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Sample records for aids prevention education

  1. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  2. Sexual education / AIDS prevention. Peruvian schools.

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of AIDS prevention and sex education program during a 3-month period in 190 in Peruvian schools (7 controls and 7 with the program) found that the intervention, based on behavioral change models, influenced knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge of sexuality and AIDS was greater among study participants than among controls. Attitudes toward erotophobia, condoms, contraception, and people with AIDS were also different among participants. Intentions to adopt prevention-oriented behaviors were also greater among study participants. A follow-up of 250 students was conducted in order to assess actual behavior change; analysis is pending. The curriculum is easy to implement and low-cost. The intervention and evaluation were developed by researchers and planners at the Cayetano Heredia University in Lima. The curriculum emphasized empowerment, self-esteem, information, attitude change, skill development, and a supportive environment. The 14-hour program covered the following topics: 1) puberty and adolescence, 2) sexual anatomy and physiology and human sexual responses, 3) conception and pregnancy (delivery, breast feeding, and unwanted pregnancy), 4) planned parenthood and contraceptive technologies including abortion, 5) sex and gender (social and cultural aspects and sexual orientation), 6) AIDS/STDs and condom skills, and 7) personal decision making about sexual issues (assertive communication skills and self-determination). Two hours of instruction were provided for each of the 7 units. Support materials included teacher and student training manuals, charts, a sample contraceptive kit, and condoms. Teaching techniques ranged from role playing and brainstorming to collaborative study with friends, family, and community heath institutions. Teachers received special training prior to the intervention. PMID:12286360

  3. Preventing AIDS Tomorrow through Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Vercie M.; And Others

    In an effort to prevent the further spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections, and to minimize unwarranted fear about HIV transmission, as well as the subtle and overt limitation of people's rights resulting from this fear, the North Carolina Department of Community Colleges developed a course entitled "Preventing AIDS (Acquired…

  4. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This second special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents seven articles: (1) "Preventing Maternal-Infant Transmission of HIV: Social and Ethical Issues" (James G. Anderson, Marilyn M. Anderson, and Tara Booth); (2) "HIV Infection in Diverse Rural Population: Migrant Farm Workers in…

  5. The AIDS Challenge: Prevention Education for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia, Ed.; And Others

    This book on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education was developed by national and international experts to aid educators, professionals, parents, and youth leaders in developing and implementing AIDS education programs. Included are: (1) "Living with AIDS" (Jack Martin Balcer); (2) "The AIDS Epidemic: Problems in Limiting Its Impact"…

  6. DECS tries out instructional materials on AIDS prevention education.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A national try-out of the newly developed print and non-print instructional materials on AIDS Education is being conducted by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) this school year 1993-to 1994. To determine the effectiveness of these materials, various public and private schools in Region IV (Southern Tagalog), VII (Central Visayas) XI (Southern Mindanao) and National Capital Region (Metro, Manila) were chosen as try-out institutions. The AIDS education materials will be tried out in different subjects in some grade and year levels such as civics and culture (grade one); science and health (grades three and six); home economics and livelihood education (grade five); physical education, health and music (second year) and Pilipino Language (third year). The materials for the elementary level consist of posters, cut-out pictures, voice tapes, jingles, talking books and slides, while the secondary school level utilizes modules. For the tertiary level, a Resource Book on AIDS Prevention Education is used by the Teacher Training Institutions and the Non-Formal Education employs the Facilitator's Guide for Levels I-III. These materials will be tried out in both urban and rural schools, with control school and experimental school at each level.

  7. The Evaluation of Educational Help in Aids Prevention among Youth for Educators Working Outside the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Louise; And Others

    Training of professionals as educators in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and sex education domains has been seen as part of the solution to slow down the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission and eventually stop it. This study evaluated an educational guide for AIDS prevention which was distributed to youth workers…

  8. AIDS Education under Democracy: Gay Men, Sexual Dissent, and the Limits of Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rofes, Eric

    This paper reviews past and current Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and prevention efforts, describes three specific phases of efforts, and analyzes AIDS education and prevention in relation to emancipatory models of education. First the paper reviews data measuring the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among…

  9. HIV/AIDS Prevention Education for African American Youth: Approaches, Issues, and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Wilhelmina A.

    This report describes some models for effective community-wide cooperation in AIDS prevention and education for African American youth. Since 1994, the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies has hosted forums around the country to provide information to black public officials about HIV/AIDS prevention education in schools. Forums in…

  10. School Health Education To Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. WHO AIDS Series 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide provides a framework within which education authorities can work with teachers, parents, and community leaders to help young people learn the facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). It emphasizes the importance of education about human behavior and sexuality that is appropriate to…

  11. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education and Institutionalizing Preventive Education. Education in the Context of HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Hill, Roy; Katabaro, Kamugisha Joviter; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Oulai, Dramane

    This book examines the impact of HIV/AIDS on education in sub-Saharan African countries. It looks at the situation at both macro and micro levels and emphasizes the need to react quickly and to institutionalize the response of education systems to the negative consequences of the pandemic. Drawing on studies of a few countries in sub-Saharan…

  12. Preventive HIV/AIDS education through physical education: reflections from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njelesani, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development. PMID:21949950

  13. Growing Special and Free To Say No to HIV. HIV/AIDS Preventative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    This curriculum guide is written to provide special education teachers with a model for teaching students about the prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It is noted that special education students may be at risk for contracting the virus because they are often vulnerable to high-risk behaviors in an effort to belong to a peer…

  14. "He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-01-01

    Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370

  15. "He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-01-01

    Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex.

  16. Gender differences in adoption of AIDS preventive behaviors: implications for women's AIDS education programs.

    PubMed

    Bowd, A D; Loos, C H

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education programs may be hindered by failure to consider the impact of socioeconomic, gender, and cultural factors on sexual risk-taking. An AIDS education survey completed by 490 first-year students at Canada's Lakehead University confirmed the salience of gender. Male and female students had equal knowledge levels of AIDS risk factors, and there were no significant gender differences in terms of perceived personal risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (29.3% among females and 27.2% among males), anxiety about becoming infected, or perceived capability to control personal risk for HIV (83.9% for females and 82.0% for males). On the other hand, women were significantly more likely than men to seek accurate and current information about AIDS and its transmission (85.4% and 71.1%, respectively), to ask about their partner's history of unprotected sex (71% and 48%, respectively), to believe condoms should be used for every sexual encounter (65.9% and 55.4%, respectively), and to prefer monogamous relationships (94.6% and 85.5%, respectively). 78.5% of female students, compared to only 49.4% of their male counterparts, expressed confidence in their ability to refuse sex with a partner who would not use a condom. Overall, these findings suggest that young university women are more prepared than is generally assumed to act assertively and communicate openly in sexual encounters. At the same time, they indicate that responsibility for safe sex in this population continues to be assumed primarily by women.

  17. Education for AIDS Prevention: Bibliography--Supplement No. 1=Education pour la prevention du SIDA: Bibliographie--Supplement No. 1=Educacion para la Prevencion del SIDA: Bibliografia--Suplemento No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Documentation and Information Service.

    This supplement to the Education for AIDS Prevention Bibliography provides a list of titles received by ASERC (AIDS School Education Resource Centre) from August 1991 to December 1992, consisting mainly of educational material for schools. It also includes documents of a more general nature on AIDS and AIDS prevention. ASERC is a documentation…

  18. An Application of the Learning Cycle in Health Education: HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Tania Barman; Barman, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to (1) identify methods of contraception that are the least/most effective for HIV/AIDS prevention, (2) describe modes of HIV/AIDS transmission, (3) demonstrate proper condom use, and (4) describe the consequences of unprotected sexual behavior. Target Audience: Students enrolled…

  19. Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)

  20. How Effective Are Street Youth Peer Educators?: Lessons Learned from an HIV/AIDS Prevention Programme in Urban Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kirstin; Nyakake, Monica; Oling, Juliet

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores "lessons learned" resulting from a process evaluation of a peer-led HIV/AIDS prevention programme targeting street children and youth in urban Uganda. The purpose was to explore aspects of implementation that either enhanced or hindered the effectiveness of the peer educator (PE) role. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  1. The Fourth Special Issue on HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention in Rural Communities. The Health Education Monograph Series, Volume 18, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    This collection of papers on HIV/AIDS prevention and education in rural communities includes: "Understudied HIV/STD Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Rural South Carolina Women: A Descriptive Pilot Study" (William L. Yarber, Richard A. Crosby, and Stephanie A. Sanders); "Risk and Co-Factors among Women Related to HIV Infection and AIDS Treatment"…

  2. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  3. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  4. Consultative Seminar Develops Action Programmes for AIDS Prevention Education in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Outlined are the technical briefings on the global overview of the HIV/AIDS predicament, the modes of disease transmission, the global distribution of HIV/AIDS, and the social impact of the epidemic among the countries in Asia which participated in the World Health Organization/UNESCO-sponsored AIDS consultative seminar on AIDS prevention…

  5. AIDS. CSAP Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This resource guide was compiled from a variety of publications and data bases and represents the most current information to date on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The guide is organized into three major sections. The first section lists prevention materials. For each entry, information is provided on the organization…

  6. [Social actors in HIV/AIDS prevention: opposition and interests in educational policy in Mexico, 1994-2000].

    PubMed

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Nasaiya, Kittipong; Brambila, Alberto Torres

    2007-03-01

    Studies and recommendations by health agencies have emphasized the importance of education in HIV-AIDS prevention. Mexico has included topics on sexuality and HIV-AIDS in school programs, triggering resistance by some social actors. The current study seeks to clarify the various positions and interests and their influence on the textbook content. A literature search was conducted on the period during which the last educational reform was implemented in Mexico. The discourse analysis focused on the ethnography of communication, which identified: the various actors' positions, arguments, actions, economic and political power, and relations to others. The results show that those who oppose the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum base their position on tradition, contrary to modernization and secularization of social life, and that their positions range from refusal to raising conditions. Networks have been formed that provide such groups with significant economic and political power. Government has given in to some demands by partially modifying the textbook contents. The current analysis proposes to reflect on the potential repercussions of such actions on the control of the epidemic.

  7. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  8. The couple approach to HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R O

    1995-01-01

    In 1995, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration reported that there were 360,000 documented contract workers deployed to various international destinations, 33.1% of whom were sea-based contract workers. It is accepted in Philippine society that seamen stationed abroad for several months remain sexually active. They often have unprotected sexual intercourse with several male and female sex partners, exposing themselves and their partners to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections. The Department of Health has therefore given some priority to involve overseas workers in AIDS education efforts. Seamen, in particular, have been found to engage in high-risk behaviors based upon the recognized routes of HIV transmission. The ISSA developed and implemented a project to address the HIV/AIDS education needs of this group of men and their partners. ISSA's HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention project used the couple approach in its activities, noting that couples and partners must work together to practice safer sex measures. The project involved 60 seamen and 60 women who were either wives or girlfriends of the seamen; more than half of the participants were husband-wife couples. The project functioned upon the premise that both partners have to be well-informed about HIV/AIDS in order to practice effective prevention measures.

  9. Strategies for Overcoming Obstacles in AIDS Education for Preteens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrick-Athans, Linda; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    1997-01-01

    Points out that every four months the number of reported AIDS cases among adolescents doubles. Describes and evaluates a comprehensive AIDS prevention education program for preteens. Identifies adolescent attitudes as barriers to effective AIDS education. Presents strategies to break down barriers and promote acceptance of AIDS education,…

  10. Capacity building and education among sex-workers in the Phnom Penh red light district: is peer education the way forward for HIV/AIDS prevention?

    PubMed

    Torri, Maria Costanza

    There is currently a strong interest in the role of grassroots participation in health promotion and a growing influence of capacity development and related concepts of capacity building in HIV/AIDS related policy programs. Although participatory peer educational approaches have increased in both popularity and practice among sexual health promoters in Asia, they have met with varying degrees of success. A clear understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying these approaches' successes or failures is still in its infancy. This study presents a case of a community-led, participatory peer education program that aims to reduce HIV transmission among commercial sex workers in the city of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The purpose of this study is to consider the relevance of capacity building through peer education for HIV/AIDS prevention among high risk groups such as sex-workers. Despite the expressed commitment to community participation in the development of culturally relevant interventions, much remains to be learned about the complexities of translating theoretical notions of "community participation" and "into practice among hard-to-reach groups."

  11. Survey of Parents of Middle/High School Students. Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding HIV/AIDS Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutt, Dan

    This study, commissioned by the Lucas County (Ohio) Health Department, was designed to assess parental beliefs and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS prevention for youth, particularly in middle and high schools. In November 1996, 400 telephone interviews were completed with parents of middle/high school students in Lucas County. Names were randomly…

  12. AIDS prevention through drama in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A play prepared by a group of Cameroon prostitutes, "Marriage to the Condom," represents an effective innovation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The prostitutes are part of a group, The Friends of Doug and Rose, that seeks to spread awareness of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS, among their peers and the general public and to promote condom use. This group had its origins in an AIDS prevention campaign conducted in Yaounde in 1987 and targeted at prostitutes. Over 125 of these prostitutes, 7% of whom were positive for the AIDS virus, were trained as peer health educators. The idea to produce a play came out of a role-playing exercise aimed at teaching the prostitute peer health educators techniques for motivating their colleagues to use condoms during all commercial sexual encounters. The play presents a true picture of the working lives of prostitutes and the repercussions of sexually transmitted diseases. The play's characters agree to make condom use a prerequisite to accepting clients. The group is joining with a condom social marketing program to travel throughout Cameroon presenting the play to neighborhood associations, health centers, and sexually transmitted diseases clinics. The activity is in keeping with the African tradition of using street theater to spread messages on health and family planning. To ensure that those impacted by the play's message are actually able to obtain condoms, the US Agency for International Development has supplied the Government of Cameroon with 9 million condoms.

  13. [ATPF / CE project: AIDS prevention in the workplace].

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Tunisian Family Planning Association initiated a widespread activity relative to the prevention of AIDS that targets young professionals, both those that are employed and those in professional training. The activity aimed to sensitize young professionals to AIDS prevention and to promote condom use. Planned activities include 30 educational meetings on AIDS prevention in professional environments. More specifically, there will be 10 meetings in each of three regions: Sfax, Sbeitla, and Kef. Each meeting will have 40 participants. Association volunteers in collaboration with the Tunisian Association for AIDS Control will enliven the meetings. These meetings are scheduled to take place in June 1995 in Sfax.

  14. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  15. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction.

  16. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction. PMID:2270255

  17. Evaluation of an AIDS Prevention Program for "At Risk" Parolees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Harry K.; And Others

    Surveys of the nation's jail and prison populations suggest that about 75% have used illicit drugs at one time or another. Incidence rates for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among prison inmates is much higher in correctional systems than in the population as a whole. In this study an AIDS prevention and education program for…

  18. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  19. Anticipated affective reactions and prevention of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Richard, R; van der Pligt, J; de Vries, N

    1995-03-01

    Controlling the AIDs epidemic may depend largely upon health education aimed at adolescents. A number of approaches have been applied to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventive behaviour in adolescents, including the health belief model (Becker, 1974), protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), and the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985, 1991). Since sexual behaviour is heavily influenced by emotions, a possible shortcoming of these models is that little attention is given to affective processes. In this study we investigated the role of anticipated, post-behavioural, affective reactions to (un)safe sexual behaviours in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The results showed that anticipated affective reactions such as worry and regret predicted behavioural expectations over and above the components of the TPB. The implications for our understanding of adolescent sexual behaviour and for campaigns aimed at the reduction of risky sexual practices will be discussed. PMID:7735735

  20. Humanizing Pedagogy through HIV and AIDS Prevention: Transforming Teacher Knowledge. Series in Critical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradigm Publishers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the power of educators to serve as HIV and AIDS prevention agents. The definitive text represents the work of a distinguished panel of teacher educators and health scientists who identify core information and skills effective educators of HIV and AIDS prevention should learn as they prepare to attend to the academic and human…

  1. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  2. HIV/AIDS Prevention Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Barker, Marybeth; Cassisy, Theresa; Hardy-Fanta, Carol; Hereen, Tim; Levenson, Suzette; McCloskey, Lois; Melendez, Michael

    This report addresses the four research objectives that were established by the Massachusetts Primary Prevention Group (MPPG) and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's HIV/AIDS Bureau. The objectives were to: (1) review and summarize literature that formally evaluated HIV prevention interventions; (2) describe how currently funded…

  3. AIDS education -- theory and practice. AIDS education: getting the right message across.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of a drug or vaccine to curtail the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, health education offers the most productive approach. The majority of National AIDS Committees have established AIDS education programs aimed at reducing the high-risk behaviors associated with AIDS. The content of an AIDS educational program varies according to the educational level and cultural norms of the target audience, but is crucial to determining whether misconceptions and prejudices about the disease will be reinforced or dispelled. It is suggested that all AIDS-related materials should be examined in relation to the following factors: accuracy (correct statistics and factually true statements); current (the presentation of present trends and developments); appropriate to objectives (suitable for the purpose); appropriate to the level of the target audience (in terms of not only literacy level, but also emotional maturity and special sensitivities); adequate (sufficient information as to be useful); and objective and unbiased. Each subject covered in AIDS prevention materials--the natural history of the epidemic, the nature of infection with AIDS, signs and symptoms, modes of transmission, and preventive strategies--should be analyzed in relation to the above factors.

  4. Cultural Practices of Hispanics: Implications for the Prevention of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikawa, James K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Among 190 Hispanic Americans in Nevada, condom use as an AIDS prevention measure appeared to be a male prerogative associated with "being the one who buys the condoms" (mostly males) and machismo practices such as protection of women. Adherence to Hispanic cultural traits was related to education and acculturation. (SV)

  5. Indiana AIDS Prevention Plan, 1986. Version 1.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis.

    The Indiana statewide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention plan focuses on community education efforts targeted for specific high risk groups as well as health care and other professionals. Plans are summarized for dissemination of information to the following groups: risk groups, physicians, dental health, nursing, ancillary…

  6. Educating Women about HIV/AIDS: Some International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulman, Donna; Coben, Diana; Nguyen, Van Anh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes current trends in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It looks at issues and strategies involved in educating women about HIV/AIDS in the context of the global pandemic, focusing particularly on Canada and Vietnam. These strategies are essential steps in preventing the spread of HIV and in caring for those who have already developed AIDS.…

  7. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS.

  8. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  9. HIV/AIDS Education for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colson, Steven E.; Carlson, Judith K.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses human immune deficiency disease, the role of education as a prevention tool, a rationale for the inclusion of students with special needs in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, a scope and sequence of skills related to AIDS, suggestions for implementing objectives across curricular areas, and multimedia…

  10. Capacity building for HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Loughran, L

    1995-07-01

    Some organizations involved in programs to prevent HIV/AIDS have considerable skill and experience, while others have only minimal skill and experience with which to achieve project goals. Some organizations consistently deliver high quality services when and where individuals and communities need them, while others have neither the infrastructure nor experience to sustain their efforts independently. No single nongovernmental organization (NGO) can do all that is needed to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. NGOs need to instead learn what are their real capacities to deliver services. The success and quality of HIV/AIDS prevention programs depend upon long-term investments to build the technical and organizational capacities of the public, private, and NGO institutions which deliver services. These investments are made to enhance the ability of organizations and national programs to design, manage, evaluate, and sustain their own prevention programs. Capacity building is defined with discussion of skill building, organizational development, and networking. The author also discusses constraints, capacity building as a controversial component of development programs, evaluating capacity building, and accountability. PMID:12291829

  11. HIV/AIDS Prevention among the Male Population: Results of a Peer Education Program for Taxicab and Tricycle Drivers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morisky, Donald E.; Nguyen, Chrystene; Ang, Alfonso; Tiglao, Teodora V.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the results of a 2-year community-based peer education program aimed at increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward condoms, and condom use behavior among taxicab and tricycle drivers in the Philippines. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up data were collected throughout the educational intervention program. The results of the…

  12. A Controlled-Study of Preventive Effects of Peer Education and Single-Session Lectures on HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among University Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergene, Tuncay; Cok, Figen; Tumer, Aygen; Unal, Serhat

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of peer education and single-session educational lectures on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude change among university students (n = 157 male, n = 230 female; mean age = 20) on the campuses of two metropolitan state universities in Ankara, Turkey. The students were randomly selected to participate in…

  13. [AIDS research and prevention strategies in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Leisch, H

    1997-04-01

    The first case of AIDS was registered in Thailand in 1984; this syndrome was deemed to be mainly a disease affecting homosexuals and foreigners. However, soon thereafter its incidence among prostitutes and intravenous drug users increased. According to 1995 data, the number of AIDS patients was about 20,000 and there were approximately 800,000 HIV-positive people. A 1991 map of the AIDS incidence showed that, after the Bangkok metropolitan area, the province of Chiang Mai in the north exhibited a particularly high rate of infection. According to a medium-range forecast, by the year 2010 there will be close to 2.3 million cumulative HIV infection cases and 1.2 million AIDS cases in Thailand. This corresponds to an infection rate of about 3.2% vs. the present 2%. It is estimated that about 20% of all mortality in the age range of 20-48 years in the year 2000 will be caused by AIDS. In 1995, the prime minister predicted that AIDS would cause a 20% drop of the GDP by 2000. The boom of the economy in the 1980s and the early 1990s led to migration to the cities, where prostitution and drug use are rampant, as well as to the emergence of sex tourism, mainly from Germany (40,000-60,000 Germans traveled to Thailand in 1990). The age-old tradition among married men of seeking out the services of prostitutes, lack of condom use (only 20% of men intend to use it, according to recent studies), and disregard for the AIDS problem among the populace are other factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS. UNAIDS has undertaken sex education and other information campaigns to counter the epidemic.

  14. Preventing AIDS in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Horton, R

    1993-06-12

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was criticized at the 9th International Conference on AIDS in Berlin by an ACT UP spokesman for lacking a coordinated strategy against HIV and AIDS. ACT UP further called for the implementation of networks of effective treatment and care programs in lieu of continued pilot projects, and urged the World Bank to write off loans to nations most jeopardized by AIDS. Dr. Dean Jamison of the Bank discounted the viability of such loan forgiveness on the basis of equity. Funding should instead come from developing countries with the help of developed nations, the private sector, and international bodies. Declining age at first intercourse has led to half of all HIV infections worldwide occurring among individuals under age 25 years; HIV spread among the young is the main driving force behind the pandemic. Professor Peter Piot of WHO emphasized the importance of focusing efforts on women; paying attention to nongovernmental organizations as a group which receives 15% of WHO country funding; and taking issue with those who claim that no HIV/AIDS epidemic exists in Africa. Coordinated action taken to provide condoms, treat sexually transmitted diseases, and eradicate HIV could prevent up to 4 million infections in Africa, 4 million in Asia, and 1 million in Latin America. The director of the WHO's Global Program on AIDS, Dr. Michael Merson, asserted that half of all new HIV infections predicted for the developing world for the rest of the decade could be prevented if another $1.5-2.9 billion annually were invested in nations' HIV prevention strategies. These investments would save $90 billion in health costs and lost economic activity by the end of the century. Such an outlay is minuscule next to the $49 billion cost to Kuwait of the military Operation Desert Storm.

  15. World bank in AIDS prevention controversy.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1995-06-16

    A controversial editorial review article on AIDS prevention by researchers at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) of the University of California was recently published in the British journal, AIDS. The article's thesis is that in addition to individual behavior, social and economic forces have played a role in promoting the spread of HIV in developing countries, where, by the year 2000, 90 percent of HIV infection will have occurred. The researchers argue that an economic approach, called structural adjustment programs [begun and spearheaded by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank], may have created conditions favoring the spread of HIV infection. The article is concerned about four alleged consequences of these programs: the decline of rural subsistence economy; the development of a transportation infrastructure; migration and urbanization; and reduced spending on health and social services. The CAPS authors recommend changes in development programs which focus on the satisfaction of basic human needs and movement from paternalistic to cooperative development policy. They suggest changing the charter of the World Bank and IMF to allow rescheduling or canceling of debt. World Bank officials, in letters to AIDS, tried to persuade the journal not to publish the article, citing that it falls below the journal's current standards and that some of the information is wrong.

  16. Government priorities for preventing HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, M

    1998-08-01

    No cure has been found for HIV/AIDS. Therefore, until one is found which is affordable and feasible for use in developing countries, preventing HIV infection is the best way to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. All of the many biological characteristics of HIV which affect its rate of spread in a population can be affected through individual behavior. The two most important behaviors which spread HIV are having sexual intercourse with an HIV-infected sex partner without using a condom and sharing unsterilized drug injecting equipment. Strategies to reduce risky behavior include providing information, lowering the costs of condom use and safe injecting behavior, and raising the costs of risky behavior. The costs of condom use include the financial and time costs of buying the condoms, the potential inconvenience and social embarrassment of buying and using them, and reduced pleasure among some users. IV drug users face the problems of getting into and remaining in drug treatment programs, and obtaining sterile injecting equipment. Government priorities in preventing HIV/AIDS and mobilizing political support against AIDS are discussed.

  17. [Lessons from health education for HIV/AIDS prevention: theoretical elements for the construction of a new integrated practice].

    PubMed

    Merchán-Hamman, E

    1999-11-01

    There is an evident contrast between health education practices and theoretical reflection concerning them as models. Health education practices have undergone considerable development in terms of strategies, methods, and modalities, while theoretical models have remained deficient, reductionist, fragmentary, and focused on behavior rather than social practices. Major problems include individualism, asymmetrical "teacher-student" relationships, students as passive objects of practices, lack of social and cultural contextualism, and excessive focus on factual behavior. We propose a praxis based on ten levels of integration regarding different human dimensions: 1) complexity requires interdisciplinarity; 2) holism; 3) combined perceptual and expressive dimensions in a integrated language; 4) framing of practices in real contexts; 5) realization of the continuity between the individual and collective realms; 6) symmetrical, dialogic and active educational practice; 7) integration of both intellectual-cognitive and affective-volitional processes; 8) risks as vulnerabilities of social groups that are capable of organization; 9) use of imagination in role-playing games; 10) recognition of others and diversity. Political aspects of education are emphasized as promoting citizenship and social change. PMID:10578080

  18. A Model Human Sexuality--HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…

  19. Prostitution, AIDS, and preventive health behavior.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C A

    1991-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been placed on the role of prostitutes in the AIDS epidemic, little attention has been directed to features of prostitutes' work lives which are relevant to the control of AIDS. This article reviews several aspects of prostitution in the United States which have implications for control of the epidemic. The article first reviews the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among prostitutes. The legalized system of prostitution in Nevada serves as a basis for comparison to illegal prostitution. This article examines the effectiveness of mandatory testing of prostitutes for monitoring and controlling the epidemic. And finally, a peer education approach as a means to control HIV infection among prostitutes is explored.

  20. [AIDS: patients' rights, professional risks, preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Dionne-Proulx, J

    1994-11-01

    AIDS in the workplace poses distinct professional risks to health care providers. Identifying HIV carriers and providing specific preventive measures are not the only concerns. Societal prejudices that degenerate into attitudes and behaviors contrary to professional ethics can overwhelm nursing personnel. Their fears can lead them to make irrational decisions such as refusing to care for the client or divulging private information. The author emphasizes that nurses caring for clients with HIV or AIDS should develop a care approach based on two pivotal points. The first point is that nurses must ensure these clients receive appropriate care and that their fundamental rights are maintained. Secondly, nurses must be permitted to provide necessary care without exposing themselves to any associated health risk. The author asserts that nurses must count on complete, clear and accurate information about professional risks and preventative measures. She outlines the legal framework Canadian nurses can access and explains the legal protection available to health care providers. The development of clear and precise workplace policies based on provincial and federal laws can reduce crisis situations, workplace conflict and discrimination.

  1. Biomedical and development paradigms in AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Wolffers, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic different approaches can be distinguished, reflecting professional backgrounds, world views and political interests. One important distinction is between the biomedical and the development paradigms. The biomedical paradigm is characterized by individualization and the concept of "risk". This again is related to the concept of the market where health is a product of services and progress a series of new discoveries that can be marketed. The development paradigm is characterized by participation of the different stakeholders and by community work. The concept "vulnerability" is important in the development paradigm and emphasis is placed on efforts to decrease this vulnerability in a variety of sustainable ways. Biomedical technology is definitely one of the tools in these efforts. In the beginning of the pandemic the biomedical approach was important for the discovery of the virus and understanding its epidemiology. Later, stakeholders became involved. In the light of absence of treatment or vaccines, the development paradigm became more important and the two approaches were more in balance. However, since the reports about effective treatment of AIDS and hope of development of vaccines, the biomedical paradigm has become a leading principle in many HIV/AIDS prevention programmes. There is a need for a better balance between the two paradigms. Especially in developing countries, where it is not realistic to think that sustainable biomedical interventions can be organized on a short-term basis, it would be counterproductive to base our efforts to deal with HIV/AIDS exclusively on the biomedical approach. PMID:10743300

  2. AIDS education reaches Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati consists of 33 islands and 69,000 inhabitants dispersed over a large area of the Central Pacific. It includes the former Gilbert Islands, which were linked as British colonies with the Ellice Islands until the latter declared themselves independent as Tuvalu. Kiribati became independent from Britain in 1979 and joined WHO [the World Health Organization] in 1984. Launched in 1988, the national AIDS program is now implementing its second medium-term plan. As part of this plan, the program recently held its first AIDS awareness workshop for hotel workers, health care workers and youth. The workshop was held on Kiritimati, the world's largest atoll. Also known as Christmas Island, the atoll of 2650 inhabitants has excellent bird-watching and fishing opportunities, which have drawn growing numbers of tourists in recent years. Although neither of the two HIV infections identified in Kiribati by March 1994 were on Kiritimati, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases there has been on the rise. Meeting in a traditional thatched building, the workshop participants proved eager to learn about HIV and STDs [sexually transmitted diseases]. They received instruction in prevention skills, including a demonstration of proper condom use led by the national AIDS coordinator. At the close of the workshop, condoms were provided to hotel staff for distribution.

  3. HIV/AIDS Education: What Works for Swaziland University Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukati, C. W. S.; Vilakati, Nokuthula; Esampally, Chandraiah

    2010-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS poses a major threat to development and poverty alleviation, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Education has been declared an effective preventative approach and the single most powerful weapon against HIV transmission. However, there is a paucity of research on the type of education required, the appropriate…

  4. AIDS and Adolescents: The Time for Prevention Is Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    Due to indiscriminate experimentation with drugs and sex, teens are increasingly at risk of contracting AIDS. Goals of prevention include reducing the panic and misinformation surrounding the disease, helping teenagers delay sexual intercourse, ensuring condom use, and preventing I.V. drug use. AIDS prevention as a shared responsibility includes…

  5. Cultural practices of Hispanics: implications for the prevention of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, J K; Morones, P A; Gomez, A; Case, H L; Olsen, D; Gonzales-huss, M J

    1992-11-01

    Hispanic Americans have one of the highest rates of HIV seroprevalence among all ethnics groups in the US, with high rates being especially noticeable among women and children. Were it known which cultural factors have the most influence on whether Hispanics engage in high-risk behavior for HIV transmission, prevention interventions could be targeted accordingly. To that end, this study was mounted to identify which Hispanic cultural factors relate to condom use. 117 males and 73 females aged 17-56 years of mean age 25.67 were surveyed in Washoe county, Nevada. These mostly young adults had recently immigrated to the western US. It was initially posited that fate orientation, male- female relationships, family relationships, machismo behavior, and religion would have equal influence with respect to condom use. Analysis found that condom use was largely associated with and determined by men who are the principal buyers of condoms. A machismo attitude toward protecting women by using condoms was also associated with condom use. Neither fate orientation with respect to AIDS, nor religion were important determinants of condom use, even though 86.5% of the respondents were Catholic. The degree to which respondents adhered to traditional Hispanic cultural values was influenced by the degree of education and acculturation. On the basis of these findings, the authors suggest targeting AIDS prevention messages to males, while emphasizing the protection of women through condom use. They also suggest that both education and acculturation levels be assessed before implementing prevention programs.

  6. A decision support system for AIDS intervention and prevention.

    PubMed

    Xu, L D

    1994-08-01

    In recent years, the importance of information systems has been identified as a vital issue to continuing success in AIDS intervention and prevention (AIP). The advances in information technology have resulted in integrative information systems including decision support systems (DSS). The concept of DSS for AIP was created at the intersection of two trends. The first trend was a growing belief that AIP information systems are successful in automating operations in AIP programs. The second was a continuing improvement in modeling and software development in the AIP area. This paper presents an integrated DSS for AIP. The system is integrated with a database and achieves its efficiency by incorporating various algorithms and models to support AIP decision processes. The application examples include screening AIDS-risky behaviors, evaluating educational interventions, and scheduling AIP sessions. The implementation results present evidence of the usefulness of the system in AIP.

  7. AIDS and us: are we failing to prevent a highly preventable disease?

    PubMed

    Quah, S R

    1992-10-01

    The Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH) developed an Advisory Committee on AIDS in 1985, to be joined by an AIDS Task Force and a National Advisory Committee on AIDS in 1987. MOH figures for 1985-91 indicate that 95 people were infected with HIV in Singapore, of whom 33 developed AIDS. These rate are far lower than those observed in other countries throughout the world. Nonetheless, individuals, the government, and international donor agencies must remain vigilant in the country to stem the spread of HIV. Medical and research communities worldwide struggle to develop effective treatments and vaccines for HIV, but other problems related to individual behavior and social policy also thwart the success of efforts against HIV and AIDS. Specifically, private choices made regarding sexual behavior and drug consumption; the lack of a sense of personal risk; and the justified fear of being socially stigmatized if diagnosed with HIV infection or AIDS impede prevention. These latter factors are closely related to social policy and may include the government's role in the screening of blood for transfusion; mandatory HIV testing; reaching sexual contacts of HIV infected persons and AIDS patients; and educational campaigns. These issues are presented with consideration of how they relate to developed countries and the US. While the lack of a sense of being at personal risk and the fear of social stigma related to AIDS may exist in Singapore, the individual right to privacy has been overlooked in Singapore. AIDS is a notifiable disease under the Infectious Disease Act and includes mandatory reporting and contact tracing as routinely applied to venereal disease. While overall HIV prevalence appears low in Singapore and social policy remains supportive of HIV preventive interventions, preventive efforts must be maintained and intensified in the years ahead. Newly pubescent and adolescent youths must be informed about infection risks and preventive strategy; the entire population

  8. AIDS education video: Karate Kids.

    PubMed

    Lowry, C

    1993-01-01

    Street Kids International, in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the National Film Board of Canada, has developed an animated action-adventure video, "Karate Kids," as part of a cross-cultural program of health education that concerns human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and targets street children in developing countries. Simple, but explicit, information is delivered during the 22-minute cartoon; the package also includes a training book for educators, and a pocket comic book. Distributed in 17 languages (it is readily adapted to new language versions, independent of the original producers) in over 100 countries, the video is shown in community theaters, hospitals, schools, and prisons, and out of the backs of trucks. It is easily copied, which is encouraged. After 3 years in distribution, field evaluation has demonstrated that the greatest strength of the video is its ability to stimulate discussion where no discussion was taking place before. Critics include those who believe there is no need for it and those who feel it should be used alone. The results of one evaluation study showed use of the video alone was insufficient; those of a cross-cultural participatory evaluation survey indicated a significant impact on knowledge and attitudes when the video was followed by discussion. Another significant aspect of the project is that it treats street children with respect; they are actors, not victims, who have legitimate needs and rights. They become visible in a world that is often unaware of them.

  9. Drug abuse treatment as AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, D S; Navaline, H; Woody, G E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among drug users enters its third decade in the United States, it is important to consider the role playing by substance abuse treatment in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: The authors review the research literature, examining findings from studies with behavioral and serologic measures on the association among treatment participation, HIV risk reduction, and HIV infection. RESULTS: Numerous studies have now documented that significantly lower rates of drug use and related risk behaviors are practiced by injecting drug users (IDUs) who are in treatment. Importantly, these behavioral differences, based primarily on self-report, are consistent with studies that have examined HIV seroprevalence and seroincidence among drug users. CONCLUSION: The underlying mechanism of action suggested by the collective findings of the available literature is rather simple-- individuals who enter and remain in treatment reduce their drug use, when leads to fewer instances of drug-related risk behavior. This lower rate of exposure results in fewer infections with HIV. The protective effects of treatment, however, can only be achieved when programs are accessible and responsive to the changing needs of drug users. Future research needs to be directed at developing a better understanding of the factors that enhance treatment entry and retention. PMID:9722815

  10. STD / AIDS prevention in Mexico City. The role of pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S; Reyes, J; Cohen, S

    1993-01-01

    In a study developed by the Instituto Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion 84 pharmacies were selected randomly from 2 districts of Mexico City to assess pharmacy workers' potential as educators and preventive agents for AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A survey yielded a total of 166 interviews which measured pharmacy workers' knowledge, type of information provided to clients on AIDS and STDs, willingness to provide information, and condom sales. Trained actors also consulted with workers on symptoms, prevention, and treatment for STDs to measure the pharmacist-client interaction. 86.7% of pharmacy workers knew that sexual contact is a mode a HIV transmission; 51.2% named syringes, and 35.5% mentioned blood transfusions. Only 6.6% knew about maternal-fetal HIV transmission. 10.2% gave incorrect responses such a public bathrooms, sweat, or pools. For prevention, 73.5% mentioned condom use, followed by sexual relations with only 1 partner. 67.5% named the mass media as their primary source of knowledge about AIDS, and only 18.1% names courses or school. About 15% reported that their clients asked for information on AIDS prevention methods, symptoms, and forms of transmission. 41% reported that their clients asked for information on medicines for STDs. 60.8% said they had never been approached for any information regarding condom use. 36.8% of male pharmacy workers had explained condom use to clients, compared to only 12.7% of females workers. 66.7% of women and 51.5% of men felt it was difficult to talk to their clients about the need for protection from AIDS and STDs. During the visits conducted by actors, the pharmacists exhibited willingness to address these subjects but lacked adequate information. 97.6% thought publicity materials regarding condoms should be distributed in pharmacies. 95.8% said they would promote condom use under certain conditions. 90.4% of pharmacy employees interviewed said they would be interested in

  11. Training Medical Professionals in the Prevention and Intervention of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bander, Ricki S.

    Most physicians can expect to counsel a family or individual concerned about possible exposure to acquired immue deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Medical professionals need comprehensive AIDS training and educational programs which cover medical, epidemiologic, psychosocial, and neuropsychiatric aspects of AIDS. Counseling psychologists can provide a…

  12. AIDS prevention in the sex industry.

    PubMed

    Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C

    1992-01-01

    Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully

  13. AIDS prevention in the sex industry.

    PubMed

    Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C

    1992-01-01

    Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully

  14. AIDS education is not our only weapon.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1992-01-01

    The author criticizes international health professional and policy focus upon individual behavioral change as the key to preventing the further spread of AIDS, and instead writes in favor of fundamental social change. In addition to the negative effects of victim-blaming, discrimination, and incarceration which may result from programmatic focus upon the individual, no convincing evidence exists that the health education approach has the desired effect in stemming the transmission of HIV. While apparent success has been met from interventions targeted to select populations, greater individual exposure to education does not necessitate higher degrees of behavioral change. The author notes a critical failure to examine environmental and structural risk factors in the world's most affected societies, and suggests a need to re-evaluate and reorient our approach. HIV transmission in Africa and African cities typically with unbalanced gender mixes, and the fact that women in these settings tend to become infected at younger ages than men are 2 known observations deserving study and action. These phenomena are respectively based i colonial structure dictating large, all-male workforce communities, and a broad lack of educational opportunity for girls and women. Industrial development policies which minimize social disruption and remove men from the center of the workforce, and education policy ensuring greater gender equity in access to schooling should be adopted by national governments and international development donors as measures to directly combat the root of structural risk factors.

  15. Seasons: The National Native American AIDS Prevention Center Quarterly. Summer 1990-Autumn 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Andrea Green, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Nine issues of this quarterly periodical examine AIDS prevention, education, and health care services for Native Americans and their communities. Major articles include personal narratives, interviews, roundtable discussions, program descriptions, guidelines for physicians and educators, and overviews of available services, and cover the following…

  16. AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msimuko, A K

    1988-04-01

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials.

  17. The Rural Experience with Federal Education Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjelten, Tom

    Presenting a brief overview of federal aid to education, this paper approaches the equity issue by first detailing the unique characteristics of rural school districts and then examining rural program needs in terms of the appropriateness, sufficiency, and manageability of federal aid for rural schools. Emphasizing the diverse nature of rural…

  18. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  19. Financial Aid for Higher Education: Anything's Possible!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth, Washington, DC.

    Information on programs that provide financial aid to colleges and students are described in this information sheet of the National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth. Four basic categories of financial aid are grants, loans, work, and benefits. The Division of Personnel Preparation of the U.S. Department of Education makes…

  20. Multiculturalism and AIDS: different communities mean different educational messages required

    PubMed Central

    Lechky, O

    1997-01-01

    Having a multitude of different ethnic communities forces Canada's AIDS educators to use many different methods to deliver their messages. These range from an AIDS bingo game that has been used to educate natives in northern Manitoba to attempts to take AIDS education to the streets of Toronto. With AIDS education, reports Olga Lechky, one message definitely does not fit all. PMID:9164407

  1. Depression and AIDS Preventive Self-efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. PMID:26804507

  2. Training Manual for HIV/AIDS Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison

    This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…

  3. Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

  4. Open File: New Modalities for Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene, Ed.; Epskamp, Kees, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal focuses on comparative education and has four major sections. The "Viewpoint/Controversy" section contains one article: "Is the Globalization of the Economy Creating Values for a New Civilization?" (Koichiro Matsuura). The "Open File: Rethinking Educational Aid" section contains the following articles: "From Project to Programme to…

  5. Incorporating AIDS prevention activities into a family planning organization in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Murad, R

    1990-01-01

    Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA in two operations research projects. The activities included: (1) informative talks given both to the general public and to members of target groups by PROFAMILIA's community marketing (CM) program field workers (or instructors); (2) the establishment of condom distribution posts in meeting places of target groups; and (3) mass-media information campaigns on AIDS prevention. Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales. A radio campaign that promoted condom use for AIDS prevention did not affect public perceptions about the condom and did not jeopardize PROFAMILIA's image.

  6. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.

  7. Prevention implications of AIDS discourses among South African women.

    PubMed

    Strebel, A

    1996-08-01

    Social constructionist and feminist analyses have done much to extend the understanding of AIDS beyond the biomedical to include social accounts of the constitution of AIDS knowledge and meanings. However, these frameworks have not translated easily into realistic responses to the paradox of women being seen as responsible for HIV prevention, while they lack the power to implement safe sex behavior. This study explores the range and interplay of discursive themes which South African women drew on regarding AIDS and identifies constraints and opportunities for realistic prevention. The research involved 14 focus group discussions with women. Two main interpretative repertoires regarding AIDS were identified from the texts: one concerning the medicalization and the other the stigmatization of the disease. Although these representations were not unchallenged, the pervasive sense was of denial of own risk, fear, and fatalism. However, the analysis highlighted the complexity of issues to be faced in developing effective prevention initiatives.

  8. The Role of Educators in the AIDS Epidemic: Medical, Legal, and Psychoeducational Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Harriett H.; Russo, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides educators with current information on HIV/AIDS epidemiology, transmission, and prevention; the educational rights of HIV-infected children; neurodevelopmental sequelae in school-age infected children; relevant case law; results of empirically based studies on youngsters' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; and school…

  9. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  10. Anastrozole may aid breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    In the IBIS II Prevention Study, postmenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer given the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole were 53% less likely to develop the disease after 10 years than women who took placebo.

  11. Just Say Maybe: Working with Uncertainties in HIV Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankham, Jo

    2003-01-01

    The article focuses on a key aspect of the experiences of young gay men and considers how their responses might inform HIV prevention education for all young people. The article first outlines key representations of same-sex desire and of HIV/AIDS through which young gay men learn various certainties about gay men, gay sex and AIDS. As a…

  12. Drug Education & Prevention. Chapter 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with drug education and prevention. Papers include: (1) "State of the Art of Drug Prevention Programs: A Five Year Retrospective of School Curricula" (Natalie Silverstein, et al.); (2) "TCs: Education for Wholeness" (Christine Grant…

  13. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  14. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest.

  15. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  16. SAFE: Stopping AIDS through Functional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Judith

    This functional curriculum is intended to teach people with developmental disabilities or other learning problems how to prevent infection with HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The entire curriculum includes six video segments, four illustrated brochures, 28 slides and illustrations, as well as a guide…

  17. Role of women in prevention and control of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ram, E P; Singh, A C

    1991-04-01

    Women in India and AIDS prevention and control are discussed in terms of vulnerability, victimization, required knowledge, reproductive impact, care and prevention after birth, and the demands of the prevailing situation. A WHO world estimate is that 3 million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV out of 8-10 million. Indian women are vulnerable because of their reduced status and lack of power in private and marital life. Also, pregnant women receive blood transfusions, which may be inadequately screened, for anemia. The use of oral contraceptives with estrogen reduces immunity. The use of IUDs may cause inflammation or injury which provides a point of entry for HIV into the bloodstream. Prostitution is an outlet for lack of money, education, and skills, and places women at risk. The transmission from men to women is higher than the reverse. Every women should know their risks and modes of transmission. Women need to know that the risk of fetal infection from an HIV-positive mother is 20-40%, and that the risk is highest if HIV infection occurs or AIDS symptoms occur during pregnancy. Infant mortality from HIV may occur within the 1st several years. The following needs to be understood about reproduction and HIV: the risk of infection is very high when impregnated by an HIV male partner, and if children are desired, artificial insemination should be the preferred method. The reverse holds true, because penetrative sex without a condom allows transmission of the virus. The best option is for avoidance of childbearing if a partner has HIV. Abortion should be provided. Women need to develop the skills in language and confidence to negotiate safer sex, should be particular about choosing a loyal partner, and protect themselves by urging male condom use. The mode of transmission to babies is not from cuddling or handling. Breast feeding carries a meager risk of transmission, and should be continued if HIV infection occurs; the baby should be immunized. All

  18. AIDS Exceptionalism: On the Social Psychology of HIV Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2009-12-01

    The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed "AIDS Exceptionalism"- departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for "Prevention for Positives," supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven "prevention" that only served a particular political agenda.Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961).

  19. [AIDS prevention by a youth association in Ivory Coast: impact, successes and disappointments].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F; Fampou-Toundji, J C

    1999-01-01

    Over the last few years, the number of associations involved in AIDS prevention has dramatically increased in Ivory Coast, especially in Abidjan. This article describes an experiment in the prevention of AIDS and STDs among young people in Abidjan by means of peer education. It follows the management and progress of a youth organization for AIDS prevention, CESAM (Cellule Scolaire Anti-SIDA et MST), the School-based Anti-AIDS and STD Unit. Critical review of the activities of this association identifies a number of methodological, planning, human and material problems, which have received little attention in the past. CESAM is one of the first anti-AIDS associations in Ivory Coast to target young people and to have young members. This may be the reason for some of its successes and some of its failures and disappointments. The association's successes include the provision of information to more than 25,000 people between 1992 and 1996, and the overall satisfaction of the public and local AIDS institutions. The young people involved have taken on a new social identity, which has developed from the motivation of association members and the personal experiences of some with respect to AIDS, STDs and problems associated with contraception. However, this new identity is threatened by rivalry between members and the search for funding, as the substantial funding obtained in 1994-1995 can show it. PMID:10623875

  20. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  1. AIDS Exceptionalism: On the Social Psychology of HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William A.; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed “AIDS Exceptionalism”— departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for “Prevention for Positives,” supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven “prevention” that only served a particular political agenda. Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961) PMID:23667386

  2. A Documentary Analysis of HIV/AIDS Education Interventions in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halabi, Saamira; Smith, William; Collins, John; Baker, David; Bedford, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objective: While the international donor community has spent millions on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention through educational programmes, the quality of information in educational curricula is rarely analyzed. This study analyzes the content of prevention programmes, focusing on informational…

  3. AIDS education from a front line worker's perspective.

    PubMed

    Waines, R

    1993-01-01

    The author is an AIDS educator working in Vancouver, Canada, who does not agree with current HIV prevention tactics which bombard audiences with information on HIV and its consequences and preventive approaches. It should be clear by now that inundating people with information while ignoring the emotions behind their choices does not work. Efforts must be made to close the gap between individual knowledge and action. The author has learned over his four-year tenure as youth educator that educational sessions should be small and interactive. The educator should stress that no question, topic, feeling, or prejudice is taboo and encourage open discussion of pertinent issues. No person should be allowed to dominate the discussion and only minimal time spent on topics such as whether mosquitoes can transmit HIV. The focus should be taken off of condoms, because people have heard enough already, and alternatives to unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral sex encouraged. Women should be encouraged to choose what kind of sex they want, participants should be encouraged to discuss and adhere to what they have learned after the session, and obstacles raise by conservative parents' groups must be fought. Further, the educator must prepare for the session and follow up on opinions afterwards. The author also critiques Catholic education as puritan and disrespectful of the rights of youth to information and free choice, and assails discrimination against people with AIDS and all people in general.

  4. (Re)politicising and (re)positioning prevention: community mobilisations and AIDS prevention in the new AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Imara Ajani

    2016-07-01

    An increasing focus on the relationship between AIDS prevalence and socio-economic inequality signals the need for a revaluation of the role of "politics" and "power" in AIDS prevention. This revaluation bears great significance when considering the future trajectories of the AIDS prevention efforts that target highly marginalised populations with high prevalence rates. An emphasis on intersecting forms of inequality has direct implications for the future of AIDS prevention practice. This study explores the experiences of participants, facilitators and local stakeholders applying the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Community Capacity Enhancement-Community Conversations (CCE-CC) approach to AIDS prevention in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It uses the political narrative analysis of life histories and semi-structured interviews as a means to interrogate the lived experiences of local actors participating in or influenced by this popularised form of community mobilisation used throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest the need for a more explicit and intentional valuation for the intersection between the social and political determinants of health in programmes that use community mobilisation as prevention. They also signal a need to critically re-evaluate "community mobilisation" as an AIDS prevention tradition. Intersecting social and political power dynamics play a significant role in both opening up and constraining community mobilisation efforts. This paper proposes the need for a pedagogical turn to "deep organising" and "participatory forms of democracy", as a necessary frontier for programmes working with highly marginalised populations with high prevalence rates. Programmes need to more explicitly support, protect, and advocate for the ability of affected communities to engage in political processes, discourse and long-term organising. PMID:27399047

  5. AIDS and promiscuity: muddles in the models of HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Bolton, R

    1992-05-01

    AIDS has been blamed on promiscuity and the promiscuous, and a major goal of many HIV-prevention programs has been to induce people to reduce the number of their sexual partners. Despite the salience of this concept in the AIDS discourse of scientists, policymakers, the media, religious leaders, and the gay community, critical analysis of the role of promiscuity in this epidemic has been lacking. Following a review of promiscuity in various genres of AIDS discourse, this article discusses promiscuity in American society and in HIV-prevention campaigns. The relative risks associated with monogamy, abstinence and promiscuity are examined, and the author concludes that the partner-reduction strategy, instead of contributing to a reduction in HIV transmission has been an impediment to AIDS prevention efforts, exacerbating the problem by undermining the sex-positive approaches to risk reduction that have proven effective. Responsibility for this misguided strategy is attributed to a moralistic approach to AIDS and to the misapplication of epidemiological concepts and inappropriate social science models to the task of promoting healthy forms of sexuality.

  6. Global prevention, funding, accountability debated in fight against HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    1999-10-18

    World leaders, physicians, economists, governmental health organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers attended the Third International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-threatening Illnesses in Vienna, Austria. The conference participants discussed the economic, ethical, and human rights issues underlying health care resource allocation. Some highlights of the meeting included: the prevention strategies in fighting AIDS virus; the use of high medical ethical standards; the affordability and accessibility of essential therapies; the economic aspects affecting the medical assistance mechanisms; the need to improve the pharmaceutical industry; the need to improve HIV/AIDS care access in developing countries; promoting the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines; and developing rapid diagnosis of HIV.

  7. Multisectoral strategy for AIDS prevention at community level.

    PubMed

    Elkins, D B; Kuyyakanond, T; Maticka-Tyndale, E; Rujkorakarn, D; Haswell-Elkins, M

    1996-01-01

    In north-east Thailand a five-act drama is broadcast on the village sound system to catalyse involvement in planning and carrying out AIDS prevention activities. Each community's own suggestions for an effective strategy are presented to the relevant government and nongovernmental agencies for endorsement and support.

  8. Drug users' AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after AIDS education sessions.

    PubMed Central

    Dengelegi, L; Weber, J; Torquato, S

    1990-01-01

    The investigators interviewed 100 drug users in a detoxification facility before and after they received information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The drug users already had a considerable amount of information about AIDS and HIV transmission modes before they received the information. However, 79 percent of them reported never having used condoms. Fifty percent of intravenous drug users acknowledged having shared needles during the previous year. Subjects exhibited psychological denial in appraising the riskiness of their personal sexual and needle-sharing behaviors, which they rated as less risky than those activities in general. Following their participation in an AIDS and HIV education program, their knowledge concerning modes of transmission and disease progression increased. Subjects became more aware of their personal risk for HIV infection, and their faith in condom effectiveness and their intent to use them increased. Intravenous drug users reported increased determination to stop their drug use. The results suggest that AIDS education efforts can be useful in programs to help prevent HIV transmission among drug users. PMID:2120728

  9. Exon amendment: threat to AIDS prevention and activism?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1995-07-21

    The controversial Communications Decency Act of 1995, frequently referred to as the Exon amendment after its author, Sen. James Exon of Nebraska, may prove to be a threat to AIDS prevention and activism. The measure, an amendment to the Telecommunications Competition and Deregulation Act of 1995, passed the Senate and may soon be considered by the House of Representatives. The amendment makes it a crime to make or make available any obscene or indecent communication in any form to a person under eighteen years of age. The measure also criminalizes the owners or operators of any telecommunications facility used for such purposes. Of concern is how much AIDS-related material available online might be considered indecent. Currently, there are a number of AIDS bulletin boards and Internet groups that have HIV/AIDS discussions containing frank, graphic dialogue of the HIV risks involved in various sexual acts. Whether they are obscene or indecent will likely be decided by the courts. Although not yet a major vehicle for AIDS prevention information, experts worry what the effects will be if online information is restricted.

  10. Did an AIDS Peer Education Program Change First-Year College Students' Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richie, Nicholas D.; Getty, Adelaide

    1994-01-01

    College students who did and did not attend an AIDS peer education program completed preprogram and postprogram surveys to determine their AIDS-related attitudes and behavior. Data analysis indicated students who attended the program were more likely to engage in preventive behaviors including condom use and HIV-antibody testing. (SM)

  11. Experiencing an Epidemic: The Development of an AIDS Education Program for Community College Students in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlin, Joyce T.

    In 1991, a project was undertaken to suggest components for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program for community college students. The project sought to identify AIDS programs and policies in place at the 17 community colleges in Maryland; assessed community college students' knowledge about the spread and prevention of…

  12. Using Adult Education Principles for HIV/AIDS Awareness Intervention Strategies in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia; Ntseane, Gabo

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a mainly qualitative study into company strategies for HIV/AIDS information, education and communication (IEC) strategies in the Botswana workplace. The authors argue that HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention strategies in Botswana need a new approach. The research proposal hypothesized that IEC strategies need to take account…

  13. [Power relationships in marriage and the prevention of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Madureira, Valéria Silvana Faganello; Trentini, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    This paper's object is to discuss the interfaces between the prevention of AIDS and affective-sexual relationships and power in marriage. The subject matter is interpreted in light of the foucaultian thinking of power, and emerged from previous research. The fidelity pact assumed by the man as a commitment to himself and to his wife, contributes to the consideration that the hypothesis of sexual contamination is remote. However, even though distant, the possibility of contracting aids provokes a certain insecurity in the man, who feels dependent on his partner's behavior with regard to this issue.

  14. Health care professional education and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bartnof, H S

    1988-01-01

    The pandemic of AIDS and related infections due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has associated issues which present specific needs for health care professional education. These include (a) the spectrum of an evolving incurable infectious disease epidemic with new concepts in pathobiology and treatment; (b) specific phobias generated by the pandemic, including fear of the risk (albeit low) of occupational transmission, phobia of death and dying young, homonegativism and substance abuse phobia, fear of helplessness, and transference and countertransference issues; (c) the traditional role of health professionals as health information resources in the face of newly generated clinical and biopsychosocial information, which is often skewed by media presentation and patient consumerism; and (d) occupational stress associated with (a), (b), and (c) and the potential for practice "burnout." These problems are addressed by specific health professional education in traditional and novel forms. Before- and after-AIDS-HIV education knowledge and attitude assessment and AIDS-HIV knowledge documentation will improve health professional and community response to the epidemic, optimize patient care and related interactions, and decrease nosocomial transmission of HIV.

  15. Components of Quality HIV/STD Prevention & Human Sexuality Education. Report of the HIV/STD Prevention & Human Sexuality Education Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    This report sets forth the essential components of quality HIV/STD prevention and human sexuality education as determined by the HIV/STD Prevention and Human Sexuality Education Task Force. The first part of the report presents the purpose of the task force, background on Florida legislation on HIV/AIDS and sexuality education as part of…

  16. A condom sense approach to AIDS prevention: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Salem, A

    1992-10-01

    Condoms have come a long way since their use in ancient Egypt three millennia ago. Their benefit is well established for the prevention of both contraception and STDs. Although AIDS has revitalized the condom, we must remember that condoms do not prevent the spread of HIV infection, people do. Everyone must take personal responsibility to avoid high risk behavior (e.g.; IV drug use, promiscuous sex, casual sex, etc). If one does engage in high risk sexual behavior, he/she should at least use condom sense.

  17. UNAIDS says sex education does not promote promiscuity. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    1997-11-28

    A review of 68 studies from around the world commissioned by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS determined that providing children with sex education does not promote promiscuity. The most effective prevention education programs are those that foster open communication regarding sex, negotiation skills, social and media influences, and safer sex methods. Zimbabwe was cited as a country with an effective prevention educational program.

  18. Global AIDS: critical issues for prevention in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mann, J M

    1991-01-01

    A review of the first decade of global experience with the struggle against HIV/AIDS suggests that prevention will require both full application of existing approaches and fundamental changes in concepts and values. The critical deeper issues can be grouped under three headings: behavior, societal action, and globalism. Behavior, individual and collective, will be increasingly recognized as the major challenge for public health. However, for purposes of HIV prevention (and other issues) a sufficient understanding of behavior has not yet been developed. At the societal level, the activism of community organizations has shifted the balance of initiative in public health toward the community. The long-term implications of this evolution for roles and responsibilities at the community, national, and international levels must be explored. Finally, an understanding of global solidarity, based on respect for human rights and on the objective conditions of the modern world, will be critical for the future capability to deal effectively with HIV/AIDS. In summary, the future of HIV/AIDS prevention and control cannot be separated from the major public health and social issues of our time. PMID:1917213

  19. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  20. Education: an antidote for the spread of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adesoji A

    2005-01-01

    There are growing fears about the rate at which AIDS is spreading across the globe today, particularly in Africa. In 20 years, AIDS has become the greatest pandemic ever, and indications are that it will continue to increase. Because there is no universally accepted curative drug for the treatment of the epidemic, this report describes an attempt at providing education as a preventive method for the spread of the deadly disease. It is also an attempt to rise to this challenge by a systematic analysis of appropriate theories that can lead to insight into the epidemic. An empirical approach will further add to scholarly understanding and much-desired solutions. Suggestions are offered on how to achieve these goals through integration of HIV/AIDS education into school curricula, and how nursing practice can help in the education about and treatment of the disease. This report is the first part of a two-phased study from a sociologic point of view of an emergent universal health problem.

  1. Improving community support for HIV and AIDS prevention through national partnerships.

    PubMed

    Williams, K R; Scarlett, M I; Jimenez, R; Schwartz, B; Stokes-Nielson, P

    1991-01-01

    If the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is to be prevented, the environment in which people live should predispose them to engage in and sustain safe behaviors. Too often in public health, the range of organizations that make up that environment are overlooked, and prevention strategies are limited to familiar medical and public health institutions. Improvement in public health does not occur in isolation, apart from the other institutions of society--and so it is with the HIV-AIDS epidemic. Education; business and labor; religion; government; voluntary, civic, and social organizations; and the media can all serve as facilitators or as barriers to creating the environment--at the national, regional, State, or local level--that will prevent and control the spread of HIV infection and AIDS and support the needs of those already infected. Collectively, they become a comprehensive HIV prevention network with access to and influence on the total public. One of the most significant benefits of this network is the multiplier effect on the limited resources of public health. Therefore, as part of its HIV and AIDS prevention strategy, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has developed national partnerships to involve the leadership of business, labor and industry, religious institutions and organizations, and voluntary organizations in HIV and AIDS prevention and service. Some of these partnerships are federally funded, others are not. The national partnership program described in this paper has produced increased resources for HIV education and services and has demonstrated the synergistic benefits resulting from public and private cooperation in addressing the HIV epidemic.

  2. Prevention indicators for evaluating the progress of national AIDS programmes.

    PubMed

    Mertens, T; Caraël, M; Sato, P; Cleland, J; Ward, H; Smith, G D

    1994-10-01

    Major interventions to reduce HIV transmission involve increasing knowledge about preventing HIV transmission for sustained behavioral changes; and enhancing the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), which increase the probability of HIV transmission. Activities have also been developed to prevent the transmission of HIV by blood, donor selection, and more rational use of transfusions. Behavioral changes among injecting drug users have also been promoted. Recommendations are made for the evaluation of AIDS programs, focusing on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, and outlining the approach developed by the Global Program on AIDS (GPA; Geneva, Switzerland) for use by national programs. Based on the feasibility, accuracy, reliability and validity of the quantitative assessment of programs, 10 indicators of progress and outcomes of prevention activities have been developed by GPA. These include indicators of population knowledge regarding preventive practices, reported sexual behavior and use of condoms in the general population, STD service evaluation, and indicators of program impact. The latter are measured through the reported STD incidence in the general male population, and syphilis and HIV prevalence in women. The four methods are proposed for measuring the 10 core prevention indicators (PI). Five PIs are measured during a population survey: reported knowledge of preventive practices (PI-1), condom availability at peripheral level (PI-3), reported frequency of nonregular sexual partners (PI-4), reported condom use during nonregular sexual encounters (PI-5), and reported STD incidence among men (PI-9). Condom availability at central level (PI-2) is assessed through key-informant interviews with major distributors. Structured health facility surveys allow assessment of the appropriateness of STD case management (PI-6 and PI-7). A serosurvey among antenatal clinic attenders aged 15-24 years allows the measurement of HIV and syphilis seroprevalence

  3. The Influence of Islam on AIDS Prevention among Senegalese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sarah S.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants'…

  4. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

  5. STD / AIDS prevention: new challenges for family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Williamson, N; Townsend, S

    1991-12-01

    Family planning (FP) professionals and programs are increasingly called upon to respond to increasing rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS. While structural and ideological readjustment to meet these demands may seem problematic for some programs, the AIDS epidemic allows the opportunity for programs to expand into preventive health activities. Dr. Nancy Williamson, Director of Family Health International's Division of Program Evaluation and 1 of the authors of the World Health Organization's guidelines on family planning and AIDS, responds to questions most frequently posed by FP providers considering the need for and process of FP program restructuring. She holds that programmatic expansion for the prevention of HIV infection enhances the capability to provide good contraceptive services. FP programs are not expected to abandon their central missions of preventing unwanted pregnancies, but to engage in both the prevention of STD infection and unwanted pregnancies where possible. Sharing responsible sex behavior and the condom as common means of prevention, these 2 missions are far from mutually exclusive. The AIDS epidemic has impacted upon FP programs in a number of ways. Increased demand for condoms has been observed in countries with high levels of HIV seropositivity, greater concern has been placed upon counseling and sterile procedures, view have been altered to accept this dual role of contraception, and universal precautions for the protection of both client and workers from infection are of greater importance. Promoting the consistent use of condoms for the prevention of STDs has proved more challenging than promoting for contraceptive uses. Gaining the legitimacy of condoms among married couples while they are also promoted among high-risk groups also remains difficult. On other issues, promoting the routine use of 2 temporary methods is not recommended, questions must be posed to determine clients' risk status for infection, counseling

  6. [Sexuality in the elderly: prevention methods for STDS and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Maschio, Manoela Busato Mottin; Balbino, Ana Paula; de Souza, Paula Fernanda Ribeiro; Kalinke, Luciana Puchalski

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the methods the elderly are using for the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This is a prospective, quantitative and descriptive research with an intentional sample, undertaken with 98 elders. A questionnaire was applied with open and closed questions, related to the sexual life of elders who attend an institution that develops programs to the improvement of elderly well-being in Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil. 43% of the elders stated that they make use of some prevention method. Prevention programs focused on 50 year old or older people must pay attention to the questions of sexuality and aging. Elders must be considered as individuals who have desires and sexual needs, and who make plans for the future.

  7. Performance as a Component of HIV/AIDS Education: Process and Collaboration for Empowerment and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Jaganath, Devan

    2011-01-01

    The Process and Collaboration for Empowerment and Discussion (PACED) approach redefines the goals for employing the performing arts in HIV/AIDS education. Considering the complexity of the epidemic, art can appropriately address HIV/AIDS by placing a greater emphasis on the creative process, engaging people living with HIV/AIDS, and focusing on contextual barriers to prevention and care. This approach was implemented in Ghana in 2006 in the form of the Asetena Pa Concert Party project. An evaluation of the project after its completion showed that it promoted a sense of empowerment among people with HIV and community dialogue about the structural and cultural obstacles to HIV/AIDS prevention, supporting the use of PACED as a viable tool in comprehensive education regarding HIV/AIDS. PMID:21233444

  8. Relationships with AIDS patients: clinical metaphors and preventive bioethics.

    PubMed

    Dozor, R B; Meece, K S

    1990-01-01

    AIDS, more than most diseases, evokes compelling and tragic stories. The AIDS epidemic is "The Plague." We seek the optimally therapeutic relationship, embodied in the metaphor of the covenant. There is a fundamental human possibility of healing through dying. "Death teaches us to live." We advocate asking AIDS patients the explicit question, "How do you want me to work with you?" This can generate conversations that facilitate congruence in relationships. A reluctance to talk about uncertainties and limits is a major source of preventable ethical conflict and a major obstacle to fulfillment of the therapeutic possibilities of the doctor-patient relationship. The Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPA) can be helpful in facilitating discussions with patients and their families. Successful "preventive bioethics" is communication that opens for the patient and doctor the broadest possibilities of hearing, understanding, and expressing. The doctor as parent, fighter, technician, teacher, and covenanter may be important roles at appropriate moments with a given patient who may be experiencing the disease variably as infectious chaos, brutal enemy, spiritual challenge, or opportunity for growth. The context of such communication is a real relationship that includes love, respect, humor, hope, and genuine interest in how this other person lives. PMID:2262111

  9. Culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban Native youth.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Solis; Plasencia, Ana Vanesa

    2005-09-01

    This article will examine HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention for urban Native youth in Oakland, California. It will highlight the Native American Health Center's Youth Services programs. These programs incorporate solutions based on a traditional value system rooted in Native culture and consisting of youth empowerment, leadership training, prevention activities, traditional cultural activities and wellness and life skills education. They aim to reduce HIV/AIDS and substance abuse risk for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth through structured, community-based interventions. The Youth Services Program's events, such as the Seventh Native American Generation and the Gathering of Native Americans, offer effective and culturally relevant ways of teaching youth about American Indian/Alaska Native history, intergenerational trauma, and traditional Native culture. Satisfaction surveys gathered from these youth provide invaluable data on the positive effects of these prevention efforts. The need for culturally relevant and culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention programs for urban AI/AN youth is apparent. These prevention efforts must be creatively integrated into the multidimensional and complex social structures of Native American youth.

  10. Teacher Aides in Comprehensive Career Education. An In-service Training Program for the Teacher Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    This study guide for teacher aides is one of a 4-volume series to be used in an in-service program designed to create an awareness in teacher aides, teachers, and administrators of the potential contribution of teacher aides to career education. (The other three volumes are a coordinator's manual and the separate programs for teachers and for…

  11. "Deceptive" Cultural Practices that Sabotage HIV/AIDS Education in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluga, Mary; Kiragu, Susan; Mohamed, Mussa K.; Walli, Shelina

    2010-01-01

    In spite of numerous HIV/AIDS-prevention education efforts, the HIV infection rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain high. Exploring and understanding the reasons behind these infection rates is imperative in a bid to offer life skills and moral education that address the root causes of the pandemic. In a recent study concerning effective…

  12. School-Based HIV-AIDS Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Margaret C.

    Health and education matters in Canada are the responsibility of the government of each individual province. These opportunities for improvement in the Canadian system regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education exist. First, a nationally standardized curriculum is needed. Second, more time allocated for AIDS education is…

  13. Correlates of participation in AIDS education and HIV antibody testing by methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Magura, S; Grossman, J I; Lipton, D S; Amann, K R; Koger, J; Gehan, K

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined the factors associated with methadone patients' decisions about participating in a clinic-based AIDS prevention protocol. Despite the offer of incentives, only 27 percent attended AIDS education and only 12 percent obtained voluntary HIV antibody (ab) testing. However, AIDS education was attended by proportionately more of those who were at highest risk for AIDS because of current intravenous drug use. The availability of HIV-ab testing neither encouraged nor discouraged participation in AIDS education. Patients who were relatively more likely to choose HIV-ab testing were older, had been or were married, had plans to have children, believed the test to be useful, and believed that their counselors support their decision to be tested. Those who declined to be tested were reluctant to confront the emotional aspects of their risk status, were concerned about possible breaches of confidentiality, and doubted the value of testing. The implications of the findings for implementing AIDS prevention measures in methadone programs are discussed. Programs need either to require attendance at AIDS education or give patients an incentive to attend. HIV-ab testing should be available but should remain voluntary. A stronger medical rationale for testing is developing and may increase future participation. Methadone programs must continue to engage patients actively in AIDS risk reduction efforts.

  14. AIDS prevention among Hispanics: needs, risk behaviors, and cultural values.

    PubMed

    Marin, G

    1989-01-01

    Data from different sources show that Hispanics are over-represented in reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (twice their proportion of the population) and that their rate of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is three times higher than among non-Hispanic whites. The behavior risk factors most frequently associated with infection in AIDS cases are IV drug use in the Northeast and high-risk sexual behavior in the West. HIV infection prevention strategies for Hispanics need to address high risk behaviors, taking into consideration associated culture-specific characteristics. Strategies need to address as well conditions such as racism and ethnic prejudices that keep many Hispanic homosexuals and bisexuals away from white or non-Hispanic gay organizations and publications, the lack of culturally appropriate drug treatment centers, the level of mis-information among Hispanics, and the possible high incidence among men of sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prevention campaigns need to include such Hispanic cultural values as simpatia, familialism, personalismo, and power distance, if prevention campaigns are going to be perceived as relevant by Hispanics. Appropriate wording and communication channels need to be identified in order to transmit messages that will be perceived as credible and that will reach the largest possible audience.

  15. AIDS prevention among Hispanics: needs, risk behaviors, and cultural values.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, G

    1989-01-01

    Data from different sources show that Hispanics are over-represented in reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (twice their proportion of the population) and that their rate of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is three times higher than among non-Hispanic whites. The behavior risk factors most frequently associated with infection in AIDS cases are IV drug use in the Northeast and high-risk sexual behavior in the West. HIV infection prevention strategies for Hispanics need to address high risk behaviors, taking into consideration associated culture-specific characteristics. Strategies need to address as well conditions such as racism and ethnic prejudices that keep many Hispanic homosexuals and bisexuals away from white or non-Hispanic gay organizations and publications, the lack of culturally appropriate drug treatment centers, the level of mis-information among Hispanics, and the possible high incidence among men of sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prevention campaigns need to include such Hispanic cultural values as simpatia, familialism, personalismo, and power distance, if prevention campaigns are going to be perceived as relevant by Hispanics. Appropriate wording and communication channels need to be identified in order to transmit messages that will be perceived as credible and that will reach the largest possible audience. PMID:2508169

  16. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ben-yan; Xiang, Yuan-xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-chun; Liang, Shu-ying; Wang, Yu-ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (P<0.05). PLWHAs who were males (OR=1.731) and had higher education level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  17. Barriers to HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention among deaf and hard of hearing people.

    PubMed

    Bat-Chava, Y; Martin, D; Kosciw, J G

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated knowledge about HIV/AIDS and barriers to HIV/AIDS education and prevention among deaf and hard of hearing people. Focus groups and individual interviews were used to elicit information from various groups of people with a hearing loss in different regions of New York State. Themes elicited in the interviews suggested that deaf sign language users are less knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS than oral deaf and hard of hearing participants, and that deaf adolescents have more knowledge than deaf adults. These findings likely reflect differences in levels of education and English proficiency. In addition, participants living in urban areas and in sizeable deaf communities are more exposed to information about HIV/AIDS than other participants. All participants reported difficulties in communication with medical providers, limiting their access to health information and proper medical care. Recommendations for the design and dissemination of educational materials and greater access to services for deaf and hard of hearing people are provided. PMID:16036248

  18. Mining industry enters a new era of AIDS prevention. Eye witness: South Africa.

    PubMed

    Heywood, M

    1996-06-01

    Miners in South Africa are now more at risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than of being in a mining accident. Some epidemiologists predict that the mines could be experiencing 12,000-40,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2010. In 1986, HIV infection among mineworkers was 1/3500. Gencor medical personnel now estimate that 20% of the company's employees are HIV-positive and that 30 workers are dying of AIDS each month. In August 1995, the Chamber of Mines, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization (WHO) held a seminar to discuss the potential impact of the epidemic; it was followed by a workshop, "Research Needs and Priorities for the Management of HIV/AIDS Transmission in the Mining Industry," which was organized by the Epidemiology Unit in Johannesburg. Although the seminar invited no people with HIV, mineworkers, or government representatives, the workshop did; however, no representatives of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), or the Chamber of Mines, came. In spite of this, a new, holistic approach to HIV-prevention is emerging in the mining sector. A decade of education has not changed risk behaviors, so more emphasis will be placed on outreach programs to the communities, including the prostitutes, with which the miners interact, and on treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mining sector is in a unique position to fight HIV because it already has an extensive medical infrastructure with the capacity to treat STDs effectively, a unionized workforce to provide a pool of peer educators, and recruitment agencies to extend HIV-prevention into rural areas. Obstacles to effective HIV/AIDS education include discrimination (Workers are tested for HIV without consent, and dismissed, if found to be positive, regardless of union agreements.); a psychological factor that is related to underground work and produces recklessness; poor living conditions; and illiteracy. Many myths remain about

  19. Mining industry enters a new era of AIDS prevention. Eye witness: South Africa.

    PubMed

    Heywood, M

    1996-06-01

    Miners in South Africa are now more at risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than of being in a mining accident. Some epidemiologists predict that the mines could be experiencing 12,000-40,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2010. In 1986, HIV infection among mineworkers was 1/3500. Gencor medical personnel now estimate that 20% of the company's employees are HIV-positive and that 30 workers are dying of AIDS each month. In August 1995, the Chamber of Mines, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization (WHO) held a seminar to discuss the potential impact of the epidemic; it was followed by a workshop, "Research Needs and Priorities for the Management of HIV/AIDS Transmission in the Mining Industry," which was organized by the Epidemiology Unit in Johannesburg. Although the seminar invited no people with HIV, mineworkers, or government representatives, the workshop did; however, no representatives of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), or the Chamber of Mines, came. In spite of this, a new, holistic approach to HIV-prevention is emerging in the mining sector. A decade of education has not changed risk behaviors, so more emphasis will be placed on outreach programs to the communities, including the prostitutes, with which the miners interact, and on treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mining sector is in a unique position to fight HIV because it already has an extensive medical infrastructure with the capacity to treat STDs effectively, a unionized workforce to provide a pool of peer educators, and recruitment agencies to extend HIV-prevention into rural areas. Obstacles to effective HIV/AIDS education include discrimination (Workers are tested for HIV without consent, and dismissed, if found to be positive, regardless of union agreements.); a psychological factor that is related to underground work and produces recklessness; poor living conditions; and illiteracy. Many myths remain about

  20. HIV Prevention: The Key to Ending AIDS by 2030

    PubMed Central

    Poku, Nana K.

    2016-01-01

    There is no viable substitute for re-energizing, funding and supporting culturally attuned, locally staffed HIV advocacy and prevention programmes, especially in resource poor settings. The evidence that such interventions are effective remains compelling; and although the cost implications are not negligible, the medium to long-term outcomes must be regarded not as complementary, but as integral, to biomedical interventions. The success of the anti-retroviral drugs upscale has enabled a noticeable improvement in AIDS related morbidity and mortality in the recent years; yet the underlying dynamics of the epidemic remains undetermined by the rate at which new infections are taking place in relation to the number of AIDS deaths. While the rate of new HIV infections is stabilising in some of the hardest hit countries, it remains far too high and the future cost of maintaining an ever-expanding pool of people reliant on daily drugs for survival is unsustainable. Countries must exercise caution in continuing to focus on treatment as a ‘quick fix’ to end AIDS as a public health concern. HIV is a socially culturally induced crisis and, as such, a variety of measures are needed simultaneously to appeal to different people, groups and circumstances. PMID:27347272

  1. HIV Prevention: The Key to Ending AIDS by 2030.

    PubMed

    Poku, Nana K

    2016-01-01

    There is no viable substitute for re-energizing, funding and supporting culturally attuned, locally staffed HIV advocacy and prevention programmes, especially in resource poor settings. The evidence that such interventions are effective remains compelling; and although the cost implications are not negligible, the medium to long-term outcomes must be regarded not as complementary, but as integral, to biomedical interventions. The success of the anti-retroviral drugs upscale has enabled a noticeable improvement in AIDS related morbidity and mortality in the recent years; yet the underlying dynamics of the epidemic remains undetermined by the rate at which new infections are taking place in relation to the number of AIDS deaths. While the rate of new HIV infections is stabilising in some of the hardest hit countries, it remains far too high and the future cost of maintaining an ever-expanding pool of people reliant on daily drugs for survival is unsustainable. Countries must exercise caution in continuing to focus on treatment as a 'quick fix' to end AIDS as a public health concern. HIV is a socially culturally induced crisis and, as such, a variety of measures are needed simultaneously to appeal to different people, groups and circumstances.

  2. HIV Prevention: The Key to Ending AIDS by 2030.

    PubMed

    Poku, Nana K

    2016-01-01

    There is no viable substitute for re-energizing, funding and supporting culturally attuned, locally staffed HIV advocacy and prevention programmes, especially in resource poor settings. The evidence that such interventions are effective remains compelling; and although the cost implications are not negligible, the medium to long-term outcomes must be regarded not as complementary, but as integral, to biomedical interventions. The success of the anti-retroviral drugs upscale has enabled a noticeable improvement in AIDS related morbidity and mortality in the recent years; yet the underlying dynamics of the epidemic remains undetermined by the rate at which new infections are taking place in relation to the number of AIDS deaths. While the rate of new HIV infections is stabilising in some of the hardest hit countries, it remains far too high and the future cost of maintaining an ever-expanding pool of people reliant on daily drugs for survival is unsustainable. Countries must exercise caution in continuing to focus on treatment as a 'quick fix' to end AIDS as a public health concern. HIV is a socially culturally induced crisis and, as such, a variety of measures are needed simultaneously to appeal to different people, groups and circumstances. PMID:27347272

  3. AIDS: What Early Childhood Educators Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spar, Ruth

    Noting that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is expected to become the fifth leading cause of death for children ages 1 to 4, this paper provides relevant information on AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to help educators understand that they can work with children and adults who are HIV positive or who have AIDS. The…

  4. Improving NGO collaboration in AIDS prevention in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Stetson, V; Narcisse-prudent, M

    1994-05-01

    Zanmi Lasante (Health Friends), a nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in rural Haiti, provides an example of the effective role NGOs can play in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The group has produced a video, "Chache Lavi, Detwi Lavi," based on the true story of a rural woman who became infected when she migrated to Port-au-Prince to seek employment. The video illustrates the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and broader social issues such as peasants' access to land, political upheaval, and unequal gender relationships. To promote collaboration, Save the Children established the NGO Coalition for the Prevention of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in the Central Plateau. Women, particularly adolescent females, are the coalition's target population. Activities have included literacy and income generation training for women, development of algorithms for STD treatment without laboratory diagnosis, a training course for health professionals on STD services and counseling, training of trainers workshops, and preparation of informational materials. The 10 participating NGOs and private voluntary organizations meet quarterly to share information and evaluate programs. PMID:12345904

  5. Improving NGO collaboration in AIDS prevention in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Stetson, V; Narcisse-prudent, M

    1994-05-01

    Zanmi Lasante (Health Friends), a nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in rural Haiti, provides an example of the effective role NGOs can play in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The group has produced a video, "Chache Lavi, Detwi Lavi," based on the true story of a rural woman who became infected when she migrated to Port-au-Prince to seek employment. The video illustrates the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and broader social issues such as peasants' access to land, political upheaval, and unequal gender relationships. To promote collaboration, Save the Children established the NGO Coalition for the Prevention of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in the Central Plateau. Women, particularly adolescent females, are the coalition's target population. Activities have included literacy and income generation training for women, development of algorithms for STD treatment without laboratory diagnosis, a training course for health professionals on STD services and counseling, training of trainers workshops, and preparation of informational materials. The 10 participating NGOs and private voluntary organizations meet quarterly to share information and evaluate programs.

  6. Expanding the partnership. The private sector's role in HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P

    1996-07-01

    The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention. PMID:12347592

  7. Traditional women's associations as channels for HIV / AIDS / STD prevention.

    PubMed

    Niang, C I

    1995-01-01

    Women of the Laobe ethnic group and the Dimba, a traditional women's association, provide advice about sexuality and reproductive health in southern Senegal. Research was initiated in October 1992 by the Cheikh Anta Diop University to determine whether these women could also help in HIV/AIDS and STD prevention activities. The study investigated men's and women's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) related to sexuality and HIV/AIDS/STDs in the community of Kolda; practices potentially increasing women's risk of HIV/STD infection; and possibilities for integrating HIV/STD prevention messages into the interactions which take place between the Laobe and Dimba groups and the Kolda community. The KABP study was a questionnaire administered to 250 men and 250 women of reproductive age representing five ethnic groups residing in Kolda. 11 men and 14 women older than age 40 participated in in-depth sexual life history interviews. The survey and interviews indicate that people in Kolda do not generally see a link between sexual relations and STD transmission. Instead, STDs are attributed to behaviors such as urinating, walking barefoot on the urine of an already-infected person, encountering a "bad wind", and being cursed. Women may be at increased risk of HIV infection through practices designed to enhance sexual pleasure, including the insertion of organic and mineral product into the vagina, and the cutting of bumps and warts in and around the vagina. Sexual practices, knowledge, prevention through the Laobe and Dimba, and outcome and follow-up are discussed. PMID:12346870

  8. Optimal control of HIV/AIDS dynamic: Education and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.

  9. HIV/AIDS Teaching Behaviors of Educators in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Lise D.; Mueller, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of knowledge, attitudes, support for AIDS education, teaching comfort, perceived behavioral control, religious (Vodoun and Christian) beliefs, and subjective norms on Haitian educators' teaching of HIV/AIDS to their students. Two hundred and fourteen teachers from Jeremie and surrounding areas in Haiti…

  10. Pregnancy, STDS, and AIDS prevention: evaluation of New Image Teen Theatre.

    PubMed

    Hillman, E; Hovell, M F; Williams, L; Hofstetter, R; Burdyshaw, C; Rugg, D; Atkins, C; Elder, J; Blumberg, E

    1991-01-01

    New Image Teen Theatre combines peer education and theatre in an informative and entertaining package. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of New Image Teen Theatre on altering teenagers' attitudes, knowledge, and intentions regarding sexual behavior. A total of 143 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 viewed the performance. The performance focused on the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS, and STDs and included content aimed at increasing communication. Teen participants completed pretest and posttest questionnaires. Almost half of the adolescents reported having engaged in sexual intercourse. About one third of the sexually active reported never using birth control, and only 21% reported consistent use of condoms. These results confirm adolescents' risk for pregnancy, STDs, and AIDS in particular. Following the performance, the teens reported significantly more willingness to discuss sexual issues with others, significantly greater intention to use birth control (for sexually active teens), and demonstrated significantly greater sexual knowledge. Furthermore, they indicated that they had experienced more positive emotions than negative emotions while viewing the production. Results suggest that theatre education may set the stage for more comprehensive interventions designed to prevent pregnancy, STDs, and AIDS.

  11. Development and Implementation of an AIDS Prevention Program for African-American Women at a Child Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moten-Tolson, Paula

    This program was designed to provide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education for African-American women of child bearing age at a child care center which serves low income high risk families. The primary goal was to reduce the risk of African-American women at the child care center for contracting the Human Immunodeficiency…

  12. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  13. Sociopolitical determinants of an AIDS prevention program: multiple actors and vertical relationships of control and influence.

    PubMed

    Laperrière, Hélène; Zúñiga, Ricardo

    2006-05-01

    In every country, health and prevention "come down" from the authorities responsible for this mission by way of planners, local authorities, and peer educators until it reaches the target population. International and national systems function on the premise of a top-down transmission, with little room for integrating local information that might provide a better understanding of the implementation process. This analysis is based on an empirical evaluative research of HIV/AIDS prevention projects with sex workers in a remote area of northern Brazil. It illustrates how nursing sociopolitical analysis can reveal how political interests can have perverse effects by contaminating the group's internal relations and with established partnerships, thereby weakening the impact of prevention programs. These effects can seriously affect community relations and social practices, far beyond the technical division of work and political hierarchies in the sociosanitary network. PMID:16864636

  14. Enhancing ethical decision making in sexuality and AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C E; Piercy, F P

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, sexuality education has consisted of teaching adolescents about human anatomy, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases. Most sexuality and AIDS education curricula have emphasized neither the relational aspects nor the ethical meaning of sexual behavior. However, current guidelines for comprehensive sexuality education from the National Guidelines Task Force acknowledge the ethical dimensions of sexuality. This paper advocates providing sexuality and AIDS education in a way that helps adolescents explore the ethical meaning of their sexual behavior. Principles from Rest's model of moral development are presented as one example of an ethical framework that could inform sexuality and AIDS education curricula. Rest describes four internal processes that produce moral behavior: moral sensitivity, moral judgment, moral motivation, and moral character. For each of these processes, illustrative questions and activities are suggested here which can be used by sexuality and AIDS educators to facilitate discussions with adolescents about the ethical meaning and implications of their sexual behavior.

  15. Using HIV&AIDS statistics in pre-service Mathematics Education to integrate HIV&AIDS education.

    PubMed

    van Laren, Linda

    2012-12-01

    In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.

  16. [AIDS-complex and our Leviathan. Can and should the state educate us about AIDS?].

    PubMed

    Sigusch, V

    1989-08-01

    Sigusch pleads for removing AIDS education from the jurisdiction of the state. He reasons that as caretaker of citizens' sexual lives the state cannot avoid consolidating their status as its subjects.

  17. Conditional Cash Transfers and HIV/AIDS Prevention: Unconditionally Promising?

    PubMed

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Thornton, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have recently received considerable attention as a potentially innovative and effective approach to the prevention of HIV/AIDS. We evaluate a conditional cash transfer program in rural Malawi which offered financial incentives to men and women to maintain their HIV status for approximately one year. The amounts of the reward ranged from zero to approximately 3-4 months wage. We find no effect of the offered incentives on HIV status or on reported sexual behavior. However, shortly after receiving the reward, men who received the cash transfer were 9 percentage points more likely and women were 6.7 percentage points less likely to engage in risky sex. Our analyses therefore question the "unconditional effectiveness" of CCT program for HIV prevention: CCT Programs that aim to motivate safe sexual behavior in Africa should take into account that money given in the present may have much stronger effects than rewards offered in the future, and any effect of these programs may be fairly sensitive to the specific design of the program, the local and/or cultural context, and the degree of agency an individual has with respect to sexual behaviors.

  18. Conditional Cash Transfers and HIV/AIDS Prevention: Unconditionally Promising?

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Thornton, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have recently received considerable attention as a potentially innovative and effective approach to the prevention of HIV/AIDS. We evaluate a conditional cash transfer program in rural Malawi which offered financial incentives to men and women to maintain their HIV status for approximately one year. The amounts of the reward ranged from zero to approximately 3–4 months wage. We find no effect of the offered incentives on HIV status or on reported sexual behavior. However, shortly after receiving the reward, men who received the cash transfer were 9 percentage points more likely and women were 6.7 percentage points less likely to engage in risky sex. Our analyses therefore question the “unconditional effectiveness” of CCT program for HIV prevention: CCT Programs that aim to motivate safe sexual behavior in Africa should take into account that money given in the present may have much stronger effects than rewards offered in the future, and any effect of these programs may be fairly sensitive to the specific design of the program, the local and/or cultural context, and the degree of agency an individual has with respect to sexual behaviors. PMID:24319306

  19. What Older Adults Know about HIV/AIDS: Lessons from an HIV/AIDS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, La Fleur F.

    2010-01-01

    Despite being one of the fastest growing segments of the HIV/AIDS caseload, persons age 50 and older have been largely neglected in terms of HIV/AIDS education. This study describes a project involving HIV-related health education for persons [greater than or equal] 50 in an urban area of Ohio. Data from 50 persons age [greater than or equal] 50…

  20. AIDS Education through Schools: An Address by Mary H. Futrell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Mary H.

    1988-01-01

    All school employees, including support staff, should receive preservice or inservice training about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It is important that urban minority children be alerted to the dangers of AIDS, and that all children be aware that prevention must begin before self-destructive behavior begins. (JD)

  1. How Much Knowledge Can They Gain? Women's Information Behavior on Government Health Websites in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Women in the U.S. and all over the world are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because of both behavioral and contextual factors. HIV/AIDS prevention education on government health websites plays an important role in reducing this health inequality for women. However, contrary to the assumption of Rimal and Real's (2003) Risk Perception Attitude…

  2. Life skills training as HIV/AIDS preventive strategy in secondary schools: evaluation of a large-scale implementation process.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha J

    2005-04-01

    A life skills and HIV/AIDS education programme was implemented in secondary schools as a strategy to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among school-going young people in South Africa. As part of a joint effort of the Departments of Health and Education, two teachers per school were trained to implement life skills training and HIV/AIDS education in schools as part of the school curriculum. The implementation of the intervention was evaluated in 24 schools in two educational districts in Gauteng province using an action research approach. Data about the implementation were gathered through interviews and focus group discussions with school principals, teachers and learners. A repeated measurement research design was used to assess the impact of the intervention in terms of knowledge, attitudes and reported risk behaviour in a sample of 667 learners representing learners from grades 8 to 12 from different population groups. Results showed that the programme was not implemented as planned in schools due to organisational problems in the schools, lack of commitment of the teachers and the principal, non-trusting relationships between teachers and learners, lack of resources and conflicting goals in the educational system. In an outcome evaluation over the period of a year it was found that learners' knowledge of HIV/AIDS increased and their attitudes were more positive although the changes may not be attributed to the programme alone. In the post-test more learners were sexually active, although preventive behaviour did not increase. The programme as implemented in the area did not succeed in changing high-risk behaviour patterns among school-going young people. From the evaluation of the intervention a few valuable lessons were learned about the content and implementation of HIV/AIDS preventive interventions, which could be useful in the implementation of various other HIV/AIDS preventive interventions in the community.

  3. Barriers to the Assessment of Unmet Need in Planning HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdiserri, Ronald O.; West, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    Major barriers to conducting needs assessment for AIDS prevention are resource deficits, technical deficits, environmental complexity, and apprehension about expectations. Comprehensive, methodologically sound assessments conducted collaboratively by consumers and providers of prevention services are essential. (SK)

  4. AIDS Prevention Guide. The Facts about HIV Infection and AIDS. Putting the Facts to Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Many teenagers engage in behaviors that increase their risk of becoming infected with HIV. This document is a compilation of information about AIDS and HIV Infection, and provides suggestions for parents and other adults in discussing AIDS/HIV with young people. Basic facts are outlined, including what AIDS is and how HIV infection causes AIDS;…

  5. Evaluation of a targeted AIDS prevention intervention to increase condom use among prostitutes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asamoah-Adu, A; Weir, S; Pappoe, M; Kanlisi, N; Neequaye, A; Lamptey, P

    1994-02-01

    Findings of a prospective study of condom use among prostitutes in Ghana provided support for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention educational interventions with this high risk populating and evidence of informal program diffusion. 382 self-identified prostitutes voluntarily entered the study in three waves (a pilot group of 72 recruited in June 1987, another 176 prostitutes who were admitted at their request in January 1988, and 106 who entered in September 1991). From this group, selected prostitutes were trained to educate their peers about AIDS risk factors through meetings and printed materials and to distribute free condoms. Self-reported condom use in 1991 was correlated with contact with these peer educators. During the 6-month pilot study, the proportion of prostitutes who always used condom increased from 6% at baseline to 71%. 48% of prostitutes entering the study in January 1988 were already always using condoms, suggesting a diffusion effect. In 1991, consistent condom use was reported by 56% of women from the pilot group available for follow-up and 66% of those interviewed from the 1988 wave; however, these rates were not appreciably higher than the 55% rate reported at baseline by the 1991 wave of recruits. (This convergence is assumed to reflect both suspension of the educational program in 1988-91 and increased social acceptance of condom use given the spread of AIDS.) Of the 107 women from the pilot and expanded groups available for interview in 1991, 24% identified peer outreach workers as their source of AIDS information. Women who had contact with staff were 2.63 times more likely than non-exposed women to report consistent condom use. The interaction model revealed that women who maintained contact with project staff were 3.17 times more likely to be consistent users, those who knew that healthy appearing men could transmit AIDS were 2.68 times more likely to fall into this use category, and prostitutes who had clients who

  6. An Aid for Planning Programs in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Offered as an aid for developing sequential occupational education programs, the publication presents a concept in career education planning beginning with kindergarten and continuing through adult years. Career education goals are defined, and steps in planning sequential programs are outlined as follows: (1) organization of the occupational…

  7. Sex Education on Film. A Guide to Visual Aids & Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Laura J.; Buskin, Judith

    This is an annotated guide to visual aids and programs in sex education covering the topics of family relationships, physical and emotional development, the creation of life, masculinity and feminity, attitudes and values, marriage, social problems, philosophy and implementation of sex education, together with a sample program in sex education for…

  8. Adult Education Development and International Aid. Some Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydstrom, Gunnar, Comp.

    This document reports, in narrative format, the proceedings of a conference in Sweden attended by more than 40 adult educators from around the world to discuss aid to education in developing nations. The report describes the conference's two main objectives: (1) to exchange experiences about financing and supporting adult education in the…

  9. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  10. Nyquist and Public Aid to Private Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekarski, Victor J.

    1975-01-01

    Noting that the latest Supreme Court decisions involving an application of the religion clauses of the first amendment to state statutes may serve to foreclose any further attempts by a state to aid parochial schools, the author suggests a new test that would satisfy both First Amendment and state aid proponent demands. (JT)

  11. Learning about AIDS. Interim Materials. Participatory Health Education Strategies for Health Educators with a Responsibility for Adult Education about AIDS [and] Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homans, Hilary; And Others

    Intended for those who are responsible for educating other educators about AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), these materials are designed to result in learner-centered instruction about AIDS--helping students of all kinds explore their own anxieties about AIDS and consider the implications of factual information for their own behavior…

  12. Dental Aide: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newport News Public Schools, VA.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the dental aide program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for dental aide. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives, criterion-referenced…

  13. The New Plymouth Framework for HIV/AIDS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Plymouth School District, ID.

    A framework is presented for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education in elementary and secondary schools. The objective is to enable students to understand the nature of the AIDS epidemic and acquire the knowledge and skills needed to maintain behaviors that eliminate risk of infection. The plan was…

  14. Teacher Aide Handbook for Early Childhood Education for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield State Coll., PA. Dept. of Special Education.

    The handbook, prepared by teachers in a summer workshop, is to be used by teacher aides at the nursery through grade 3 levels as well as by administrators and teachers. Teacher aides are said to be the candy stripers of education who help teachers in ways such as supervising art and music activities and making home visits. Notes from the…

  15. [Social and cultural obstacles to AIDS prevention in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Temmerman, M; Marres, D

    1995-01-01

    In countries where the transmission of HIV is predominantly heterosexual, both men and women are equally affected, including a considerable proportion of women of reproductive age. In various African capitals HIV seroprevalence of 30% was ascertained among pregnant women. Many within Christian Churches have considered AIDS as a punishment of God for sinful behavior and promiscuity. In eastern Africa HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases have been characterized as the disease of women because they were blamed for bringing the disease into the home. Among socioeconomic and cultural factors that play a role in the spread of AIDS are underdevelopment, low level of education (especially among women and girls), and a poorly functioning health care system. Some women are forced by the need to survive into prostitution and do not use condoms because of unavailability or the partner's refusal. Also migration by men to cities in search of work, leaving behind their families, leads to promiscuity and the abandonment of social controls and traditional norms. Fertility is of major importance for Africans. A woman who does not get pregnant has to resort to traditional medicine or try another man. Sexuality in Africa is not in the center of their value system, nor is chastity highly valued. In most of Africa cohabitation is much more tolerated than in the Western world. With different partners the risk of STDs and contracting HIV is high. African women have more sexual freedom than women in the West, and extramarital sex is the best way of making money for many married women. In addition, young women frequently have sex with older men who have had many partners. Polygamy for men is accepted socially, so is wife inheritance. Commercial sex is also available, and even college students engage in it for getting money for school.

  16. Global and local alignments in HIV/AIDS prevention trainings: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Martina

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a linguistic analysis of data from an ongoing research project exploring HIV/AIDS education in West African Burkina Faso. I argue that we can identify different, sometimes even competing, discourses about the disease in prevention interactions. Thus, communication about HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso--and probably in most of the Sub-Saharan countries--might be characterized by what I will call, with reference to Bakhtin, discursive heteroglossia. There is clear evidence of such discursive heteroglossia, that is, the participants' alignment to local and global HIV discourses, deployed in the communication of health workers. In my analysis of peer educators training sessions, I draw on theoretical and methodological principles from discourse analysis and interactional linguistics. I focus on the linguistic devices and conversational strategies the participants use to indicate the relevance of the local or the global discourses. Three particular devices--namely, metaphors, epistemic and evidential markers, and word explanations--will be examined in a more detailed way. I will also show how the local and the global interweave at different levels of prevention discourse.

  17. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  18. Domestic burns prevention and first aid awareness in and around Jamshedpur, India: strategies and impact.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Bharat, R

    2000-11-01

    This article highlights the strategy for awareness creation regarding burns prevention and first aid and its impact in and around the steel-producing city of Jamshedpur, India. This is a joint venture of the Burns Centre and the Medico Social Welfare Unit of the Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur in collaboration with the Social Service Division of Tata Steel and city schools. The first phase of 5 years has been devoted to general awareness building in the population through two main programmes, namely "Community Awareness Programmes" for the target group of ladies and teenage girls and "School Education Programmes" for the target group of school children of Standard 8 in the steel-producing city. These programmes include audio-visual presentations as well as face to face interactions regarding structure and arrangements in the kitchen, floor level cooking, clothing while cooking, careful use of electrical appliances, pressure stoves, etc. The discussions also include suicidal and homicidal burns prevention strategies. Various competitions for the target group provide feedback on programmes. The growing awareness about burns prevention among school children and community members, and steady increase in the number of patients who use water as first aid, speak about the success of the strategies.

  19. All Individuals Deserve Support: Collaborating To Prevent HIV/AIDS among Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Nancy E.

    All Individuals Deserve Support (AIDS) is a collaborative prevention program between graduate students in a Community/Agency Counseling program and the Children's Home Homeless Youth Program in Peoria, Illinois. Graduate students developed a comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention program for homeless youth as a class project. Project design involved:…

  20. Integrating Infrastructure Building with Peer-Focused Approaches to HIV Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax, Johnnie L.; Clark, Marc D.; Wright, Linda S.; Ford, Denyce S.; Shepperd, Billie T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the District of Columbia Public Schools' collaborative approach to HIV/AIDS prevention education centered on peer education. The program is part of a broader school health project that addresses many health risk areas. It links peer programs to local networks, training teachers and peer educators and offering special community training…

  1. [Information, attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic representations of AIDS risk and prevention among poor adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Merchán-Hamann, E

    1995-01-01

    Four hundred and sixteen poor adolescents of both sexes in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed to study both their level of information and symbolic representations concerning AIDS risk and prevention. The most common source of information on HIV/AIDS was the mass media, particularly television broadcasts. There were doubts and lack of trust regarding official government information on HIV/AIDS. Nearly 70% of the adolescents interviewed believe in HIV transmission through mosquito bites and some 40% through casual contact with wounds or scars or sharing of bathroom utensils. Men seemed to show a greater awareness and autonomy vis- -vis taking initiatives in sex encounters. Attitudes of segregation and exclusion of people with AIDS persist. Lack of prevention was attributed to the impossibility of predicting sexual encounters. The study of symbolic aspects concerning causes of HIV/AIDS displayed broad variability: 80% of the interviewees associated AIDS with excesses in sexual behavior and 40% with homosexual practices. Causal images vary from the predominant view of AIDS as unfair punishment to the less frequent stance considering AIDS as fair punishment (due to sinful behavior). An ambiguous attitude towards transgression (taking as its sterotype the figure of Rio's "malandro", or "streetwise dude") may influence perception of risk and prevention. The paper calls attention to the need for implementing clearer and more direct educational programs. This could be useful for the implementation of culturally sensitive control measures through a reshaping of AIDS symbols. The author recommends a better understanding of the social and economic determinants of disease and reinforcement of the kinds of discourse which empower and raise the self-esteem of poor adolescents by endorsing their civil rights.

  2. Time to act: crossing borders in global AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Convisser, J; Thuermer, K

    1993-01-01

    After 9 months of market research and collaboration among local health officials, businesses, politicians, and teenagers, Population Services International (PSI) launched Project ACTION in Portland, Oregon on December 1, 1992. It is the first PSI project in the United States concerned with prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in American youth. PSI has conducted 23 projects worldwide over the last 20 years that were based on social marketing (the utilization of commercial marketing techniques to promote healthy behavior). The objective of the project is promotion of safe sex practices, especially the use of condoms, among sexually active youth, aged 12-21. The Mass Media and Condom Social Marketing project of PSI in Zaire was used as a model for Project ACTION. Techniques used include mass marketing campaigns, point of purchase promotion, improvement of access to key products among target populations, and adjustment of purchase price to create a market. The target populations include adolescents who use drugs, are involved with the juvenile justice system, are pregnant, have a problem home environment, are homeless or live on the street, are chronically absent from school, or have a history of sexually transmitted disease.

  3. AIDS and HIV Training and Education in Criminal Justice Agencies. AIDS Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Theodore M.

    This bulletin summarizes key elements of an effective AIDS training and education program for law enforcement and corrections personnel. First, these key elements of training and education for criminal justice personnel are discussed: staff participation in materials development; timely and frequent training; mandatory training; live training by…

  4. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  5. 75 FR 26944 - Federal Student Aid; Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership, Special Leveraging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Federal Student Aid; Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership, Special Leveraging Educational... Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership (LEAP), Special Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership... in providing aid to students with substantial financial need to help them pay for their...

  6. Public education in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Parijs, L G

    1986-01-01

    Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programmes and has been shown to be effective in leading to life-style changes. Four basic types of education programmes are reviewed: for increasing the public's awareness of cancer, for changing specific risk behaviour (such as stopping smoking), for learning self-examination skills (such as breast self-examination), and for promoting early cancer detection in the community.To change human behaviour it is best to approach the risk habit through the same forces that develop and sustain the habit. Simply giving information of an association between specific habits and cancer, even if repeated several times, will lead to increased public awareness and encourage some to make a minimal effort to change their behaviour, but in general the new habit does not persist and continuing and intensifying this approach are ineffective. An alternative strategy utilizes socially active forces to support the prevention practice and remove possible barriers to action. For example, an antismoking programme should create a favourable social image of the non-smoker. Although a culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activity, this needs to be supplemented over a period of time by personal contact methods, such as group discussions, telephone conversations and home visits, in order to promote a regular screening habit. Contrary to popular opinion, mass communication methods can be expensive on a per person cost-effectiveness basis because of low participation rates and weakness in sustaining healthy behaviour.

  7. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  8. [Educational needs relative to human sexuality and AIDS among secondary school students and teachers in Lima].

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F; Rosasco, A M; Munoz, S; Gotuzzo, E; Mandel, J; Hearst, N

    1992-01-01

    Between November 1989 and January 1990, a pilot study was conducted among state secondary school students and teachers in Lima Peru by questionnaires with the objective of determining their knowledge about human sexuality, sexual behavior, pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), AIDS, drug abuse, and sexual activity. 110 students (64 boys and 46 women) aged 13-18 of low and medium-low socioeconomic background from metropolitan Lima participated. 40 teachers (70% females) aged 40.1 + or - 9.3 years also took part. THe adolescent focus groups were anxious to talk openly about sexuality to dispel their doubts. The levels of knowledge reached 46% for human sexuality, 50% for physiology and pregnancy, 35% for STDs and preventive sexual behavior, 50-60% for AIDS (transmission and risk groups), and only 35% for prevention. 21 had heterosexual experiences: 19 males and 2 females. 6 youngsters had homosexual experiences: 4 males and 2 females, 3 of these also had heterosexual sex. 20 of students without sexual experience expressed on interest, in engaging in sexual behavior if they fell in love. 33 adolescents reported using alcohol, 1/4 of these had consumed more than 6 bottles the previous week. The report on drug use was low, because 32% failed to answer this question. 60-70% of the teachers knew about human sexuality, while 72% knew about AIDS. 76.5% of them considered sex education in schools inadequate. 88.2% thought that adolescents need an explicit preventive program which should start in primary school and continue through all grades. This would require additional school resources. The teachers deemed daily life more educational about sexuality than information from schools and universities. 52% said that AIDS education messages had to be clear about preventive sexual behavior. 32% believed that correct use of the condom had to be demonstrated in class. 78% identified the mass media for dissemination of AIDS information, and only 15% judged their knowledge

  9. History, Ethics, and Politics in AIDS Prevention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Stepherson, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Biological questions about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are minor compared with political and ethical problems related to the AIDS epidemic in the United States. Lack of public confidence in the work of public health officials and the controversy surrounding New York City's syringe exchange program are two examples. (SLD)

  10. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: Report on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of State, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For too many children, education has been a casualty of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Yet schooling remains an essential element of a robust individual and societal future, and partnerships with the education sector provide important opportunities to fight back against the pandemic. The United States Government (USG) supports efforts to address the…

  11. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  12. AIDS/HIV Education. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontos, Lynn Balster

    This ERIC Digest explores issues connected with AIDS/HIV education in public K-12 education by addressing five concerns: (1) Why are teenagers at risk? (2) What should be taught when? (3) Who should teach it and in what department? (4) How should teacher training prepare teachers to handle classroom, inservice, and community outreach HIV…

  13. Recruiting Public Aid Recipients into Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, William B.

    This program description provides a detailed summary of the efforts employed at the North Chicago Community High School in North Chicago, Illinois, to recruit public aid recipients into adult education programs. Outlined first are the educational needs of the North Chicago community. Then various agencies cooperating with the high school's…

  14. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  15. Addressing Educational Needs of Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Hendrina; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews medical and neuropsychological effects of HIV/AIDS in children and relates these findings specifically to educational difficulties. It then proposes an instructional delivery framework for these children that stresses the importance of addressing their educational needs and includes specific suggestions for reading instruction,…

  16. Education Aid to Developing Countries: A General or Differentiated Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas; Postlethwaite, T. Neville

    1989-01-01

    Grouping developing countries by financial and educational indicators for receiving educational aid is discussed. An example is given of the way in which existing information on such indicators can be used in secondary analysis to derive relationships that policy makers can use at the international level. (SLD)

  17. HIV/AIDS Education: Audio Visual Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This directory of audiovisual materials on Human Immunedeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) lists approximately 60 titles available as of September 1992. In addition to titles, the catalog provides borrowing information, short descriptions of videotapes, names of producers, language (five Spanish titles), price,…

  18. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  19. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  20. The influence of Islam on AIDS prevention among Senegalese university students.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sarah S

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants' religiosity scores explain their risky decisions associated with sex, condom use, and drug use. Participants with higher religiosity scores were more likely to abstain from sex. However, participants high in religiosity were not more likely to report that they did not use condoms when sexually active.

  1. HIV & AIDS and Educator Development, Conduct and Support. Good Policy and Practice in HIV & AIDS and Education. Booklet 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attawell, Kathy; Elder, Katharine

    2006-01-01

    Although there is a need for enhanced evidence-based information on successful HIV and AIDS education interventions, much has already been learnt about good practices and policies in the education sector's response to the pandemic. This booklet, to be used in tandem with others in the series, aims to further expand our knowledge by highlighting…

  2. Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness. From CDC's HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This publication was developed in response to requests by prevention service providers and planners, for science-based interventions that work in HIV/AIDS prevention. All interventions came from behavioral or social studies that had both intervention and control/comparison groups and positive results for behavioral or health outcomes. The document…

  3. Educating Students in Preventive Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyne, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive set of competencies for counselors doing primary prevention. Describes 10 expanded clusters of skills (primary prevention perspective, personal attributes and behaviors, ethics, marketing, multiculturalism, group facilitation, organization and setting dynamics, trends and political dynamics, and research and evaluation)…

  4. Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control. WHO AIDS Series 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…

  5. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Education in Russia Using a Video Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.; Rhine, Sam; Daniels, Dennis E.; Jeng, Ifeng

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the use of videotape for HIV/AIDS education in Russian schools, pretesting and posttesting students on their attitudes, knowledge, and practices related to HIV/AIDS and their HIV/AIDS education at school. Results confirmed a lack of HIV/AIDS education and insufficient information sources (parents, friends, and public health). Video…

  6. Bad Timing in Education's Battle against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    A survey conducted in 1990 assessed the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related policies and practices of 1,679 school districts across the United States. Results show that education about HIV tends to taper off after the seventh grade. School board members are asked to recognize the importance of HIV education and school health programs in…

  7. Instructional Aids for Adaptive Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, James F.

    This idea book on remedial physical education is divided into four sections. Each section contains drawings and brief explanations on ways to adapt physical education for the physically handicapped. The first section covers homemade equipment for developing muscular strength and endurance in specific muscles. Also included are resistive exercises…

  8. Education Quality: The Disabilities of Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Focus on textbooks, not class size, poor countries are regularly told as they seek to improve education quality. Yet, at the same time, with strong support from professional educators, the voters of the U.S. state of California approved massive expenditures to reduce the size of classes that in global terms were already quite small. These…

  9. Educational Strategies to Improve Preventive Care

    PubMed Central

    Ross, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Performance of the periodic health examination and related preventive maneuvers has been shown to be suboptimal by both residents and faculty. Research into methods of improving performance of the periodic health examination shows that a number of methods are available to remedy the lack of effective delivery of prevention by health professionals. An educational prescription based on a literature review is outlined. Specific educational objectives are discussed. PMID:21221260

  10. The roles of labor migrants' wives in HIV/AIDS risk and prevention in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Golobof, Alexandra; Weine, Stevan; Bahromov, Mahbat; Luo, Jing

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding labor migrants' wives' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS risk and protection that would inform developing innovative HIV prevention strategies. This was a collaborative ethnography in Tajikistan that included minimally structured interviews and focused field observations with 30 Tajik wives in Dushanbe married to Tajik male migrant workers currently working in Moscow. The results documented the wives' concerns over their husbands' safety in Moscow and the difficulties of living without husbands. In a male-dominated society, gender norms limit the wives' abilities to protect themselves and their husbands from HIV/AIDS. They have some awareness of HIV/AIDS, but limited abilities to speak about sexual activity, HIV/AIDS, condoms, and HIV testing. Wives do not use condoms with their husbands and depend upon their husband's role as their protector. Wives often turn for support to their "circle of friends" or to a primary care nurse for support, but seldom do these relationships focus on preventing HIV/AIDS. To respond to HIV/AIDS risks amongst the wives of Tajik male migrant workers in Moscow, preventive interventions could build upon migrants' wives' role as the primary family caregiver and their existing sources of social support from women's circles and nurses. The overall intervention strategy could be to expand their role as family caregivers to include HIV/AIDS protection, through enhancing their HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention skills and negotiation strategies with their husbands. PMID:21218281

  11. The Roles of Labor Migrants’ Wives in HIV/AIDS Risk and Prevention in Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    Golobof, Alexandra; Weine, Stevan; Bahromov, Mahbat; Luo, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding labor migrants' wives' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS risk and protection that would inform developing innovative HIV prevention strategies. This was a collaborative ethnography in Tajikistan that included minimally structured interviews and focused field observations with 30 Tajik wives in Dushanbe married to Tajik male migrant workers currently working in Moscow. The results documented the wives' concerns over their husbands’ safety in Moscow and the difficulties of living without husbands. In a male-dominated society, gender norms limit the wives' abilities to protect themselves and their husbands from HIV/AIDS. They have some awareness of HIV/AIDS, but limited abilities to speak about sexual activity, HIV/AIDS, condoms, and HIV testing. Wives do not use condoms with their husbands and depend upon their husband's role as their protector. Wives often turn for support to their “circle of friends” or to a primary care nurse for support, but seldom do these relationships focus on preventing HIV/AIDS. To respond to HIV/AIDS risks amongst the wives of Tajik male migrant workers in Moscow, preventive interventions could build upon migrants' wives' role as the primary family caregiver and their existing sources of social support from women's circles and nurses. The overall intervention strategy could be to expand their role as family caregivers to include HIV/AIDS protection, through enhancing their HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention skills and negotiation strategies with their husbands. PMID:21218281

  12. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  13. Toward an Understanding of (EM)Power(Ment) for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Adolescent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Lorraine; Oh, Hyun Joo; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    Preventing the spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among women is a national priority. In the United States, AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among young adult women, and their rate of infection is four times higher than men. This article was developed to help stimulate interest in the power dynamics of relationships and…

  14. Older Americans and AIDS: Transmission Risks and Primary Prevention Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, Joseph A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Growing number of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among older Americans is of increasing concern. In context of primary prevention, reviews findings that bear on modes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (blood transfusions, sexual) among older individuals and knowledge of magnitude of the AIDS problem represented…

  15. Private Higher Education and the Constitutions; Constitutionality of State Aid to Private Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ann Van Wynen; Thomas, A. J., Jr.

    This report discusses the constitutionality of state aid to church-related institutions of higher education. The introduction deals with the important role that private institutions play in the total system of higher education, the seriousness of their financial plight, and the necessity for increased state aid to these institutions. Sections 2…

  16. HIV/AIDS in Dance Education: A Pilot Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Thompson, Shara

    2005-01-01

    A pilot research project was conducted to address issues related to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in dance in higher education. The primary goals were to summarize the impact of HIV/AIDS on dance and dance education, to document the profession's response (research, curricula, programs,…

  17. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  18. The Literacy Educator's Role in Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Suicide, the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, is preventable. Nearly 80% of individuals who commit suicide have demonstrated signs well in advance. Adolescent suicide prevention efforts require collaboration with teachers--individuals who know students well. Literacy educators have a role in suicide…

  19. An Essay on AIDS Education: The Mythology of Casual Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowiak, John J.

    Given the ambiguities and serious consequences of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), health professionals must not over simplify HIV transmission. An alarming paradox underlies HIV infection: a preventable disease rooted in human intimacy is reaching pandemic proportions. Well-publicized instances in which persons with AIDS have been shunned…

  20. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in Russia using a video approach.

    PubMed

    Torabi, M R; Crowe, J W; Rhine, S; Daniels, D E; Jeng, I

    2000-08-01

    HIV/AIDS has intruded upon the geographic, political, ethnic, gender, and sexual orientation of communities all over the world. As of April 1999, Russia has recorded approximately 13,532 cases of HIV infection. Since the costs of treatment are expensive for many countries, and especially for Russia, educational intervention appears to offer the most effective and affordable solution. A quasi-experimental design, with pre/post tests and intervention (through video education)/control groups, was used to study 20 public schools in St. Petersburg, Russia. Results confirmed the lack of HIV/AIDS education in schools and insufficient information sources from parents, friends, and public health education. ANCOVA statistics demonstrated that use of video education significantly improved students' scores on knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Thus, health educators should consider video education as an effective and efficient tool to present facts to a young audience when they face constraints of shortage of funds, lack of trained teachers, and scarcity of related information.

  1. A contextual approach to research on AIDS prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Biglan, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that is transmitted almost entirely through behavioral factors. In the absence of a cure or vaccine, the modification of AIDS-risk behavior presents a unique challenge to behavioral scientists and should be taken as a clear imperative by behavior analysts. This paper discusses the currently dominant social-cognitive theories (the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, and self-efficacy theory) that have been widely used to predict and understand AIDS-risk behavior. Although these theories have generated a voluminous literature on the cognitive, attitudinal, and demographic correlates of AIDS-risk behavior, they have not resulted in specific intervention strategies to influence risky behavior, most likely because they fail to specify manipulable variables. As an alternative to social-cognitive theories, this paper evaluates the usefulness of a behavior-analytic approach to stem the spread of HIV infection. It examines some of the philosophical differences underlying cognitive and behavioral approaches that are embedded in mechanistic versus functional contextualistic principles. It explores the theoretical and practical implications of adopting either predicting and explaining behavior or predicting and influencing behavior as the goals of science. To illustrate the value of adopting the goal of prediction and influence, behavior-analytic research on the social context of risky sexual behavior in adolescents is described. The paper argues that in order to alter the future course of the AIDS epidemic, the behavioral sciences must move beyond describing cognitive and attitudinal correlates of risky behavior and focus on the social context of the behavior of individuals. In addition, population-wide changes in AIDS-risk behavior can be accomplished only if research focuses on how to influence larger social systems, including the media, school systems, and community organizations. PMID:22478197

  2. Community health, media, and policy in sub-Saharan Africa: a primary prevention approach to the AIDS crisis.

    PubMed

    Ndiwane, A N

    2000-01-01

    Availability, access and utilization of essential health services present challenges to community health services in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS infection has added yet another dimension to a continent already experiencing economic crises. A primary prevention approach is emphasized as a means of addressing sexual behaviors that decrease risk of transmission. Educating the sexually active to use condom and also HIV/AIDS testing and counseling can be effective in curbing transmission of the virus. Community forums such as the local schools and churches, together with the political leadership need to coordinate primary prevention efforts against HIV/AIDS transmission. The media can be powerful in raising awareness, community activism, and mobilization of the masses at grass-roots level by advocating behaviors that promote health. African leaders must indicate a strong political will by shaping policies that address HIV/AIDS. These leaders need resources (both internally and externally) to fund primary prevention programs that are community-based and outcome-oriented. PMID:11760309

  3. Gender Differences in HIV/AIDS Preventive Self-Efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to understand gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Self-administered questionnaires were used to measure HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy and covariates (age, substance use, and sexual experiences). Data were collected from 734 Taiwanese high school adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. Descriptive statistic analyses, t-test, and ANCOVA were utilized to analyze data. The results indicate significant differences exist between genders in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Compared to the males, female adolescents were found having significantly higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy related to refusing sexual intercourse, condom use, and questioning potential sexual partners than those who are males. While controlling age, sexual experience, and substance use, female Taiwanese adolescents also had higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy than those who are males. The findings suggest the importance of addressing gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy when developing HIV reduction programs for Taiwanese adolescents.

  4. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10{sup 9} annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  5. Seasons: The National Native American AIDS Prevention Center Quarterly. 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Andrea Green, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of "Seasons" (the Spring/Summer issues are combined) address various aspects of dealing with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Native Americans. The Winter issue focuses on tuberculosis (TB) and its incidence and treatment among HIV-positive individuals. "Remembering…

  6. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  7. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide. Grades 7-10. Bulletin 1827, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This curriculum guide on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was developed for students at the junior high school level. There are five major sections: (1) introduction, an overview of AIDS; (2) an overview of the history of AIDS; (3) basic immunology; (4) the effects of AIDS on the host; and (5) prevention of AIDS. The appendices include…

  8. Microfinance and HIV/AIDS Prevention: Assessing its Promise and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Shari L.; Blankenship, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Researchers increasingly argue that poverty and gender inequality exacerbate the spread of HIV/AIDS and that economic empowerment can therefore assist in the prevention and mitigation of the disease, particularly for women. This paper critically evaluates such claims. First, we examine the promises and limits of integrated HIV/AIDS prevention and microfinance programs by examining the available evidence base. We then propose future research agendas and next steps that may help to clear current ambiguities about the potential for economic programs to contribute to HIV/AIDS risk reduction efforts. PMID:19294500

  9. Creating "communicative spaces": a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study uses the case study method to investigate the processes used by a local nongovernmental organization called the Society for People's Action for Development to organize sex workers in the slums of Bangalore, India, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The nongovernmental organization-facilitated HIV/AIDS program is based on the new paradigm of community organizing that encourages community participation and capacity building. Grounded in the culture-centered approach, this study documents the processes used to organize the women, while highlighting the role of communication in these processes. The study identifies 4 primary processes used to mobilize the community, namely collectivization, community awareness and sensitization, capacity building, and providing legal education and support. Each of these processes highlights the importance of attending to the economic, social, and political realities that shape the health of women. The common thread linking these processes together is the notion of "voice." More specifically, each process serves as a catalyst to produce discursive practices that enable women to provide support to each other, increase awareness in the community about the problems that they face, build self-reliance through financial skills training and communication training, and defend their legal rights. In addition, the study suggests that the primary role of nongovernmental organizations should be the creation of "communicative spaces," which are discursive and material spaces within marginalized communities and mainstream society where cultural participants can identify problems (oftentimes beyond the realm of health), manage solutions to those problems, and advocate for health and social change.

  10. A Model for Intelligent Computer-Aided Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Johan P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a model for intelligent computer-aided education systems that is based on cooperative learning, constructive problem-solving, object-oriented programming, interactive user interfaces, and expert system techniques. Future research is discussed, and a prototype for teaching mathematics to 10- to 12-year-old students is appended. (LRW)

  11. Grade Retention, Postsecondary Education, and Public Aid Receipt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children growing up in an inner city, this study investigated whether retention is associated with participation in postsecondary education and public aid receipt. The study sample included 1,367 participants whose data were available…

  12. Constructing Identities through Literacy Events in HIV/AIDS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the literacy events in HIV/AIDS education in Tanzania to investigate how they construct social identities for participants and to what extent they provide opportunities for critical health literacies. The projects took place as collaborative research partnerships with local Tanzanian NGOs in an effort to analyse and improve…

  13. AIDS at 30: Implications for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews themes and changes in the teaching of HIV/AIDS content in social work programs over the first three decades of the epidemic. Social work education in the first decade of the epidemic was largely focused on helping clients in the death and dying process, while medical and pharmaceutical advancements in the mid-1990s drastically…

  14. Facts for Education Advocates: Price of College and Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The price of college, particularly relative to the amount of available financial aid, has been increasing and has been cited as a major barrier to college attendance and completion. And given the recent economic downturn, these issues have taken on even greater significance to students, their families, educators, employers, policymakers and…

  15. HIV/AIDS--An Issue in Nurse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Geoffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    A survey found that many of British nurses (n=717) had inadequate knowledge and attitudes about people with AIDS. Educational programs should include the following content: attitudes/stereotypes, safer sex and infection control, confidentiality, epidemiology and statistics, and signs, symptoms, and progression of the syndrome. (SK)

  16. Perceived Risk of AIDS among Prisoners Following Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Angela D.; Martin, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the impact of an AIDS education program on inmates' (N=140) perceived risk of HIV infection on the street and in prison. Results reveal that the men's perceived risk declined significantly, whereas the women's increased. Regression analyses indicated that change in perceptions was related to various variables outside of the prison's…

  17. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…

  18. Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation of AIDS Education Programs for Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbert, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An office-based continuing education program on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) for dentists is described, including needs assessment, model development, local piloting, national implementation with 119 dentists, and evaluation phases. Program evaluation indicated an improvement in risk perception, knowledge, and practice resulted, but…

  19. The Constitutional Implications of Federal Aid to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William D.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problems of federal aid to private higher education and focuses particular attention on the implications for church related institutions of the recent court cases of Lemon vs Kurtzman and Tilton vs Richardson. The author suggests that it might be necessary to provide emergency assistance to failing smaller colleges and universities.…

  20. Drama Education in the Age of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This article arose out of my involvement in an undergraduate drama module at the School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, where I made use of workshop theatre methodologies to explore how second-year drama students construct knowledge and develop sociocultural understandings of critical issues in society. The workshop theatre project…

  1. The Politics of Federal Aid to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, John R.

    Educational policy decisions are political and are affected by demographic, economic, and social factors that influence policy-makers. As the number of federal government programs grew from the 1960's to the 1980's, so did the number of special interest groups lobbying in Washington, District of Columbia, to promote legislation, regulations, and…

  2. Internet Training for Nurse Aides to Prevent Resident Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Blair Irvine, A.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Billow, Molly; Seeley, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate Internet training to help Nurse Aides decrease resident aggression. Design Randomized treatment and control design; pre-post assessment. Setting The study was conducted entirely on the Internet. Participants Nurse Aides; N=62 Intervention Internet based interactive training using video modeling and mastery learning instructional design. Measurements Video situations testing and assessment of psycho-social constructs associated with behavior change; follow-up interviews with a sample of treatment participants. Results MANCOVA analysis showed positive results (p=.001) for knowledge, attitudes, self efficacy, and behavioral intention, with large effect sizes; it was well received by the users. Conclusions Interactive training is an effective approach to shaping appropriate staff reactions to aggressive resident behaviors. The training can effectively be delivered on the Internet. In this research, it was both valued and well received by study participants. PMID:17931576

  3. Communication for HIV/AIDS prevention in Kenya: social-cultural considerations.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is spreading fast in Africa in spite of the various efforts and resources put in place to prevent it. In Kenya, reproductive health programs have used the mass media and other communication interventions to inform and educate the public about the disease and to promote behavior change and healthy sexual practices. This effort has led to a discrepancy between awareness and behavioral change among people of reproductive age. In this article I examine the discrepancy in Kenya from a communications perspective addressing social cultural and related factors contributing to the lack of change in behavior and sexual practices. I draw on the theoretical framework of Grunig's model of excellence in communication, the importance of understanding and relationship building between programs and their stakeholders. Data were gathered qualitatively using focus groups and in-depth interviews among men and women in rural Kenya. Key findings indicate that although awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is high in Kenya, a majority of the population, particularly those in the rural communities, lack understanding of the communicated messages. They also lack the knowledge of other ways of transmitting HIV particularly among those not sexually involved. Cultural beliefs, values, norms, and myths have played a role in the rapidly increasing epidemic in the rural communities and yet HIV/AIDS communication programs have not addressed these factors adequately. I conclude that successful behavior change communication must include strategies that focus on increasing understanding of the communicated messages and understanding of the audience through application of appropriate methodologies. Building a relationship with the audience or stakeholders through dialogues and two-way symmetrical communication contributes toward this understanding and the maintenance of the newly

  4. Athletic Trainers as HIV/AIDS Educators for Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunt, B P; Pujol, T J

    1994-06-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to spread among the population at large. The age group 20 through 29 is the fastest growing demographic group in terms of AIDS diagnosis. This study examined a specific subgroup of that population: male and female college athletes. Subjects were 821 scholarship basketball players from 53 NCAA institutions across the nation. A survey instrument required respondents to identify common sources of HIV/AIDS information and preferred instructional formats for HIV/AIDS education. Mass media (92.4%), parents (62.2%), and teammates/peers (54.8%) were most commonly identified. Athletic trainers and team physicians were identified by 32.2% and 43.4% of the sample, respectively. The athletes indicated preference for video presentations (66.5%), small group discussions (58.8%), and question and answer sessions with expert panels (52.4%) as the most preferred instructional formats. Athletic trainers and team physicians can use the information presented in this paper to enhance their important roles in HIV/AIDS education for student athletes.

  5. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  6. Partnerships for HIV / AIDS prevention. Promoting collaboration in Ethiopia and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, E; Takele, A

    1996-07-01

    In most parts of the world, nongovernmental organizations (NGO) have been at the forefront of HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts. Many believe that the key to sustaining prevention and care efforts is giving such grassroots organizations the resources and skills they need to design, manage, and evaluate HIV/AIDS projects. Such capacity building is the central purpose of the programs carried out by the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project with US Agency for International Development funding in more than 40 countries. Capacity building involves training in technical skills, strengthening organizational and management skills, and improving the ability of NGOs to work together. Examples of mechanisms to help organizations coordinate prevention resources and activities include AIDSCAP-initiated focus site intervention teams (FSITs) in Ethiopia and NGO clusters in Tanzania. Forming NGO clusters, cluster management, lessons learned, FSITs at work, and FSIT results are discussed. PMID:12347591

  7. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand the motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebreeyesus Hadera, H; Boer, H; Kuiper, W A J M

    2007-08-01

    Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To date, little attention has been given to the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS and about their preferences for HIV/AIDS curriculum design options. The aim of this study was to get insight into the determinants of the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention and to assess their curriculum design preferences. Students from a university in Tigray, Ethiopia, filled out a structured questionnaire, which assessed demographics, variables that according to the Theory of Planned Behaviour are related to the motivation to learn, and their preferences for independent, carrier and integrated HIV/AIDS curriculum designs. On average, participants were highly motivated to learn about HIV/AIDS. Motivation to learn was primarily related to social norms and was not related to self-efficacy to discuss HIV/AIDS in class. The often discussed reluctance to discuss sexuality and condom use in curricula in Sub-Saharan Africa, seems to be more related to existing negative social norms, than to lack of self-efficacy. Participants revealed a high preference for the independent, carrier and integrated curriculum design options. However, students with a higher motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS were more attracted to the independent course design.

  8. Should Aid Reward Performance?: Evidence from a Field Experiment on Health and Education in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Olken, Benjamin A; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-10-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  9. Should Aid Reward Performance?: Evidence from a Field Experiment on Health and Education in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Olken, Benjamin A; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-10-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas.

  10. This is My Story: participatory performance for HIV and AIDS education at the University of Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Jaganath, D.; Mulenga, C.; Hoffman, R. M.; Hamilton, J.; Boneh, G.

    2014-01-01

    University students represent a subset of young men and women at risk for HIV in high prevalence settings. Innovative programs are needed to raise awareness on the unique issues around HIV and AIDS in the university campus, while training student leaders for peer-based education. The Process and Collaboration for Empowerment and Discussion (PACED) method engages artists and people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) to create a performance that encourages community dialog about HIV and AIDS and empowers PLWHA. ‘This is My Story’ was a program at the University of Malawi, Chancellor College, which adapted the PACED approach for university students. A qualitative evaluation conducted 1 year later among students and PLWHA participants and audience members demonstrated retention of the following themes: (i) trust in a relationship and how it affects women,(ii) equality for PLWHA and (iii) life after HIV and AIDS. All of the PLWHA and 90.9% of student participants reported a greater sense of empowerment. Of the audience members, 82.1% discussed the performance with friends and family. We thus present the PACED approach as a valuable tool in HIV and AIDS education and prevention among university students in Malawi. PMID:24047713

  11. AIDS prevention research in Chile and implications for the United States.

    PubMed

    Aiken, L H; Mullin, M

    1996-01-01

    Chile holds interest for researchers due to the relatively low but increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and existence of an extensive infrastructure for implementing an affordable acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention strategy. To facilitate the development of a pragmatic, affordable AIDS intervention plan for Chile, the following data sources were reviewed: mandatory case reporting data collected by the Chilean Ministry of Health, findings of the Chilean version of the World Health Organization AIDS general population survey, studies of the validity of the official HIV transmission classification system used for national planning purposes, interviews with people with AIDS, and a study of HIV testing in Santiago's health care system. By June 1994, 1016 cases of AIDS had been reported and 1627 people had been identified as HIV-positive. 93% of those with AIDS were men; homosexual/bisexual transmission accounted for 66.2% of cases and heterosexual transmission another 19.4%. In-depth interviews with AIDS patients revealed they were a well-defined population subgroup with few linkages to other sectors. This finding calls into question the current government strategy of broad-based mass media campaigns. Preferable would be campaigns that target homosexual men. A strength of the Chilean primary health care system is its effective utilization of nurses. Nurses manage about 1/3 of clinic visits, with no input from physicians, and their involvement in AIDS prevention should be strengthened.

  12. Report of the Task Force on AIDS and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, John; Gray, Carolyn F.

    1988-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' task force on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dental education recommends that educational strategies stress the necessity for routine infection control procedures in treatment, enhancing the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning all aspects of disease prevention.…

  13. Theories to Aid Understanding and Implementation of Interprofessional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Multiple events are calling for greater interprofessional collaboration and communication, including initiatives aimed at enhancing patient safety and preventing medical errors. Education is 1 way to increase collaboration and communication, and is an explicit goal of interprofessional education (IPE). Yet health professionals to date are largely…

  14. An integrated stewardship model: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID).

    PubMed

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W; Panday, Prashant Nannan; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C; Niesters, Hubert G M; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship model comprising three intertwined programs: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship, involving all stakeholders. The focus is a so-called 'theragnostics' approach. This leads to a personalized infection management plan, improving patient care and minimizing resistance development. Furthermore, it is important that healthcare regions nationally and internationally work together, ensuring that the patient (and microorganism) transfers will not cause problems in a neighboring institution. This antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship model can serve as a blue print to implement innovative, integrative infection management.

  15. Your Health: Prevention, Safety and First Aid, Personal Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxley, Gloria; Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises are provided in this learning module to reinforce students' basic reading and writing skills and, at the same time, increase their awareness of and motivation toward sound personal health practices. Written at an elementary level, the module considers eleven personal health topics: prevention of illness;…

  16. Ethical aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies and control in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph-Matthew; Mfutso-Bengo, Eva-Maria; Masiye, Francis

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns have been overshadowed by conflicting, competing, and contradictory views between those who support condom use as a last resort and those who are against it for fear of promoting sexual immorality. We argue that abstinence and faithfulness to one partner are the best available moral solutions to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Of course, deontologists may argue that condom use might appear useful and effective in controlling HIV/AIDS; however, not everything that is useful is always good. In principle, all schools of thought and faith seem to agree on the question of faithfulness for married couples and abstinence for those who are not married. But they differ on condom use. On the ground, the situation is far more complex. We simply lack a single, entirely reliable way to resolve all disagreements regarding HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. PMID:19130297

  17. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4-6. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into seven sections: introduction to first aid; wounds and control of minor bleeding; respiratory emergencies and resuscitation; poisoning; traumatic shock; and injuries from abnormal conditions. The publication…

  18. A Quantitative Study of Teacher Readiness to Teach School-Based HIV/AIDS Education in Kenyan Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang'at, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' self-perceived readiness to teach school-based HIV/AIDS Awareness and Prevention education in Kenyan primary schools based on their knowledge, attitudes and instructional confidence. This research utilized a non-experimental quantitative approach with a…

  19. The Impact of Bilateral Aid on Educational Development: The Case of Australia and the South Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglen, Leo R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Australian financial aid for education to Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Tonga, Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Nauru, and its impact on access to education, higher education options, "nationalization" of education, and educational quality. Concludes that Australian aid serves Australian interests and does not address crucial…

  20. Obstacles to local-level AIDS competence in rural Zimbabwe: putting HIV prevention in context

    PubMed Central

    Nhamo, Mercy; Campbell, Catherine; Gregson, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We explore the wider social context of an HIV-prevention programme in rural Zimbabwe. We make no comment on the programme itself, rather seeking to examine the wider community dynamics into which it was inserted, to highlight how pre-existing social dynamics may have influenced community “readiness” to derive optimal benefit from the intervention. Using the concept of “the AIDS competent community”, we analysed 44 interviews and 11 focus groups with local people. Despite high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, there were several ways gender, poverty and low literacy may have undermined its perceived relevance to peoples’ lives. Lack of opportunities for dialogue in the social milieu beyond the intervention may have limited opportunities for translating factual AIDS knowledge into action plans, or sharing hidden individual experiences of HIV/AIDS-affected family members or friends, given stigma and denial. The initiative of women and young people to respond effectively to AIDS was limited in a context dominated by adult males. People spoke of HIV/AIDS in a passive and fatalistic way, expecting outsiders to solve the problem. This tendency was exacerbated given the community's previous experiences of HIV/AIDS-related NGOs, which had often regarded local people as unpaid volunteer labour rather than building their capacity to make significant decisions and play leadership roles in health programmes. Despite obstacles, however, there were many potential community strengths and resources. There were high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Public denial of HIV/AIDS masked huge reservoirs of private support and kindness to AIDS-affected family and friends. There were many strong community organisations and clubs, potentially forming the springboard for more empowered community responses to HIV/ AIDS. HIV/AIDS programmers should pay greater attention to community readiness for interventions, especially around: (1) identifying and anticipating pre

  1. Obstacles to local-level AIDS competence in rural Zimbabwe: putting HIV prevention in context.

    PubMed

    Nhamo, Mercy; Campbell, Catherine; Gregson, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We explore the wider social context of an HIV-prevention programme in rural Zimbabwe. We make no comment on the programme itself, rather seeking to examine the wider community dynamics into which it was inserted, to highlight how pre-existing social dynamics may have influenced community "readiness" to derive optimal benefit from the intervention. Using the concept of "the AIDS competent community", we analysed 44 interviews and 11 focus groups with local people. Despite high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, there were several ways gender, poverty and low literacy may have undermined its perceived relevance to peoples' lives. Lack of opportunities for dialogue in the social milieu beyond the intervention may have limited opportunities for translating factual AIDS knowledge into action plans, or sharing hidden individual experiences of HIV/AIDS-affected family members or friends, given stigma and denial. The initiative of women and young people to respond effectively to AIDS was limited in a context dominated by adult males. People spoke of HIV/AIDS in a passive and fatalistic way, expecting outsiders to solve the problem. This tendency was exacerbated given the community's previous experiences of HIV/AIDS-related NGOs, which had often regarded local people as unpaid volunteer labour rather than building their capacity to make significant decisions and play leadership roles in health programmes. Despite obstacles, however, there were many potential community strengths and resources. There were high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Public denial of HIV/AIDS masked huge reservoirs of private support and kindness to AIDS-affected family and friends. There were many strong community organisations and clubs, potentially forming the springboard for more empowered community responses to HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS programmers should pay greater attention to community readiness for interventions, especially around: (1) identifying and anticipating pre-existing obstacles to

  2. Women at risk: an AIDS educational needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, A B

    1991-01-01

    In order to acquire the information nurses need to develop education and support programs for women at risk for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a qualitative needs assessment of women at risk was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 21 women who were at risk for AIDS through their own injection drug use or as the heterosexual partners of injection drug users. Results were analyzed using the variables of the Health Belief Model, including the concept of self-efficacy. The perception of AIDS as a serious and a personal health threat motivated these women to practice both "safe sex" and "safe drug use." However, they did not always believe that recommended health behaviors would be effective; and they noted significant costs associated with these behaviors. In addition, the impact of AIDS was seen to be a heightening of the isolation and mistrust which were characteristic of the injection drug using community before the epidemic. AIDS programs for women at risk should facilitate discussion of social and community issues and should emphasize hope rather than fear.

  3. Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Native American communities: promising interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Irene S.; Jumper-Thurman, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents the latest data on trends in AIDS prevalence among Native American men and women and discusses problems of classification, data collection, factors that contribute to high risk, and factors that affect prevention and intervention. It presents a model for building effective prevention and intervention strategies. OBSERVATIONS: The number of people in the United States diagnosed with AIDS has risen by less than 5% per year since 1992, and the slowdown is estimated to continue in coming years. Among Native Americans, however, the number of people diagnosed with AIDS rose 8% in 1997, and nonwhites accounted for more than one-half of all reported AIDS cases through December 2000. For Native Americans, the rate of growth in AIDS prevalence has been steadily increasing since the early 1980s, and AIDS is now the ninth leading killer of Native Americans between the ages of 15 and 44. Factors that contribute to high risk include poverty, homophobia, denial, and mistrust. CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies must include efforts to reduce the risk factors for AIDS. Future research should honor and celebrate diversity among people as an empowering force that facilitates collaboration and shared learning with tribes. PMID:12435833

  4. Childhood Violence Prevention Education Using Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Leonard; Beckerman, Adela

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project that incorporated interactive technology to teach violence prevention knowledge and skills to second grade students. The educational video games presented lessons consisting of animated characters in a story, accompanied by a number of exercises. The research issue was whether students would develop an appreciation…

  5. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  6. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  7. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  8. Haitian AIDS education campaign struggles on despite political turmoil.

    PubMed

    Aldebron, J

    1993-12-01

    Haiti's multimedia AIDS education campaign Alerte SIDA has continued despite the economic sanctions and political upheaval that thwarted its original plans. In 1992, the campaign included an aggressive volunteer effort in 140 schools in Port-au-Prince, including a conference, theatrical performances, video presentations, and group discussions. Expansion of the campaign led to creation of a telephone hot line for adolescents, radio spots, peer education sessions, and a multimedia campaign highlighted by six televised roundtable discussions in which young people discussed sex, AIDS, and the involvement of parents in sex education. The next stage of the campaign was to target parents as well as adolescents with educational and discussion sessions and information packets suggesting ways parents could broach the subjects of sex and sexually transmitted diseases with their children. This stage has been preempted by the economic embargo and political discord (which also increased the value of sexual intercourse as solace). Haitians, however, have a history of adapting to situations and making do with what they have. Thus, the work continues, even if it is reduced to impromptu educational sessions held in decrepit school yards. When the classrooms reopen, Alerte SIDA will be on hand to continue its efforts to protect the health of Haiti's children. PMID:12288830

  9. Determinants of intentions of Junior High School students to become sexually active and use condoms: implications for reduction and prevention of AIDS risk.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J A; Dusenbury, L; Botvin, G J; Diaz, T

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with young adolescents' increased risk for AIDS. A multiethnic sample of 303 seventh-grade students in three schools in the greater New York area completed questionnaires assessing their basic demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity), AIDS knowledge, substance use (cigarette smoking, alcohol use), and decision-making skills. AIDS knowledge, substance use, decision-making skills, gender, and ethnicity predicted intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. Relevant knowledge of AIDS was associated with lower intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. More frequent substance use, less frequent use of decision-making skills, and being male increased intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. Our findings are discussed in terms of their implications for education and prevention of adolescent sexual activity and AIDS-risk reduction. PMID:7862778

  10. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  11. Older adults' perspectives on HIV/AIDS prevention strategies for rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy; Mwangi, Samuel

    2011-12-01

    HIV/AIDS is devastating sub-Saharan Africa with great impact in the rural communities. Though prevention is the mainstay of various responses to the epidemic, communication strategies used to influence risk perception and motivate behavior change are culturally inappropriate, hence the lack of success. The bulk of prevention efforts target the 15-49 age group, resulting in limited knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS in adults over age 50 who are considered at a lower or no risk of infection. This paper addresses older adults as a key segment of the population in HIV/AIDS prevention given the increasing number that is living with the disease or newly infected. Many older adults are also caregivers of those infected and affected by the disease. As cultural, social, political, and opinion leaders in rural Kenya, older adults are in a position to influence attitudes and behaviors of their community members, but they have not been involved in the current intervention strategies. Through application of a participatory and culture-centered approach, the study sought views of older adults on the factors contributing to the epidemic in rural Kenya and their opinions on effective prevention strategies that are culturally appropriate. Several recommendations are made for a culture-specific HIV/AIDS prevention intervention for rural Kenya.

  12. Planning and pre-testing: the key to effective AIDS education materials.

    PubMed

    Ostfield, M L; Romocki, L S

    1991-06-01

    The steps in designing and producing effective AIDS prevention educational materials are outlines, using as an example a brochure originated in St. Lucia for clients at STD clinics. The brochure was intended to be read by clients as they waited for their consultation, thus it was targeted to a specific audience delimited by age, sex, language, educational level, religion and associated medical or behavioral characteristics. When researching the audience, it is necessary to learn the medium they best respond to, what they know already, what is their present behavior, how they talk about AIDS, what terms they use, how they perceive the benefits of AIDS prevention behavior, what sources of information they trust. The minimum number of key messages should be selected. Next the most appropriate channel of communication is identified. Mass media are not always best for a target audience, "little media" such as flyers and give-always may be better. The draft is then pre-tested by focus groups and interviews, querying about the text separately, then images, color, format, style. Listen to the way the respondents talk about the draft. Modify the draft and pre-test again. Fine-tune implications of the message for realism in emotional responses, respect, self-esteem, admiration and trust. To achieve wide distribution it is a good idea to involve community leaders to production of the materials, so they will be more likely to take part in the distribution process.

  13. Planning and pre-testing: the key to effective AIDS education materials.

    PubMed

    Ostfield, M L; Romocki, L S

    1991-06-01

    The steps in designing and producing effective AIDS prevention educational materials are outlines, using as an example a brochure originated in St. Lucia for clients at STD clinics. The brochure was intended to be read by clients as they waited for their consultation, thus it was targeted to a specific audience delimited by age, sex, language, educational level, religion and associated medical or behavioral characteristics. When researching the audience, it is necessary to learn the medium they best respond to, what they know already, what is their present behavior, how they talk about AIDS, what terms they use, how they perceive the benefits of AIDS prevention behavior, what sources of information they trust. The minimum number of key messages should be selected. Next the most appropriate channel of communication is identified. Mass media are not always best for a target audience, "little media" such as flyers and give-always may be better. The draft is then pre-tested by focus groups and interviews, querying about the text separately, then images, color, format, style. Listen to the way the respondents talk about the draft. Modify the draft and pre-test again. Fine-tune implications of the message for realism in emotional responses, respect, self-esteem, admiration and trust. To achieve wide distribution it is a good idea to involve community leaders to production of the materials, so they will be more likely to take part in the distribution process. PMID:12316892

  14. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

  15. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  16. Education and Fear: Black and Gay in the Public Sphere of HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieldenner, Andrew R.; Castro, Christian F.

    2010-01-01

    In the third decade of HIV/AIDS in the U.S., African American gay and bisexual men constitute the largest growing part of those testing HIV-positive. Education and prevention efforts are being refocused on this population, but there has been a dearth of research on health promotion efforts specifically tailored for this marginalized group. This…

  17. [10 years' research in the social sciences on AIDS in Burkina Faso. Elements for prevention].

    PubMed

    Desclaux, A

    1997-01-01

    The first cases of AIDS in Burkina Faso were reported in 1986. During the past ten years, there have been several types of research conducted in Burkina Faso in the field of social sciences, including KABP, focus groups, and ethnographic studies. This article reviews approximately 100 publications and presents the results most relevant to prevention. Although general knowledge of the disease, its transmission and means of protection has improved, part of the population remains poorly informed; erroneous ideas remain prevalent and certain concepts, for example asymptomatic infection, are ignored. Young women in rural areas have the poorest knowledge. Understanding the information is conditioned by underlying perceptions of blood and physiology, the "components of the person", pre-existent and sexually transmitted diseases, and modes of transmission. Research on sexuality has elucidated the age at which individuals become sexually active, and paramatrimonial practices. The prevalence of STD is high. STD are mostly treated by traditional practitioners or by automedication. Family planning is insufficiently developed. AIDS prevention should be integrated into wider considerations of reproductive health. The popular perception that "Others" are responsible for bringing AIDS into the country has often been reinforced by health messages. Consequently, people do not sufficiently consider themselves vulnerable to HIV infection. The populations that are most vulnerable, for various reasons that have been analysed, include young girls and women, married women, prostitutes, truck drivers, and young men from rural areas. The message "Fidelity or condom" has been widely used. However, it has hindered the generalisation of the use of condoms, because asking for a condom consequently implies distrust of the partner. The interpretation of fidelity is diverse, and many people who choose this means of prevention believe erroneously that they are protected. Studies of the social

  18. The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This student guide provides financial aid information for high school seniors and college students. The first few pages of this guide are a quick reference to federal student aid programs and how to apply. Most student financial aid comes from the federal government programs, which the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA)…

  19. HIV/AIDS Education in Indiana Public Schools, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nancy T.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    1992-01-01

    Over 500 Indiana secondary school principals completed surveys regarding their schools' HIV/AIDS education status. Most offered some HIV/AIDS education taught by teachers with different educational backgrounds and school roles. Most considered students at risk for HIV and responded to the need for education using various formats, personnel, and…

  20. Aid Agency Influence in National Education Policy-Making: A Case from Nepal's "Education for All" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatta, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach…

  1. Prevention Interventions with Persons Living with HIV/AIDS: State of the Science and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Christopher M.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Stall, Ron; Cheever, Laura W.

    2005-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIMH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) support the CDC's Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic (SAFE; Janssen et al., 2001). One aim of the strategy is to help individuals living with HIV (and…

  2. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  3. "Mbizi": Empowerment and HIV/AIDS Prevention for Adolescent Girls in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitza, Amy; Chilisa, Bagele; Makwinja-Morara, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a small group intervention for HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescent girls in Botswana. The psychoeducational group model is designed to empower girls to overcome the gender inequality that puts women at increased risk of HIV infection in the country. Group goals include heightening group members' awareness of the influence…

  4. Scope and Limits of Medical Discourse Concerning AIDS Prevention--Rationale and Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singy, Pascal; Guex, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a preliminary stage of a project funded by the Federal Office of Public Health in Switzerland to gain insights into physician-patient communication regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and apply findings to their teaching programs. Particular focus is on aspects of communication relating to primary prevention of HIV and…

  5. Cultural Strategies for Teaching HIV/AIDS Prevention to American Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Dannette R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe what tools and strategies Native Americans who live in Oklahoma believe are important in learning about HIV/AIDS, to determine if culturally specific information is important in developing prevention programs, and to ascertain learning strategies. Data collection was a two-part process. First, the Cultural…

  6. An Information Systems Approach to the Intervention and Prevention of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Li D.; Li, Ling X.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a conceptual framework for information systems (IS) that can be used in AIDS intervention and prevention (AIP). System components are analyzed, including a database, decision support systems (DSS), expert systems, and software; potential applications of ISAIP are suggested; and an example of a system implemented at Wright State University…

  7. Training and Supporting the Telephone Intake Worker for an AIDS Prevention Counseling Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Candace K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a four-year AIDS prevention telephone-counseling study for men who have sex with men. Describes the skills, knowledge, and sensitivity necessary to staff the project. Suggestions are made for others who intend to implement similar services. (FC)

  8. HIV/AIDS Prevention: Effective Instructional Strategies for Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gladys; Jefferson-Aker, Celestine R.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers instructional strategies for developing a curriculum for preventing HIV/AIDS infection among adolescents with mild mental retardation. The strategies help teachers modify instructional materials designed for typical students. The need to encourage parental involvement, use a variety of instructional materials, and consider…

  9. Circle of Life HIV/AIDS-Prevention Intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Carol E.; Litchfield, Anne; Schupman, Edwin; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the objectives, theoretical bases, development process, and evaluation efforts to-date for the Circle of Life (COL) curricula, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. The curricula are based on Indigenous models of learning and behavior encompassing concepts of Western…

  10. Educational Planning: A Critical Review and Recommendations for A.I.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniere, A.

    Directed toward personnel in the Agency for International Development (AID), this document reviews the planning of AID educational assistance programs in developing nations. The report recommends that AID personnel should be in a position (a) to assign, organize, and monitor the planning of their own activities in the field of education; (b) to…

  11. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  12. A Smart Web Aid for Preventing Diabetes in Rural China: Preliminary Findings and Lessons

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jing; Li, Kaichun; Xie, Shaoyu; Liang, Han; Shen, Xingrong; Feng, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing cases of diabetes, a general lack of routinely operational prevention, and a long history of separating disease prevention and treatment call for immediate engagement of frontier clinicians. This applies especially to village doctors who work in rural China where the majority of the nation’s vast population lives. Objective This study aims to develop and test an online Smart Web Aid for Preventing Type 2 Diabetes (SWAP-DM2) capable of addressing major barriers to applying proven interventions and integrating diabetes prevention into routine medical care. Methods Development of SWAP-DM2 used evolutionary prototyping. The design of the initial system was followed by refinement cycles featuring dynamic interaction between development of practical and effective standardized operation procedures (SOPs) for diabetes prevention and Web-based assistance for implementing the SOPs. The resulting SOPs incorporated proven diabetes prevention practices in a synergetic way. SWAP-DM2 provided support to village doctors ranging from simple educational webpages and record maintenance to relatively sophisticated risk scoring and personalized counseling. Evaluation of SWAP-DM2 used data collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up assessment: (1) audio recordings of service encounters; (2) structured exit surveys of patients’ knowledge, self-efficacy, and satisfaction; (3) measurement of fasting glucose, body mass index, and blood pressure; and (4) qualitative interviews with doctors and patients. Data analysis included (1) descriptive statistics of patients who received SWAP-DM2–assisted prevention and those newly diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes; (2) comparison of the variables assessed between baseline and follow-up assessment; and (3) narratives of qualitative data. Results The 17 participating village doctors identified 2219 patients with elevated diabetes risk. Of these, 84.85% (1885/2219) consented to a fasting glucose test with 1022 new

  13. Prioritization of prevention activities to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in resource constrained settings: a cost-effectiveness analysis from Chad, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Wyss, Kaspar; N'Diékhor, Yemadji

    2003-01-01

    In Chad, as in most sub-Saharan Africa countries, HIV/AIDS poses a massive public health threat as well as an economic burden, with prevalence rates estimated at 9% of the adult population. In defining and readjusting the scope and content of the national HIV/AIDS control activities, policy makers sought to identify the most cost-effective options for HIV/AIDS control. The cost-effectiveness analysis reported in this paper uses a mixture of local and international information sources combined with appropriate assumptions to model the cost-effectiveness of feasible HIV prevention options in Chad, with estimates of the budget impact. The most cost-effective options at under US$100 per infection prevented were peer group education of sex workers and screening of blood donors to identify infected blood before transfusion. These options were followed by mass media and peer group education of high risk men and young people, at around US$500 per infection prevented. Anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infected pregnant women and voluntary counselling and testing were in the order of US$1000 per infection prevented. The paper concludes with recommendations for which activities should be given priority in the next phase of the national HIV/AIDS control programme in Chad. PMID:12841152

  14. Prioritization of prevention activities to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in resource constrained settings: a cost-effectiveness analysis from Chad, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Wyss, Kaspar; N'Diékhor, Yemadji

    2003-01-01

    In Chad, as in most sub-Saharan Africa countries, HIV/AIDS poses a massive public health threat as well as an economic burden, with prevalence rates estimated at 9% of the adult population. In defining and readjusting the scope and content of the national HIV/AIDS control activities, policy makers sought to identify the most cost-effective options for HIV/AIDS control. The cost-effectiveness analysis reported in this paper uses a mixture of local and international information sources combined with appropriate assumptions to model the cost-effectiveness of feasible HIV prevention options in Chad, with estimates of the budget impact. The most cost-effective options at under US$100 per infection prevented were peer group education of sex workers and screening of blood donors to identify infected blood before transfusion. These options were followed by mass media and peer group education of high risk men and young people, at around US$500 per infection prevented. Anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infected pregnant women and voluntary counselling and testing were in the order of US$1000 per infection prevented. The paper concludes with recommendations for which activities should be given priority in the next phase of the national HIV/AIDS control programme in Chad.

  15. Collaborating With an Urban Community to Develop an HIV and AIDS Prevention Program for Black Youth and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; McKay, Mary McKernan; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a collaboration between academic researchers and residents of a low-income, inner-city community to develop and deliver an HIV and AIDS prevention program for Black youth. The Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) Program was developed and implemented to decrease HIV and AIDS risk exposure among…

  16. Hypnosis in Educational Programs: Its Implications As an Educational Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Joseph

    Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…

  17. Preventing Distress and Burnout--A Project That Worked: The New Teacher and Teacher Aide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Herbert L.

    The New Teacher and Teacher Aide Project, a joint venture of the Faculty of Educational Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo and the Buffalo Public Schools, was designed to help new secondary teachers of disadvantaged youth in an inner-city school system. The project had four components: (1) a pre-program orientation; (2) small group…

  18. Evaluation of a School-Based Intervention for HIV/AIDS Prevention among Belizean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsler, Janni; Sneed, Carl D.; Morisky, Donald E.; Ang, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a cognitive-behavioral peer-facilitated school-based HIV/AIDS education program on knowledge, attitudes and behavior among primary and secondary students in Belize. Students (N = 150) were recruited from six schools in Belize City. A quasi-experimental research design was used to assess the…

  19. Culture and African contexts of HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support.

    PubMed

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Webster, J DeWitt

    2004-05-01

    Culture plays a vital role in determining the level of health of the individual, the family and the community. This is particularly relevant in the context of Africa, where the values of extended family and community significantly influence the behaviour of the individual. The behaviour of the individual in relation to family and community is one major cultural factor that has implications for sexual behaviour and HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. As the impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa remains unabated, a culture-centered approach to prevention, care and support is increasingly recognised as a critical strategy. In this article PEN-3, a model developed to centralise culture in health promotion interventions, is presented as a framework to be used in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support in Africa. The three domains of the PEN-3 model incorporate specific constructs: relationships and expectations, cultural empowerment, and cultural identity. The cultural empowerment and relationships and expectations domains are 'assessment/appraisal' domains used for cultural assessment. Community identity is the 'application/transformation' domain that helps the public health practitioner assist the community to identify the point of entry of the intervention. In this paper the authors describe PEN-3 and then present examples of how the assessment/appraisal domains can be utilised to frame HIV/AIDS-related concerns in the context of Africa.

  20. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.

  1. Religious leaders as potential advocates for HIV/AIDS prevention among the general population in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Koji; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Silva, K Tudor; Priyadarshani, N G W; Delpitiya, N Y; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Gamage, Chandika D; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-01-01

    Religious leaders in Sri Lanka may have a high potential of contributing to HIV/AIDS prevention among the general public because of their social status. In order to assess their current HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude and the possibility of becoming community advocates of HIV/AIDS prevention, we conducted a questionnaire survey among Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim and Christian leaders in Sri Lanka in 2009. There were limited correct responses about HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), and information regarding condoms, HIV testing and counselling were poorly understood. Although a condom was less acceptable as a part of HIV/AIDS prevention, they were willing to learn more about HIV/AIDS and expressed support for both PLHIV and HIV prevention activities. Their experiences, preparedness and willingness of HIV prevention activities were associated with age, knowledge and/or religious background. In conclusion, intensive and systematic learning opportunities should be provided to equip the religious leaders with overall HIV/AIDS knowledge to become key players for HIV/AIDS prevention in their communities. PMID:23205515

  2. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  3. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  4. Risk Factor or Social Vaccine? The Historical Progression of the Role of Education in HIV and AIDS Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Collins, John M.; Leon, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men…

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Two Interventions for Educator Training in HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…

  6. A Study on the Level of the First Aid Knowledge of Educators Working in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Caglayan; Atakurt, Yildir; Simsek, Isil

    This questionnaire study examined the level of knowledge of first aid of 138 educators in private and state preschools in Turkey. Questionnaires were completed by educators between May and July 1997. The findings indicated that about 17 percent of the educators thought that they had sufficient first aid knowledge, with 62 percent indicating that…

  7. Poz-itively Transformational: Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…

  8. Collaborative AIDS prevention research in the developing world: the CAPS experience.

    PubMed

    Hearst, N; Mandel, J S; Coates, T J

    1995-07-01

    Prevention through behavior change is the only way to control the spread of HIV infection in the developing world. Success in prevention requires consistent and persistent intervention over time, a clear understanding of the realities of target populations, and involvement of members of these populations in prevention efforts. Applied local research is urgently needed, especially in the developing world, to design interventions that meet these criteria and to test their effectiveness. The Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) model of international collaborative research has been used at the University of California, San Francisco, for the past eight years. The model involves an intensive period for protocol development and another one for data analysis. Each year, 8-10 scientists from developing countries visit CAPS in San Francisco for 10 weeks of intensive learning and collaboration. They are immersed in HIV epidemiology, research design, computer skills, data management, and psychosocial aspect of the AIDS epidemic. The main emphasis is on designing a protocol for a research project related to AIDS prevention in the visiting scientist's home country. The greatest impediment to intervention trials in developing countries is lack of funding. CAPS provides pilot study funding and technical assistance to implement the project in the home country. In the summer of 1995 eight alumni worked intensively with the CAPS faculty on data analysis and manuscript preparation. The quality of the resulting collaborative research is represented by the articles published and by the many alumni of the program who have undertaken additional research projects and/or assumed leadership positions in AIDS control efforts in their countries. These studies cover a wide range of risk groups, including sexually transmitted disease patients in Zambia; adolescents in the Philippines and Russia; wives of HIV-infected men in Uganda; female sex workers in Brazil, India, and Thailand; and

  9. Advancing HIV/AIDS prevention among American Indians through capacity building and the community readiness model.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Vernon, Irene S; Plested, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Although HIV/AIDS prevention has presented challenges over the past 25 years, prevention does work! To be most effective, however, prevention must be specific to the culture and the nature of the community. Building the capacity of a community for prevention efforts is not an easy process. If capacity is to be sustained, it must be practical and utilize the resources that already exist in the community. Attitudes vary across communities; resources vary, political climates are constantly varied and changing. Communities are fluid-always changing, adapting, growing. They are "ready" for different things at different times. Readiness is a key issue! This article presents a model that has experienced a high level of success in building community capacity for effective prevention/intervention for HIV/AIDS and offers case studies for review. The Community Readiness Model provides both quantitative and qualitative information in a user-friendly structure that guides a community through the process of understanding the importance of the measure of readiness. The model identifies readiness- appropriate strategies, provides readiness scores for evaluation, and most important, involves community stakeholders in the process. The article will demonstrate the importance of developing strategies consistent with readiness levels for more cost-effective and successful prevention efforts.

  10. Task Lists for Health Occupations. Radiologic Aide. Activity Aide. Optometric Assistant. Physical Therapy Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    These task lists contain employability skills and tasks for the following health occupations: radiologic aide, activity aide, physical therapy aide, and optometric assistant. The duties and tasks found in these lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs. Employability skills…

  11. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male is the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. The strategies used to recruit and retain participants were quite similar to those being advocated for HIV/AIDS prevention programs today. Almost 60 years after the study began, there remains a trail of distrust and suspicion that hampers HIV education efforts in Black communities. The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of Blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in a social context in which Black Americans, faced with persistent inequality, believe in conspiracy theories about Whites against Blacks. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in Black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. An open and honest discussion of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study can facilitate the process of rebuilding trust between the Black community and public health authorities. This dialogue can contribute to the development of HIV education programs that are scientifically sound, culturally sensitive, and ethnically acceptable. Images p1500-a p1502-a p1503-a PMID:1951814

  12. AIDS and Women--Changing Epidemic: Staying on Top as a Health Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    There are too few HIV/AIDS research, prevention, and treatment efforts for women, though 13 percent of U.S. AIDS cases involve women. There is also a paucity of knowledge about how AIDS affects women uniquely. HIV infection is currently moving to younger cohorts and from men to women. The four known transmission routes are blood products,…

  13. Inclusiveness: a mental health strategy for preventing future mental health problems among adolescents orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, G; Mokomane, Z

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise an argument that inclusiveness will lessen the pain of losing a parent among adolescents orphaned by AIDS and as a result, prevent future mental health problems that may occur because of inappropriate grieving and maladaptive coping strategies. Participation of adolescents orphaned by AIDS in decisions pertaining to their parents' illnesses and funeral arrangements, for example, may shorten the grieving process and allow for closure. The paper draws data from focus group discussions that were held with 15 adolescents orphaned by AIDS in urban South Africa. The focus group discussions that were structured around four themes: grieving patterns; coping strategies; experience with loss; and expectations. The results of the study demonstrate inclusiveness as an overarching factor in the healing process. The concept is thus a strong recommendation for mental health practice and further study. PMID:22192336

  14. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  15. Thinking about "Think Again" in Canada: assessing a social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A

    2007-06-01

    The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.

  16. Thinking about "Think Again" in Canada: assessing a social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A

    2007-06-01

    The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign. PMID:17558789

  17. AIDS prevention and college students: male and female responses to "fear-provoking" messages.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K; LaTour, M S

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of fear appeals in AIDS prevention messages and to determine whether or not males and females differ in their response to these appeals. MANOVA results from a sample of 179 junior and senior business students at a mid-Atlantic urban university indicate that significant differences in message effects were associated with type of appeal, gender of the respondent, and the interaction between appeal and gender.

  18. Incarceration of people living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Treatment-As-Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Wood, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Contact with the criminal justice system, including incarceration, is a common experience for many people living with HIV/AIDS. Optimism has recently been expressed that correctional facilities could be important locations for Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP)-based initiatives. We review recent findings regarding the effect of incarceration on patterns of HIV transmission, testing, treatment initiation and retention. We found that the prevalence of HIV infection among incarcerated individuals remains higher than analogous non-incarcerated populations. Recent studies have shown that voluntary HIV/AIDS testing is feasible in many correctional facilities, although the number of previously undiagnosed individuals identified has been modest. Studies have implied enhanced linkage to HIV/AIDS treatment and care in jails in the United States was associated with improvements in the HIV cascade of care. However, for many individuals living with HIV/AIDS, exposure to the correctional system remains an important barrier to retention in HIV/AIDS treatment and care. Future research should evaluate structural interventions to address these barriers and facilitate the scale-up of TasP-based efforts among individuals living in correctional settings. PMID:24962285

  19. HIV prevention research: accomplishments and challenges for the third decade of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, J D; Coates, T J

    2000-01-01

    The past 2 decades have taught us that HIV prevention can work. We now have evidence from places as diverse as Senegal, Thailand, Uganda, and Australia that concerted HIV prevention efforts at the national level have resulted in the maintenance of low seroprevalence rates where they otherwise would have been expected to rise. We are beginning to observe declining rates of HIV prevalence and incidence in places and populations with historically high rates--for example, injection drug users in New York City. This trend points to the long-term impact of prevention efforts in those communities. The best of these efforts have been based on sound scientific research. As we move into the third decade of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to restate principles, acknowledge advances, and identify challenges and future directions in HIV prevention research. PMID:10897177

  20. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention. An exploratory social marketing investigation.

    PubMed

    Marks, A S; Downes, G M

    1991-04-20

    Shopkeepers at 88 informal sector shops in the black township of Khayelitsha were interviewed to explore whether such shops should be considered as venues for the dissemination of AIDS prevention information and condoms through social marketing programmes. The existence of a variety of media and interpersonal information sources on the premises, the presence of opinion leadership and the willingness of several owners to distribute posters and pamphlets and sell condoms suggests that such shops should be further investigated as avenues for AIDS prevention efforts. A relationship was found between the degree to which a shop exhibited aspects of social influence and the degree to which it was established in terms of infrastructure, income and experience of personnel. It was concluded that shopkeepers might be an important group to target early in a programme, because they might then influence others' reaction to it. Finally, it would be important for shop personnel and other township residents to be part of the design, planning and implementation of AIDS prevention programmes.

  1. Theories to aid understanding and implementation of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Multiple events are calling for greater interprofessional collaboration and communication, including initiatives aimed at enhancing patient safety and preventing medical errors. Education is 1 way to increase collaboration and communication, and is an explicit goal of interprofessional education (IPE). Yet health professionals to date are largely educated in isolation. IPE differs from most traditional continuing education in that knowledge is largely socially created through interactions with others and involves unique collaborative skills and attitudes. It requires thinking differently about what constitutes teaching and learning. The article draws upon a small number of social and learning theories to explain the rationale for IPE needing a new way of thinking, and proposes approaches to guide development and implementation of IP continuing education. Social psychology and complexity theory explain the influence of the dynamism and interaction of internal (cognitive) and external (environmental) factors upon learning and set the stage for IPE. Theories related to professionalism and stereotyping, communities of practice, reflective learning, and transformative learning appear central to IPE and guide specific educational interventions. In sum, IPE requires CE to adopt new content, recognize new knowledge, and use new approaches for learning; we are now in a different place.

  2. Need for HIV/AIDS education and intervention for MTF transgenders: responding to the challenge.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Sausa, Lydia A; Operario, Don; Keatley, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of qualitative and quantitative research to develop an HIV/AIDS education intervention for MTF transgenders. Findings revealed that MTF transgenders have high prevalence of adverse health outcomes such as HIV, substance use, and psychological problems. MTF transgenders of color-African American, Latina, and Asian Pacific Islanders-experience heightened risk due to multiple stigmas associated with ethnicity and gender identity. Based on this evidence of need, we developed a series of transgender- specific HIV prevention, substance use and mental health treatment, and health education programs. Future health programs for stigmatized gender minorities, such as MTF transgenders, will benefit from conducting descriptive studies to identify the health needs of the community, and by linking research scientists, health providers, and community agencies to form a collaborative network for delivering evidence based and community sensitive services. PMID:16893831

  3. New Perspectives on Drug Education/Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia joined Colorado and Washington as voters approved initiatives to legally regulate and tax marijuana for adults. Other states, including California, are likely to follow in 2016. While none of these new laws allow sales to minors, there is widespread concern about the potential impact of these reforms on teenagers. Many worry that legalization will "send the wrong message," and increase access and availability, leading to an escalation in teenage use. This new social, political and cultural context presents a new challenge, as marijuana gradually becomes a normal part of the adult world, akin to alcohol. The movement toward legalization provides an opportunity to re-think our approach to teen drug education/prevention. This is the moment to examine current approaches, and devise innovative, pragmatic strategies for dealing with teens and marijuana (and other drug use). As we examine the issue of drug education/prevention in the context of legalization, we detail efforts that have been tried, and what is realistically possible to accomplish, with the health and safety of teenagers our highest priority. A reality-based approach advocates honest, science-based information; encourages moderation, if experimentation persists; promotes an understanding of the legal consequences and social context of drug use; emphasizes safety through personal responsibility and knowledge; and encourages the delay of experimentation with all intoxicating substances until adulthood. PMID:26799842

  4. Current Proposals for Federal Aid to Higher Education: Some Political Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallan, John P.

    This paper considers 5 positions on federal aid to higher education with particular reference to the groups which support or oppose these positions and the apparent political viability of each. The 5 positions are: (1) fuller funding of present programs, both for student aid and institutional support; (2) substantial new programs for student aid,…

  5. Funding Your Education: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2012-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Every student, who meets some basic eligibility requirements, can get some type of financial aid regardless of age or family income. Federal student aid is a financial aid from the federal government to help a student pay for education expenses at an eligible college, technical school, vocational school, or graduate school. There are three…

  6. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Federal student aid is a financial help for eligible students to pay for educational expenses at an eligible postsecondary school (e.g., college, vocational school, graduate school). There are three categories of federal student aid: grants, workstudy, and loans. Federal student aid covers expenses such as tuition and fees, room and board, books…

  7. AIDS and the Education of Our Children: A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Guidelines for parents, teachers, and other adults to use in the education of children about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are presented in this document. The first part of the document presents a review of the known facts concerning the history and spread of AIDS. Specific topics discussed include AIDS symptoms, lack of a cure or…

  8. [Federal Aid to Education: Gearing up the Mechanisms for Future Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellenback, John

    This report, while urging increased federal aid to elementary and secondary education, cautions that the manner in which these dollars are disbursed is also critical. The author outlines some of the problems of categorical aid programs and suggests that the revenue sharing concept may be a preferable mechanism for providing general aid to…

  9. Issues and Challenges Raised by Development Agencies in Implementing the New Modalities of Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Abby

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing concern with aid effectiveness, and, more generally, development effectiveness. New ways of delivering aid have been developed, including sector-wide approaches and direct budget support. This paper reports on the progress that has been made through some of these new modalities of aid to education, as…

  10. Corporate Support of Education. Research Report. Council for Aid to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Aid to Education, New York, NY.

    A report based on data from the 14th annual Survey of Corporate Contributions cosponsored by the Conference Board and the Council for Aid to Education is presented. Usable questionnaires were returned by 328 companies, which account for three-fifths of the total pretax net income and over one-third of estimated total contributions and educational…

  11. Volcanology curricula development aided by online educational resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Van Der Hoeven, Kraft; Teasdale, R.

    2011-01-01

    Using On-Line Volcano Monitoring Data in College and University Courses: The Volcano Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP); Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii, 26–30 July 2010; Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near–real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  12. Volcanology curricula development aided by online educational resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Teasdale, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near–real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  13. Drug Education and Prevention: Has Progress Been Made?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggans, Niall

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after publication of the UK Government's strategy for drug misuse in 1995, Tackling Drugs Together, the impact of drug education and prevention programmes remains less than desired. The 1995 strategy envisaged a new emphasis on education and prevention and there have been developments since then in drug education, especially with…

  14. Court upholds 'hot and sexy' AIDS education program.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Hot, Sexy and Safer Productions, Inc. (HSSP), a Massachusetts consulting firm offering AIDS awareness programs, was sued for $3.5 million by a group of high school students and their parents for sexual harassment. HSSP presented a safer-sex program at the Chelsford High School in the Boston area. The program uses humor and teen jargon to encourage sexually active students to use condoms. Attorneys for two students charged that [name removed], director of HSSP, used lewd and lascivious language, and advocated masturbation, oral sex, and homosexual activity. The lawsuit charged that the students' constitutional rights had been violated, and that the program amounted to sexual harassment under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The suit was dismissed by Federal District Chief Judge Juan Torruella, who stated that parents could not individually dictate school curricula. The court said that [name removed]'s presentation was devoid of any form of sexual discrimination.

  15. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed. PMID:22694065

  16. Students Talk about Their HIV/AIDS Education Courses: A Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambe, Mariam M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how Ethiopian high school students experienced the HIV/AIDS education programs offered in their schools. The project also examined gender differences in the way HIV/AIDS education was perceived and the implications for the instructional design of the programs. A total of 15 high school students (eight…

  17. AIDS Education in Rural Oregon School Districts: Compliance with State Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde W.; McGrew, Robin R.

    The Oregon State Department of Education mandates age-appropriate curricula for all grade levels on infectious diseases, including AIDS, ARC, HIV, and Hepatitis B. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the extent to which AIDS education was occurring in three remote rural Oregon school districts; (2) to examine the focus of the…

  18. Refocusing Higher Education Aid on Those Who Need It. Backgrounder. No. 1753

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafer, Krista

    2004-01-01

    This document raises several points of discussion concerning higher education aid and its recipients. Increasing use of federal higher education aid by middle-class and wealthy students is costly to taxpayers, contributes to student indebtedness, and fosters greater individual and institutional dependency. The document recommends Congress restore…

  19. Reaching High-Risk Youth through Model AIDS Education Programs: A Case by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This report evaluates the High Risk Youth Demonstration Project, which is predicated on the idea that youth-serving agencies (YSAs) can be key sources for adolescent AIDS education. When the Center for Population Options (CPO) conceptualized a strategy for bringing AIDS education to underserved youth, it was responding to the following three areas…

  20. Adult Learners and AIDS Artwork: Conceptual Suggestions for Adult Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant stigma exists to marginalize persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Research has demonstrated it is possible to reduce stigma and prejudice through the development of meaningful and innovative education. The purpose of this article is to explore the ways in which the creative and purposeful use of AIDS Artwork as an educational tool may…

  1. Education about HIV/AIDS--Theoretical Underpinnings for a Practical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miedema, Esther A. J.; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related education is seen by many as central to increasing young people's awareness of, as well as decreasing their vulnerability to, HIV. There is less agreement, however, on the central goals of HIV- and AIDS-related education and the form it might best take. This…

  2. Trainers Attitudes towards the Teaching of AIDS Education in a Kenyan Teachers' College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nzau, K. A.; Ondimu, K. A.; Gikuhi, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching of AIDS education. The study was mainly concerned with the implementation of the AIDS education curriculum. In particular the study sought to investigate the attitudes held by trainers and trainees towards the subject and make suggestions to improve its teaching. The study was conducted in a…

  3. The New Geopolitics of Educational Aid: From Cold Wars to Holy Wars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores shifts in the nature, volume, trajectory and content of aid to education in the wake of post-9/11 Western preoccupations with the rise of Islamic radicalism. The paper develops a framework for understanding the dynamics of how educational aid appears to be becoming increasingly politicized in strategic conflict and post-conflict…

  4. A Triumph of Hope over Reason? Aid Accords and Education Policy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…

  5. Funding Education Beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid. Every year, the U.S. Department of Education provides more than $83 billion in…

  6. Steps To Help Your School Set Up an AIDS Education Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Advocates for Students, Boston, MA.

    This guide for setting up an educational program on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is divided into four sections: (1) "A School's Role"; (2) "How To Help Your School Set Up a Good HIV and AIDS Education Program"; (3) "A Checklist for Picking a Good HIV Curriculum"; and (4) "Resources." The first…

  7. State of Maine Student Financial Aid Guide to Post-Secondary Education. 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Post-Secondary Education Commission, Augusta.

    Financial aid information for residents of the State of Maine is presented in this booklet. Instructions for completing the College Scholarship Service Financial Aid Form are presented. The Basic Educational Opportunity Grants Program, the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, Maine State Incentive Scholarship Program, and the New…

  8. The Facts about AIDS. A Special NEA "Higher Education Advocate" Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Harold, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is presented to alert National Education Association educators to behaviors that place people at risk for AIDS. The material was prepared by the Public Health Service. Topics include: sexual transmission, transmission from injected blood, transmission during pregnancy, groups at greatest…

  9. HIV/AIDS Education: A Six-Year Comparison of Secondary Level Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, J. F.; Crider, Duane A.

    Researchers conducted a comparative evaluation of HIV/AIDS education to examine alterations in practice and outcomes occurring within secondary education between 1994 and 2000. The study investigated the impact of reduced public emphasis on HIV/AIDS knowledge. Participants were students enrolled in the general health curriculum at a Pennsylvania…

  10. Fixing New York's State Education Aid Dinosaur: A Proposal. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    New York State provides aid to local schools in a way that is unfair to the neediest school districts with high educational needs or low property wealth. Proposed in this policy brief is a new formula for state aid based on a comprehensive educational cost index and a school performance index that reflects an average passing rate on the new…

  11. Prevention of Substance Abuse and AIDS Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: Is any Real Progress Being Made? Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.

    Although a great deal of effort has been devoted to the prevention of substance abuse and AIDS risk behaviors in adolescents, the success of such programs can be difficult to measure. This study, in Northeast Houston-Harris County, Texas, examines adolescent attitudes and behaviors toward sexual activity and AIDS and discusses barriers facing…

  12. Accidental Hypothermia among the Elderly: An Educational Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Marc B.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the problem of hypothermia and specific factors that put older adults at risk. Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an educationally oriented prevention program. Data suggested the information presented through community education was effective. (Author/JAC)

  13. Condom sales at public universities in California: implications for campus AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Richwald, G A; Friedland, J M; Morisky, D E

    1989-05-01

    Public health officials have called for increased use of condoms to protect Americans from sexually acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To investigate the availability of condoms for sale on college campuses, we asked student union directors and bookstore managers from all 28 public universities in California, with a combined enrollment of half a million students, to complete a detailed questionnaire in August and September 1987. Two thirds of the campuses reported having condoms for sale in either their bookstores or convenience stores; one third said condoms were available in the men's and women's restrooms in their student unions. On most campuses, sales were instituted in the past year in response to the AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) epidemic. However, very few campuses provided AIDS education at the point of sale, and condoms were not easily available outside of store hours. Respondents felt that the most important obstacles to increasing the distribution of condoms on campus included concern about presenting a negative image of the university and the low priority assigned to this issue by the university administration and others on campus. This study suggests that although condom availability has improved in the past year, the opportunity exists at most California public universities to increase the distribution of condoms and improve associated AIDS-related health education efforts.

  14. AID and Education: A Sector Report on Lessons Learned. A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Marion Kohashi

    Twelve United States Agency for International Development (AID) education projects were evaluated between 1980 and 1981. Four were in Asia (Philippines, Nepal, Thailand, Korea), two in Africa (Kenya, Nigeria), four in Latin America (Colombia, Brazil, Paraguay, Ecuador), and two in the Near East (Jordan, Afghanistan). The evaluations measured the…

  15. "If You Don't Abstain, You Will Die of AIDS": AIDS Education in Kenyan Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njue, Carolyne; Nzioka, Charles; Ahlberg, Beth-Maina; Pertet, Anne M.; Voeten, Helene A. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    We explored constraints of implementing AIDS education in public schools in Kenya. Sixty interviews with teachers and 60 focus group discussions with students were conducted in 21 primary and nine secondary schools. System/school-level constraints included lack of time in the curriculum, limited reach of secondary-school students (because AIDS…

  16. A study on spatial decision support systems for HIV/AIDS prevention based on COM GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Luo, Huasong; Peng, Shungyun; Xu, Quanli

    2007-06-01

    Based on the deeply analysis of the current status and the existing problems of GIS technology applications in Epidemiology, this paper has proposed the method and process for establishing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention by integrating the COM GIS, Spatial Database, GPS, Remote Sensing, and Communication technologies, as well as ASP and ActiveX software development technologies. One of the most important issues for constructing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention is how to integrate the AIDS spreading models with GIS. The capabilities of GIS applications in the AIDS epidemic prevention have been described here in this paper firstly. Then some mature epidemic spreading models have also been discussed for extracting the computation parameters. Furthermore, a technical schema has been proposed for integrating the AIDS spreading models with GIS and relevant geospatial technologies, in which the GIS and model running platforms share a common spatial database and the computing results can be spatially visualized on Desktop or Web GIS clients. Finally, a complete solution for establishing the decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention has been offered in this paper based on the model integrating methods and ESRI COM GIS software packages. The general decision support systems are composed of data acquisition sub-systems, network communication sub-systems, model integrating sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial database sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information querying and statistical analysis sub-systems, AIDS epidemic dynamic surveillance sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial analysis and decision support sub-systems, as well as AIDS epidemic information publishing sub-systems based on Web GIS.

  17. Vocational Education's Role in Dropout Prevention. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Appropriately implemented vocational education programs can help achieve National Education Goal 2--increasing the high school graduation rate to at least 90 percent. A 3-year study of dropout prevention in 10 demonstration sites has resulted in an enhanced vocational education program model described in "Vocational Education for the 21st Century"…

  18. AIDS, Social Sciences, and Health Education: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, June E.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the nature of the new AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus and its diseases, avoidance strategies, neurologic disease and AIDS, co-factors involved in progression from asymptomatic infection to disease, AIDS versus civil liberties--barriers to effective communication, the importance of language in communication, and health…

  19. Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infections through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a history of achievements and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S

    2012-08-15

    HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) began when both data on HIV prevalence and the toolbox of interventions for prevention of sexual transmission were relatively limited. PEPFAR's early focus was on scaling-up information, education, and communication programs that included messaging on abstinence for youth and faithfulness primarily through nongovernmental organizations, including faith-based organizations. Additional activities included condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing. In epidemics concentrated within key populations, PEPFAR's prevention efforts focused on a minimum package of services including outreach, information, education, and communication programs, STI treatment (where appropriate), and condom promotion and distribution. As more epidemiological data became available and with experience gleaned in these early efforts, the need for tailored and flexible approaches became evident. The next iteration of prevention efforts still emphasized behavioral interventions, but incorporated a sharper focus on key epidemic drivers, especially multiple partners; a data-driven emphasis on high transmission areas and populations, including prevention with people living with HIV; and a more strategic and coordinated approach at the national level. Recently, the paradigm for prevention efforts has shifted yet again. Evidence that biomedical interventions such as male circumcision, treatment for prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission, and treatment itself could lead to declines in incidence has refocused PEPFAR's prevention portfolio. New guidance on sexually transmitted HIV focuses on combination prevention, emphasizing biomedical, behavioral and structural approaches. Landmark speeches by the President and the Secretary of State and new ambitious targets for PEPFAR point toward a new goal: an AIDS-free generation.

  20. Condom social marketing, Pentecostalism, and structural adjustment in Mozambique: a clash of AIDS prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, James

    2004-03-01

    Despite significant debate about the efficacy, ideology, and ethics of the method, condom social marketing (CSM) has become the dominant approach to AIDS education in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, critics have charged that social marketing (SM) distracts from the structural determinants of health-related behavior and excludes genuine community participation. This article argues that the diffusion of SM techniques in Africa is not driven by demonstrated efficacy but is attributable to the promotion of privatization and free markets in the structural adjustment era across the region. The CSM experience in a central Mozambican community reveals the dangers of using the method at the expense of community dialogue and participation to confront the AIDS epidemic. The advertising campaign developed to sell condoms has clashed with Pentecostal and Independent Churches, now a majority of the population, that have expanded rapidly across the region spreading a contrasting message about sexuality and risky behavior. PMID:15098428

  1. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed.

  2. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed. PMID:10214498

  3. A Peer-Led AIDS Prevention Program for Students in an Alternative School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Peggy; Messick, Barbara J.; Parris, Don; Fichtner, Ronald R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a peer-led sexually transmitted disease (STD)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention for students in a dropout prevention program. Trained peer counselors/educators led schoolwide activities and classroom sessions. Teachers and students rated peer counselors' effectiveness. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated an increase…

  4. Perceptions and activities of religious leaders on the prevention of HIV/AIDS and care of people living with the HIV infection in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo O; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Fatiregun, A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues in Nigeria despite efforts to control it. Meaningful efforts aimed at combating this disease must be multisectoral. However, despite the major influence religious leaders have in this society, their role has not been well studied. The aim of the study was to assess the perceptions and activities of religious leaders on prevention of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and care of people living with the virus in Ibadan, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a cross-sectional study, 336 leaders from eight religious denominations in Ibadan were surveyed utilizing a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Respondents were selected by cluster sampling technique. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 15. Results The mean age of respondents was 37.9 (± 13.5) years. The majority (97.6%) were aware of the HIV/AIDS scourge, and most had good knowledge of routes of transmission and modes of prevention (85.7%). Attitudes to people living with HIV/AIDS were positive in 84.2% respondents, and many practiced preventive measures (94.9%). One hundred and ninety (56.5%) respondents had ever preached about HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment to their congregations, while 257 (76.5%) used their position as a medium of educating their congregation about the dangers of HIV/AIDS and how to prevent it. Further analysis showed that respondents who were Christians (P = 0.026), had ever been married (P = 0.004), and were males (P = 0.002) were more likely to have ever preached about health issues to their congregations (individual role). Conclusion The study concluded that the religious leaders are well informed about HIV/AIDS and have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes towards people living with AIDS. However, they need encouragement and training to enable them to more effectively harness their position for HIV prevention and to control programs

  5. Impact of a school-based AIDS prevention program on risk and protective behavior for newly sexually active students.

    PubMed

    Levy, S R; Perhats, C; Weeks, K; Handler, A S; Zhu, C; Flay, B R

    1995-04-01

    This project assessed the impact of a school-based AIDS prevention program on student participation in sexual risk and protective behaviors such as use of condoms and use of condoms with foam and intention to participate in such behaviors. The paper focuses on students who became sexually active for the first time between the seventh and eighth grade ("changers," n = 312). The school-based intervention was developed using social cognitive theory and the social influences model of behavior change. Using an experimental, longitudinal design, 15 high-risk school districts were divided randomly into two treatment (10 districts) and one control (five districts) conditions. Students in both treatment conditions received a 10-lesson classroom program in the seventh grade with a five-lesson booster in the eighth grade, while control students received basic AIDS education (current practice in their districts) in compliance with state mandates. Results indicated classroom programs had an impact on certain protective behaviors and on frequency of sexual activity the past month. Post-intervention measures also indicated the program affected students' intentions to perform specific protective behaviors. PMID:7603052

  6. Suicide prevention by online support groups: an action theory-based model of emotional first aid.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Itzhak; Shahar, Golan

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, online support groups have become a valuable source of help for individuals in suicidal crisis. Their attractiveness is attributed to features that enhance help-seeking and self-disclosure such as availability, anonymity, and use of written communication. However, online support groups also suffer from limitations and potential risks as agents of suicide prevention. The Israeli Association for Emotional First Aid (ERAN) has developed a practical model that seeks to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of online suicide prevention. The model applies the Action Theory concepts whereby individuals shape their own environment. The present paper presents the model, which is based on an online support group combined with personal chat and a telephonic help line. The online support group is moderated by paraprofessionals who function as both process regulators and support providers. The principles and practice of the model are described, the theoretical rationale is presented, and directions for future research are suggested.

  7. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.

    This brochure describes the mission, approach, and services of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Center is the nation's primary resource center for assisting higher education institutions in the development, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol and drug violence prevention policies and programs that…

  8. Administrator's Handbook for Crime Prevention and Drug Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Crime Prevention and Drug Education.

    Acts of three Texas Legislatures have mandated that the schools of Texas provide a program for all public school students, grades K-12, in crime prevention and drug education. To assist schools in formulating a philosophy about and in developing appropriate programs and techniques for drug education and crime prevention programs, the Texas…

  9. Peer Education in Campus Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.

    2013-01-01

    Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a campus…

  10. AIDS Education: Activities Aimed at the General Public Implemented Slowly. Report to the Honorable Barbara Boxer, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to a Congressional concern over delays in implementing a thorough, effective national Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program, six aspects of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) AIDS education program for the general public were reviewed: (1) CDC AIDS education budget and expenditures; (2) delays in the…

  11. AIDS Community Demonstration Projects for HIV prevention among hard-to-reach groups.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, K R; Higgins, D L

    1991-01-01

    The AIDS Community Demonstration Projects are multicenter prevention projects directing community-based interventions to members of hard-to-reach groups at risk of infection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The projects are supported by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Interventions are derived from theories of behavior change and have as their goal reducing HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in the communities. The current objectives, intentionally narrow to improve the project's specificity and clarity, are to increase the use of condoms in sexual activity and the use of bleach to clean injecting drug equipment. Additional objectives may be added. The impact of the interventions is seen in increases in the use of HIV counseling and testing services, decreases in all or specific sexual and drug-use risk behaviors, and requests for related social and public health services. A quasi-experimental research design is being used to evaluate the projects. Multiple evaluation measures are used, including a street-based interview with randomly identified respondents in both intervention and control communities. Success in facilitating HIV and AIDS risk reduction is being measured using a model of behavior change describing stages of change. Upon successful completion of these projects in 1994, CDC may be able to offer models of effective, feasible, and easy-to-monitor State and local health departments and community-based organizations. PMID:1659721

  12. Oil, migration, and the political economy of HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria's Niger Delta.

    PubMed

    Udoh, Isidore A

    2013-01-01

    In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be trafficked to urban centers as child laborers and sex workers. The elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Niger Delta brings into focus the political economy of resource extraction, globalization, and indigenous, minority rights and struggles. PMID:24397234

  13. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2016-01-01

    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally.

  14. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  15. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  16. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  17. The Unfinished Nature of Rights-Informed HIV- and AIDS-Related Education: An Analysis of Three School-Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miedema, Esther; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, there has been growing investment in concepts of rights in the areas of HIV prevention, care and treatment, including HIV- and AIDS-related education delivered in schools. Despite this increasing commitment to the notion of rights, few efforts appear to have been made to understand the varying conceptions of rights that…

  18. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in black males caused distrust by blacks of the public health system that has implications for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) studies. AIDS prevention among blacks may require openness about the Tuskegee study to allay fears of repetition. (SLD)

  19. Relapse Prevention Model of Behavioral Maintenance: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Colley, Mary; Cinelli, Bethann

    1992-01-01

    Describes Relapse Prevention as therapeutic modality, based on Social Learning Theory, used to prevent relapse for individuals who have completed treatment for substance abuse behaviors. Outlines relapse prevention theory and suggests various components of model be incorporated into alcohol education curricula. Outlines teaching strategies to…

  20. Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program. 1974-75 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Substance Abuse Prevention Education (SAPE) program aims at: (1) having a direct impact on young people to prevent substance abuse; (2) working with school teachers, parents, and other citizens to develop specific skills that will facilitate substance abuse prevention; and (3) providing program participants with better understanding of the…

  1. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.

  2. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  3. Understanding the psychosocial aspects of HIV / AIDS prevention for northern Thai single adolescent migratory women workers.

    PubMed

    Cash, K; Anansuchatkul, B; Busayawong, W

    1999-04-01

    This study describes formative research about sex, sexuality, and sexual relationships of northern Thai single female migratory laborers. Methodologies included focus group discussions, observation, and in-depth individual interviews. Findings revealed that these women were sexually active, although the actual number of girls who were or had been sexually active could not be determined. It was also found that serial partners were much common than multiple partner relationships. And that these young women did not practice safe sex which can be considered as a potential social consequences of negotiating safe sex often outweigh health consequences. Furthermore, respondents reported that condoms were "men's business" and that there are irreconcilable social costs if a single woman talks about condoms or AIDS. From these findings, it is suggested that these young women and girls, regardless of their occupation or marital status or age, need HIV/AIDS education. Condoms need to be brought out of the disease spectrum and into the family planning and contraceptive spectrum. Educational interventions and material should address young people's emotional and relational needs including their desire to be modern and acceptable to peers. PMID:12295350

  4. Dropout Prevention and the Role of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Martin G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines New York State's initiative to address high school dropout rates, finding that few of the 12 pilot sites had explicit links to adult education. Suggests that adult basic education can be a driving force in a community to educate, assemble, organize, and facilitate discourse to support dropout prevention strategies. Urges adult educators…

  5. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  6. Prospects for Bilateral Aid to Basic Education Put Students at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abetti, Pauline; Beardmore, Sarah; Tapp, Charles, Winthrop, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The future of bilateral aid to basic education is at risk, placing the educational opportunities of many of the world's poorest girls and boys on the line. Some donor governments are reducing overall bilateral assistance, others are phasing out long-standing partnerships with particular developing countries and several are abandoning education as…

  7. HIV/AIDS Stigma Attitudes among Educators in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Goke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: One hundred and twenty educators from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent HIV/AIDS training. The educators were surveyed about their attitudes toward people with HIV. Methods: The educators completed self-administered survey questionnaires both before and after 2 interventions. Measures included demographic characteristics,…

  8. International Multilateral Educational Aid Received by China: History, Characteristics, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuchi, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since China began its reform and opening up, to formally accept multilateral educational aid from international organizations, and multilateral educational assistance has made contributions that cannot be overlooked to the reform and development of China's education. This article reviews the history of China's acceptance…

  9. Adolescent Activism for Postmodern HIV/AIDS Education: A New Social Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaz, Gilbert

    1997-01-01

    Argues that Youth Education Life Line faces limitations in its effort to pressure for frank HIV/AIDS education because of its postmodern approach to education and lack of political and economic resources. It supports the notion that sometimes lack of resources rather than "identity infighting" can significantly undermine a new social movement's…

  10. Colloquium on HIV/AIDS and Girls' Education. Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 25-26, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a summary of a colloquium that focused on the threat the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses to education systems and to girls' access to and completion of education. The colloquium examined how girls' education might be used to mitigate this impact. The meeting involved nearly 200 people from academic institutions, nongovernmental…

  11. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  12. Enhancing Special Educators' Knowledge and Understanding of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.; Prater, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to spread among children, youth, and young adults across all racial, ethnic, and cultural populations, including those with disabilities. This article considers information on HIV/AIDS such as individuals' health-risk behaviors, environmental circumstances, and perceptions that may contribute to HIV-infection; how disability…

  13. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  14. Trends in Student Aid, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Payea, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Trends in Student Aid, an annual College Board publication since 1983, is a compendium of detailed, up-to-date information on the funding that is available to help students pay for college. This report documents grant aid from federal and state governments, colleges and universities, employers, and other private sources, as well as loans, tax…

  15. Defying Definition: Rethinking Education Aid Relationships in Solomon Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The discourse of aid--its language, structures and practice--powerfully ascribes roles and attributes to those involved in aid relationships such as developed/developing, partner, recipient/donor etcetera. This discourse is driven by a complex system of diverse and often competing ideas, values, actors and relationships, within which individuals…

  16. Easy to Make Teaching Aids for Nutrition Teaching-Learning. UNESCO Nutrition Education Series, Issue 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ellen J., Comp.; Van der Vynckt, Susan

    This issue of the UNESCO Nutrition Education Series presents a sampling of ideas for teaching aids created from experiences in developing countries and is representative of materials currently Being compiled for Volume IV of the UNESCO Resource Pack for Nutrition Teaching-Learning, "Easy to Make Teaching Aids for Nutrition Teaching-Learning." The…

  17. The Student Aid Game: Meeting Need and Rewarding Talent in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S.; Schapiro, Morton Owen

    This book examines issues in the provision of student financial aid within the context of continuing changes in governmental student aid policies and private sector decisions resulting in larger and larger shares of the cost of higher education being borne by individuals and their families. The two chapters of Part 1 first review the role student…

  18. Enhancing Engineering Computer-Aided Design Education Using Lectures Recorded on the PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, Roy T. R.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is a course that is required during the third year in the mechanical engineering curriculum at Binghamton University. The primary objective of the course is to educate students in the procedures of computer-aided engineering design. The solid modeling and analysis program Pro/Engineer[TM] (PTC[R]) is used as the…

  19. The Impact of Federal Financial Aid Policy upon Higher Education Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Green-Derry, Lisa Celeste; Jones, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of financial aid policy from the Higher Education Act of 1965 to its reauthorisation in 1992 and the subsequent ramifications upon African-American students. It considers issues of race and class with regard to college access. This work concludes with a look at contemporary aid, as well as offers race- and…

  20. Government and Higher Education in Florida. Part One: State Supported Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Joe H.

    Trends in student financial aid in the State of Florida since 1968 and the changing relationships between higher education and government in Florida are examined. The administration of student financial aid programs was centralized in 1969, and in 1970 the old incentive programs such as teacher and nursing scholarship were phased out, the Regents…

  1. The U.S. Department of Education and Student Financial Aid for Distance Education: An Update. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Patricia A.

    This digest offers a brief discussion about the growth of distance education in the postsecondary arena and summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's progress in evaluating current rules governing financial aid for distance learning. Department of Education statistics show that there was a 72% increase in the number of institutions offering…

  2. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Botswana: Educating Children as Agents of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torstensson, Gabriella; Brundrett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS can no longer be regarded solely as a public health issue as its impact extends well into all spheres of life, sectors of society and levels of the education system. This paper argues that not only is it paramount to draw on children's understanding of the impact of AIDS on their lives, but it is equally important to draw on their…

  3. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  4. Preventing AID, a physiological mutator, from deleterious activation: regulation of the genomic instability that is associated with antibody diversity.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Tran, Thinh Huy; Kobayashi, Maki; Aida, Masatoshi; Honjo, Tasuku

    2010-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential and sufficient to accomplish class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, which are two genetic events required for the generation of antibody-mediated memory responses. However, AID can also introduce genomic instability, giving rise to chromosomal translocation and/or mutations in proto-oncogenes. It is therefore important for cells to suppress AID expression unless B lymphocytes are stimulated by pathogens. The mechanisms for avoiding the accidental activation of AID and thereby avoiding genomic instability can be classified into three types: (i) transcriptional regulation, (ii) post-transcriptional regulation and (iii) target specificity. This review summarizes the recently elucidated comprehensive transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the AID gene and the post-transcriptional regulation that may be critical for preventing excess AID activity. Finally, we discuss why AID targets not only Igs but also other proto-oncogenes. AID targets many genes but it is not totally promiscuous and the criteria that specify its targets are unclear. A recent finding that a non-B DNA structure forms upon a decrease in topoisomerase 1 expression may explain this paradoxical target specificity determination. Evolution has chosen AID as a mutator of Ig genes because of its efficient DNA cleavage activity, even though its presence increases the risk of genomic instability. This is probably because immediate protection against pathogens is more critical for species survival than complete protection from the slower acting consequences of genomic instability, such as tumor formation.

  5. Benefits of an educational program for journalists on media coverage of HIV/AIDS in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective a) To assess the suitability of the curriculum content and didactical quality of information delivered to educate journalists in the J2J program in HIV/AIDS (process evaluation) and b) to explore the effects of such programs on journalists' reporting of HIV/AIDS related information (outcome evaluation). Design Descriptive study. Methods For the process evaluation, each J2J program curriculum was evaluated for accuracy and pertinence by individuals with high familiarity with HIV/AIDS research. For the outcome evaluation, a survey of J2J attendees and evaluations of the program lectures by attendees were performed in chronological order to determine their perception on usefulness of the program. Results Overall, the J2J curriculum is successful in providing journalists with a clear understanding of the current HIV/AIDS medical research objectives and issues with most journalists reporting an increased ability to better investigate and disseminate accurate information on this subject. Furthermore, the journalists surveyed reported positive community responses directly as a result of the J2J training. Conclusion The J2J program helps to increase global awareness of pertinent HIV/AIDS concepts. Through this professional development strategy, journalists from around the world may help to amplify efforts to prevent new HIV infections and quench the dissemination of inaccurate information and folklore. PMID:19014657

  6. Risk and protective factors for HIV/AIDS in Native Americans: implications for preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Mary Kate

    2009-04-01

    HIV/AIDS has steadily increased in Native American and Alaska Native populations, and despite efforts at control many challenges remain. This article examines historical, biological, social, and behavioral cofactors related to the spread of HIV/AIDS within the context of Native American culture. Special attention is given to vulnerable subgroups and to the need for culturally appropriate efforts at prevention and intervention that respect the unique needs of each group. PMID:19366163

  7. Bully Prevention in the Physical Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Brett; Gulbrandson, Kim; Herman-Ukasick, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Bullying takes on many forms and occurs in all classrooms, and the activities found in physical education often provide fertile ground for these behaviors. For example, dodgeball is often played in physical education settings, even though the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance has clearly stated that dodgeball…

  8. A systematic review of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way. PMID:24450275

  9. A systematic review of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way.

  10. PrimPol prevents APOBEC/AID family mediated DNA mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pilzecker, Bas; Buoninfante, Olimpia Alessandra; Pritchard, Colin; Blomberg, Olga S.; Huijbers, Ivo J.; van den Berk, Paul C.M.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    PrimPol is a DNA damage tolerant polymerase displaying both translesion synthesis (TLS) and (re)-priming properties. This led us to study the consequences of a PrimPol deficiency in tolerating mutagenic lesions induced by members of the APOBEC/AID family of cytosine deaminases. Interestingly, during somatic hypermutation, PrimPol counteracts the generation of C>G transversions on the leading strand. Independently, mutation analyses in human invasive breast cancer confirmed a pro-mutagenic activity of APOBEC3B and revealed a genome-wide anti-mutagenic activity of PRIMPOL as well as most Y-family TLS polymerases. PRIMPOL especially prevents APOBEC3B targeted cytosine mutations within TpC dinucleotides. As C transversions induced by APOBEC/AID family members depend on the formation of AP-sites, we propose that PrimPol reprimes preferentially downstream of AP-sites on the leading strand, to prohibit error-prone TLS and simultaneously stimulate error-free homology directed repair. These in vivo studies are the first demonstrating a critical anti-mutagenic activity of PrimPol in genome maintenance. PMID:26926109

  11. Preventive intervention approach to health education for STDs.

    PubMed

    Egwu, I N

    1985-09-01

    A primary health care (PHC) strategy to educate the public in Nigeria, as well as in other developing countries, about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is described. Specifically, the development of a program based on a prevention intervention model consisting of 3 prevention levels is recommended. At the 1st or primary prevention level, the emphasis is placed on the delivery of STD health education to young people before they become sexually active. At the secondary prevention level, screening programs to promote the early diagnosis and treatment of STDs are incorporated into the PHC system, and health education programs are oriented toward preventing the reoccurrence of STDs among treated patients. At the tertiary level the emphasis is placed on rehabilitating individuals seriously affected by STDs. Specifically postpartum educational sessions and individual counseling services are provided for high risk groups in the population. Sex education, including the dissemination of information on STDs should be a part of the PHC system in all developing countries. In Nigeria, despite survey evidence indicating that there is latent demand for sex education among many segments of the population, the government refuses to adopt policies aimed at promoting sex education. Ideally, sex education should be provided by parents, trained school teachers, and health professionals. The mass media has the potential to play a major role in promoting sex education in Nigeria. The media can education the public about sex education and encouage political leaders to adopt sex education policies and programs. The mass media can also be instrumental in motivating government officials and health professionals to institute preventive measures to reduce the prevalence of STDs in the population.

  12. The convergence of American and Nigerian religious conservatism in a biopolitical shaping of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevention programmes

    PubMed Central

    Jappah, Jlateh V.

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes. PMID:23391163

  13. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test) and immediately after (post-test). The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions) and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted targets (students

  14. The Tragedy of AIDS: A New Trial for Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.; Poteet, Gaye W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents some recent facts regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the needs of nursing students for knowledge about this disease and how to protect themselves while caring for patients. Discusses the fear of contagion among health workers. (CH)

  15. Designing and Implementing an Educational Program on AIDS for Minority Childbearing Women To Enhance AIDS Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimphius, Gail M.

    Ignorance, misinformation, and a failure to personalize the risk for acquisition of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus has created a situation in which the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seroprevalence among minority childbearing women in a Florida county is increasing. An increased incidence in this population…

  16. Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in Botswana and India: impact of interventions to prevent transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.; Jha, Prabhat; de Vlas, Sake J.; Korenromp, Eline L.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F.; Plummer, Frank A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a dynamic compartmental simulation model for Botswana and India, developed to identify the best strategies for preventing spread of HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The following interventions were considered: a behavioural intervention focused on female sex workers; a conventional programme for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections; a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission; an antiretroviral treatment programme for the entire population, based on a single regimen; and an antiretroviral treatment programme for sex workers only, also based on a single regimen. FINDINGS: The interventions directed at sex workers as well as those dealing with sexually transmitted infections showed promise for long-term prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although their relative ranking was uncertain. In India, a sex worker intervention would drive the epidemic to extinction. In Botswana none of the interventions alone would achieve this, although the prevalence of HIV would be reduced by almost 50%. Mother-to-child transmission programmes could reduce HIV transmission to infants, but would have no impact on the epidemic itself. In the long run, interventions targeting sexual transmission would be even more effective in reducing the number of HIV-infected children than mother-to-child transmission programmes. Antiretroviral therapy would prevent transmission in the short term, but eventually its effects would wane because of the development of drug resistance. CONCLUSION: Depending on the country and how the antiretroviral therapy was targeted, 25-100% of HIV cases would be drug- resistant after 30 years of use. PMID:11953786

  17. An assessment of community readiness for HIV/AIDS preventive interventions in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Larson, Charles P; Ottisova, Livia

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to prevent HIV from becoming widespread among the youth population 15-24 years in Bangladesh are in the early stages. However, conservative religious and cultural norms may curtail the dissemination of needed information about sexuality and condoms. The community-readiness stages model was adopted as a framework for assessing the level of preparedness of community leaders to facilitate planned HIV prevention efforts. Six focus group discussions with three professional groups (teachers, businessmen, drugshop vendors) in Hobiganj district were conducted in late 2005, and a single multi-professional group made up of teachers, imams, and drugshop vendors was convened in early 2007 to assess changes. The audio recordings in Bangla were coded as were English translations. Everyone had heard of AIDS and regarded it as a potential catastrophe for the health, economy and social fabric of Bangladesh. Remarks concerning Stage 1-Vulnerability indicated that most did not believe their community to be at risk, though Bangladesh was. Remarks at Stage 2-Knowledge of Transmission were mostly vague but accurately identified sex, blood and needles as the main means of spread; however sex with sex workers was also mentioned in each group. Remarks at Stage 3-Prevention showed strong opposition to condoms for unmarried males and a preference for current means of forbidding sex outside of marriage. A few in each group recognized the importance of condoms for wayward youth. Stage 4-Planning discussions centered on raising awareness and fear, and a desire for government and media to take the lead. By 2007 participants articulated more realistic strategies that they themselves could, and had, implemented, but also raised barriers that authorities should help them overcome. The findings provide formative information on the constraints and opportunities of community groups as partners in HIV preventive interventions and strategies to help them move to a higher stage of readiness.

  18. U.S. Aid to Education in Paraguay: The Rural Education Development Project. A.I.D. Project Impact Evaluation Report No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Ronald; And Others

    Between 1970 and 1976, with continued funding and personnel support from the Agency for International Development (AID), Paraguay instituted major rural educational reforms encompassing curriculum revision, teacher training and retraining, training of administrators and supervisors, new school construction, and provision of teaching materials and…

  19. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart

  20. A Survey of Special Educators' Awareness of, Experiences with, and Attitudes toward Nonverbal Communication Aids in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrewsbury, Rosemary G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of surveys completed by 237 special educators indicate respondents' limited awareness, understanding, and experiences with nonverbal communication aids. Results have implications for preservice and continuing education programs for special educators. (Author/CL)

  1. Role of Lycopene in Preventing Oral Diseases as a Nonsurgical Aid of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonia; Jawanda, Manveen Kaur; Arora, Vikram; Mehta, Nishant; Yadav, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest's ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases. PMID:26330986

  2. Implementation Science for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Schackman, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    Implementation science is the scientific study of methods to promote the integration of research findings and evidence-based interventions into healthcare policy and practice and, hence, to improve the quality and effectiveness of health services and care. Implementation science is distinguished from monitoring and evaluation by its emphasis on the use of the scientific method. The origins of implementation science include operations research, industrial engineering, and management science. Today, implementation science encompasses a broader range of methods and skills including decision science and operations research, health systems research, health outcomes research, health and behavioral economics, epidemiology, statistics, organization and management science, finance, policy analysis, anthropology, sociology, and ethics. Examples of implementation science research are presented for HIV prevention (prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, male circumcision) and HIV and drug use (syringe distribution, treating drug users with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and opioid substitution therapy). For implementation science to become an established field in HIV/AIDS research, there needs to be better coordination between funders of research and funders of program delivery and greater consensus on scientific research approaches and standards of evidence. PMID:21045596

  3. Role of Lycopene in Preventing Oral Diseases as a Nonsurgical Aid of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonia; Jawanda, Manveen Kaur; Arora, Vikram; Mehta, Nishant; Yadav, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest's ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases. PMID:26330986

  4. Educating Children and Youth To Prevent Contagious Disease. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    Twenty-first century contagious diseases require more than basic health lessons to prevent transmission. This Digest examines ways to prevent disease transmission in school settings. Section 1 discusses key concepts in contagion education: all people are potentially contagious; germs that cause diseases are present on many parts of the body; hand…

  5. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  6. CDC's Rape Prevention and Education Grant Program: Preventing Sexual Violence in the United States, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the far-reaching impact of sexual violence and the importance of prevention, Congress passed the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 1994, which established CDC's Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program. Congress reauthorized $80 million for this program in the Violence Against Women Act of 2000. With fiscal year 2004 funding of…

  7. [Information and education on sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS and human sexuality--a case report after 14 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Gir, E; Moriya, T M; de Oliveira, M H; Pelá, N T

    1998-12-01

    The authors present their 14-year experience about Information/education on sexually transmitted diseases/Aids and human sexuality. They describe the actions implemented, emphasizing the positive and negative points. Concerning the positive results they mention the divulgation of information about preventive measures against HIV infection/Aids, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and human sexuality to several people from scientific and non scientific community. Another positive point is the transmission of knowledge gotten in such experiences at undergraduation and graduation teaching, as well as the development of research. Concerning the negative aspects, the difficult to evaluate the information actions, specially lectures was perceived, mainly because it is a communication tool basically unilateral. The authors mention some facts that historically influenced the implementation of the official actions.

  8. Quality of Care for HIV/AIDS and for Primary Prevention by HIV Specialists and Nonspecialists.

    PubMed

    Landovitz, Raphael J; Desmond, Katherine A; Gildner, Jennifer L; Leibowitz, Arleen A

    2016-09-01

    The role of HIV specialists in providing primary care to persons living with HIV/AIDS is evolving, given their increased incidence of comorbidities. Multivariate logit analysis compared compliance with sentinel preventive screening tests and interventions among publicly insured Californians with and without access to HIV specialists in 2010. Quality-of-care indicators [visit frequency, CD4 and viral load (VL) assessments, influenza vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) testing, lipid profile, glucose blood test, and Pap smears for women] were related to patient characteristics and provider HIV caseload. There were 9377 adult Medicare enrollees (71% also had Medicaid coverage) and 2076 enrollees with only Medicaid coverage. Adjusted for patient characteristics, patients seeing providers with greater HIV caseloads (>50 HIV patients) were more likely to meet visit frequency guidelines in both Medicare [98%; confidence interval (CI 97.5-98.2) and Medicaid (97%; CI 96.2-98.0), compared to 60% (CI 57.1-62.3) and 45% (CI 38.3-50.4), respectively, seeing providers without large HIV caseloads (p < 0.001). Patients seeing providers with larger caseloads were significantly more likely to have CD4 (p < 0.001), VL (p < 0.001), and TB testing (p < 0.05). A larger percentage of patients seeing large-volume Medicare providers received influenza vaccinations. Provider caseload was unrelated to lipid or glucose assessments or Pap Smears for women. Patients with access to large-volume providers were more likely to meet clinical guidelines for visits, CD4, VL, tuberculosis testing, and influenza vaccinations, and were not less likely to receive primary preventive care. Substantial insufficiencies remain in both monitoring to assess viral suppression and in preventive care. PMID:27610461

  9. Securitising Education to Prevent Terrorism or Losing Direction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durodie, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the growing relationship between security and education, particularly in the light of the UK government's Prevent Duty that seeks to tackle radicalisation in a variety of milieus, including universities. However, rather than seeing this process as being merely one-way, through a so-called securitisation of education (in the…

  10. The Role of Education in Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markusen, Eric; Harris, John B.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the role of education in the Holocaust of Nazi Germany, discusses U.S. nuclear weapons policy and factors of psychological resistance that have limited citizen participation in decision making, and explores the potential of education to help prevent nuclear war. (Author/SK)

  11. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  12. Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population with Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Information and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Ernesto

    1990-01-01

    Latino and Latina sexual attitudes and behaviors must be understood if educators and counselors hope to reach this population with effective sexuality and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) information and education. The general U.S. Latino population is mostly sexually conservative; direct talk in public…

  13. Professional Development and Teacher Aides in Inclusive Education Contexts: Where to from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    During the past 10 years in Australia teacher aides have been employed in mainstream schools as support personnel in special education intervention programmes, and their numbers are increasing. At the same time workplace reform in relation to inclusive education is impacting on their employment and deployment in schools to support students with…

  14. Scaling-Up Aid to Education: Is Absorptive Capacity a Constraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    "Absorptive capacity" is a frequently used term amongst development practitioners in education. It is adopted by some as a reason for caution over scaling up aid. Others are of the view that absorptive capacity is an excuse by some donors for not delivering on their Education for All financing commitments. Drawing on interviews with…

  15. Can Inclusive Education in South(ern) Africa Survive the HIV and AIDS Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Christa; Hay, Johnnie

    2007-01-01

    Fagan (1986, p. 859) stated many years ago that "school psychology has survived the complex interaction between education and psychology, and will continue to do so in future". Applied and adapted to South(ern) Africa of 2007, one may ask whether inclusive education will survive the complex interaction with the HIV and AIDS pandemic, and whether…

  16. Development of a Computer-Aided Evaluation System for Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Roegge, Chris A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer-aided self-evaluation system for vocational education programs involves three stages: vital sign assessment, in-depth analysis, and program improvement planning. The six vital signs that give an overall picture of program quality are placement/continuing education, enrollment, employer satisfaction, student satisfaction, employability…

  17. Perceptions of Parents on How Religion Influences Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviours in Two Ghanaian Communities: Implications for HIV and AIDS Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2013-01-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents’ sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents’ sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures—communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed. PMID:23440475

  18. Empowering Educators to Prevent Trafficking Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Davis, Susan A. [D-CA-53

    2016-04-26

    09/19/2016 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. HIV/AIDS - Related Stigma and Discrimination in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies and future directions for Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Smesny, Andrea; Essien, E. James

    2009-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS remain a major public health crisis in Nigeria which harbors more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India. A significant challenge to the success of achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010 is HIV-AIDS stigma and discrimination. Eight studies looking at some degree of measurement of stigma and discrimination in Nigeria were reviewed in an attempt to investigate the cultural context of stigma, health seeking behavior and the role both perceived and community stigma play in HIV prevention. Results suggest that reducing stigma does increase the individual as well as community acceptance of people living with HIV-AIDS (PLWHAs), but long term studies are needed. Some suggestions are recommended for future research on culture specific stigma studies in Nigeria. PMID:20690259

  20. HIV/AIDS prevention among female sexual partners of injection drug users in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pinto, J B; Ramos, R

    1995-01-01

    A participatory community project in the US-Mexico border town of Ciudad Juarez, aimed at helping women who are sex partners of male injection drug users to reduce behaviours which increase their risk for HIV infection, is described and evaluated. The design and implementation of the project were influenced by Paulo Freire's pedagogy in the Latin American tradition of 'popular' education, by Bandura's self-efficacy concepts, and by David Warner's 'barefoot doctor' community health care methodology. Using these approaches the participants were directly involved in the development of teaching materials, and curriculum content and implementation of the project. The programme was evaluated quantitatively using NIDA's AIDS Intake and Follow-up Assessment (AIA/AFA) questionnaires, and qualitatively using open ended interviews. While the AIA/AFA questionnaires detected small changes in the frequency of condom use among the participants, ethnographic interviews detected significant changes in the nature of the behaviours which were placing the women at risk. The changes seem to stem from an increase in the degree of self-esteem, self-efficacy and awareness of the social, economic, and political constraints of their lives. These results demonstrate the need for qualitative measures to be incorporated in the evaluation of community based health education programmes. A series of recommendations is presented to facilitate further development and replication of the programme in similar populations.

  1. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  2. Taxonomy for Strengthening the Identification of Core Elements for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Whittier, David K.; Jones, Patricia L.; Smith, Bryce D.; Uhl, Gary; Fisher, Holly H.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of core elements was developed to denote characteristics of an intervention, such as activities or delivery methods, presumed to be responsible for the efficacy of evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) for HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of core elements based on a literature review of…

  3. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  4. Nutrition Aide. Curriculum. Competency-Based Vocational Education Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Margaret; Dillon, Nancy

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course to prepare students for the occupation of nutrition aide. Fifteen modules are provided. They are self-contained and require little effort on the instructor's part aside from scoring posttests and providing equipment. Each module consists of a cover sheet that details job skills, performance…

  5. Computer-Aided Drafting. Education for Technology Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Dept. of Technology.

    This computer-aided drafting (CAD) curriculum was developed to provide drafting instructors in Illinois with a useful guide for relating an important new technological advance to the vocational classroom. The competency-based learning activity guides are written to be used with any CAD system being used at the secondary and postsecondary levels.…

  6. Computer Aided Evaluation of Higher Education Tutors' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xenos, Michalis; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a method for computer-aided tutor evaluation: Bayesian Networks are used for organizing the collected data about tutors and for enabling accurate estimations and predictions about future tutor behavior. The model provides indications about each tutor's strengths and weaknesses, which enables the evaluator to exploit strengths…

  7. Use of a simulation game for HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Nadine; de Beer, Josef; Dunbar-Krige, Helen

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the use of a simulation game in HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers in Johannesburg, South Africa. The use of a simulation game, as novel experiential pedagogy, was an attempt to raise awareness about HIV and AIDS and to demonstrate that anyone can be at risk of HIV infection. Using a generic qualitative research design, the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small group discussions afterwards, and via questionnaires and written reflections by the education students four weeks afterwards. Content analysis and discourse analysis led to the construction of three main themes. First, we found that the novelty factor of the simulation game for raising HIV/AIDS awareness was confirmed both during the game itself and after a period of time had elapsed. Second, in light of many education students' naivety about the intersection of biological, socio-cultural and economic issues at play in the spread of HIV, the game prompted more reflexivity about the disease and helped to broaden the participants' discussions. Lastly, the data revealed the disjuncture between theory and practice in HIV/AIDS education. We propose that in raising awareness of HIV and AIDS, educators should move towards more engaging and challenging pedagogies that address the learning needs of the 'new' generation of university students. PMID:25859622

  8. The impact of religion and cultural values on AIDS education programs in Malaysia and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Osteria, T; Sullivan, G

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of cultural values and government policies on the content of AIDS educational literature prepared by public health agencies in Malaysia and the Philippines. The literature from these countries, which has been distributed to the public and is intended to inform them of the danger of AIDS, how the HIV is and is not transmitted, and how to avoid infection, is analyzed and evaluated for effectiveness and congruence with the dominant religious tenets and cultural practices in each country, and attitudes to sexual behavior. The paper also describes the response of these countries to the AIDS pandemic, and concludes with suggestions about how this form of AIDS education can be improved. PMID:1873137

  9. The impact of religion and cultural values on AIDS education programs in Malaysia and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Osteria, T; Sullivan, G

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of cultural values and government policies on the content of AIDS educational literature prepared by public health agencies in Malaysia and the Philippines. The literature from these countries, which has been distributed to the public and is intended to inform them of the danger of AIDS, how the HIV is and is not transmitted, and how to avoid infection, is analyzed and evaluated for effectiveness and congruence with the dominant religious tenets and cultural practices in each country, and attitudes to sexual behavior. The paper also describes the response of these countries to the AIDS pandemic, and concludes with suggestions about how this form of AIDS education can be improved.

  10. Counselors and Mentors Handbook on Federal Student Aid: A Guide for Those Advising Students about Financial Aid for Postsecondary Education. 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Student aid is money provided by the federal government or another entity, such as a school or a state government, to help students pay for college or trade school. The U.S. Department of Education's federal student aid programs deliver billions of dollars to students each year, representing a substantial federal commitment to provide financial…

  11. After the FAFSA: How Red Tape Can Prevent Eligible Students from Receiving Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Debbie Frankle

    2010-01-01

    This report sheds light on what happens to federal financial aid applicants after they submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). Using 2007-08 financial aid data from 13 California community colleges, the Institute found that one in three likely Pell-eligible applicants did not receive a Pell Grant. Also, while few students'…

  12. AIDS Policies and Resources for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ralph; Klein, Charlie

    This report was developed to assist California community college districts in developing policies and educational programs to prevent the further spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). First, the report discusses the epidemiology of AIDS, and outlines institutional and legislative actions taken to provide public education about the…

  13. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  14. The Influence of Cultural Factors on HIV/AIDS Education in Ivorian Schools.

    PubMed

    Ado, Gustave; Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on culturally embedded beliefs about the teaching and learning of HIV/AIDS topics in the Ivory Coast. We aim to analyze and describe factors influencing the implementation of the HIV/AIDS curricula in Ivorian sixth-grade classrooms. With continuous spreading of AIDS in the Ivory Coast, education about HIV/AIDS has to increase; therefore, an urgent need to document, evaluate, and disseminate Ivorian perspectives on what is understood as valuable HIV/AIDS knowledge to prioritize such content in the curriculum is needed. Multiple qualitative methods were collected: individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth-grade students, eight school administrators, 20 community elders as well as field notes, and document analysis. By promoting HIV/AIDS curricula that is responsive to and inclusive of youth cultural beliefs and aligning teaching practice to Ivorian youth cultural interests, there is a chance that HIV/AIDS education could lead to safer sexual behaviors among Ivorian youth. PMID:26099154

  15. Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP): a theoretically based approach for teaching HIV prevention to adolescents through an exploration of popular music.

    PubMed

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann

    2010-05-01

    Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue-student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness.

  16. Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP): A Theoretically Based Approach for Teaching HIV Prevention to Adolescents through an Exploration of Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue–student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness. PMID:20195778

  17. Surgical retained foreign object (RFO) prevention by computer aided detection (CAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marentis, Theodore C.; Hadjiiyski, Lubomir; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Rondon, Lucas; Chronis, Nikolaos; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Surgical Retained Foreign Objects (RFOs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with $1.5 billion annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. We address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three dimensional (3D) Gossypiboma Micro Tag (μTa) that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar 2D depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. We create a database of cadaveric radiographs with the μTag and other common man-made objects positioned randomly. We develop the CAD modules that include preprocessing, μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification and detection. The CAD can operate in a high specificity mode for the surgeon to allow for seamless workflow integration and function as a first reader. The CAD can also operate in a high sensitivity mode for the radiologist to ensure accurate detection. On a data set of 346 cadaveric radiographs, the CAD system performed at a high specificity (85.5% sensitivity, 0.02 FPs/image) for the OR and a high sensitivity (96% sensitivity, 0.73 FPs/image) for the radiologists.

  18. Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Junghanss, Thomas; Bodio, Mauro

    2006-11-15

    Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Geographic distribution, habitats, and circumstances of accidents further reduce the range of culprits that need to be considered in any single event. Clinical management of envenomed patients relies on supportive therapy and, if available, specific antivenoms. Supplies of life-saving antivenoms are scarce, and this scarcity particularly affects rural populations in resource-poor settings. Travel clinics and hospitals in highly industrialized areas predominantly see patients with injuries caused by accidents involving marine animals: in particular, stings by venomous fish and skin damage caused by jellyfish. However, globally, terrestrial venomous snakes are the most important group of venomous animals.

  19. Culture, sexuality, and women's agency in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in southern Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Susser, I; Stein, Z

    2000-01-01

    Using an ethnographic approach, the authors explored the awareness among women in southern Africa of the HIV epidemic and the methods they might use to protect themselves from the virus. The research, conducted from 1992 through 1999, focused specifically on heterosexual transmission in 5 sites that were selected to reflect urban and rural experiences, various populations, and economic and political opportunities for women at different historical moments over the course of the HIV epidemic. The authors found that the female condom and other woman-controlled methods are regarded as culturally appropriate among many men and women in southern Africa and are crucial to the future of HIV/AIDS prevention. The data reported in this article demonstrate that cultural acceptability for such methods among women varies along different axes, both over time and among different populations. For this reason, local circumstances need to be taken into account. Given that women have been clearly asking for protective methods they can use, however, political and economic concerns, combined with historically powerful patterns of gender discrimination and neglect of women's sexuality, must be viewed as the main obstacles to the development and distribution of methods women can control. PMID:10897180

  20. Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J David; Shapiro, Valerie B; Fagan, Abigail A

    2010-01-01

    In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies.

  1. Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies. PMID:21072250

  2. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: Implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20–64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors. PMID:25293869

  3. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors.

  4. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  5. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TWO INTERVENTIONS FOR EDUCATOR TRAINING IN HIV/AIDS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    CHAO, LI-WEI; GOW, JEFF; AKINTOLA, OLAGOKE; PAULY, MARK V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Care & Support Training Programme provided by the Department of Education. The outcomes both before and after the interventions were measured by surveying the educators’ knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS, as well as their self-efficacy with respect to dealing with HIV/AIDS in the classroom setting. Both interventions resulted in significant changes in knowledge and attitudes as well as in the self-efficacy with respect to ability to teach about HIV/AIDS and to deal with classroom situations involving HIV and blood. The Care & Support Training Programme proved superior in enhancing basic knowledge about HIV, and the CD-ROM was superior in teaching about HIV transmission risks. PMID:20852677

  6. U.S. Aid Urged for Education's Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2008-01-01

    With the presidential candidates both underscoring their support for entrepreneurial initiatives in education, policy experts are advancing ideas for helping such efforts flourish. In their October 15 debate at Hofstra University, both Senators John McCain of Arizona and Barack Obama of Illinois used questions on education to talk about school…

  7. Attitudes and practices on HIV preventions among students of higher education institutions in Ethiopia: the case of Addis Ababa University.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Nigatu; Kedir, Seman

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess higher education students' attitudes, their practice on preventive measures against HIV/AIDS; and examined factors affecting attitude and practice of the students related to HIV/AIDS prevention. The 606 study participants were drawn from Addis Ababa University, which is the oldest and biggest public university in Ethiopia, through multistage sampling. Data were collected using survey quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (FGDs), and subsequently, analysis of the data was made through the use of descriptive statistics (Frequency and logistic regression model). The findings of the study revealed that 207 (34.2%) of respondents were sexually active during the survey. Of these, 144 (23.8%) of them had sexual intercourse with their partner or someone in the last 6 months. The mean and median age at first sex debut was computed as 17.8 and 18.0 years respectively. About 489 (80.7%) did not perceive being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. But 65.5% of the respondent had favorable attitude on HIV prevention. 359 (59.2%) of the respondents had experienced at least one of the three HIV prevention practice. Of which, more than half (52.4%) adopted abstinence as top preventive measure. The result also showed that out of the total respondents 47.2% had been tested for HIV/AIDS and more than 80% have willingness to take VCT service for HIV/AIDS. As to the multivariate analysis result; sex, previous residence, religious participation, pornographic viewing, currently alcohol intake, chewing khat and cigarette smoking were found to be determinant of AAU students' attitude on HIV prevention. Similarly, age, having pocket money, pornographic film show and currently khat chewing were determinants of practices on HIV prevention. Finally, based on the findings, the study has forwarded some workable recommendations. PMID:22066302

  8. Increasing the Delivery of Preventive Health Services in Public Education.

    PubMed

    Cruden, Gracelyn; Kelleher, Kelly; Kellam, Sheppard; Brown, C Hendricks

    2016-10-01

    The delivery of prevention services to children and adolescents through traditional healthcare settings is challenging for a variety of reasons. Parent- and community-focused services are typically not reimbursable in traditional medical settings, and personal healthcare services are often designed for acute and chronic medical treatment rather than prevention. To provide preventive services in a setting that reaches the widest population, those interested in public health and prevention often turn to school settings. This paper proposes that an equitable, efficient manner in which to promote health across the life course is to integrate efforts from public health, primary care, and public education through the delivery of preventive healthcare services, in particular, in the education system. Such an integration of systems will require a concerted effort on the part of various stakeholders, as well as a shared vision to promote child health via community and institutional stakeholder partnerships. This paper includes (1) examination of some key system features necessary for delivery of preventive services that improve child outcomes; (2) a review of the features of some common models of school health services for their relevance to prevention services; and (3) policy and implementation strategy recommendations to further the delivery of preventive services in schools. These recommendations include the development of common metrics for health outcomes reporting, facilitated data sharing of these metrics, shared organization incentives for integration, and improved reimbursement and funding opportunities. PMID:27542653

  9. Increasing the Delivery of Preventive Health Services in Public Education.

    PubMed

    Cruden, Gracelyn; Kelleher, Kelly; Kellam, Sheppard; Brown, C Hendricks

    2016-10-01

    The delivery of prevention services to children and adolescents through traditional healthcare settings is challenging for a variety of reasons. Parent- and community-focused services are typically not reimbursable in traditional medical settings, and personal healthcare services are often designed for acute and chronic medical treatment rather than prevention. To provide preventive services in a setting that reaches the widest population, those interested in public health and prevention often turn to school settings. This paper proposes that an equitable, efficient manner in which to promote health across the life course is to integrate efforts from public health, primary care, and public education through the delivery of preventive healthcare services, in particular, in the education system. Such an integration of systems will require a concerted effort on the part of various stakeholders, as well as a shared vision to promote child health via community and institutional stakeholder partnerships. This paper includes (1) examination of some key system features necessary for delivery of preventive services that improve child outcomes; (2) a review of the features of some common models of school health services for their relevance to prevention services; and (3) policy and implementation strategy recommendations to further the delivery of preventive services in schools. These recommendations include the development of common metrics for health outcomes reporting, facilitated data sharing of these metrics, shared organization incentives for integration, and improved reimbursement and funding opportunities.

  10. Prevention Education Effects on Fundamental Memory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Krank, Marvin; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of a key session from a nationally recognized drug abuse prevention program on basic memory processes in 211 high-risk youth in Southern California. In a randomized, between-subject design, the authors manipulated assignment to a Myth and Denial program session and the time of assessment (immediate vs. one-week delay). The authors examined program decay effects on memory accessibility and judgment errors. Those participants exposed to the program session generated more myths and facts from the program than those in the control group, suggesting that even a single program session influenced students’ memory for program information and this was retained at least one week and detectable with indirect tests of memory accessibility. However, consistent with basic research perspectives, participants in the program delayed assessment group erroneously generated more fact-related information from the session to the prompt “It is a myth that_____” than the participants in the program immediate assessment group; that is, they retained more facts as myths. These types of program effects, anticipated by basic memory theory, were not detected with a traditional judgment task in the present sample. The results suggest that basic science approaches offer a novel way of conceptually recasting prevention effects to more completely understand how these effects may operate. Implications for program evaluation and conceptualization are discussed. PMID:22544598

  11. [What happens behind bars: prevention strategies developed in civilian police stations against HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases].

    PubMed

    Reis, Cássia Barbosa; Bernardes, Erica Bento

    2011-07-01

    Brazilian Preventive Healthcare Policy has implemented important strategies to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, there are some individuals that are theoretically not part of society who are catching and transmitting disease, namely prisoners. This population interacts with the community by means of relatives, visitors, prison wardens and repeat incarceration. The scope of this research is to establish the strategies developed to prevent the transmission and dissemination of STD/AIDS in Civil Police stations. A qualitative study was conducted with interns of the public prisons of four cities of the region of Naviraí in Mato Grosso do Sul State, and analysis was applied using the collective subject discourse technique. Results showed that despite acknowledging the importance of prevention, the male condom is only used in the first sexual encounter, and condoms are not used when intercourse is with a steady partner. The lack of orientation in relation to prevention of STD/AIDS is well-known as is the lack of attention to the healthcare of prisoners, due mainly to prejudice and discrimination by society. It was revealed that a healthcare policy for prisoners also needs to be implemented in public prisons.

  12. Continuing Education Credits | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    We are pleased to be able to offer continuing education credits to Registered Dietitians. Registered Dietitians This event is pending for approval by the Commission on Dietetic Registration for 2 CPEUs.  Procedure  Immediately after the event, a link to a short questionnaire will be sent to you by email. Please complete the questionnaire online and print out your certificate of completion.  Please note: You may complete the evaluation and apply for credit after watching the live or archived event.  |

  13. Tobacco Education Curriculum: Kindergarten. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christine K.; And Others

    This teaching guide for a tobacco education curriculum at the kindergarten level is part of a coordinated K-12 educational support program for reducing smoking. It includes a tobacco curriculum matrix for grades K-12, sample teaching methods, concepts and objectives for grades K-3, and a resource materials list. The basic instructional concepts…

  14. Tobacco Education Curriculum: Grade 4. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christine K.; And Others

    This teaching guide for a tobacco education curriculum at the fourth grade level is part of a coordinated K-12 educational support program for reducing smoking. It includes a tobacco curriculum matrix for grades K-12, sample teaching methods, concepts and objectives for grades 4-6, and a resource materials list. The basic instructional concepts…

  15. Tobacco Education Curriculum: Grade 1. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christine K.; And Others

    This teaching guide for a tobacco education curriculum at the first-grade level is a part of a coordinated K-12 educational support program for reducing smoking. It includes a tobacco curriculum matrix for grades K-12, sample teaching methods, concepts and objectives for grades K-3, and a resource materials list. The basic instructional concepts…

  16. Tobacco Education Curriculum: Grade 3. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christine K.; And Others

    This teaching guide for a tobacco education curriculum at the third-grade level is a part of a coordinated K-12 educational support program for reducing smoking. It includes a tobacco curriculum matrix for grades K-12, sample teaching methods, concepts and objectives for grades K-3, and a resource materials list. The basic instructional concepts…

  17. Tobacco Education Curriculum: Grade 5. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christine K.; And Others

    This teaching guide for a tobacco education curriculum at the fifth-grade level is a part of a coordinated K-12 educational support program for reducing smoking. It includes a tobacco curriculum matrix for grades K-12, sample teaching methods, concepts and objectives for grades 4-6, and a resource list. The basic instructional concepts for the…

  18. Tobacco Education Curriculum: Grade 6. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christine K.; And Others

    This teaching guide for a tobacco education curriculum at the sixth-grade level is a part of a coordinated K-12 educational support program for reducing smoking. It includes a tobacco curriculum matrix for grades K-12, sample teaching methods, concepts and objectives for grades 4-6, and a resource materials list. The basic instructional concepts…

  19. A Multimedia Approach for Providing Financial Aid Information in Higher Education: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Millions of current and prospective college students fail to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) annually for a number of reasons. One common obstacle students face is the complexity of the FAFSA which prevents students from completing the federal application. This study examined whether or not a multimedia tutorial can…

  20. The Development of a Health Promotion Workbook for AIDS Education Programs. Curriculum and Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Stephen; Baskett, Morris

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable health promotion workbook to assist staff and volunteers of the AIDS Calgary Awareness Association in the systematic design, development, administration, and evaluation of preventive health promotion programs. Information was gleaned from a review of health promotion, social marketing,…

  1. Youth and HIV/AIDS Resources for Educators, Policymakers, and Parents, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This resource directory provides information about technical assistance resources and educational materials that can guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention education programs for school-age youth. It also includes educational materials…

  2. Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad: empowerment participatory education for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, C; Choi-Hevel, S; Clawson, M

    2001-10-01

    To be effective, HIV/AIDS interventions must be culturally and linguistically appropriate and must occur within the context of the specific community in which they are delivered. In this article, the development of a culture-specific lay health advisor (LHA) program, Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad, for recently immigrated Mexicans is described. This program is one component of a collaborative inquiry research project involving community participants and researchers working as partners in carrying out and assessing a program for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The collaborative inquiry process was applied as an empowerment philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire and an ecological framework was used for the development of Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad. The use of principles of empowerment for curriculum development, teaching methodology, and program delivery are described.

  3. Undergraduate mental health nursing education in Australia: More than Mental Health First Aid.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge. PMID:26775530

  4. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  5. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  6. A cross-sectional study to assess knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the worker population was amongst the most affected groups. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador. Methods A cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 115 companies (1,732 workers), stratified by three large provinces and working sectors (commerce, manufacturing and real estate) was conducted. A validated instrument developed by Family Health International was used to evaluate HIV prevention knowledge and common local misconceptions about HIV transmission. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed using SAS. Results Incorrect knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission were found in 49.1% (95% CI: 46.6–51.6) of subjects. Incorrect knowledge was higher among males (OR = 1.73 [1.39–2.15]), older subjects (OR = 1.35 [1.02–1.77]), subjects with lower education (OR = 3.72 [2.44–5.65]), manual labor workers (OR = 2.93 [1.82–4.73]) and subjects without previous exposure to HIV intervention programs (OR = 2.26 [1.79–2.86]). Incorrect knowledge about preventive measures was found among 32.9% (95%CI: 30.6–35.2) of respondents. This proportion was higher among subjects with lower education (OR = 2.28 [1.52–3.43]), married subjects (OR = 1.34 [1.07–1.68]), manual labor workers (OR = 1.80 [1.34–2.42]), and subjects not previously exposed to HIV intervention programs (OR = 1.44 [1.14–1.83]). Conclusions HIV intervention programs targeting company workers are urgently needed to improve knowledge and reduce HIV transmission in Ecuador. PMID:23410074

  7. Risk and Protective Factors for HIV/AIDS in Native Americans: Implications for Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Mary Kate

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has steadily increased in Native American and Alaska Native populations, and despite efforts at control many challenges remain. This article examines historical, biological, social, and behavioral cofactors related to the spread of HIV/AIDS within the context of Native American culture. Special attention is given to vulnerable subgroups…

  8. The UCSF AIDS Health Project Guide to Counseling: Perspectives on Psychotherapy, Prevention, and Therapeutic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, James W., Ed.; Marks, Robert, Ed.

    The University of California San Francisco AIDS Health Project has more than 15 years' experience in working with thousands of people with AIDS. This guide, developed by the Project, provides practical, state-of-the-art resources in the field. Part 1, "Risk and Behavior: Helping Clients Remain Uninfected," covers the following topics: (1) "HIV…

  9. Social Change Communication: Need of the Hour for the Prevention of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Haresh; Gopal, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    For the last three decades or so, we all have been living with the pandemic of HIV and AIDS. Human behaviour is complex; widespread behaviour changes are challenging to achieve. Understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission can not be separated from an understanding of the broader context of poverty, inequality and social exclusion which create conditions where unsafe behaviour flourishes. HIV/AIDS is not a mere health issue: its occurrence is influenced by a number of socio-economic, cultural and ecological determinants. Social change communication is an inclusive way of responding to HIV/AIDS issues. Social change communication can tackle structural drivers of the HIV epidemic, with a particular focus on the drivers of gender inequality, stigma and discrimination, and human rights violations. Social change communication is bound to emerge as the vaccine and panacea for HIV and AIDS. Keywords HIV; AIDS; Behaviour; Social change communication PMID:22457697

  10. Assessing organizational effectiveness in higher education drug prevention consortia.

    PubMed

    Sheldon-Keller, A E; Lloyd-McGarvey, E; Canterbury, R J

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-three consortia of institutions of higher education, organized under funding from the Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE) Drug Prevention Programs of the Department of Education, were surveyed to measure organizational effectiveness. Generalized satisfaction with the functioning of the consortia was related to the number of active members, the average miles traveled to meetings, satisfaction with performance of task functions, members' roles, the level of trust among members and the level of creativity and innovation in problem-solving. Satisfaction with goal attainment was significantly related to the presence of at least one "internal" goal for the consortium.

  11. From 'what' to 'how' -- capacity building in health promotion for HIV/AIDS prevention in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; MacLaren, David; Isihanua, Angela; MacLaren, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a capacity building process undertaken within the HIV/AIDS prevention project of the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) in the Solomon Islands. ADRA HIV/AIDS has recently reoriented its project structure, moving beyond its awareness raising approach to incorporate health promotion frameworks, theories, strategies and assumptions. These have been used to inform project practice in project planning, delivery and evaluation. This paper shares what has worked and not worked in the capacity building process, including a project evaluation of the initial HIV/AIDS awareness raising project and the application of a number of capacity building strategies, including utilising a volunteer Australian Youth Ambassador for Development (AYAD) funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). Existing and new projects are outlined. The underlying theme is that any capacity building exercise must include structural support (e.g. management, national frameworks) to ensure the incorporation of new initiatives and approaches. With time this enables ownership by counterparts and external partnerships to develop. The presence of an AYAD volunteer has been an effective strategy to achieve this. Reflections from the evaluators, the AYAD volunteer and the HIV/AIDS team are included. PMID:19588619

  12. Drug Education Curriculum: Grade Two. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  13. Comparison of Two Educational Strategies in Teaching Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup-Benham, Christine A.; And Others

    This study assessed the impact of two educational strategies: text only versus text plus small group discussion, among two groups of third-year internal medicine clerkship students in a preventive cardiology course. The course was a required, 12-week Internal Medical clerkship at the University of Texas Medical Branch. The first group reviewed…

  14. Minority Families Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parenting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Carmen P.

    The main purpose of Avance-San Antonio, Inc. is to strengthen and support families, especially "high risk" Mexican American families, and to help to prevent child abuse and neglect through parenting education services. Avance actively reaches out to the Hispanic population in their own neighborhoods through door-to-door recruiting, flyers, and…

  15. HIV Prevention in Schools: A Tool Kit for Education Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Surgeon General (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This packet of materials is Phase 1 of a toolkit designed to enlighten education leaders about the need for HIV prevention for youth, especially in communities of color. One element of the toolkit is a VHS videotape that features a brief message from former Surgeon General, Dr. David Satcher. The toolkit also includes a copy of a letter sent to…

  16. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  17. Faculty Perceptions of Their Roles in Alcohol Education/Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Katherine Ott; Paulo, Jonathan R.; Polacek, Georgia N. L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students continues to be a major public health threat to our nation. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in alcohol education and prevention. The researchers adapted the Core Faculty and Staff Environmental Alcohol and Other Drug Survey to include only questions…

  18. Preventing Behaviour Problems: What Works. Educational Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Sharon, L.; Brennan, Patricia; Biglan, Anthony; Wang, Linna; al-Ghaith, Saud

    This booklet is the eighth in a series on educational practices that generally improve learning. The booklet explains principles for preventing a wide variety of youth problems ranging from discourtesy to serious life-threatening behavior such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and violence. The discussion of each principle includes a summary of research…

  19. Engaging Community-Based Organizations in Fall Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, B. Josea; Vivrette, Rebecca L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

    2011-01-01

    Falls are a major public health problem for older adults, and community-based organizations play a key role in educating seniors about falls prevention (FP). We conducted a qualitative process evaluation at six sites to report community-based centers' perspectives on adoption, adaptation, and sustainability of an evidence-based multifactorial FP…

  20. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect through Parent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon; Britner, Preston A.; Woolard, Jennifer L.

    In 1993, the Community Research Group (CRG) at the University of Virginia was provided the opportunity to gather systematic information on parent education and family support programs for the prevention of abuse and neglect throughout Virginia. Based on the group's research into 25 distinct parenting programs, this book outlines an empowering…