C. gattii molecular types influencing infection of immunocompetent (VGI/VGII) vs. immunocompromised (VGIII/VGIV) hosts.
Lewit, Yonathan; Voelz, Kerstin; Fraser, James A.; Dietrich, Fred S.; May, Robin C.; Chatuverdi, Sudha; Chatuverdi, Vishnu; Heitman, Joseph
Cryptococcus gattii infections in southern California have been reported in patients with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we examined the molecular epidemiology, population structure, and virulence attributes of isolates collected from HIV/AIDS patients in Los Angeles County, California. We show that these isolates consist almost exclusively of VGIII molecular type, in contrast to the VGII molecular type isolates causing the North American Pacific Northwest outbreak. The global VGIII population structure can be divided into two molecular groups, VGIIIa and VGIIIb. Isolates from the Californian patients are virulent in murine and macrophage models of infection, with VGIIIa significantly more virulent than VGIIIb. Several VGIII isolates are highly fertile and produce abundant sexual spores that may serve as infectious propagules. The a and α VGIII MAT locus alleles are largely syntenic with limited rearrangements compared to the known VGI (a/α) and VGII (α) MAT loci, but each has unique characteristics including a distinct deletion flanking the 5′ VGIII MATa alleles and the α allele is more heterogeneous than the a allele. Our studies indicate that C. gattii VGIII is endemic in southern California, with other isolates originating from the neighboring regions of Mexico, and in rarer cases from Oregon and Washington state. Given that >1,000,000 cases of cryptococcal infection and >620,000 attributable mortalities occur annually in the context of the global AIDS pandemic, our findings suggest a significant burden of C. gattii may be unrecognized, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications. These results signify the need to classify pathogenic Cryptococcus cases and highlight possible host differences among the C. gattii molecular types influencing infection of immunocompetent (VGI/VGII) vs. immunocompromised (VGIII/VGIV) hosts. PMID:21909264
Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marya, Charumohan; Rekhi, Amit; Oberoi, Avneet
Background. Dentists have an ethical responsibility to provide treatment to HIV-infected patients, particularly because oral lesions are common among these patients. However, there are no official guidelines as to how to treat people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) or how to screen for potentially infectious people. Materials and Method. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based study which assessed the knowledge and attitude of the faculty members towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS was carried out in the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences, Faridabad, and Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. Results. The willingness to treat patients with HIV was found to be 86.0% among the faculty members in the present study. The majority (79%) of the faculty members thought that treating an HIV-positive patient is ethical responsibility of the dentist. There was a positive attitude (88.0%) among faculty members that routine dental care should be a part of the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. The level of knowledge regarding HIV and AIDS was acceptable in the present study. However, continuing dental education (CDE) programmes should be conducted on a regular basis for updating the knowledge level of the faculty members towards the dental treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:27379262
Sezgin, Efe; Hendrickson, Sher L.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Lewis, Richard A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; O’Brien, Stephen J.
Approximately 10 to 15% of patients with AIDS but without ocular opportunistic infections will have a presumed neuroretinal disorder (HIV-NRD), manifested by reduced contrast sensitivity and abnormal visual fields. The loss of contrast sensitivity often is sufficient to impair reading speed. To evaluate the effect of host genetics on HIV-NRD, we explored validated AIDS restriction gene variants CCR5Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5 P1, SDF-3`A, IL-10-5`A, RANTES -403A, RANTES -28G, RANTES-In1.1C, CX3CR1-249I, CX3CR1-280M, IFNG-179T, MDR1-3435T, and MCP-1364G, each of which has been implicated previously to influence HIV-1 infection, AIDS progression, therapy response, and antiviral drug metabolism, and an IL-10 receptor gene, IL-10R1, in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) cohort. In European Americans (cases=55, controls=290), IL-10-5`A variant and its promoter haplotype (HR=2.09, CI: 1.19–3.67, P = 0.01); in African Americans (cases=54, controls=180) RANTES-In1.1C and the associated haplotype (HR=2.72, CI: 1.48–5.00, P = 0.001), showed increased HIV-NRD susceptibility. While sample sizes are small and P values do not pass a strict Bonferroni correction, our results suggest that, in European Americans, an IL-10-related pathway, and, in African Americans, chemokine receptor ligand polymorphisms in RANTES are risk factors for HIV- NRD development. Clearly, further studies are warrented. PMID:20531015
Kesselheim, Aaron S; McGraw, Sarah A; Dejene, Sara Z; Rausch, Paula; Dal Pan, Gerald J; Lappin, Brian M; Zhou, Esther H; Avorn, Jerry; Campbell, Eric G
The US Food and Drug Administration uses drug safety communications (DSCs) to release emerging information regarding post-market safety issues, but it is unclear the extent of awareness by patients and providers of these communications and their specific recommendations. We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and physicians to evaluate their awareness and understanding of emerging drug safety information related to two sleep aids: zolpidem or eszopiclone. We conducted interviews with 40 patients and ten physicians recruited from a combination of insurer claims databases and online sources. We evaluated (1) sources of drug safety information; (2) discussions between patients and physicians about the two medications; (3) their knowledge of the DSC; and (4) preferences for learning about future drug safety information. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Patients cited their physicians, pharmacy inserts, and the Internet as sources of drug safety information. Physicians often referred to medical journals and online medical sources. Most patients reported being aware of information contained in the DSC summaries they were read. Almost all patients and physicians reported discussing side effects during patient-provider conversations, but almost no patients mentioned that physicians had communicated with them key messaging from the DSCs at issue: the risk of next-morning impairment with zolpidem and the lower recommended initial dose for women. Some risks of medications are effectively communicated to patients and physicians; however, there is still a noticeable gap between information issued by the Food and Drug Administration and patient and physician awareness of this knowledge, as well as patients' decisions to act on this information. Disseminators of emerging drug safety information should explore ways of providing user-friendly resources to patients and healthcare professionals that can update them on new risks in a timely manner.
Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh
When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable noise level (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea.
Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh
Background: When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable noise level (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. Results: There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. Conclusion: The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea. PMID:26918238
Butow, P N; Solomon, M; Young, J M; Whelan, T; Salkeld, G; Wilson, K; Harrison, J D; Hruby, G; Mansour, O; Kennedy, N; Tattersall, M H N
There is increasing interest in the use of decision aids (DAs) to facilitate patient involvement in clinical decisions. This study explored the views of patients with colorectal cancer and participants in a community bowel screening service regarding an interactive DA concerning adjuvant treatment for rectal cancer, and the impact of the aid on knowledge, anxiety, attitudes and preferences for treatment options. Fourteen patients with colorectal cancer participated in four focus groups. Eighty-nine participants in a community bowel screening service completed a questionnaire before and 1 week after viewing the DA. Thirty were randomly selected to participate in a telephone interview to obtain qualitative feedback about the DA. Focus group participants reported using information to evaluate their doctor's care and expertise, or to prepare themselves for future symptoms and side-effects. Most supported the use of a DA and preferred pie charts to convey risk information. Within the community sample, anxiety remained stable and knowledge increased after exposure to the DA. Almost all participants found the DA useful and easy to understand, and felt it would make the process of decision making easier. A DA regarding adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer appears to be valued and to produce positive outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of this intervention is now required.
Spinner, Michael A.; Paulin, Heather N.; Wester, C. William
Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GIH) is common in patients with disseminated disease but only rarely comes to clinical attention due to the lack of specific signs and symptoms. We report the unusual case of a 33-year-old Caucasian male with advanced AIDS who presented with upper GI bleeding from diffuse erosions throughout the duodenum. Biopsy of the lesions revealed small bowel mucosa with granulomatous inflammation and macrophages with small intracellular yeasts consistent with disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient demonstrated significant clinical improvement following a two-week course of liposomal amphotericin B. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of duodenal histoplasmosis leading to clinically significant bleeding, manifesting with worsening anemia and melanotic stools. Given our findings, we maintain that GIH should be considered on the differential diagnosis for GI bleeding in AIDS patients at risk, specifically those with advanced immunosuppression (i.e., CD4+ cell counts <100 cells/mm3) who reside in endemic areas (Ohio or Mississippi river valleys) and/or have a prior history of histoplasmosis. For diagnostic evaluation, we recommend checking a urine Histoplasma quantitative antigen EIA as well as upper and/or lower endoscopy with biopsy. We recommend treatment with a two-week course of liposomal amphotericin B followed by indefinite itraconazole. PMID:23091745
Gayer, Christopher C; Crowley, Matthew J; Lawrence, William F; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, John W; Myers, Evan R; Kendrick, Amy; Slutsky, Jean; Sanders, Gillian D
Decision aids (DAs) help patients make informed healthcare decisions in a manner consistent with their values and preferences. Despite their promise, DAs developed with public research dollars are not being implemented and adopted in real-world patient care settings at a rate consistent with which they are being developed. To appraise the sum of the parts of the portfolio and create a strategic imperative surrounding future funding, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) tasked the Duke Evidence Synthesis Group with evaluating its DA portfolio. This paper describes PCORI's portfolio of DAs according to the Duke Evidence Synthesis Group's analysis in the context of PCORI's mission and the field of decision science. The results revealed a diversity within PCORI's portfolio of funded DA projects. Findings support the movement toward more rigorous DA development, assessment and maintenance. PCORI's funding priorities related to DAs are clarified and comparative questions of interest are posed.
Pop, Monica; Pop, Cezar; Homorodean, Daniela; Itu, Corina; Man, Milena; Goron, Monica; Gherasim, Ruxandra; Coroiu, Georgiana
We present a 34 year old patient, intravenous drug user, hospitalized with fever, distortion of general status, dry irritating cough, abdominal colicative pains, and we established the diagnosis of HIV infection advanced stage/AIDS; his antecedents revealed (August 2000) abdominal tuberculosis not treated during the last 3 months. He presented a pneumonia with Pneumocystis carinii during hospitalization. Death was due to a colon perforation with secundary peritonitis. Miliary tuberculous lesions in liver, spleen and colon were revealed at necropsy and cytomegalovirus was identified in necrotic samples also.
Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. )
A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.
The incidence of opportunistic infections and tumours in HIV-infected patients has sharply declined in the HAART era. At the same time there has been a growing increase of other diseases not directly linked to immunodeficiency. Renal diseases are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. In the general population, chronic renal failure has considerable multiorgan repercussions that have particular implications in patients with HIV infection. The detection of occult or subclinical chronic kidney disease is crucial since effective measures for delaying progression exist. Furthermore, the deterioration in glomerular filtration should prompt clinicians to adjust doses of some antiretroviral agents and other drugs used for treating associated comorbidities. Suppression of viral replication, strict control of blood pressure, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs in certain patients are fundamental components of programs aimed to prevent renal damage and delaying progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with HIV. Renal transplantation and dialysis have also special implications in HIV-infected patients. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation, management and prevention of renal diseases in HIV-infected patients from a panel of experts in HIV and nephrologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan.
Gil, Lizette; Martínez, Gregorio; González, Ivón; Tarinas, Alicia; Alvarez, Alejandro; Giuliani, A; Molina, Randelis; Tápanes, Rolando; Pérez, Jorge; León, Olga Sonia
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes persistent chronic inflammation. Viral Tat protein plays a role in the intracellular increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thus increasing apoptotic index, mostly the one mediated by FAS/CD95, and depleting CD4+ T lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between an extensive array of redox status indices (glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxidation potential, total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total hydroperoxide (TH), DNA fragmentation) and relative CD4, CD95, CD38/CD8 T lymphocyte counts in HIV/AIDS patients compared to healthy subjects. Blood samples from 85 HIV/AIDS patients and 40 healthy subjects were tested by spectrophotometric techniques in order to measure oxidative stress indices, and by flow cytometry to quantify T cell subsets. Patients were divided in two groups according to CDC 1993 guidelines. CD95 and CD38 increase paralleled the severity of HIV infection. Both a reduction of GSH levels and an increase in MDA and TH levels were detected in the plasma of HIV+ patients. These patients also showed an increase of DNA fragmentation in lymphocytes as well as a significant (P<0.05) reduction of GPx and an increase in SOD activity in erythrocytes. Relatively to the control group, HIV-infected patients had significantly differences in global indices of total antioxidant status. These results corroborate that substantial oxidative stress occurs during HIV infection. To our knowledge this study is the first relating oxidative stress indices with both CD38/CD8 and CD95 lymphocytes subsets.
Tran, Bach Xuan
Objective This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its related factors in HIV/AIDS patients taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1016 patients (36.2% women, mean age = 35.4) in three epicenters of Vietnam, including Hanoi, Hai Phong, and Ho Chi Minh City. HRQOL was assessed using the Vietnamese version of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Factor analysis classified measure items into six HRQOL dimensions, namely Physical, Morbidity, Social, Spirituality, Performance, and Environment. Tobit censored regression models were applied to determine associations of patient’s characteristics and HRQOL domain scores. Results Internal consistency reliability of the six domains ranged from 0.69 to 0.89. The WHOQOL-HIV BREF had a good discriminative validity with patient’s disease stages, CD4 cell counts, and duration of ART. In a band score of (4, 20), six domains were moderate; “Environment” had the highest score (13.8±2.8), and “Social” had the lowest score (11.2±3.3). Worse HRQOL were observed in patients at provincial and district clinics. Those patients who were male, had higher educational attainment, and are employed, reported better HRQOL. In reduced regression models, poorer HRQOL was found in patients who had advanced HIV infection and had CD4 cell count <200 cells/mL. Patients reported significantly poorer Physical and Social in the 1st year ART, but moderately better Performance, Morbidity, Spirituality, and Environment from the 2nd year ART, compared to those not-yet-on ART. Conclusion Strengthening the quality of ART services at the provincial and district levels, gender-specific impact mitigation, and early treatment supports are recommended for further expansion of ART services in Vietnam. Regular assessments of HRQOL may provide important indicators for monitoring and evaluating HIV/AIDS services. PMID:22911742
Sánchez Morillo, Daniel; León Jiménez, Antonio; Moreno, Sonia Astorga
Background Early diagnosis of pneumonia and discrimination between this disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in patients with COPD are crucial for optimal clinical management and treatment. Objectives To examine the use of computerized analysis of respiratory sounds, a hybrid system based on principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), to aid the detection of coexisting pneumonia in patients with COPD. Methods and materials A convenience sample of 58 patients with COPD (25 patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia and 33 owing to acute exacerbation of COPD) was studied. Auscultations were performed by the patients themselves on their suprasternal notch. Short-time Fourier transform analysis was used to extract features from the recorded respiratory sounds, PCA was selected for dimensionality reduction and a PNN was trained as classifier. 10-Fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used to estimate the system performance. Results Based on the cross-validation results, a sensitivity and a specificity of 72% and 81.8%, respectively, were achieved in validation data. The operating point was selected to maximize the specificity and sensitivity pair in the training set. Discussion The results strongly suggest that electronic self-auscultation at a single location (suprasternal notch) can support diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with COPD. Conclusions A simple, cost-effective method has been proposed to aid decision-making in areas with no radiological facilities available and in resource-constrained settings, and could have a great diagnostic impact on telemedicine applications. PMID:23396513
Ng, Chirk Jenn; Mathers, Nigel; Bradley, Alastair; Colwell, Brigitte
There is a lack of practical research frameworks to guide the development of patient decision aids [PtDAs]. This paper described how a PtDA was developed using the International Patient Decision Aids (IPDAS) guideline and UK Medical Research Council (UKMRC) frameworks to support patients when making treatment decisions in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study used mixed methods to develop a PtDA for use in a UK general practice setting. A 10-member expert panel was convened to guide development and patients and clinicians were also interviewed individually using semi-structured interview guides to identify their decisional needs. Current literature was reviewed systematically to determine the best available evidence. The Ottawa Decision Support Framework was used to guide the presentation of the information and value clarification exercise. An iterative draft-review-revise process by the research team and review panel was conducted until the PtDA reached content and format 'saturation'. The PtDA was then pilot-tested by users in actual consultations to assess its acceptability and feasibility. The IPDAS and UKMRC frameworks were used throughout to inform the development process. The PANDAs PtDA was developed systematically and iteratively. Patients and clinicians highlighted the needs for information, decisional, emotional and social support, which were incorporated into the PtDA. The literature review identified gaps in high quality evidence and variations in patient outcome reporting. The PtDA comprised five components: background of the treatment options; pros and cons of each treatment option; value clarification exercise; support needs; and readiness to decide. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of combining the IPDAS and the UKMRC frameworks for the development and evaluation of a PtDA. Future studies should test this model for developing PtDAs across different decisions and healthcare contexts.
da Silva Ferreira, Bianca; de Araújo Filho, Joâo Alves; Matos Pereira, Nayara; de Miranda Godoy, Lucas; Borges Lamounier, Bruna; Dias Nunes, Elizon; Espíndola Rosa, Lucas
Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease commonly observed as an opportunistic disease in AIDS patients. It is a neglected disease in many countries, particularly Latin America, including Brazil. It is related with environmental factors, even in urban areas, where the incidence has increased. Implementing a descriptive ecological study, we performed a retrospective chart review for data collected between January 2003 and July 2014 for AIDS patients with histoplasmosis who lived in Goiania. The selected cases were georeferenced to analyse the incidence of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in the metropolitan area of Goiania. In all, 166 patients (130 men) met the criteria for AIDS and histoplasmosis coinfection. Almost half of the patients (41%) had simultaneous histoplasmosis and AIDS diagnoses. The general mortality was 53% (88 patients). The main symptoms involved the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous systems. The distribution of cases included almost all regions of the urban areas, with some predominance in the eastern and western regions close to areas of environmental degradation, contaminated water sources and unplanned urbanisation. In conclusion, coinfection with HIV and disseminated histoplasmosis is common and associated with high mortality rates in our referral hospital for infectious diseases. Despite being considered as having a predominantly rural epidemiology, many patients reported living in urban areas such as Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia. Our findings suggest the need for environmental studies to evaluate environmental contamination and possible local risk factors for H. capsulatum infection in addition to serological surveys to determine the prevalence of this infection in the studied cities.
Hoare, Derek J; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Sereda, Magdalena; Akeroyd, Michael A; Hall, Deborah
Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound or noise in the absence of real acoustic stimulation. In the current absence of a cure for tinnitus, clinical management typically focuses on reducing the effects of co-morbid symptoms such as distress or hearing loss. Hearing loss is commonly co-morbid with tinnitus and so logic implies that amplification of external sounds by hearing aids will reduce perception of the tinnitus sound and the distress associated with it. To assess the effects of hearing aids specifically in terms of tinnitus benefit in patients with tinnitus and co-existing hearing loss. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 19 August 2013. Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials recruiting adults with subjective tinnitus and some degree of hearing loss, where the intervention involves amplification with hearing aids and this is compared to interventions involving other medical devices, other forms of standard or complementary therapy, or combinations of therapies, no intervention or placebo interventions. Three authors independently screened all selected abstracts. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed those potentially suitable studies for risk of bias. For studies meeting the inclusion criteria, we used the mean difference (MD) to compare hearing aids with other interventions and controls. One randomised controlled trial (91 participants) was included in this review. We judged the trial to have a low risk of bias for method of randomisation and outcome reporting, and an unclear risk of bias for other criteria. No non-randomised controlled trials meeting our inclusion criteria were identified. The included study measured change in tinnitus
Khan, Kashifullah; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Soo, Chow Ting; Akhtar, Ali
In the current study we explored the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antiretroviral therapy among human immune-deficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients. We concluded an observational retrospective study in all patients who were diagnosed with HIV infection and were receiving highly active antiviral therapy from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2012 at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Patient socio-demographic details along with clinical features and susceptible ADRs were observed during the study period. Out of 743 patients, 571 (76.9%) were men, and 172 (23.1%) were women. Overall 314 (42.2%) patients experienced ADRs. A total of 425 ADRs were reported, with 311 (73.1%) occurring in men and 114 (26.8%) in women, with a significant statistical relationship (P value (P) = 0.02, OR = 1.21). Overall 239 (56.2%) ADRs were recorded among Chinese, 94 (22.1%) in Malay, and 71 (16.7%) in Indian patients, which had a statistically significant association with ADRs (P = 0.05, OR = 1.50). Out of a total 425 among ADRs, lipodystrophy was recorded in 151 (35.5%) followed by skin rashes in 80 (18.8%), anemia in 74 (17.4%), and peripheral neuropathy in 27 (6.3%) patients. These findings suggest a need of intensive monitoring of ADRs in HIV treatment centres across Malaysia.
Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana
Background Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. Aims and Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. Materials and Methods A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham’s Picture Test (VPT), Venham’s Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. Results A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group
Le, G.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.
The pattern of distribution of gallium uptake in the thorax was investigated in patients (pts) with AIDS. Eleven pts (ages 18-53), all active homosexual males suspected of having acute pulmonary infection were studied. Ga lung scans were performed at 24-48 and/or 72 hrs. post injection. The diagnosis of AIDS was based on appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. The Ga activity in the lung was graded from zero = background to 4+ which is > liver activity. Eight of eleven pts have positive Ga scan while seven of eleven pts had positive CXR. Six pts had both positive CXR and Ga scan. One pt had a positive Ga scan with negative CXR, and one with positive CXR and negative Ga scan. The positive Ga scans included 3 pts with 4+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 2+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 1+ diffuse uptake, and two with hilar node uptake. Three pts have focal increased uptake superimposed on diffuse uptake. Two pts with 4+ diffuse uptake had mild abnormality on their CXR. One pt with 4+ uptake in the initial scan shows decreased activity on follow-up with clinical improvement after therapy. Thus, all but two pts with positive Ga scans had diffuse lung uptake. These two patients alone had B cell immunoblastic sarcoma and oral candidiasis. The pattern of Ga lung uptake in pts with AIDS reveal that a majority of positive scans are diffuse (6/8) and the intensity may suggest more active disease than CXR (2 normal) and, thus, the study may be useful in detecting changes from atypical pulmonary infection in this population.
Park, Jun Hyung
Background Ultrasound-aided fixation is a recently developed alternative method of treatment of zygomatico-maxillary (ZM) fracture, and it can resolve the problems of excessive torsion force and subsequent fractures of screws. We conducted this study to evaluate the clinical usefulness of ultrasound-aided fixation as compared with the conventional fixation method using a drill and an expander in patients with ZM fracture. Methods We conducted a retrospective study in 35 patients with ZM fracture who had been treated at our hospital during a period ranging from March of 2008 to December of 2010. We divided them into two groups: an ultrasound-aided fixation group, comprising 13 patients who underwent ultrasound-aided fixation (SonicWeld Rx, KLS Martin), and a conventional group, comprising 22 patients who underwent conventional fixation (Biosorb FX, Linvatec Biomaterials Ltd.). We compared such variables as sex, direction, age at operation, follow-up period, operation duration, number of fixed holes, and time to discharge between the two groups. Results The ultrasound-aided fixation reduced the operation duration by about 30 minutes as compared with that of conventional fixation. There was no significant difference in follow-up period, number of fixed holes, or time to discharge between the two groups. Furthermore, there were no complications in either group. Conclusions The ultrasound-aided fixation of fractured ZM bone using an absorbable implant system is safe and effective in promptly reducing the bone fracture and providing satisfactory cosmetic outcomes over time. PMID:23898427
Rohrschneider, K; Bruder, I; Aust, R; Blankenagel, A
A new low vision aid (LVA)-the Low Vision Enhancement System or LVES, which were as developed at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, is now commercially available. This instrument allows a magnification up to 10 times with control of contrast and luminance while the field of view is very large: 60 x 40 degrees. We present first results concerning LVES in comparison to conventional LVAs. 60 consecutive patients suffering from macular dystrophy, macular degeneration, optic atrophy, tapetoretinal degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy were included in this study. We compared visual acuity with glasses, with telescope and using LVES. Furthermore we compared contrast acuity by the use of the Pelli-Robson-charts as well as the subjective impression of the patients. Improvement of visual acuity with LVES compared to correction with glasses was 8 log steps on average and up to 3 steps as compared to the use of telescopes. More important is the improvement of contrast sensitivity (0-16 steps) and the reduced glare. Despite the subjective improvement of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity the majority of patients could not imagine to use LVES regularly. A significant improvement as compared to conventional low vision aids is possible for special applications such as office work, recognition of faces or images or for looking at a blackboard. In addition to traditional LVAs, the Low Vision Enhancement System opens up possibilities for a very small group of patients. Especially patients suffering from macular dystrophy or Lebers optic atrophy may benefit from this new system. The most important advantage of LVES is the improvement of contrast sensitivity and the significantly decreased glare sensitivity. Additionally the near working distance is changeable. The variable magnification allows an easier fitting to various tasks. Prior to the prescription of LVES a detailed and time consuming testing is necessary.
Lekoubou, Alain; Njouoguep, Rodrigue; Kuate, Callixte; Kengne, André Pascal
Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic movement disorder. Currently suggested pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are mostly derived from stroke cases. Although rare, cerebral toxoplasmosis may strengthen the pathophysiologic mechanism of disease. A case of Holmes tremor secondary to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an AIDS patient is presented. A relevant literature search was performed, using pubmed and several entries for Holmes tremor as labelled in the literature. The unifying feature of our case and those of the literature is the involvement of either the cerebello-thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways. The abscess or the extension of surrounding edema beyond these two circuits may account for the superimposed dysfunction of the nigrostriatal system in some but not all cases. The short delay observed in our observation and the dramatic response to treatment may indirectly support the secondary neuronal degeneration theory in the mechanism of Holmes tremor. Cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients also provide arguments for the role of the thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Holmes tremor. Involvement of the nigro-striatal pathway may not be crucial in the development of this syndrome. Our case also brings additional indirect arguments for the role of secondary neuronal degeneration in the mechanism of Holmes tremor.
Background Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic movement disorder. Currently suggested pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are mostly derived from stroke cases. Although rare, cerebral toxoplasmosis may strengthen the pathophysiologic mechanism of disease. Case presentation A case of Holmes tremor secondary to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an AIDS patient is presented. A relevant literature search was performed, using pubmed and several entries for Holmes tremor as labelled in the literature. The unifying feature of our case and those of the literature is the involvement of either the cerebello-thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways. The abscess or the extension of surrounding edema beyond these two circuits may account for the superimposed dysfunction of the nigrostriatal system in some but not all cases. The short delay observed in our observation and the dramatic response to treatment may indirectly support the secondary neuronal degeneration theory in the mechanism of Holmes tremor. Conclusion Cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients also provide arguments for the role of the thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Holmes tremor. Involvement of the nigro-striatal pathway may not be crucial in the development of this syndrome. Our case also brings additional indirect arguments for the role of secondary neuronal degeneration in the mechanism of Holmes tremor. PMID:20525304
Spector, S A; Merrill, R; Wolf, D; Dankner, W M
By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification procedure, 19 (83%) of 23 plasma specimens obtained from individuals with AIDS and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) visceral disease were found to be positive for plasma viremia as detected by PCR (PV-PCR), whereas 78% of cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes from the same samples were found to be positive. All 11 specimens prospectively obtained from individuals with acute HCMV disease were positive by PV-PCR. Plasma specimens from patients who received ganciclovir therapy rapidly became both culture and PV-PCR negative, and there was an excellent correlation between the two procedures. DNA detected by PV-PCR was unaffected by filtering plasma through a 0.2-microns-pore-size filter, although a conserved cellular gene, HLA-DQ alpha, was undetectable by PCR following filtration. HCMV DNA in plasma could be quantitated by PV-PCR by using endpoint serial dilutions, with detectable virus being present in 10(1) to 10(-2) microliters of plasma. A low titer of infectious virus could be detected in 2 of 11 plasma samples. The detection of HCMV DNA in plasma by PV-PCR promises to be a useful procedure for monitoring patients with AIDS suspected of having impending, acute, or recurrent HCMV visceral disease and suggests an additional route by which virus may disseminate in the immunocompromised host. Images PMID:1328287
Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.
Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.
Kinirons, Stacy A; Do, Sandy
This study was based on an analysis of an existing database compiled from 475 medical records of people living with HIV/AIDS admitted to an acute-care hospital in New York City in 2004. The characteristics of patients with HIV infection that received physical therapy were determined. Differences between patients with HIV infection that did and did not receive physical therapy, as well as predictors of receipt of physical therapy, were identified. The physical therapy subgroup (n = 69) had a mean age of 48.3 years, consisted of more men than women, and was predominately black, with public health insurance. Admissions were commonly due to non-AIDS-defining illness as the primary diagnoses, accompanied by several comorbidities. Admissions often presented with functional deficits, incurred a prolonged length of stay, and required assistance at discharge. Differences existed between the physical therapy subgroup and the non-physical therapy subgroup (n = 406). Predictors of receipt of physical therapy were functional status on admission and length of stay.
Ngoh, L N; Shepherd, M D
In this study, culturally sensitive visual aids designed to help convey drug information to nonliterate female adults who had a prescription for a solid oral dosage form of antibiotic medications were developed and evaluated. The researchers conceptualized the educational messages while a local artist produced the visual aids. Seventy-eight female ambulatory patients were evaluated for comprehension and compliance with antibiotic prescription instructions. The study was conducted in three health centers in Cameroon, West Africa and followed a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up format for three groups: two experimental, and one control. All participants were randomly assigned to either experimental or control groups, 26 patients to each group. Subjects in the experimental groups received visual aids alone or visual aids plus an Advanced Organizer. A comparison of the three groups showed that subjects in the experimental groups scored significantly higher than the control group in both the comprehension and compliance measures.
Tisdale, Gus; Mahadevan, Anand; Matthews, Richard H
Primary T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) occurring in the context of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is uncommon. Here, we report and discuss such a case presenting in the rectum, and review relevant literature. Although typical in some respects, the case is, in other ways, somewhat unusual for an AIDS-related NHL (ARL); ARL tends to be B cell and advanced stage and our case was T cell and stage IE. In addition, the patient suffered from concomitant cirrhosis related to hepatitis C. Chemotherapeutic options for ARL were limited early in the AIDS epidemic due to poor tolerability. Although this has largely been mitigated by the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, our patient eventually suffered complications of chemotherapy, apparently related more to his liver disease than to either his lymphoma or AIDS, that ultimately brought about his demise.
Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi; van den Heever, Wilhelmina Maria Jacoba; Van Schalkwyk, Frances Elizabeth
This study examined the potential effect of a nutritional supplement on the anthropometric profiles (body measurements such as body mass index [BMI], fat percentage and waist-hip ratio) of HIV-positive/AIDS patients and the correlation between anthropometric profile, CD4+T cell count and viral load. At baseline, of the 35 patients recruited into the study, 32 (94.1%) showed a fat percentage below normal range. Twenty-four of the patients (68.6%) had a BMI within normal range, while a greater percentage of the patients had a normal waist-hip ratio. Of the 28 patients that completed the study, 26 (96.3%) reported a fat percentage of below 18.5%. The results showed that 19 (67.9%) of the 28 patients had a BMI within the normal range after nutrient intervention. There was a significant positive correlation between the BMI and fat percentage. At the end of the study the CD4+T cell count showed no correlation with any of the anthropometric indices while the viral load showed a significant negative correlation with the lean body mass and BMI. The short duration of the study probably limited the positive trend of the supplement.
Atkinson, F I; Grant, I; Lewis, R; Sherval, J
This paper reports on a postal questionnaire survey of district nurses' work with HIV positive patients. Each nurse was asked to provide information about their contact with HIV positive patients and the level of training they had received in HIV/AIDS care. The nature of nursing activities carried out for these patients was established along with levels of confidence the nurses had in being able to provide a high standard of care. Where the nurses indicated less than full confidence they were asked to indicate what factors predisposed their response. Questionnaires were completed by 101 district nurses. On average, each nurse made 1.25 visits to HIV-infected patients in the two weeks preceding the study. The nursing activities most commonly carried out for these patients were providing advice/counselling, carer support, general nursing care and specialist treatments. The activities least commonly carried out were technical procedures, tests and assessments. Nurses were most confident in providing a high standard in relation to general nursing care and least confident that high standards were being achieved in providing specialist treatments. The most frequently encountered explanations offered by the district nurses for their lack of confidence in achieving a high standard were a lack of specialist training and a lack of experience with HIV-infected patients.
Nobre, Vandack; Braga, Emanuella; Rayes, Abdunnabi; Serufo, José Carlos; Godoy, Pérsio; Nunes, Nívea; Antunes, Carlos Maurício; Lambertucci, José Roberto
Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients have changed since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). This study aims at evaluating the frequency of associated diseases in patients with AIDS admitted to an university hospital of Brazil, before and after HAART. The medical records of 342 HIV-infected patients were reviewed and divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 247 patients before HAART and, group 2, 95 patients after HAART. The male-to-female rate dropped from 5:1 to 2:1for HIV infection. There was an increase in the prevalence of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis, with a decrease in Kaposi's sarcoma, histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis. A reduction of in-hospital mortality (42.0% vs. 16.9%; p = 0.00002) has also occurred. An agreement between the main clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings was observed in 10 out of 20 cases (50%). Two patients with disseminated schistosomiasis and 2 with paracoccidioidomycosis are reported. Overall, except for cerebral toxoplasmosis, it has been noticed a smaller proportion of opportunistic conditions related to severe immunosuppression in the post HAART group. There was also a significant reduction in the in-hospital mortality, possibly reflecting improvement in the treatment of the HIV infection.
Caramello, P; Mazzucco, G; Romeo, M; Ullio, A; DeRosa, G; Lucchini, A; Forno, B; Brancale, T; Macor, A; Preziosi, C
Intestinal microsporidiosis by Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an increasingly recognized infection in AIDS patients. We report eight cases of microsporidiosis. All patients were severely immunodepressed. Clinical features were highly variable. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 7.8 months. All patients had persistent infection during the follow-up and spore excretion remained constant. Two patients became asymptomatic during the follow-up. None of the patients presented clinical and echographic signs of biliary involvement. Treatment with albendazole, metronidazole or paromomycin failed to produce a durable clinical response or to eradicate the organism. Cases were identified by stool examination and additionally investigated with light and electron microscopy. It was found that light microscopy was a sensitive method, while electron microscopy was less sensitive but allowed the definition of the infecting species. The modified trichrome stain was a satisfactory method for diagnosis on fecal smears. The calcofluor stain and the combination of DAPI with calcofluor was a rapid and simple staining method for screening.
Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Da Cunha Colombo, Eduardo Rodrigues; De Figueiredo Vissotto, Eduardo; Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge
This report describes a 32-year-old male AIDS patient. He presented with a clinical picture characterized by severe headache, blurred vision, and fever that had lasted for 10 days. At admission, no remarkable neurologic abnormalities were observed. Cranial tomography showed a ring-enhanced lesion with edema and a mass effect in the right occipital lobe. The initial diagnosis was toxoplasmosis, and treatment of this was administered. However, 5 days later, the patient's clinical status worsened and he died. The necropsy showed necrotizing and hemorrhagic encephalitis, with trophozoites similar to an amoeba species. Furthermore, the kidneys, adrenal glands, thyroid gland, and liver were also involved. The amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris was identified by an immunofluorescence test.
Dale, L C; Hurt, R D; Hays, J T
The arsenal of pharmacologic agents available for smoking cessation has expanded in the last few years, and it is likely to continue to do so. It is important that practicing physicians keep abreast of new methods as they become available and encourage patients who smoke to undertake cessation measures. Nicotine-replacement therapy is available in gum, patch, nasal spray, or inhaler form, and bupropion therapy aids in smoking cessation through dopaminergic activity. The foundation of effective intervention is likely to remain unchanged: an individualized plan addressing behavioral, addictive, pharmacologic, and relapse-prevention components. In addition to the necessary information about treatment choices, physicians should offer motivation, support, and follow-up to their patients who wish to quit smoking.
Hoffman, Aubri S; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Housten, Ashley J; Leal, Viola B; Linder, Suzanne K; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Volk, Robert J
Colorectal cancer screening rates for African American patients remain suboptimal. Patient decision aids designed with an entertainment-education approach have been shown to improve saliency and foster informed decision making. The purpose of this study was to assess whether an entertainment-education decision aid tailored for African American patients improved patients' decision making, attitudes, intentions, or colorectal cancer screening behavior. Eighty-nine participants were randomized to view 1) a patient decision aid video containing culturally tailored information about colorectal cancer screening options and theory-based support in decision making presented in an entertainment-education format or 2) an attention control video about hypertension that contained similarly detailed information. Participants met with their clinician and then completed follow-up questionnaires assessing their knowledge, decisional conflict, self-advocacy, attitudes, perceived social norms, and intentions. At 3 months, completion of screening was assessed by chart review. Viewing the culturally tailored decision aid significantly increased African American patients' knowledge of colorectal cancer screening recommendations and options. It also significantly reduced their decisional conflict and improved their self-advocacy. No significant differences were observed in participants' attitudes, norms, or intentions. At three months, 23% of all patients had completed a colonoscopy. Designing targeted, engaging patient decision aids for groups that receive suboptimal screening holds promise for improving patient decision making and self-advocacy. Additional research is warranted to investigate the effectiveness of such aids in clinical practices with suboptimal screening rates and on downstream behaviors (such as repeat testing). Cancer 2017;123:1401-1408. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Malak, Roksana; Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Mojs, Ewa; Grobelny, Bartosz; Głodowska, Katarzyna B; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Samborski, Włodzimierz
BACKGROUND The person with dementia should be treated as an unique person regarding symptoms directly associated with dementia, such as problems with memory, hallucinations, and delusions, as well as other physical, mental, or neurological deficits. The symptoms not directly typical of dementia, such as musculoskeletal disorders or depression, should be also be considered in order to improve the quality of life of a person with dementia. That is why professional caregivers have to broaden their current knowledge not only of medical symptoms but also of the patient's psychosocial condition and increase their inquisitiveness about the individual condition of the patient. The aim of the study was to get to know the opinion of professional caregivers about the UnderstAID platform and its usefulness for informal caregivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Participants in the study group consisted of professional caregivers: nurses, sociologists, psychologists, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists, all of whom specialized in geriatrics and had experience in working with people with dementia. All professional caregivers answered 24 questions that refer to positive and negative aspects of the UnderstAID platform. RESULTS The study group of professional caregivers highly appreciated that the application could give support to caregivers (mean score of 4.78; 5 points means that they totally agreed, and 1 point means that they totally disagreed) and that a wide range of multimedia materials helped the informal caregivers to gain a better understanding of the contents (mean score of 4.78). There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of the professional caregivers and the frequency of positive opinions that the UnderstAID application gave support to caregivers of relatives with dementia (p=0.028) and the opinion that videos, photos, and pictures may help the informal caregivers to gain a better understanding of the contents (p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS A group of
Gagné, Myriam E; Légaré, France; Moisan, Jocelyne; Boulet, Louis-Philippe
Patient decision aids (PDAs) are used in shared decision making to improve practitioner-patient communication and help patients decide about treatment options. To develop a PDA for adults with asthma considering inhaled corticosteroids, with or without long-acting beta2-agonists, to optimize asthma control. The PDA was developed based on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards. Step 1: PDA was drafted. Step 2: PDA acceptability was assessed among target users, certified asthma educators (CAEs) and adults with asthma, following an iterative process. a) Participants read the PDA, b) rated its presentation, length, balance, and perceived usefulness, indicated what they liked/disliked about it, and made suggestions for improvement. c) Based on results from (b), PDA was refined. This process was repeated with new participants until no suggestions were made. Step 3: The PDA was field tested with target users. Interviews with CAEs were conducted to identify areas of improvement. Step 4: Final PDA version was written. A color-printed, 4-page, letter-sized PDA was drafted. Acceptability testing involved 11 CAEs (women, n = 10) and 20 adults with asthma (women, n = 13; age 22-61 years). Five successive refined versions were produced. Major changes were made to PDA terminology, instructions, paper size, and visual presentation. Two CAEs (women, n = 2) and 26 adults with asthma (women, n = 19; age 20-65 years) field tested PDA. Minor changes were made to language and instructions to ensure usability. The final version was a color-printed, 12-page, A3-sized booklet. Our newly developed PDA was found acceptable and usable in target users.
Manigault, Andrew Wilhelm; Handley, Ian Michael; Whillock, Summer Rain
To improve patient health, recent research urges for medical decision aids that are designed to enhance the effectiveness of specific medically related decisions. Many such decisions involve complex information, and decision aids that independently use deliberative (analytical and slower) or intuitive (more affective and automatic) cognitive processes for such decisions result in suboptimal decisions. Unconscious thought can arguably use both intuitive and deliberative (slow and analytic) processes, and this combination may further benefit complex patient (or practitioner) decisions as medical decision aids. Indeed, mounting research demonstrates that individuals render better decisions generally if they are distracted from thinking consciously about complex information after it is presented (but can think unconsciously), relative to thinking about that information consciously or not at all. The current research tested whether the benefits of unconscious thought processes can be replicated using an Internet platform for a patient medical decision involving complex information. This research also explored the possibility that judgments reported after a period of unconscious thought are actually the result of a short period of conscious deliberation occurring during the decision report phase. A total of 173 participants in a Web-based experiment received information about four medical treatments, the best (worst) associated with mostly positive (negative) side-effects/attributes and the others with equal positive-negative ratios. Next, participants were either distracted for 3 minutes (unconscious thought), instructed to think about the information for 3 minutes (conscious thought), or moved directly to the decision task (immediate decision). Finally, participants reported their choice of, and attitudes toward, the treatments while experiencing high, low, or no cognitive load, which varied their ability to think consciously while reporting judgments. Cognitive load
Parker, Kate; Cunningham, Susan J; Petrie, Aviva; Ryan, Fiona S
Patient decision-making aids (PDAs) are instruments that facilitate shared decision making and enable patients to reach informed, individual decisions regarding health care. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a PDA compared with traditional information provision for adolescent patients considering fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. Before treatment, orthodontic patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the intervention group received the PDA and standard information regarding fixed appliances, and the control group received the standard information only. Decisional conflict was measured using the Decisional Conflict Scale, and the levels of decisional conflict were compared between the 2 groups. Seventy-two patients were recruited and randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to the PDA and control groups. Seventy-one patients completed the trial (control group, 36; PDA group, 35); this satisfied the sample size calculation. The median total Decisional Conflict Scale score in the PDA group was lower than in the control group (15.63 and 19.53, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant (difference between groups, 3.90; 95% confidence interval of the difference, -4.30 to 12.11). Sex, ethnicity, age, and the time point at which patients were recruited did not have significant effects on Decisional Conflict Scale scores. No harm was observed or reported for any participant in the study. The results of this study showed that the provision of a PDA to adolescents before they consented for fixed appliances did not significantly reduce decisional conflict. There may be a benefit in providing a PDA for some patients, but it is not yet possible to say how these patients could be identified. This trial was registered with the Harrow National Research Ethics Committee (reference 12/LO/0279). The protocol was not published before trial commencement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mayor, Angel M.; Gómez, María A.; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.
Introduction Malignant disorders have been linked to HIV epidemic from its onset. Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluates the neoplasm prevalence before and after the implementation of HAART. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 171 adults HIV infected persons followed in Puerto Rico, between May 1992 and December 2005. Neoplasm prevalence was measured and the difference in AIDS and non-AIDS defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era. Chi-square, Fisher exact test, ANOVA and student t test were used to explore differences between groups. Results Malignant neoplasms were detected in 171 patients (4.8%). Of these, 51.5% were AIDS defining neoplasms and 68% were established before HAART. AIDS defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of the neoplasms before the availability of HAART and 25.9% after HAART. Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS defining neoplasms was decreased after HAART. Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART. Discussion: Our study finds a significant reduction of Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS related lymphoma in the HAART era of the epidemic. A higher prevalence of non-AIDS defining lymphomas, prostate and cervical carcinoma were seen in the HAART era. These findings suggest that factors other than severe immunosuppression are involved in the neoplasms' pathogenesis. Preventive strategies that include screening tests, vaccination and life style modification should be routinely applied in the HIV infected patients. PMID:18646347
Khalakdina, Asheena; Selvin, Steve; Merrill, Deane W; Erdmann, Christine A; Colford, John M
Environmental transmission of cryptosporidiosis has occurred repeatedly in defined spatial areas during outbreaks of disease attributed, for example, to drinking water contamination. Little work has been done to investigate the possibility of cryptosporidiosis infection in defined spatial areas in non-outbreak (i.e., endemic) settings. This study applies a novel approach to the investigation of the spatial distribution of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients in San Francisco. Density equalizing map projection (DEMP) maps were created for nine race/ethnicity-age groups of AIDS patients based on census tract of residence. Additionally, census tracts with a "high density" of cryptosporidiosis cases were identified by applying smoothing techniques to the DEMP maps, and included as a covariate in multivariate Poisson regression analyses of other known risk factors for cryptosporidios. These analyses suggest: (1) cases of cryptosporidiosis among Black and Hispanic AIDS patients, but not among Whites, show a statistically significant non-random spatial distribution (p < 0.05) even after adjustment for the underlying spatial distribution of AIDS patients for these demographic groups, and (2) the risk of residence in these high density census tracts, adjusted for other known risk factors, was not statistically significant (relative risk = 1.27, 95% confidence interval 0.15, 10.53). These results do not support an independent effect of spatial distribution on the transmission of cryptosporidiosis among AIDS patients.
Tshililo, Azwidihwi R; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu
The increasing rate of patients with HIV/AIDS brings a burden to the already weakened health care delivery systems in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Hospitals alone cannot deal with the needs of AIDS patients effectively; the patients are discharged to be cared for at home. A qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe the experiences of the family members that are caring for patients with HIV/AIDS at home. Interviews were conducted with 12 participants who were purposively selected as the caregivers of patients suffering from AIDS at home. Ethical measures were adhered to for the protection of the participants. The findings revealed that the family members experience negative feelings, characterized by sadness, pain, anger, depression, and frustration, as they care for their loved one within the context of extreme poverty. Quality care was compromised in situations where basic resources were not available. Guidelines to assist families in caring for their loved one with HIV/AIDS at home were developed.
Scherer, Rachel K; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Brandt, Jason; Blacker, Deborah; Albert, Marilyn S; Stern, Yaakov
Although there has been much research devoted to understanding the predictors of nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, there is currently a lack of research concerning the predictors of home health care. The objective of this study was to examine whether the Dependence Scale can predict home health aide (HHA) use. The sample is drawn from the Predictors Study, a large, multicenter cohort of patients with probable AD, prospectively followed annually for up to 7 years in three university-based AD centers in the United States. Markov analyses (n=75) were used to calculate annual transition probabilities for the "new onset" of HHA use (instances where an HHA was absent at the previous visit, but present at the next visit) as a function of HHA presence at the preceding year's visit and dependence level at that preceding year's visit. The dependence level at the previous year's visit was a significant predictor of HHA use at the next year's visit. Three specific items of the Dependence Scale (needing household chores done for oneself, needing to be watched or kept company when awake, and needing to be escorted when outside) were significant predictors of the presence of an HHA. The Dependence Scale is a valuable tool for predicting HHA use in AD patients. Obtaining a better understanding of home health care in AD patients may help delay NHP and have a positive impact on the health and well-being of both the caregiver and the patient.
Rouveix, B; Groult, F; Pocidalo, J J
A study was made to evaluate the leukocyte aggregation test (LAT) in patients at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and with confirmed AIDS using tuberculin, streptococcus and candida as recall antigens. These patients were selected on the basis of their well known absence of delayed hypersensitivity, a fact which should avoid false positive tests. Antigen-induced human peripheral blood leukocyte aggregation was measured quantitatively. The results obtained have been compared with the leukocyte migration inhibition test (LMIT) in patient and control groups. Among the 46 patients, less than 7% were positive for the LAT, whereas more than 50% were LMIT positive (P less than 0.001). These results suggest that there are fewer false positive reactions with LAT which can therefore be considered as a reliable method for assessing CMI in human. Furthermore, a negative LAT correlated well with negative delayed skin tests in more than 90% of the patients for the three antigens. These patients had either an AIDS or an advanced AIDS-related complex (ARC). In only eight of the patients was there a discrepancy in the results of the two tests. A positive LAT and a negative skin test were seen in three cases lacking opportunistic infections (OI), whereas a negative LAT and a positive skin test were found in patients with or without OI. In the latter, a negative LAT could indicate a more advanced stage of disease and hence a poor prognosis. PMID:3568448
Aslakson, Rebecca A; Schuster, Anne L R; Miller, Judith; Weiss, Matthew; Volandes, Angelo E; Bridges, John F P
Patients who undergo major surgery are at risk for perioperative morbidity and mortality. It would be appropriate to initiate advance care planning with patients prior to surgery, but surgeons may experience difficulty initiating such conversations. Rather than focus on changing clinician behavior, advance care planning decision aids can be an innovative vehicle to motivate advance care planning among surgical patients and their families. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study protocol for conducting an environmental scan concerning advance care planning decision aids that may be relevant to patients undergoing high-risk surgery. This study will gather information from written or verbal data sources that incorporate professional and lay perspectives: a systematic review, a grey literature review, key informant interviews, and patient and family engagement. It is envisioned that this study will generate three outcomes: a synthesis of current evidence, a summary of gaps in knowledge, and a taxonomy of existing advance care planning decision aids. This environmental scan will demonstrate principles of patient-centered outcomes research, and it will exemplify a pioneering approach for reviewing complex interventions. Anticipated limitations are that information will be gathered from a small sample of patients and families, and that potentially relevant information could also be missing from the environmental scan due to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Outcomes from the environmental scan will inform future patient-centered research to develop and evaluate a new decision aid.
Objectives We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL), its associated factors, and examined measurement properties of the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions - 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods A cross-sectional multi-site survey was conducted in 1016 patients (age: 35.4 ± 7.0 years; 63.8% male) in three epicenters of Vietnam. Internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and discriminative validity of the EQ-5D-5L and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated. Tobit censored regression models were used to identify predictors of HRQOL in HIV/AIDS patients. Results The mean EQ-5D-5L single index and VAS were 0.65 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.63; 0.67) and 70.3 (95% CI = 69.2; 71.5). Cronbach’s alpha of five dimensions was 0.85. EQ-5D-5L has a good convergent validity with VAS (0.73). It discriminated patients at different HIV/AIDS stages, duration of ART, and CD4 cell count. Predictors of poorer HRQOL included being female, lower education level, unemployment, alcohol and drug use, CD4<200 cells/mL, and advanced HIV/AIDS stages. Conclusion The EQ-5D-5L has good measurement properties in HIV/AIDS patients and holds potentials for monitoring ART outcomes. Integration of HRQOL measurement using EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS clinical practice could be helpful for economic evaluation of HIV/AIDS interventions. PMID:23116130
Borreani, Claudia; Giordano, Andrea; Falautano, Monica; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Martinelli, Vittorio; Granella, Franco; Tortorella, Carla; Plasmati, Imma; Radaelli, Marta; Farina, Deborah; Dalla Bella, Eleonora; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Acquarone, Nicola; Miccinesi, Guido; Solari, Alessandra
Abstract Background The SIMS‐Trial (ISRCTN81072971) proved the effectiveness, in terms of patient’s knowledge and care satisfaction, of an add‐on information aid (personal interview with a physician using a navigable CD and take‐home booklet) in 120 newly diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from five Italian centres. Objective To scrutinize the experience of SIMS‐Trial participants in order to gain better understanding of the effectiveness of the information aid and its components. Design We performed (i) nine individual semi‐structured interviews with a purposeful sample of SIMS‐Trial patients who received the information aid, (ii) focus group meeting (FGM) with the physicians who conducted the personal interview, and (iii) FGM with patients’ caring neurologists. Results Patients’ experience with the information aid was positive as it enhanced their understanding of their disease, being viewed as a guided tour of their medical condition. The physicians who conducted the personal interviews were also positive in their overall evaluation but noted an initial difficulty in using the CD. The caring neurologists had limited direct experience of the aid, and their views were confined to utility of the information aid in general. All participants considered the combination of personal interview, CD navigation and take‐home booklet essential, but urged a more flexible scheduling of the personal interview. It also emerged that some content required revision and that the aid was unsuitable for patients with primary progressive MS. Conclusions The results of the study further support the value of the aid and also provide important indications for improving it and refining indications for use. PMID:22040528
Karagiannis, Thomas; Liakos, Aris; Branda, Megan E; Athanasiadou, Eleni; Mainou, Maria; Boura, Panagiota; Goulis, Dimitrios G; LeBlanc, Annie; Montori, Victor M; Tsapas, Apostolos
To assess the efficacy of the Diabetes Medication Choice Decision Aid among patients with type 2 diabetes in Greece. Open-label cluster randomised controlled trial. Primary and secondary care practices across Greece. 5 sites allocated to the decision aid (n=101 patients) and 4 sites to control (n=103 patients). Clinicians and patients in the intervention arm used a decision aid, based on outcomes that both consider important when choosing among antihyperglycaemic medications. Patients in the control arm received usual care. The primary outcome was patient's level of decisional comfort after the initial clinical encounter. Secondary outcomes included patient's knowledge about type 2 diabetes and medications, and patient's and clinician's satisfaction. Adherence to prescribed antihyperglycaemic medication and change in glycated haemoglobin were assessed at 24 weeks. Patients in both arms had similar scores in overall decisional comfort (mean difference between the usual care and decision aid arms -6.9, 95% CI -21.5 to 7.7) and its subscales. Patients' knowledge was high in both arms (mean difference 2.3%, 95% CI -15.7% to 20.4%). Patients and clinicians in both groups were equally satisfied with the decision-making. No significant difference in medication adherence and glycaemic control was found across arms. Clinicians found the decision aid useful and reported that its integration in their daily routine was easy. The decision aid was implemented and positively received in the clinical setting in Greece, in line with the patient-centred approach endorsed by current guidelines. However, this trial yielded imprecise results in terms of patient outcomes. Further research is needed to investigate the interaction between the patient and the clinician in order to clarify the association between the use of decision aids and implementation of shared decision-making. NCT01861756. Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
Agudelo, Carlos Andrés; Muñoz, Carolina; Ramírez, Alex; Tobón, Angela María; de Bedout Bact, Catalina; Cano, Luz Elena; Restrepo, Angela
The implications of the Cryptococcus neoformans resistance to fluconazole on patient therapy have not been fully elucidated due to the discordant results found in published studies. To establish the influence of C. neoformans resistance to fluconazole in the therapy of individuals with cryptococcosis and AIDS. This study retrospectively compared the clinical course of patients with cryptococcosis according to the level of fluconazole resistance of their C. neoformans isolates. This study included 71 episodes of cryptococcosis, defined as those isolates of C. neoformans obtained from patients with mycosis, of which 36 isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, 20 susceptible dose-dependent (SDD), and 15 were resistant. There were 5 treatment failures in the consolidation phase; two occurred in patients who had a susceptible strain, 2 in patients who had SDD strains, and one in a patient who had a resistant strain. During the maintenance treatment, relapses occurred in 4 of 33 patients (12%), seen during the follow-up period, none of which occurred in the group with resistant isolates. There were no significant differences in survival time free of treatment failure (p=0.65) or survival time free of failure or relapse (p=0.38). These results were not affected when tested in a Cox model that included age, CD4T lymphocyte counts, and use of antiretroviral therapy. In HIV patients with cryptococcosis, the resistance of C. neoformans appeared not to increase the risk of failure or relapse during treatment. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Stableford, Sue; Fagerlin, Angela; Wei, John T; Dunn, Rodney L; Ohene-Frempong, Janet; Kelly-Blake, Karen; Rovner, David R
Decision aids (DA) to assist patients in evaluating treatment options and sharing in decision making have proliferated in recent years. Most require high literacy and do not use plain language principles. We describe one of the first attempts to design a decision aid using principles from reading research and document design. The plain language DA prototype addressed treatment decisions for localized prostate cancer. Evaluation assessed impact on knowledge, decisions, and discussions with doctors in men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Document development steps included preparing an evidence-based DA in standard medical parlance, iteratively translating it to emphasize shared decision making and plain language in three formats (booklet, Internet, and audio-tape). Scientific review of medical content was integrated with expert health literacy review of document structure and design. Formative evaluation methods included focus groups (n = 4) and survey of a new sample of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer (n = 60), compared with historical controls (n = 184). A transparent description of the development process and design elements is reported. Formative evaluation among newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients found the DA to be clear and useful in reaching a decision. Newly diagnosed patients reported more discussions with doctors about treatment options, and showed increases in knowledge of side effects of radiation therapy. The plain language DA presenting medical evidence in text and numerical formats appears acceptable and useful in decision-making about localized prostate cancer treatment. Further testing should evaluate the impact of all three media on decisions made and quality of life in the survivorship period, especially among very low literacy men.
Yu, X F; Wang, Z; Beyrer, C; Celentano, D D; Khamboonruang, C; Allen, E; Nelson, K
Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were obtained from 22 patients with AIDS from northern Thailand, where HIV-1 is transmitted primarily through the heterosexual route. Viral sequences were determined for the 22 patients with AIDS, and all were subtype E HIV-1 on the basis of sequence analysis of a region from the envelope protein gp120. Syncytium-inducing (SI) viruses were detected for 16 of 22 patients with AIDS by using MT-2 cells. Characteristics of amino acid sequences in V3 which have not been reported previously for subtype B SI HIV-1 were associated with the subtype E HIV-1 SI phenotype. The SI viruses from our study population contain predominantly a GPGR or GPGH motif at the tip of the V3 loop, in contrast to the previously described subtype E HIV-1 from Thailand which contained predominantly GPGQ. All the SI viruses lost a potential N-linked glycosylation site in V3 which is highly conserved among previously described subtype E HIV-1 isolates from asymptomatic patients from Thailand. HIV-1 envelope sequences including V3 from some patients with AIDS were significantly more divergent than viruses from asymptomatic patients in Thailand characterized 2 years ago or earlier. These results suggest that emergence of subtype E SI HIV-1 variants is associated with the development of AIDS, as it is for subtype B HIV-1. The divergence of subtype E HIV-1 in patients with AIDS as the disease progresses, and the divergence of subtype E HIV-1 in the infected population as the epidemic continues in Thailand, may have important implications for vaccine development. PMID:7609029
Lutge, Elizabeth E; Gray, Andy; Siegfried, Nandi
The use of cannabis (marijuana) or of its psychoactive ingredient delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a medicine has been highly contested in many settings.There have been claims that smoked or ingested cannabis, either in its natural form or artificial form (pharmaceutically manufactured drug such as dronabinol), improves the appetites of people with AIDS, results in weight gain and lifts mood, thus improving the quality of life. The objectives of this review were to assess whether cannabis (in its natural or artificially produced form), either smoked or ingested, decreases the morbidity or mortality of patients infected with HIV. The search strategy was conducted to July 2012 and was based on that of the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Review Group. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL/CCTR, MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition, searching was performed where necessary of journals, reference lists of articles, and conference proceedings. The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any cannabis intervention, in any form, and administered by any route, in adults with HIV or AIDS, compared with placebo or with a known effective treatment, and conducted in a hospital, outpatient clinic, or home care setting. Quasi-randomised studies using any form of cannabis as an intervention in patients with HIV or AIDS were also included. Data from the eligible studies were extracted and coded independently by two researchers, using a standardised data extraction form. Data were then analysed using RevMan 5.0. No meta-analyses were performed. A total of seven relevant studies were included in the review, reported in eight publications. All were randomised controlled studies, with four utilising a parallel group design, two a within-subject randomisation and two a cross-over design. All of the studies were of a fairly short duration, ranging from 21 days to 84 days. In only four papers (in effect, three studies) were sequence generation and allocation concealment judged to be
Malak, Roksana; Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Mojs, Ewa; Grobelny, Bartosz; Głodowska, Katarzyna B.; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Samborski, Włodzimierz
Background The person with dementia should be treated as an unique person regarding symptoms directly associated with dementia, such as problems with memory, hallucinations, and delusions, as well as other physical, mental, or neurological deficits. The symptoms not directly typical of dementia, such as musculoskeletal disorders or depression, should be also be considered in order to improve the quality of life of a person with dementia. That is why professional caregivers have to broaden their current knowledge not only of medical symptoms but also of the patient’s psychosocial condition and increase their inquisitiveness about the individual condition of the patient. The aim of the study was to get to know the opinion of professional caregivers about the UnderstAID platform and its usefulness for informal caregivers. Material/Methods Participants in the study group consisted of professional caregivers: nurses, sociologists, psychologists, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists, all of whom specialized in geriatrics and had experience in working with people with dementia. All professional caregivers answered 24 questions that refer to positive and negative aspects of the UnderstAID platform. Results The study group of professional caregivers highly appreciated that the application could give support to caregivers (mean score of 4.78; 5 points means that they totally agreed, and 1 point means that they totally disagreed) and that a wide range of multimedia materials helped the informal caregivers to gain a better understanding of the contents (mean score of 4.78). There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of the professional caregivers and the frequency of positive opinions that the UnderstAID application gave support to caregivers of relatives with dementia (p=0.028) and the opinion that videos, photos, and pictures may help the informal caregivers to gain a better understanding of the contents (p=0.028). Conclusions A group of
Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Martin, Jose Jesus Martin; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Lima, Antonio Olry de Labry
Background The epidemic of HIV/AIDS and treatments that have emerged to alleviate, have brought about a shift in the burden of disease from death to quality of life/disability. The aim was to determine which factors are associated with improvements in the level of health of male and female patients with HIV/AIDS in Andalusia, in terms of disability-adjusted life years. Methods Descriptive study based on a sample group of 8800 people on the Andalusian AIDS register between 1983 and 2004. Dependent variables: Life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lost due to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY). Independent variables: vital state, sex, age at the time of diagnosis, age at the time of death, transmission category, province of residence, AIDS-indicator disease and the period of diagnosis. A bivariate analysis was carried out to find out if the health level variables changed in accordance with the independent variables. Using the independent variables which had a statistically significant link with the level of health variables, a multivariate linear regression model, disaggregated by gender, was constructed. Results Amongst the women, we found a model which explained the level of health of 64.9%: a link was found between a higher level of health (lower DALYs) and not intravenous drug use, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. Amongst the men, we found a model which explained the level of health of 64.4%: a link was found between a higher level of health (lower DALYs) and intravenous drug use, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion A higher level of health (lower DALY) amongst both men and women was found to be linked to not be intravenous drug user, the province of residence, being diagnosed during the HAART era and older age at the time of diagnosis. PMID:18939970
Kisenyi, Rita N; Muliira, Joshua K; Ayebare, Elizabeth
In Uganda, the prevalence of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by HIV/AIDS patients remains high and sometimes this is blamed on patients' religious behavior. A descriptive design was used to examine the relationship between religiosity and ART adherence in a sample of 220 patients attending a HIV/AIDS clinic in a Ugandan public hospital. Participants who self-identified as Pentecostal and Muslim had the highest percentage of members with high religiosity scores and ART adherence. Among Muslim participants (34), 82% reported high religiosity scores and high levels of ART adherence. Of the fifty Pentecostals participants, 96% reported high religiosity scores and 80% reported high levels of ART adherence. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between ART adherence and religiosity (r = 0.618, P ≤ 0.01). Therefore, collaboration between religious leaders and HIV/AIDS healthcare providers should be encouraged as one of the strategies for enhancing ART adherence.
Alcaide, Maria Luisa; Espinoza, Luis; Abbo, Lilian
Tsukamurella is a Gram-positive, variable rod-shaped, weakly acid-alcohol-fast, non motile, aerobic bacterium that belongs to the genus Rhodococcus. Tsukamurella has been reported as a cause of infections in humans with immunosuppression and indwelling foreign bodies. It has also been isolated in one patient with AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) as a saprophytic organism. Optimal management of infections secondary to this micro-organism is still uncertain due to the paucity of cases. The combination of a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside, along with removal of medical devices, appear to be the treatment of choice. We report the case of an AIDS patient who presented with multiple lung cavitary lesions secondary to Tsukamurella. This is the first case reported of Tsukamurella as a pathogenic agent in an AIDS patient. We also propose a successful oral antibiotic regimen with fluoroquinolone and rifampin to treat infections secondary to this uncommon micro-organism.
Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; de Melo e Silva, Ana Teresa; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia Fonseca; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rocha, Laura Penna
Studies have shown immunological and morphological alterations in the esophagus during the course of AIDS. Esophageal postmortem samples of 22 men with AIDS autopsied in a teaching hospital between 1982 and 2009 were collected. We carried out revision of the autopsy reports and medical records, morphometric analysis (Image J and KS-300 Kontron-Zeiss), and immunohistochemical (anti-S100, anti-IgA, anti-IgG, and anti-IgM) analysis of the esophagus. In accordance with most of the parameters evaluated, age and the smoking habit harmed the esophageal local immunity, whereas the use of antiretroviral therapy improved the immune characteristics of this organ. Patients with esophagitis also presented immunological fragility of the esophagus. This leads to the conclusion that alterations in the esophageal epithelium of patients with AIDS are not only caused by direct action of HIV but also the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the patient.
Bart-Delabesse, E; Boiron, P; Carlotti, A; Dupont, B
We characterized Candida albicans strains responsible for recurrent oropharyngeal candidosis (OPC) in four patients with AIDS who developed clinical and mycological resistance to fluconazole (FCZ). Karyotype and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were performed on the clonal populations to differentiate relapse from reinfection, and the results were assessed with those of serotype and FCZ MICs. Despite the polymorphism in chromosomal bands larger than 2.2 Mbp related to an intraclonal variation, karyotype analysis showed a single strain type attributable to each patient. On the other hand, EcoRI and HinfI restriction fragments revealed a polymorphism for one patient between the first sample and the subsequent ones, relevant to the acquisition of a new strain causing the following episodes of OPC. This result coincided with switching of the serotype and with the acquisition of a resistance to FCZ. For the other three patients, the similarity of the DNA electrophoretic patterns and the serotype of the samples suggested that recurrence can be due to the initial strain that generates FCZ resistance. Although useful for epidemiological studies, molecular typing methods seem to be inadequate to detect the acquisition of FCZ resistance. Images PMID:7903316
Carlos, M P; Yamamura, Y; Díaz-Mitoma, F; Torres, J V
A major problem impeding development of an effective HIV vaccine is the rapid antigenic variability that is characteristic of several envelope glycoprotein epitopes. Frequent mutations alter the composition of the most immunogenic regions of the envelope glycoprotein. We have prepared a synthetic immunogen representing the evolution of the major hypervariable epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of HIV-1. Five synthetic constructs, representing each of the HIV-1 gp120 hypervariable epitopes were tested for recognition by antibodies from patients infected with HIV-1 from different geographic regions worldwide. An HIV-1 human plasma panel provided a representation of the antibodies recognizing subtype-specific epitope sequences prevalent at different parts of the world. The vaccine construct was recognized by antibodies from HIV-1-positive individuals infected with subtypes A, B, C, D, E, and F. Antibodies in pooled HIV-1 patient sera from San Francisco also recognized all five constructs. This complex immunogen was recognized by antibodies in sera from individual HIV-1-positive and AIDS patients from Puerto Rico and Canada, with a strong binding to the complete vaccine and the V3 component. Altogether, our results demonstrate that antibodies from seropositive patients infected with different HIV-1 clades recognize and bind to the HIV hypervariable epitope construct vaccine preparation and its individual components.
Sargent, J; Nixon, E
In view of changes over the past 2 years in the intravenous (i.v.) management of patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, a small study was carried out at the Kobler Clinic, an HIV treatment centre in London, to examine optimal i.v. access for CMV induction treatment. Thirty lines were analysed over a period of 4 months: 18 were peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and 12 were midline catheters. Each line was monitored and evaluated for reason for choice of line, insertion data, line survival, patient self-administration, patient comfort scores, infection rate, and other difficulties encountered during treatment induction. The study results indicated noticeable differences between PICC and midline catheter performances, although a change in treatment protocol during the study influenced the choice of line used. There were also marked differences from other studies, carried out predominantly in non-HIV patients, when infection rate, dwell time of lines and thrombus formation were compared. Significant changes in practice have been implemented and further clinical studies/research identified.
Dhakad, Megh S.; Goyal, Ritu; Dewan, Richa
HIV related opportunistic fungal infections (OFIs) continue to cause morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. The objective for this prospective study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrum of common OFIs in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Relevant clinical samples were collected from symptomatic HIV positive patients (n = 280) of all age groups and both sexes and subjected to direct microscopy and fungal culture. Identification as well as speciation of the fungal isolates was done as per the standard recommended methods. CD4+T cell counts were determined by flow cytometry using Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter Count system. 215 fungal isolates were isolated with the isolation rate of 41.1%. Candida species (86.5%) were the commonest followed by Aspergillus (6.5%), Cryptococcus (3.3%), Penicillium (1.9%), and Alternaria and Rhodotorula spp. (0.9% each). Among Candida species, Candida albicans (75.8%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. tropicalis (9.7%), C. krusei (6.4%), C. glabrata (4.3%), C. parapsilosis (2.7%), and C. kefyr (1.1%). Study demonstrates that the oropharyngeal candidiasis is the commonest among different OFIs and would help to increase the awareness of clinicians in diagnosis and early treatment of these infections helping in the proper managem