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Sample records for aids related sclerosing

  1. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  2. First case of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Hironori; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Takezawa, Miyoko; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2014-07-14

    To our knowledge, patients with immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) have not been reported previously. Many patients with IgG4-SC have autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and respond to steroid treatment. However, isolated cases of IgG4-SC are difficult to diagnose. We describe our experience with a patient who had IgG4-SC without AIP in whom the presence of AIHA led to diagnosis. The patient was a 73-year-old man who was being treated for dementia. Liver dysfunction was diagnosed on blood tests at another hospital. Imaging studies suggested the presence of carcinoma of the hepatic hilus and primary sclerosing cholangitis, but a rapidly progressing anemia developed simultaneously. After the diagnosis of AIHA, steroid treatment was begun, and the biliary stricture improved. IgG4-SC without AIP was thus diagnosed.

  3. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Sclerosing Disease Involving the Urethra: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Kyung Chul; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease is a systemic disease characterized by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration in various organs. We described the imaging findings of an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor in the urethra. The urethral mass showed isoattenuation on unenhanced CT images, delayed enhancement on enhanced CT images, iso- to slight hyper-intensity on T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance images, diffusion restriction on diffusion weighted images, and heterogeneously low echogeneity on ultrasonography. PMID:23118580

  4. Intrathoracic Involvements of Immunoglobulin G4-Related Sclerosing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yunyun; Shi, Juhong; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yu; Feng, Ruie; Wu, Qingjun; Gao, Xin; Xu, Wenbing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate clinical and radiological features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) patients with intrathoracic involvement. A prospective cohort study was performed and IgG4-RD patients were enrolled from January 2011 to March 2015 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, in which the clinical and radiological characteristics of IgG4-RD patients with intrathoracic involvement were summarized. Out of total 248 cases with IgG4-RD, 87 cases had intrathoracic lesions, including 58 male cases and 29 female cases, with average age of 54.19 ± 13.80 years. Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were the most common manifestations of IgG4-related intrathoracic disease, accounting for 52.9% (46/87). Other imaging findings of pulmonary disease included: solid nodular (25.3%), round-shaped ground-glass opacities (9.2%), alveolar-interstitial type (20.7%), bronchovascular type (23.0%), pleural effusion (4.6%), and pleural nodules or thickening (16.1%). Only 27 patients presented with respiratory symptoms, including cough, breathless, chest pain, and asthma. Compared with patients without intrathoracic disease, IgG4-related intrathoracic disease had higher IgG4 and C-reactive protein level, and higher incidence of allergy, fever, and multi-organ involvement. Most of lung interstitial disease, mediastinal mass, and bronchial thickening were sensitive to corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy, while 36.3% (8/22) of solitary nodular lesions were unresponsive to treatment. Eight patients were on no treatment, with 5 cases remained stable, 2 patients improved spontaneously, and 1 patient was lost follow-up. Intrathoracic lesions are not rare in patients with IgG4-RD, involving bronchial thickening, nodules, ground glass opacity, pleural thickening/effusion, lymphadenopathy, etc. Efficacy of corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy were noted in most of patients with lung interstitial disease, mediastinal mass, and bronchial thickening. PMID:26683924

  5. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis.

    PubMed

    Eliot, Colin A; Smith, Alice B; Foss, Robert D

    2012-06-01

    A 25-year-old female presented with a well-defined, painless mass of 1 year's duration in the right parotid gland. MR imaging revealed a relatively well-circumscribed lesion involving the deep and superficial lobes of the right parotid gland. Histologic examination of the resection resulted in a diagnosis of sclerosing polycystic adenosis, a rare benign salivary gland entity of presumed non-neoplastic origin. The clinical, radiographic, and morphologic features of sclerosing polycystic adenosis are discussed.

  6. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  7. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    SSPE; Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis; Dawson's encephalitis ... Maldonado YA. Rubeola virus (measles and subacute sclerosing ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 227. ...

  8. Sclerosing Lesions of the Orbit: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lokdarshi, Gautam; Pushker, Neelam; Bajaj, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Orbital sclerosing inflammation is a distinct group of pathologies characterized by indolent growth with minimal or no signs of inflammation. However, contrary to earlier classifications, it should not be considered a chronic stage of acute inflammation. Although rare, orbital IgG4-related disease has been associated with systemic sclerosing pseudotumor-like lesions. Possible mechanisms include autoimmune and IgG4 related defective clonal proliferation. Currently, there is no specific treatment protocol for IgG4-related disease although the response to low dose steroid provides a good response as compared to non-IgG4 sclerosing pseudotumor. Specific sclerosing inflammations (e.g. Wegener's disease, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome) and neoplasms (lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma) should be ruled out before considering idiopathic sclerosing inflammation as a diagnosis.

  9. Sclerosing Lesions of the Orbit: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lokdarshi, Gautam; Pushker, Neelam; Bajaj, Mandeep S.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital sclerosing inflammation is a distinct group of pathologies characterized by indolent growth with minimal or no signs of inflammation. However, contrary to earlier classifications, it should not be considered a chronic stage of acute inflammation. Although rare, orbital IgG4-related disease has been associated with systemic sclerosing pseudotumor-like lesions. Possible mechanisms include autoimmune and IgG4 related defective clonal proliferation. Currently, there is no specific treatment protocol for IgG4-related disease although the response to low dose steroid provides a good response as compared to non-IgG4 sclerosing pseudotumor. Specific sclerosing inflammations (e.g. Wegener's disease, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome) and neoplasms (lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma) should be ruled out before considering idiopathic sclerosing inflammation as a diagnosis. PMID:26692715

  10. Immunoglobulin G4–related sclerosing disease of the paranasal sinuses: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) related sclerosing disease (RSD) of the paranasal sinuses is a rare lesion of dense lymphoplasmacytic tissue, with a high proportion of IgG4+ plasma cells. We presented a rare case of IgG4-RSD with isolated involvement of the paranasal sinuses in the absence of multiorgan involvement. Methods: A case report and comprehensive literature review. Results: To our knowledge, only 11 cases of IgG4-RSD with paranasal sinus involvement have been reported. Patients with IgG4-RSD commonly present with epistaxis and symptoms that mimic chronic rhinosinusitis, e.g., rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, and facial pressure. On imaging, an expansive and erosive process is described. Surgery provides tissue for immunohistologic evaluation; however, there is a paucity of evidence about the direct extent of surgical resection or medical therapies. Postoperative steroids were typically started, although the regimen was not standardized. Conclusion: Few cases of paranasal sinus IgG4-RSD have been reported in the literature. Evidence-based recommendations regarding treatment and surveillance of paranasal sinus IgG4-RSD are lacking; however, most reports describe systemic steroids as the mainstay of treatment. This single subject analysis, with a review of previously reported cases adds to the expanding body of data related to this rare disorder.

  11. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  12. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  13. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

  14. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Tinckler, Laurence

    1971-01-01

    The literature on the subject of sclerosing cholangitis is reviewed. The value of conserving the gall bladder, of operative cholangiography and of the administration of steroids in the management of these patients is emphasized. PMID:4947701

  15. Suicide in Relation to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckerman, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Explores many dimensions of suicide among the terminally ill, including preemptive, surcease, and rational suicide. The critical issues addressed are the incidence of suicide in HIV-positive individuals, contributing factors associated with the risk of suicide among people with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical and ethical implications of this issue for…

  16. Immunoglobulin G4+ B‐cell receptor clones distinguish immunoglobulin G 4‐related disease from primary sclerosing cholangitis and biliary/pancreatic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Doorenspleet, Marieke E.; Hubers, Lowiek M.; Culver, Emma L.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J.; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; Chapman, Roger W.; Baas, Frank; van de Graaf, Stan F.; Verheij, Joanne; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Barnes, Eleanor; de Vries, Niek

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)‐related disease (IgG4‐RD) of the biliary tree and pancreas is difficult to distinguish from sclerosing cholangitis and biliary/pancreatic malignancies (CA). An accurate noninvasive test for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity is lacking. We demonstrate that dominant IgG4+ B‐cell receptor (BCR) clones determined by next‐generation sequencing accurately distinguish patients with IgG4‐associated cholangitis/autoimmune pancreatitis (n = 34) from those with primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 17) and CA (n = 17). A novel, more affordable, and widely applicable quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol analyzing the IgG4/IgG RNA ratio in blood also achieves excellent diagnostic accuracy (n = 125). Moreover, this qPCR test performed better than serum IgG4 levels in sensitivity (94% vs. 86%) and specificity (99% vs. 73%) and correlates with treatment response (n = 20). Conclusions: IgG4+ BCR clones and IgG4/IgG RNA ratio markedly improve delineation, early diagnosis, and monitoring of IgG4‐RD of the biliary tree and pancreas. (Hepatology 2016;64:501‐507) PMID:27015613

  17. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  18. Relative Atomic Mass Scale: A Teaching Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Erwin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Proposes the use of a relative atomic mass (RAM) scale in which hydrogen is assigned a value from one as a teaching aid for better understanding the concept of RAM. Helps to clarify the ideas and concepts about this topic. (CW)

  19. A difficult airway in a patient with nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gist, Richard S; Miller, David W; Warren, Ty

    2010-02-01

    Nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis (dermopathy) is a relatively rare complication of long-term renal dialysis. The syndrome includes marked thickening of the skin and diffuse fibrosis of fascia, muscle, heart, and lungs, leading to contractures of the joints and limbs and cardiopulmonary compromise. We present the case of a 29-year-old woman who required emergent intubation because of respiratory compromise, and who had had normal airway examinations and intubations before the onset of nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis symptoms.

  20. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services. METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26538100

  1. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Joy; Chapman, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterised by inflammation and fibrosis of the biliary tree. The mean age at diagnosis is 40 years and men are affected twice as often as women. There is a reported annual incidence of PSC of 0.9–1.31/100,000 and point prevalence of 8.5–13.6/100,000. The onset of PSC is usually insidious and many patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis or have mild symptoms only such as fatigue, abdominal discomfort and pruritus In late stages, splenomegaly and jaundice may be a feature. In most, the disease progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure. Cholangiocarcinoma develops in 8–30% of patients. PSC is thought to be immune mediated and is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. The disease is diagnosed on typical cholangiographic and histological findings and after exclusion of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Median survival has been estimated to be 12 years from diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Patients who are asymptomatic at diagnosis, the majority of whom will develop progressive disease, have a survival rate greater than 70% at 16 years after diagnosis. Liver transplantation remains the only effective therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease from PSC, although high dose ursodeoxycholic acid may have a beneficial effect. PMID:17062136

  2. Aids-Related Cancers in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2014-07-01

    Thank you Professor Zichichi for inviting me to give a talk about AIDS-related cancers in Africa. Let me begin by congratulating the team that organized the 46th Session of the Erice International Seminar Series, whose theme is THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM. I also congratulate the scientists from 38 countries who are attending these seminars. They are perpetuating the principle of SCIENCE WITHOUT SECRETS in the true spirit espoused by Archimedes, Galileo, and Fermi. It is a wonderful honor for me to be here to shed some light on the health impacts of the HIV epidemic in the area of cancer...

  3. Gene Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-29

    AIDS-Related Burkitt Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Plasmablastic Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Primary Effusion Lymphoma; HIV Infection; AIDS Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  4. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abdulqader, Yasir; Chuang, Keng-Yu; Ravi, Jyotsna

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis that manifested itself during pregnancy. A tentative diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was considered, but after her third delivery, a liver biopsy and imaging, as well as review of past records, confirmed the diagnosis of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Maternal and fetal outcomes of primary sclerosis cholangitis have been reported, and this case highlights the importance of considering other diseases besides the benign intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy as a cause of cholestasis in pregnancy.

  5. Physicians mutual aid group: a response to AIDS-related burnout.

    PubMed

    Garside, B

    1993-11-01

    Physicians providing primary health care to people with AIDS are exposed to the same stressful experiences as other AIDS caregivers. Although mutual aid groups have proved useful in relieving stress for AIDS caregivers in general, physicians as a professional group present particular problems that impede their access to mutual aid. This article describes the origins and functioning of a physician's mutual aid group facilitated by the author. It offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were found helpful in facilitating participants' ability to share emotional stresses within the group. The commitment of the physicians to the group over a prolonged period and their own testimony indicate that with appropriate facilitation, physicians under stress from providing care to people with AIDS can benefit from the experience of mutual aid that has been so beneficial to other caregivers.

  6. Certified Nurses' Aide Job-Related Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This document, which is designed for students preparing to become a certified nurses' aide, contains instructional text and learning activities organized in nine sections. The following topics are covered: the role of the certified nurse's aide (job duties, personal health, professionalism, code of ethics); infection control (the infection…

  7. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman O.

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and non-specific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%), distension (44.9%) or a mass (30.5%). Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2%) without postoperative complications (88.1%). PMID:27226904

  8. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marina G; Lindor, Keith D

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in end-stage liver disease and reduced life expectancy. PSC primarily affects young and middle-aged men, often in association with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of PSC includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. A cholestatic picture of liver biochemistries with elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase, nonspecific autoantibodies such as perinuclear antineutrophilic antibody, antinuclear antibodies and smooth muscle antibodies, and diffuse multifocal biliary strictures, resulting in a ‘beaded’ appearance on radiographic studies, are the hallmarks of the disease. No effective medical therapy is currently available, although clinical studies are in progress. Ursodeoxycholic acid at high doses (28 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day) is the most promising agent but is unproven so far. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapy for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrent disease can be observed in the transplanted liver. The multiple complications of PSC include pruritus, fatigue, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, peristomal varices, bacterial cholangitis, dominant biliary strictures, gallbladder stones and polyps, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of PSC. PMID:18701947

  9. [PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS

    PubMed

    Dantas, Waldomiro

    2000-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic and progressive disease, of unknown etiology, characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary tree. Two thirds of the patients have, simultaneously, ulcerative colitis (UC); on the other hand, PSC is the most common chronic hepatic disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients who have both diseases simultaneously are prone to develop colorectal carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. The disease predominantly affects young men, may be asymptomatic or presented as fluctuating jaundice, pruritus and increased levels of the cholestasis biochemical markers, or as secondary billiary cirrhosis. The diagnostic gold standard are the cholangiographic abnormalities, consisting of multifocal stenosis and dilatations, involving both the intrahepatic and the extrahepatic biliary tree. Liver biopsy is useful only for staging the disease and to confirm the diagnosis, in the atypical forms. Ursodeoxycholic acid is a promising drug, nowadays, mainly in the first stages of the disease, in spite of doubtful efficacy. Combination therapy, using ursodeoxicolic acid, methotrexate and alternating antibiotics monthly may be sucessfull in PSC before bile strictures occur. Liver transplantation is the only life-saving therapeutic alternative, able to improve significantly the survival and the life quality of the patients. PMID:12140588

  10. Cellular and humoral immunity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Dhib-Jalbut, S S; Abdelnoor, A M; Haddad, F S

    1981-01-01

    Cellular and humoral immunity was studied in 26 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Results were compared with those of 14 normal controls and 11 patients suffering from other neurological disorders. It was shown that cellular and humoral immune responses are adequate in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The persistently elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA indicated a persistent infection, and their progressive rise in later stages correlated with the progressive nature of the illness. IgG progressively increased with the clinical stage in the cerebrospinal fluid unaccompanied by a corresponding rise in the measles antibody titer. This suggests that antigenic determinants other than those tested play a role in the production of IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid. The progressive increase in the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid to serum IgG with the advance of the disease suggests synthesis of IgG locally in the central nervous system. Elevated measles antibody titer in serum and cerebrospinal fluid is a consistent aid in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. It is more specific in cerebrospinal fluid than in serum. Its level did not vary significantly with the clinical stages or duration of illness. Depressed serum complement activity has been detected in some subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients in whom serum levels of the third and fourth components of the complement were normal. PMID:6973545

  11. IgG4(+) plasma cells in sclerosing variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Yakirevich, Evgeny; Matoso, Andres; Gnepp, Douglas R

    2012-07-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing disease is a recently described syndrome with unique histologic features characterized by intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with increased IgG4 plasma cells and dense stromal sclerosis. The disease spectrum frequently includes benign inflammatory diseases, such as autoimmune pancreatitis, cholangitis, and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (CSS). Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary malignancy in the salivary gland. The rare sclerosing variant of MEC is characterized by dense stromal sclerosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Our goal was to further characterize lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with respect to IgG4 expression. Six sclerosing MECs from our pathology service over the past 20 years were selected. In addition, 11 regular MECs with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, 4 CSS cases, and 12 nonsclerosing chronic sialadenitis cases were evaluated. None of the sclerosing MEC patients had IgG4-related sclerosing disease. The absolute number of IgG4 plasma cells was significantly increased in sclerosing MEC as compared with the regular type (75 vs. 20 per image field; P<0.05). Furthermore, the proportion of IgG4/IgG plasma cells was markedly elevated in sclerosing MEC as compared with the regular type (46.5% vs. 17%; P<0.05). In CSS, IgG4/IgG ratio was significantly increased as compared with nonsclerosing chronic sialadenitis (54% vs. 6.73%; P<0.01). This study is the first to demonstrate increased IgG4 plasma cells in sclerosing MEC. The association of elevated IgG4 plasma cells with increased fibrosis in the sclerosing variant of MEC suggests a role of IgG4 plasma cells in fibrogenesis and may be a new concept related to sclerosis in cancer.

  12. Phototherapy for sclerosing skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Teske, Noelle M; Jacobe, Heidi T

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is an effective treatment strategy for a variety of sclerosing skin conditions. There are a number of phototherapeutic modalities used for the treatment of sclerosing skin conditions, including ultraviolet (UV)A1, broadband UVA, psoralen plus UVA, and narrowband UVB phototherapy. As controlled trials with validated outcome measures are lacking for these therapies, existing evidence is largely level II for morphea and is even more minimal for scleroderma and other sclerosing disorders (scleroderma, lichen sclerosus, and chronic graft-versus-host disease, among others). Studies do suggest that phototherapy may be effective for many of these disorders, including those that have been unresponsive to other therapies. Phototherapy remains an attractive therapeutic option for patients due to its efficacy and favorable risk-versus-benefit profile. Phototherapy also offers a therapeutic alternative to systemic immunosuppressives for patients who cannot tolerate these medications. PMID:27638441

  13. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abdulqader, Yasir; Chuang, Keng-Yu; Ravi, Jyotsna; Nadir, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis that manifested itself during pregnancy. A tentative diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was considered, but after her third delivery, a liver biopsy and imaging, as well as review of past records, confirmed the diagnosis of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Maternal and fetal outcomes of primary sclerosis cholangitis have been reported, and this case highlights the importance of considering other diseases besides the benign intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy as a cause of cholestasis in pregnancy. PMID:27622193

  14. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abdulqader, Yasir; Chuang, Keng-Yu; Ravi, Jyotsna

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis that manifested itself during pregnancy. A tentative diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was considered, but after her third delivery, a liver biopsy and imaging, as well as review of past records, confirmed the diagnosis of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Maternal and fetal outcomes of primary sclerosis cholangitis have been reported, and this case highlights the importance of considering other diseases besides the benign intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy as a cause of cholestasis in pregnancy. PMID:27622193

  15. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephelitis in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Vidya S; Sawarkar, Ravindra; Dhekne, Dayanad; Hedau, Mayur; Kadu, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare delayed complication of measles virus infection in infancy. We present here 7 month pregnant lady who had SSPE. She delivered low birth-weight baby prematurely which died on 3rd day of delivery. Patient died due to sepsis one month after admission. PMID:27604439

  16. Physicians Mutual Aid Group: A Response to AIDS-Related Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Describes origins and functioning of physician's mutual aid group for physicians providing primary care to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were helpful in facilitating participants' ability…

  17. Treatment and related AIDS email lists.

    PubMed

    John, J S

    1999-12-01

    There are a number of email lists or ¿listserves' which allow people with similar interests to share information online. The article provides an introduction to this forum and topics include types of lists, email filters, and writing etiquette. Major AIDS treatment lists are also described and details include the type of site information, a web site address by which to subscribe, and projected number of messages one will receive per day. Contact information is provided for further information and other listserves. PMID:11367129

  18. Possible development of idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, H; Kusunoki, M; Yamamura, T

    1999-01-01

    We report a rare case of idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). During a laparotomy before undergoing a distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction for early gastric cancer, the patient was found to have a membranous encapsulation wrapping each small bowel loop, unlike peritoneal encapsulation or typical SEP. He had complained of persistent heartburn, distension and diarrhea for 2 months in the post-operative course. The second laparotomy, which was performed to improve prolonged transit, revealed typical SEP with a thick and fibrotic membrane that encased the small bowel entirely. Stripping of the sclerosing encasing membrane, separation of the adherent loops of the proximal small bowel, and Braun's anastomosis were performed. The patient complained of epigastric fullness and diarrhea after he was relieved from the complete bowel obstruction for 45 days post-operatively. Trimebutine maleate was administrated 5 months after the second operation and this markedly improved his symptoms. This case might reflect the developmental process of idiopathic SEP. In addition, the use of a motility regulator may improve symptoms related to the abnormal intestinal motility by this disease. PMID:10228820

  19. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of. PMID:26923156

  20. Extramarital relations and perceptions of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    1994-10-01

    Data from a 1991 survey of five Nigerian towns are used to examine currently married men's and women's perceptions of AIDS which, together with other socioeconomic factors, are then related to extramarital sexual behaviour. An overwhelming majority of the respondents have accurate information about AIDS. In particular, most associate HIV/AIDS transmission with multiple sexual partners, though only one-third of them think that the fear of AIDS has limited casual sex in their communities. About 54 per cent of men and 39 per cent of women have had extramarital relations, with 18 per cent of men and 11 per cent of women having done so in the previous week. The incidence of extramarital relations varies considerably by respondents' level of education, type of marriage, religion, and spousal closeness. More importantly, knowledge of multiple sexual partners as a risk factor for HIV/AIDS is inversely related to extramarital affairs. The study underscores the link between knowledge and behaviour, and calls for a well-articulated campaign designed to educate the populace about the threat of AIDS, with the aim of modifying both premarital and extramarital sexual behaviour, thereby reducing the risk factor for HIV through heterosexual relations which is the main mode of transmission in Nigeria.

  1. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    de Vicente, Juan Carlos; López-Arranz, Elena; García, Juan; López-Arranz, Juan Sebastián

    2003-07-01

    Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner's tumor) is a benign and chronic inflammatory condition of the submandibular gland that clinically cannot be easily distinguished from salivary malignant neoplasia. This is a report of a case of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis located as a solitary mass in an accessory parotid gland.

  2. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: a heterogenous disease.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, H H; Pitt, H A; Tompkins, R K; Longmire, W P

    1982-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 37 patients diagnosed as having primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) were reviewed. Sixty-two per cent were men, and 35% had ulcerative colitis. The patients demonstrated considerable variability in their natural history and pathology. It appeared that they could be divided into four fairly distant groups (1) sclerosing cholangitis affecting primarily the distal common bile duct; (2) sclerosing cholangitis occurring soon after an attack of acute necrotizing cholangitis; (3) chronic diffuse sclerosing cholangitis; and (4) chronic diffuse sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. It is suggested that the patients in these groups may have different etiologies, may respond to different treatment regimes, and may have different prognoses. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2a and b. Figs. 3a and b. Figs. 3a and b. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:7092362

  3. Sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garré periostitis ossificans.

    PubMed

    Belli, Evaristo; Matteini, Claudio; Andreano, Tiziana

    2002-11-01

    Sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garré is a rare syndrome; the mandible is the most commonly affected bone segment in the cervicofacial region. This chronic disease is characterized by a nonsuppurative ossifying periostitis with subperiosteal bone formation, commonly reactive to a mild infection or irritation. The differential diagnosis must be made with similar clinical conditions with hard mandibular swelling associated with bony sclerosis. Presumptive diagnosis can be achieved by radiology, but such diagnosis must be confirmed by histology. The aim of therapy is to remove the cause when recognized, aided by an adequate antibiotic therapy. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic features are presented in this case report.

  4. Genetic epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Tom H; Schrumpf, Erik; Boberg, Kirsten Muri

    2007-01-01

    The aetiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is not known. A more than 80-fold increased risk of PSC among first-degree relatives emphasizes the importance of genetic factors. Genetic associations within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex on chromosome 6p21 were detected in PSC 25 years ago. Subsequent studies have substantiated beyond doubt that one or more genetic variants located within this genetic region are important. The true identities of these variants, however, remain to be identified. Several candidate genes at other chromosomal loci have also been investigated. However, according to strict criteria for what may be denominated a susceptibility gene in complex diseases, no such gene exists for PSC today. This review summarises present knowledge on the genetic susceptibility to PSC, as well as genetic associations with disease progression and clinical subsets of particular interest (inflammatory bowel disease and cholangiocarcinoma). PMID:17907284

  5. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kloppenborg, R P; Sepmeijer, J W; Sie-Go, D M D S; de Ru, J A; Slootweg, P J

    2006-01-01

    About 70 to 80 percent of all salivary gland neoplasms, the majority of which are benign, arise in the parotid gland. Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis (SPA) is a relatively unknown and newly described entity that is considered to be benign in nature. A 55-year-old patient was treated for SPA in our hospital. The diagnostic work-up consisted of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and histological examination. However, in our case, both the cytological appearance, which usually has a high accuracy in discriminating benign from malignant lesions, and the appearance on MR images, mimicked a malignant tumour. This case report illustrates the importance of an adequate histological confirmation of the work-up diagnosis.

  6. Radio station acceptance of AIDS-related advertising messages.

    PubMed

    Rotfeld, H J; Abernethy, A M

    1991-06-01

    Survey responses were received from the managers of 630 radio stations, who reported which type of AIDS-related commercials or public service announcements they are willing to accept for broadcast. The authors examine whether the public interest can outweigh fear of offending audience segments and discuss ways health education planners can increase acceptance of AIDS-related commercials. For planning a public health campaign, both the number and types of stations that will accept various public health messages are important if the messages are to reach high risk demographic groups. PMID:10111400

  7. Bibliography on AIDS-related bereavement and grief.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, J P; Handley, P R

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on AIDS-related bereavement and grief was compiled to address a steadily increasing population: survivors of persons who have died of AIDS. Bibliographical entries were located by searching printed indexes, including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Hospital Literature Index, Index Medicus, International Nursing Index, Psychological Abstracts, Social Science Index, Social Work Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Databases searched included ERIC (Department of Education), Med-Line (National Library of Medicine), and Psych-Lit (American Psychological Association). References cited at the end of each work were also checked. This bibliography includes publications of studies using the survey method of social research and the case-study approach. It also includes experiences of professionals personally affected by the loss of someone to AIDS, and informational articles and chapters. To be included in this bibliography the work must have dealt exclusively or largely with the topic of AIDS-related bereavement and grief, or it must have addressed some aspect of it not previously covered anywhere in the literature. The topic of AIDS-related bereavement and grief refers to the loss of someone to (or with, as is the case with suicide) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and its psychological, emotional, physical, and social effects on the survivor(s). This bibliography does not include publications that deal with related topics such as thanatology, anticipatory grief and mourning, and mortality rates and trends. This work is meant to serve as a resource for professionals in a variety of fields (e.g., nursing, pastoral care, mental health, and social work) involved in social research, bereavement counseling, ministry, and group intervention. It can be useful as a literature search for students in a variety of disciplines and for the AIDS-bereaved themselves. The bibliography is accompanied by an overview of the current

  8. First Aid for Sports-Related Dental Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaldi, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Sports-related dental injuries are common but first aid is usually performed by non-dental personnel. This article describes basic procedures to be followed in order to diagnose the type and severity of the injury and to determine whether emergency treatment is required. Prevention of dental injuries is addressed. (Author/MT)

  9. The AIDS-related activities of religious leaders in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    TRINTAPOLI, J.

    2010-01-01

    The AIDS-related activities of religious leaders in Africa extend far beyond preaching about sexual mortality. This study aims to quantify the involvement of religious leaders in the fight against AIDS and to identify key predictors of the types of prevention strategies they promote. Using data from a random sample of Christian and Muslim leaders in Malawi, I use logistic regression to predict six types of AIDS activities, which correspond to three distinct types: formal messages (i.e., preaching), pragmatic interventions (monitoring the sexual behaviour of members and advising divorce to avoid infection), and the promotion of biomedical prevention strategies (promoting condom use and testing for HIV). Preaching about AIDS is the most common prevention activity, and promoting condom use is the least; sizable proportions of clergy promote testing and engage in pragmatic interventions. Denominational patterns in the type of engagement are weak and inconsistent. However, inquiries into the motivation for leaders' activities show that discussions with members about AIDS is the most consistent predictor, suggesting that religious leaders' engagement with HIV prevention is primarily a demand-driven phenomenon. PMID:20552476

  10. Controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, Jeremy S; Pereira, Stephen P; Devlin, John; Harrison, Phillip M; Joshi, Deepak

    2016-02-18

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but significant disease, which affects mainly young males in association with inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition and no therapeutics with proven mortality benefit aside from liver transplantation. There remain areas of controversy in the management of PSC which include the differentiation from other cholangiopathies, in particular immunoglobulin G4 related sclerosing cholangitis, the management of dominant biliary strictures, and the role of ursodeoxycholic acid. In addition, the timing of liver transplantation in PSC remains difficult to predict with standard liver severity scores. In this review, we address these controversies and highlight the latest evidence base in the management of PSC. PMID:26925200

  11. Controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, Jeremy S; Pereira, Stephen P; Devlin, John; Harrison, Phillip M; Joshi, Deepak

    2016-02-18

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but significant disease, which affects mainly young males in association with inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition and no therapeutics with proven mortality benefit aside from liver transplantation. There remain areas of controversy in the management of PSC which include the differentiation from other cholangiopathies, in particular immunoglobulin G4 related sclerosing cholangitis, the management of dominant biliary strictures, and the role of ursodeoxycholic acid. In addition, the timing of liver transplantation in PSC remains difficult to predict with standard liver severity scores. In this review, we address these controversies and highlight the latest evidence base in the management of PSC.

  12. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with IgG4-related sclerosing disease caused by a novel ascomycete, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov.: first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Jasper F W; Trendell-Smith, Nigel J; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Ling, Ian W H; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-01

    No members of the freshwater ascomycetes family Lindgomycetaceae have been associated with human infections. We isolated a mould (HKU35(T)) from the biopsy specimen of a patient with invasive foot infection and underlying immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease. Histology showed florid, suppurative, granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with central microabscess formation surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, scattered giant cells, and a small number of lymphocytes. A Grocott stain revealed fungal elements in the center of the lesion. On Sabouraud glucose agar, HKU35(T) grew as gray and velvety colonies. Among the members of the family Lindgomycetaceae, HKU35(T) was the only strain that grew at 37°C. Microscopically, only sterile mycelia, but no fruiting bodies, were observed. HKU35(T) was susceptible to itrazonazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, which was in line with the patient's clinical response to itraconazole treatment. Internal transcribed spacer and partial 18S nuclear rDNA (nrDNA), 28S nrDNA, β-tubulin gene, and EF1α gene sequencing showed that HKU35(T) occupied a unique phylogenetic position, most closely related to but distinct from members of the genera Clohesyomyces and Lindgomyces. We propose a new genus and species, Hongkongmyces pedis gen. et sp. nov., to describe this fungus, which belongs to the family Lindgomycetaceae in the orderPleosporales of class Dothideomycetes. This case also represents the first report of human infection associated with the family Lindgomycetaceae. PMID:25147085

  13. Genetics Home Reference: primary sclerosing cholangitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to arise from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Researchers believe that genetic changes play a role in this condition because it ... primary sclerosing cholangitis , and then exposure to certain ... changes that increase susceptibility and the environmental triggers remain ...

  14. Adolescents' Thoughts and Feelings about AIDS in Relation to Cognitive Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Murphy, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Studied adolescents' (N=163) formal operational reasoning in relation to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, AIDS fear, sexual knowledge, and reactions to AIDS victims. Found that advanced reasoning predicted better AIDS knowledge and general sexual knowledge. Advanced reasoning and AIDS knowledge were also linked with heightened…

  15. [Radiodiagnosis of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis].

    PubMed

    Sharipov, V Sh

    2001-01-01

    Among diseases of the hepatobiliary system, primary sclerosing cholangitis is an undetectable disorder of the biliary tract rather than a rare nosological entity, complex radiation study is of great importance in its preoperative diagnosis. Among direct methods for contrasting the biliary tract, the authors gave preference to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography that allows the dilated biliary tract to be contrasted virtually in 100% of cases. The specific features of X-ray semiotics of primary sclerosing cholangitis were identified in 17 patients.

  16. Management of primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Holger H; Tischendorf, Jens JW

    2011-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare cholestatic liver disease with major morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic management is difficult, due to lack of conclusive data and individual disease progression. High-dose UDCA was used for years as a pharmacotherapeutic agent to prevent disease progression, based on a positive trend in pilot studies, but has recently been proven to have a negative effect in advanced disease. Immunosuppressants might be useful in patients with overlap syndromes. Dominant bile duct stenoses should be treated endoscopically, and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) still remains a therapeutic challenge in PSC patients. Early diagnosis of CCC must be improved and new strategies such as neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy with subsequent liver transplantation in selected patients are further options to be considered. PMID:21860672

  17. AIDS-related apprehensions among nursing students of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Lal, P; Ingle, G K; Gulati, N

    1999-12-01

    Students from a nursing school of Delhi were surveyed anonymously using a self-administered questionnaire to explore various AIDS-related apprehensions and their possible reasons. The observations revealed that, majority of the students and their families/friends feared that these students were at risk of contracting HIV infection while providing routine patient care. A large number of students also opined that they would feel uncomfortable while talking, hugging, shaking hands, and sharing a room with an HIV positive person. The main reasons for their apprehensions were unsatisfactory anti-AIDS campaigning by the government, non-availability of sufficient protective measures in the health care settings, inadequate professional education related to prevention of HIV infection, and increase in HIV transmission following false sense of security due to excessive condom promotion. Findings of the study imply imparting factual knowledge addressing the concerns and removing misconceptions which influence attitudes and willingness of the nursing students to provide care to the HIV positives/AIDS patients, facts regarding efficacy of various preventive measures, and provision of counselling services in the event of exposure. PMID:10937297

  18. HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ulasi, Chijioke I; Preko, Peter O; Baidoo, Joseph A.; Bayard, Budry; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Curtis M; Jolly, Pauline E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 104 adults from the four sub-districts in Kumasi was conducted. Results Four stigma constructs, employment-based discrimination, screening and identification of HIV positive people, revelation of HIV status and social contact stigma were determined based on reliability measures from responses to the questionnaire. Regression analysis showed that participants with higher educational attainment were more likely to favor policies denying employment to PLWHA (p<0.05), but disapproved of revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Muslims were more likely than Christians to agree with identifying PLWHA (p<0.05) and more likely to advocate revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Males were more likely to favor revealing HIV status (p<0.05). Employed persons were more likely to have social contact with PLWHA (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings are useful in guiding the design of interventions against HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi. PMID:18632302

  19. AIDS-related reasons for gay men's adoption of celibacy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, K; Raveis, V H

    1993-01-01

    Since it was first recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could be sexually transmitted, celibacy has been advocated by some as the only unequivocally effective adaptation for avoiding the risk of infection. Others, however, have countered that few will be willing to be celibate and, further, that such behavior may have adverse psychosocial consequences. As part of a qualitative study of gay men's sexual decision-making in the context of the AIDS/HIV epidemic, we identified a subsample of respondents who had adopted celibacy for varying periods of time as an adaptation to the threat of AIDS/HIV infection. A content analysis of these men's interviews revealed 5 principal themes relating their reasons for choosing celibacy.

  20. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Veras, Emanuela F T; Sturgis, Erich; Luna, Mario A

    2007-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) comprises approximately 30% of all salivary gland malignancies, making it the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. Multiple histologic variants with a wide range of differentiation have been described. Sclerosing MEC (SMEC) is a rare subtype that may be misdiagnosed as a benign reactive condition or low-grade non-SMEC malignancy. We report 4 cases of SMEC and evaluated them with Her-2/neu and MIB-1 to determine whether an association exists between the histologic grade and immunohistochemical findings. In 3 cases, histologic examination demonstrated relatively well-circumscribed, nonencapsulated tumors composed of extensive central sclerosis with keloid-like stroma and scattered epithelial islands of low-grade MEC. In the fourth case, the tumor showed similar sclerotic stroma; but the epithelial component was of intermediate grade. In all 4 cases, eosinophils and neutrophils were part of the inflammatory infiltrate; and the edges were surrounded by lymphoid tissue, with germinal center formation and residual epithelial islands. A Mayer mucicarmine stain revealed abundant intracytoplasmic mucin. We found MIB-1 labeling indices of 5% or less in cases 1, 2, and 3 and 12% in case 4, suggesting an association between MIB-1 index and tumor grade. The tumors were negative for Her-2/neu in all 4 cases. The latter seems to bear no relationship to tumor grade.

  1. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion.

  2. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  3. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Therapeutic Options and Surveillance Management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Aditi; Wheatley, Daniel; Puttanna, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic immune-mediated liver disease. Though rare, it poses several clinical concerns for the managing physician. There are currently limited therapeutic options in the management of the condition and weak evidence base behind them. Endoscopic intervention is limited to those patients with obstructing stricture-related disease, and even liver transplantation has a risk of disease recurrence. Surveillance for inflammatory bowel disorders, metabolic bone disease, and malignancy is paramount when managing such patients. This article provides an overview of the condition with further focus on current therapeutic options and guidance on surveillance management. PMID:27330336

  4. Immunophototherapy for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1992-06-01

    Immunophototherapy (IPT) is an experimental method of medical treatment that seeks to provide for the selective destruction of diseased cells and microbes such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-T4 cells and the rapid elimination of their toxic by-products from the human body. Photosensitive monoclonal or polyclonal antibody fragments, which are specific to the diseased cell or microbe, will be used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related infections. These antibody fragments are tagged with photosensitive compounds and metal colloids and then intravenously injected into the patient. The tagged antibodies quickly and selectively bind to the diseased cells or microbes in the blood stream and affected organs. These cells or microbes are then selectively destroyed by irradiation of these complexes with light of the proper wavelength. This light activates the photosensitive material which then creates singlet oxygen that destroys the microbe or cell. Toxic products of lysis are quickly discharged from the body by activation of the reticuloendothelial system. IPT has been demonstrated by Biotronics to be very effective in the in vitro selective destruction of specified cell types. In a proposed AIDS-treatment research program, IPT will be first demonstrated in vitro for a set of infected blood samples using commercially-available antibodies labeled with appropriate photosensitizers. Efficacy will be determined by a p24 antigen immunodiagnostic test that will indicate the % inhibition in comparison to controls and samples treated with the drug AZT. Subcontracted animal efficacy studies will use a SCID-hu mouse model and PCR/DNA-RNA for endpoint analysis. Toxicity studies of animal (rat) models will be based on post-treatment investigations of lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other organs.

  5. Sclerosant therapy for hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, J R

    1983-02-01

    Hydroceles and epididymal cysts presenting in 30 patients were treated by tapping and injection of the sclerosant solution sodium tetradecylsulphate. Ten patients required only one treatment and 20 patients had up to 3 repeat injections. There have been no recurrences in patients completing the course of treatment and the complication rate was low.

  6. Measuring HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma across South Africa: A Versatile and Multidimensional Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward A.; Miller, Jacqueline A.; Newsome, Valerie; Sofolahan, Yewande A.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Although national campaigns and prevention programs have been implemented across South Africa to address this critical concern, assessing the impact of these initiatives is difficult as it requires that measurement of HIV/AIDS-related stigma is uniform and comparable…

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans.

  8. AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

  9. Targeting of AIDS related encephalopathy using phenylalanine anchored lipidic nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Anil; Jain, Ankit; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Sanjay K

    2015-07-01

    Transport of the anti-HIV agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prerequisite to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related encephalopathy. In the present study, we explored facilitated transport of efavirenz (EFV, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) across BBB using phenylalanine anchored solid lipid nanoparticles (PA-SLN). PA (amino acid micro-nutrient) was used as a ligand which facilitated carrier mediated transport (CMT) via l-amino acid transporter i.e. LAT1 to traverse BBB. PA was coupled to SLN via amide linkage using carbodiimide chemistry and coupling was confirmed by comparative infrared spectroscopic analysis. SLNs (SLN and PA-SLN) were nanometric in size (around 150nm) and possessed good entrapment efficiency (around 70%). In vitro drug release revealed controlled release pattern for more than 24h. In vivo studies showed 2-3-folds and 7-8-folds accumulation of PA-SLN in brain as compared to SLN and EFV, respectively. Further, transcytosis studies confirmed capability of PA-SLN to cross BBB i.e. 10-fold higher transcytosis potential as compared to EFV. Fluorescence microscopic imaging reassured enhanced brain localization of PA-SLN. Thus, PA-SLN improved the EFV bioavailability and maintained therapeutic levels in the brain for an extended period of time that can result in significant eradication of the viral load therein. Such nutrient mediated drug targeting could bring forth advances in biocompatible and biodegradable drug delivery systems. PMID:25988279

  10. Drug users' AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after AIDS education sessions.

    PubMed Central

    Dengelegi, L; Weber, J; Torquato, S

    1990-01-01

    The investigators interviewed 100 drug users in a detoxification facility before and after they received information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The drug users already had a considerable amount of information about AIDS and HIV transmission modes before they received the information. However, 79 percent of them reported never having used condoms. Fifty percent of intravenous drug users acknowledged having shared needles during the previous year. Subjects exhibited psychological denial in appraising the riskiness of their personal sexual and needle-sharing behaviors, which they rated as less risky than those activities in general. Following their participation in an AIDS and HIV education program, their knowledge concerning modes of transmission and disease progression increased. Subjects became more aware of their personal risk for HIV infection, and their faith in condom effectiveness and their intent to use them increased. Intravenous drug users reported increased determination to stop their drug use. The results suggest that AIDS education efforts can be useful in programs to help prevent HIV transmission among drug users. PMID:2120728

  11. Social disparities, communication inequalities, and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes in India.

    PubMed

    Ackerson, Leland K; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-10-01

    Promoting awareness, increasing knowledge, and eliminating stigma is important for stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS. The relation of social determinants and communication inequalities with HIV/AIDS-related cognitive processes has not been studied previously in India. Gender-stratified Poisson regression models of 123,459 women and 73,908 men in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey were used to calculate relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals for these associations. Results indicated that there are significant inequalities in mass media use among different social classes. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about prevention and transmission of AIDS and negatively associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma. These associations attenuated when use of various mass media types were added to the models with television showing the strongest effect. Mass media may be helpful in reducing social disparities in HIV/AIDS outcomes.

  12. Hearing Aid-Related Standards and Test Systems.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-02-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  13. "She Told Them, Oh That Bitch Got AIDS": Experiences of Multilevel HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Among African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS in the South.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Bogdan-Lovis, Libby; Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2016-07-01

    African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Although they constitute only 13% of the US population, African Americans account for nearly 65% of all new HIV infections among American women. In addition, this population suffers comparatively greater adverse health outcomes related to HIV status. African American women living with HIV in the South may be further burdened by HIV/AIDS stigma, which is comparatively more pronounced in this region. To further explore this burden, we used narrative data and the Social Ecological Model to explore how African American women living with HIV in the US South recount, conceptualize, and cope with HIV/AIDS stigma at interpersonal, community, and institutional levels. Our narrative analysis suggests that HIV-positive African American women living in the South are vulnerable to experiences of multilevel HIV stigma in various settings and contexts across multiple domains of life. Stigma subsequently complicated disclosure decisions and made it difficult for women to feel supported in particular social, professional and medical settings that are generally regarded as safe spaces for noninfected individuals. Findings suggest that the debilitating and compounded effect of multilevel HIV/AIDS stigma on HIV-positive African American women in the South warrants closer examination to tailor approaches that effectively address the unique needs of this population. PMID:27410498

  14. Immune reconstitution syndrome presenting as probable AIDS-related lymphoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report an unusual case of HIV-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, presenting as suspected AIDS-related lymphoma. Symptoms, initial investigations including fine-needle biopsy and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan were highly compatible with high grade AIDS-related lymphoma, however subsequently IRIS was diagnosed. We discuss pitfalls in the interpretation of diagnostic results in ARL versus IRIS. PMID:21955517

  15. Sclerosing hemangioma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jennifer; Zhou, Fang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Kovacs, Sandor; Simsir, Aylin; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung is a benign neoplasm with a widely debated histogenesis. It has a polymorphic histomorphology characterized by a biphasic cell population of “surface cells” and “round cells” arranged in four general patterns: Papillary, solid, angiomatous, and sclerotic. This variability in histomorphology makes it difficult to diagnose sclerosing hemangioma by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed on FNA with immunohistochemistry performed on an accompanied cell block. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:27168758

  16. A case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Manabu; Onchi, Miyako; Ozaki, Masakazu

    2013-03-01

    Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the importance of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia as a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions such as osteosarcoma and mast cell tumor in cats. PMID:23723568

  17. Evolution of college students' AIDS-related behavioral responses, attitudes, knowledge, and fear.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J D; Misovich, S J

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected (a) to document extant levels of AIDS-risk behavior, AIDS-preventive behavior, AIDS-knowledge, and attitudes toward prevention among college students, (b) to assess the evolution from 1986 to 1988 of college students' behavioral and attitudinal responses to the AIDS epidemic, and (c) to document changes over time in college students' knowledge about AIDS. Although students' current levels of AIDS-knowledge were found to be relatively high, and their attitudes toward prevention were in the neutral range, actual preventive behavior was low, and unsafe sexual practices were high. Concerning changes in these dimensions across time, data using comparable samples of undergraduates in 1986, 1987, and 1988 indicated that there were substantial increases in knowledge about AIDS, in the favorability of attitudes toward certain "safer-sex" behaviors (e.g., discussing "safer sex"), and in the utilization of relevant informational resources. Students' perceptions of others' vulnerability to AIDS (but not their own vulnerability), had also increased. However, at the same time, students reported a decrease in the safety of their sexual behaviors. Numbers of sexual partners, likelihood of being in an intimate (sexual) relationship, and unsafe sexual practices have all increased since 1986. Finally, evidence suggested that alcohol may play a significant role in students' AIDS-risk behavior. PMID:2288814

  18. Bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS: the Uganda experience.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, N K

    1998-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many other countries, there is a vacuum regarding an appropriate legal and ethical response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas much has been done to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a multidisciplinary way, very little has been done regarding legal and ethical issues. Hence, cases of claimants to have cures for AIDS, spiritual healers and sale of fake drugs plus unauthorized vaccine and drug trials are on the increase. The rights and needs of people infected with HIV/AIDS are not adequately addressed. The property rights of those affected by the pandemic continue to be abused. Therefore there is need to mobilize doctors, lawyers and human rights activists who should advocate and address these issues. This paper therefore highlights the critical bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. PMID:10396922

  19. Clinical features and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marina G; Lindor, Keith D

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in cirrhosis and need for liver transplantation and reduced life expectancy. The majority of cases occur in young and middle-aged men, often in association with inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. No effective medical therapy has been identified. The multiple complications of primary sclerosing cholangitis include metabolic bone disease, dominant strictures, bacterial cholangitis, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapeutic alternative for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrence in the allografted liver has been described. A PSC-like variant attracting attention is cholangitis marked by raised levels of the immunoglobulin G4 subclass, prominence of plasma cells within the lesions, and steroid responsiveness. PMID:18528931

  20. Unusual coexistence of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma and pericardial cyst.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Han, Serdar; Ekmekci, Perihan; Akincioglu, Egemen; Ataoglu, Omur

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is an uncommon tumor, thought to be a benign neoplasm. Pericardial cysts are also uncommon benign abnormalities, most often found incidentally on chest radiography. We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman in whom both lesions were incidentially detected on a routine chest radiograph. Enucleation of the pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma and simultaneous resection of the pericardial cyst were undertaken.

  1. AIDS-related Pneumocystis jirovecii genotypes in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Solène; Blanchet, Denis; Damiani, Céline; Guéguen, Paul; Virmaux, Michèle; Abboud, Philippe; Guillot, Geneviève; Kérangart, Stéphane; Merle, Cédric; Calderon, Enrique; Totet, Anne; Carme, Bernard; Nevez, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The study described Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) multilocus typing in seven AIDS patients living in French Guiana (Cayenne Hospital) and seven immunosuppressed patients living in Brest, metropolitan France (Brest Hospital). Archival P. jirovecii specimens were examined at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus using a PCR-RFLP technique, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 2 and the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSUrRNA) gene using PCR and sequencing. Analysis of typing results were combined with an analysis of the literature on P. jirovecii mtLSUrRNA types and ITS haplotypes. A wild DHPS type was identified in six Guianese patients and in seven patients from metropolitan France whereas a DHPS mutant was infected in the remaining Guianese patient. Typing of the two other loci pointed out a high diversity of ITS haplotypes and an average diversity of mtLSUrRNA types in French Guiana with a partial commonality of these haplotypes and types described in metropolitan France and around the world. Combining DHPS, ITS and mtLSU types, 12 different multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were identified, 4 MLGs in Guianese patients and 8 MLGs in Brest patients. MLG analysis allows to discriminate patients in 2 groups according to their geographical origin. Indeed, none of the MLGs identified in the Guianese patients were found in the Brest patients and none of the MLGs identified in the Brest patients were found in the Guianese patients. These results show that in French Guiana (i) PCP involving DHPS mutants occur, (ii) there is a diversity of ITS and mtLSUrRNA types and (iii) although partial type commonality in this territory and metropolitan France can be observed, MLG analysis suggests that P. jirovecii organisms from French Guiana may present specific characteristics.

  2. DCDC2 Mutations Cause Neonatal Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Girard, Muriel; Bizet, Albane A; Lachaux, Alain; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Filhol, Emilie; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Jeanpierre, Cécile; Henry, Charline; Fabre, Monique; Viremouneix, Loic; Galmiche, Louise; Debray, Dominique; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Pariente, Danièle; Guettier, Catherine; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Heidet, Laurence; Bertholet, Aurelia; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Saunier, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Neonatal sclerosing cholangitis (NSC) is a rare biliary disease leading to liver transplantation in childhood. Patients with NSC and ichtyosis have already been identified with a CLDN1 mutation, encoding a tight-junction protein. However, for the majority of patients, the molecular basis of NSC remains unknown. We identified biallelic missense mutations or in-frame deletion in DCDC2 in four affected children. Mutations involve highly conserved amino acids in the doublecortin domains of the protein. In cholangiocytes, DCDC2 protein is normally located in the cytoplasm and cilia, whereas in patients the mutated protein is accumulated in the cytoplasm, absent from cilia, and associated with ciliogenesis defect. This is the first report of DCDC2 mutations in NSC. This data expands the molecular spectrum of NSC, that can be considered as a ciliopathy and also expands the clinical spectrum of the DCDC2 mutations, previously reported in dyslexia, deafness, and nephronophtisis. PMID:27319779

  3. Polidocanol for Endovenous Microfoam Sclerosant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polidocanol is a liquid surfactant having endothelial cell lytic properties. In the form of a controlled, dispensed microfoam it is administered endovenously as a sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins. Objective This review summarizes efficacy of polidocanol endovenous microfoam sclerotherapy using a proprietary dispensing system to control foam characteristics and gas content for treating varicose veins. Methods We reviewed in-vitro, Phase I, Phase II and limited Phase III data for polidocanol microfoam with a focus on controlled foam formulation in therapy Results/conclusions Clinical trials of controlled dispensing of polidocanol microfoam provide evidence of effective treatment of chronic venous insufficiency with low toxicity, minimal risk and few complications. PMID:19912070

  4. DCDC2 Mutations Cause Neonatal Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Girard, Muriel; Bizet, Albane A; Lachaux, Alain; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Filhol, Emilie; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Jeanpierre, Cécile; Henry, Charline; Fabre, Monique; Viremouneix, Loic; Galmiche, Louise; Debray, Dominique; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Pariente, Danièle; Guettier, Catherine; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Heidet, Laurence; Bertholet, Aurelia; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Saunier, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Neonatal sclerosing cholangitis (NSC) is a rare biliary disease leading to liver transplantation in childhood. Patients with NSC and ichtyosis have already been identified with a CLDN1 mutation, encoding a tight-junction protein. However, for the majority of patients, the molecular basis of NSC remains unknown. We identified biallelic missense mutations or in-frame deletion in DCDC2 in four affected children. Mutations involve highly conserved amino acids in the doublecortin domains of the protein. In cholangiocytes, DCDC2 protein is normally located in the cytoplasm and cilia, whereas in patients the mutated protein is accumulated in the cytoplasm, absent from cilia, and associated with ciliogenesis defect. This is the first report of DCDC2 mutations in NSC. This data expands the molecular spectrum of NSC, that can be considered as a ciliopathy and also expands the clinical spectrum of the DCDC2 mutations, previously reported in dyslexia, deafness, and nephronophtisis.

  5. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sharew, Guadie; Azage, Muluken

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total of 369 systematically and randomly selected clients were included in the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify independent predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Results. Twenty-five percent (25.7%) of HIV patients had ocular manifestations. The three most frequent signs were Squamoid Conjuctival growth (26.9%), ophthalmic herpes zoster (22.1%), and Bacterial Conjuctivitis (17.2%). History of eye problem, CD4 count, and visual acuity of the eye were the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients.

  6. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sharew, Guadie

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total of 369 systematically and randomly selected clients were included in the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify independent predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Results. Twenty-five percent (25.7%) of HIV patients had ocular manifestations. The three most frequent signs were Squamoid Conjuctival growth (26.9%), ophthalmic herpes zoster (22.1%), and Bacterial Conjuctivitis (17.2%). History of eye problem, CD4 count, and visual acuity of the eye were the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients. PMID:26000175

  7. [Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS: Nursing discussion about dangerous relations for women].

    PubMed

    Xavier, I M

    2001-01-01

    The present article has as its main objective the discussion of the risky relationship between sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the HIV/AIDS under the perspective of gender and sexuality. It presents the increase of AIDS among women as a consequence of social, political, cultural and economic relations. The study uses an exploratory methodology of qualitative nature. It focuses on women who are HIV positive and acquired the disease through sexual relationships with a stable partner. The study concluded that nursing care is a very important opportunity for nurses to make an early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the STDs and AIDS.

  8. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  9. [Küttner's tumor (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis) - a rare cause of submandibular gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Gierek, Tatiana; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Paluch, Jarosław; Swiderek, Monika; Zielińska-Pająk, Ewa; Pająk, Jacek; Klimczak-Gołąb, Lucyna; Smółka, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Küttner's tumor is a benign tumour-like lesion of the salivary glands. Predominantly affects the submandibular gland. It is also known as chronic sclerosing sialoadenitis or cirrhosis of submandibular gland. This is an underrecognized entity in the surgical pathology and cytology literature. Most patients experience recurrent pain, discharge and swelling that is often associated with eating, but others only have asymptomatic hard swelling of the submandibular gland. Histologic examination of the excised submandibular glands revealed preserved lobular architecture, thickening of interlobular septa by sclerotic tissue, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, preservation of ducts with periductal fibrosis, and variable loss of acini. The morphologic appearance, in conjunction with the elevated IgG4 expression, distinguishes chronic sclerosing sialadenitis from other inflammatory diseases of the salivary glands. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis belongs to the spectrum of IgG4-related diseases. We present a case of Küttner's tumor in a 62-year-old female treated by surgery. Although this disease was first described by Küttner in 1896, this clinical entity which masquerades as carcinoma is underdiagnosed by many surgeons. There is not enough evidence to support any diagnostic means that could help in the differential diagnosis of this benign condition. Given the high rate of malignancy in firm, painless lesions of the submandibular gland, surgical excision is often advocated and Küttner's tumor is usually diagnosed by the histopathologist.

  10. Female-headed households contending with AIDS-related hardship in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Enid; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Williams, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Mainstream research and the popular media often equate female-headship with household vulnerability, crisis, and disorganization. Epidemic levels of HIV/AIDS in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa compound this portrait of hopelessness. In South Africa, the impact of HIV/AIDS on households depends on race, class, and place. As female-headed households increase in number, we need to better understand how female-heads in poor rural areas contend with AIDS related challenges. We analyze qualitative interviews with 16 female heads and the members of their households in a rural community to examine the response to AIDS-related illness, death, or caring for orphaned children. Our analysis examines female-heads' financial and social resources and how these resources buffer against hardship in households affected by AIDS. We find considerable heterogeneity among rural female-headed households and their access to resources to combat AIDS-related hardship. Our findings have important policy implications both in terms of identifying individual and household vulnerabilities as well as leveraging the potential for resilience for female-heads in rural South African communities. PMID:21292533

  11. The Computer as an Aid to Public Relations Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, Robert E.

    Teachers of public relations and other communication areas, with endorsement from the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), should request the data processing industry to develop assisted instruction programs in journalistic writing. Such action would provide a clearly defined need for a significant market and…

  12. Communities, citizens, and the perceived importance of AIDS-related services in West Hollywood, California.

    PubMed

    Law, Robin

    2003-03-01

    Successful strategies for prevention and treatment of human immuneodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the developed world are commonly described in terms of community mobilisation and involvement. While a broadly defined 'gay community' has been regarded as central in mobilising responses to HIV and AIDS, other kinds of communities are also relevant, including place-based communities of citizens constituted by their shared residential location, and interest or affinity-based communities of individuals constituted by their relationship to AIDS (e.g. as HIV-positive, as care-giver, as activist). These overlapping communities are identified in West Hollywood, a city with a relatively large gay and lesbian population, and with high rates of HIV infection and AIDS. Results are presented from a 1993 survey of city residents (N=832), comparing perceptions of the relative importance of HIV and AIDS services. How does the perception of the importance of these services vary among individuals defined in terms of their potential membership of these three communities? The findings show that although household HIV-status and gay self-identity were positively associated with relatively high ratings of importance for HIV and AIDS services, there was a strong consensus among all residents that AIDS was the top issue of concern for West Hollywood as a whole. In short, AIDS had emerged as a central issue for citizens of West Hollywood even though the majority of residents were not self-identified members of a gay community nor part of a narrowly-defined community of interest comprising households with a HIV-positive member.

  13. Communities, citizens, and the perceived importance of AIDS-related services in West Hollywood, California.

    PubMed

    Law, Robin

    2003-03-01

    Successful strategies for prevention and treatment of human immuneodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the developed world are commonly described in terms of community mobilisation and involvement. While a broadly defined 'gay community' has been regarded as central in mobilising responses to HIV and AIDS, other kinds of communities are also relevant, including place-based communities of citizens constituted by their shared residential location, and interest or affinity-based communities of individuals constituted by their relationship to AIDS (e.g. as HIV-positive, as care-giver, as activist). These overlapping communities are identified in West Hollywood, a city with a relatively large gay and lesbian population, and with high rates of HIV infection and AIDS. Results are presented from a 1993 survey of city residents (N=832), comparing perceptions of the relative importance of HIV and AIDS services. How does the perception of the importance of these services vary among individuals defined in terms of their potential membership of these three communities? The findings show that although household HIV-status and gay self-identity were positively associated with relatively high ratings of importance for HIV and AIDS services, there was a strong consensus among all residents that AIDS was the top issue of concern for West Hollywood as a whole. In short, AIDS had emerged as a central issue for citizens of West Hollywood even though the majority of residents were not self-identified members of a gay community nor part of a narrowly-defined community of interest comprising households with a HIV-positive member. PMID:12609469

  14. Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample*

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman’s rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). Results: The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). Conclusions: It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training. PMID

  15. First Report of AIDS-Related Burkitt's Lymphoma Presenting as Bilateral Orbital Masses

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Almeida, Monica; Nesi Cardoso Migliano Porto, Juliana; de Brito Lyra, Ana Carolina; Calheiros Leite, Luiz Arthur; Basilio-de-Oliveira, Rodrigo Panno; Neves-Motta, Rogério; Correa, Andréa Ramos; Raphael de Almeida Ferry, Fernando; Grechi Pacheco, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one of the fastest growing tumors in humans. It is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome- (AIDS-) defining disease and occurs with relatively preserved CD4 cell counts. It rarely affects the orbital region in the setting of AIDS. We report unusual presentation of a fatal case of AIDS-associated BL in a 42-year-old female patient with severe CD4 cell depletion who presented with dramatic fast growing (within days) bilateral orbital masses leading to striking facial deformities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral orbital involvement in AIDS-associated BL.

  16. Accounts from the field: a public relations perspective on global AIDS/HIV.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Nilanjana R

    2002-01-01

    This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV. PMID:12166875

  17. Acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior among African American women.

    PubMed

    Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.

  18. Oral and maxillofacial sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gretchen S; Williams, Stephen B; Foss, Robert B; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C

    2007-09-01

    at a range of 12-120 months. One case had no recurrent/residual disease at 3 months. Metastatic disease was present in 2 cases, to chest wall and lumbar/thoracic spine at 12 and 21 months, respectively. One patient died of disease complications at 15 months. OMFRSEF occur in adults in various locations, but with a common propensity to involve bone; there is recurrent potential and morbidity with higher grade lesions. The differential diagnosis for these tumors in this site includes sclerosing carcinoma, Ewing/PNET, osteosarcoma, osteoblastoma, and benign and malignant myoepithelial salivary gland tumors. The collagen, focal spindle cell features, HPC-like vasculature, and weak focal CD34 reactivity in one case might have raised a possible relationship between OMFRSEF and low grade malignant solitary fibrous tumor, but the intraosseous propensity, epithelioid features and relative lack of CD34 make this a distinctive entity.

  19. Beyond SHM and CSR: AID and related cytidine deaminases in the host response to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Brad R; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2007-01-01

    As the primary effector of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) serves an important function in the adaptive immune response. Recent advances have demonstrated that AID and a group of closely related cytidine deaminases, the APOBEC3 proteins, also act in the innate host response to viral infection. Antiviral activity was first attributed to APOBEC3G as a potent inhibitor of HIV. It is now apparent that the targets of the APOBEC3 proteins extend beyond HIV, with family members acting against a wide variety of viruses as well as host-encoded retrotransposable genetic elements. Although it appears to function through a different mechanism, AID also possesses antiviral properties. Independent of its antibody diversification functions, AID protects against transformation by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV), an oncogenic retrovirus. Additionally, AID has been implicated in the host response to other pathogenic viruses. These emerging roles for the AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases in viral infection suggest an intriguing evolutionary connection of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.

  20. IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors and circulating immune complexes in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex with serological abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Procaccia, S; Lazzarin, A; Colucci, A; Gasparini, A; Forcellini, P; Lanzanova, D; Foppa, C U; Novati, R; Zanussi, C

    1987-01-01

    To investigate some humoral aspects which may reflect the involvement of B lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we used an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to determine the levels of IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors (RF) in 16 patients suffering from full-blown AIDS and 32 patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC), in the clinical form of lymphoadenopathy syndrome (LAS), compared with 40 healthy, young heterosexual subjects. Both AIDS and ARC patients showed a greater incidence of high IgM RF levels, with mean values significantly higher than controls, but with no differences between the two pathological groups. IgG RF behaviour was similar in the two patient populations and the healthy subjects. IgA RF were significantly raised in AIDS and ARC. Further information on RF was obtained by determination of the immunoglobulin levels of the respective isotypes in the same patients. Mean IgG levels were above normal in AIDS and ARC patients, but the latter group showed a higher incidence of increased values and higher mean levels. The IgA isotype was significantly increased mainly in AIDS patients. The behaviour of IgM was virtually the same in the three groups studied. A difference between AIDS and ARC patients was established by the detection of circulating immune-complexes (IC) by the C1q-binding and CIC-conglutinin assays. IC were significantly high, by both methods, only in the ARC group, but normal or very low in AIDS. These overall findings suggest once again the impairment of B cell function in AIDS, with prevalent hyperactivation in ARC and exhaustion in full-blown AIDS, and apparent preservation, in the latter group, of the antibody responses which are more closely related to the activity of subsets of T helper cells. PMID:3608224

  1. Sclerosed Hemangioma Accompanied by Multiple Cavernous Hemangiomas of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Michiko; Emoto, Yuko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Tsubura, Airo

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 81 Final Diagnosis: Sclerosed hemangioma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Autopsy Specialty: Diagnostics, Laboratory Objective: Rare disease Background: A sclerosed hemangioma of the liver, an extremely rare type of benign hepatic tumor, was found at autopsy. Case Report: An 81-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for surgical resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in his left forearm. At admission, serological tests for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody were negative with no evidence of cirrhosis. At 2, 3, and 5 months after the removal of the forearm tumor, skin grafting was performed because of unhealed skin ulceration. Although anti-bacterial drugs were prescribed, the patient died after the 3rd skin graft (5 months after the surgery) because of pneumonia. During the treatment course, the patient was diagnosed as having multiple liver masses suspected to be cysts of the liver based on non-contrasted computed tomography results. Autopsy revealed a sclerosed hemangioma occupying the entire left lobe accompanied by multiple small cavernous hemangiomas in the right lobe of the liver. Conclusions: Sclerosed hemangioma, a rare benign disease, occurred in association with degeneration and sclerosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. The VEGF pathway may be involved in the genesis of cavernous and sclerosed hemangioma of the liver. PMID:26116763

  2. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  3. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  4. New Therapeutic Strategies for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kate D; Chapman, Roger W

    2016-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, which in the majority of patients progresses to liver transplantation or death. To date, no medical treatment has been proven to be of benefit, although ursodeoxycholic acid is widely used. The etiopathogenesis of PSC is unclear, although it is associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Various hypotheses have been suggested, which have led to different therapeutic strategies. Recent studies have suggested that the microbiome may play a role in PSC, raising the possibility of efficacy of antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation. Gut-homing T cells may be important in the pathogenesis of PSC, and several agents are in development, targeting various receptors, integrins, and ligands on this pathway, including VAP-1, MAdCAM-1, α4β7, and CCR9. Nuclear receptor agonists such as obeticholic acid and fibrates hold promise, as do other therapies that alter bile acid composition such as norUDCA. Antifibrotic agents such as Loxl2 inhibitors are also being assessed. In conclusion, it is likely that an effective drug therapy for PSC will become available over the next decade.

  5. Interaction of detergent sclerosants with cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Parsi, Kurosh

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used detergent sclerosants including sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS) and polidocanol (POL) are clinically used to induce endovascular fibrosis and vessel occlusion. They achieve this by lysing the endothelial lining of target vessels. These agents are surface active (surfactant) molecules that interfere with cell membranes. Surfactants have a striking similarity to the phospholipid molecules of the membrane lipid bilayer. By adsorbing at the cell membrane, surfactants disrupt the normal architecture of the lipid bilayer and reduce the surface tension. The outcome of this interaction is concentration dependent. At high enough concentrations, surfactants solubilise cell membranes resulting in cell lysis. At lower concentrations, these agents can induce a procoagulant negatively charged surface on the external aspect of the cell membrane. The interaction is also influenced by the ionic charge, molecular structure, pH and the chemical nature of the diluent (e.g. saline vs. water). The ionic charge of the surfactant molecule can influence the effect on plasma proteins and the protein contents of cell membranes. STS, an anionic detergent, denatures the tertiary complex of most proteins and in particular the clinically relevant clotting factors. By contrast, POL has no effect on proteins due to its non-ionic structure. These agents therefore exhibit remarkable differences in their interaction with lipid membranes, target cells and circulating proteins with potential implications in a range of clinical applications.

  6. Correlation between findings on MRCP and gadolinium-enhanced MR of the liver and a survival model for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Bojan D; Nikolaidis, Paul; Hammond, Nancy A; Martin, John A; Petrovic, Polina V; Desai, Pankaja M; Miller, Frank H

    2007-12-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic, progressive disease of inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts. The ability to predict survival is important for appropriate management and treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between specific findings on the enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the liver and the corresponding magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram (MRCP) and a survival model for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), the Mayo Risk Score. During a five-year period, 47 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were identified who had a complete MRI/MRCP examination. The extent of anatomical changes of the biliary tree and the degree of peribiliary enhancement in the hepatic parenchyma were compared with the Mayo Risk Score for each patient. Peribiliary enhancement was present to a varying extent in 38 of 47 cases of PSC. Peribiliary enhancement 3 min after gadolinium administration had a weak correlation with the Mayo Risk Score (analysis of variance P<0.01, Pearson correlation r=0.37). No statistically significant relationship between the severity of extrahepatic or intrahepatic duct changes and the Mayo Risk Score was found (analysis of variance P=0.24, P=0.38, respectively). Although biliary tree changes on MRCP aid in the diagnosis of PSC, they do not correlate with survival, as predicted by the Mayo Risk Score. Peribiliary enhancement on MRI of the liver is a finding occurring to a variable extent in primary sclerosing cholangitis but does not correlate significantly with survival.

  7. Extra gonadal sclerosing stromal tumour in the transverse mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Samuel; Kyei, Ishmael; Ohene-Yeboah, Michael; Adjei, Ernest

    2016-03-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) is a rare benign sex cord stromal tumour of the ovary. We report a case of sclerosing stromal tumour of the mesentery in a 32-year-old Para one who presented with intra abdominal mass, menstrual irregularity and secondary infertility. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the completely excised tumour was consistent with sclerosing stromal tumour, immunoreactive only to vimentin. No ovarian tissue was found in the sectioned tumour. Her menses became regular and she conceived 3 months after complete excision and delivered after 9 months. Hormonal assay was not done because SST was least suspected. From literature this is the first case of SST in the transverse mesocolon reported in the West African subregion, and may probably be one of the rare cases of hormonally active SST. PMID:27605726

  8. Autoimmune pancreatitis with histologically proven lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis with granulocytic epithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Uchida, Kazushige; Shimatani, Masaaki; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Kusuda, Takeo; Kurishima, Akiko; Fukui, Yuri; Sumimoto, Kimi; Satoi, Sohei; Ohe, Chisato; Uemura, Yoshiko; Kwon, A-Hon; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-01-01

    Recent histological and clinical studies have suggested the existence of 2 distinct types of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP): type 1 AIP related to IgG4, exhibiting lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP), and type 2 AIP related to granulocyte epithelial lesions (GELs), exhibiting idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis (IDCP). We herein present a case of type 1 AIP with histologically proven LPSP with GELs. This patient had neither serum IgG4 elevation nor MPD narrowing. In this case, the clinically and histologically atypical findings for type 1 AIP are intriguing. PMID:22466829

  9. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  10. Evaluating AIDS-Related Social Skills in Anglo and Latino Adolescents: Focus on Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Werner, Cynthia A.; Kelley, Norma J.; Sipan, Carol L.; Burkham, Susan M.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assessment of AIDS-related social skills (measured by role play) in Anglo and Latino Adolescents (N=383) and explores ethnic and gender differences on these skills. Results indicate that anxiety and nonverbal behavior are generalized response classes that transcend specific social skills, suggesting the importance of measuring…

  11. Changing HIV and AIDS-Related Behavior: Promising Approaches at the Individual, Group, and Community Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinhardt, Lance S.

    2005-01-01

    In this special issue, six groups of clinician-researchers focusing on HIV and AIDS-related behavior present their most recent intervention strategies. The articles included represent interventions for a range of target behaviors, including sexual activity, injection drug use, and HIV medication adherence. The interventions described were designed…

  12. Exploring AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female Mexican migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R

    1998-05-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.

  13. [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode].

    PubMed

    Ilniczky, Sándor; Debreczeni, Róbert; Kovács, Tibor; Várkonyi, Viktória; Barsi, Péter; Szirmai, Imre

    2006-07-20

    The most frequent neurological manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-(AIDS) are Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and AIDS-encephalitis (AIDS-dementia complex, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy). Neurological complications usually occur in the advanced stages of the disease, and they are uncommon in the beginning as presenting illness, but may result in life-threatening condition or in death. Rarely the disease presents as a neuropsychiatric illness in an undiagnosed AIDS patient, delaying a proper diagnosis. We present the case of a 34 years old patient treated for AIDS-related Toxoplasma-encephalitis in our department. His illness started as an acute psychosis followed by rapid mental and somatic decline, leading to death in three months. His HIV-seropositivity was not known at his admission, and the extraneural manifestations were slight. The diagnosis was established by serology, imaging methods and histopathological investigation. After presenting the medical history and results of autopsy studies of the patient we discuss the problems of the differential diagnosis, especially regarding the findings of the imaging methods.

  14. Gender and AIDS-related psychosocial processes: a study of perceived susceptibility, social distance, and homophobia.

    PubMed

    Schieman, S

    1998-06-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have accumulated evidence that suggests six main factors are associated with AIDS-related risk reduction behavior: (a) perceived susceptibility (Dolcini et al., 1995; van der Plight & Richard, 1994); (b) attitudes toward condoms (Catania et al., 1994; Maticka-Tynadale, 1991); (c) personally knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (Joseph et al., 1987); (d) perceived peer norms about risk-reduction (Maticka-Tyndale, 1991); (e) previous sexual activity (Joseph et al., 1987); and (f) self-efficacy (Aspinwall, Kemeny, Taylor, & Schneider, 1991; van der Plight & Richard, 1994). Furthermore, there is some suggestion that the epidemiology and sociocultural constructions of the disease has led to considerable gender, racial, and class differences in awareness of AIDS, perception of HIV threat, and HIV-relevant behavior (Cohan & Atwood, 1994; Dolcini et al., 1995; Gillies, 1994). PMID:9642424

  15. Understanding and Addressing AIDS-Related Stigma: From Anthropological Theory to Clinical Practice in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored. PMID:15623859

  16. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27668289

  17. Understanding and addressing AIDS-related stigma: from anthropological theory to clinical practice in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored.

  18. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    SciTech Connect

    Mathez, D.; Paul, D.; de Belilovsky, C.; Sultan, Y.; Deleuze, J.; Gorin, I.; Saurin, W.; Decker, R.; Leibowitch, J. )

    1990-10-01

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials.

  20. Understanding internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigmas in the Dominican Republic: a short report.

    PubMed

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR's most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF), and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR = 1.60; p < .05), PSC (OR = 3.68; p < .001), and PSF (OR = 1.60; p < .01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the DR.

  1. Understanding Internalized HIV/AIDS-Related Stigmas in the Dominican Republic: A Short Report

    PubMed Central

    Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR’s most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF) and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR=1.60; p<0.05), PSC (OR=3.68; p<0.001), and PSF (OR=1.60; p<0.01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic. PMID:26466239

  2. US Supreme Court allows limits on AIDS-related insurance benefits.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    In a ruling issued on 10 January 2000 with respect to Doe v Mutual of Omaha Insurance, the US Supreme Court refused to review a lower-court decision allowing an insurance company to limit health-care benefits for AIDS-related claims to less than one-tenth of what it pays under the same policies for expenses related to other illnesses. The lower court had ruled that anti-discrimination legislation does not apply to insurance policies.

  3. Pulmonary Hilar Tumor: An Unusual Presentation of Sclerosing Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Ho, Shang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is an uncommon benign tumor of the lung; however, on rare occasions it can arise from the pulmonary hilar region. Herein, we report a 53-year-old female patient who presented with a round opacity in the right upper lung field on a radiograph. Chest computed tomography scanning revealed a 3.1 cm mass in the right pulmonary hilum. Thoracoscopic tumor excision was subsequently performed. On pathohistologic study, the tumor was well defined and composed of round stromal cells and surface cells arranged in a papillary, sclerotic, solid, and hemorrhagic pattern. In immunochemical study, the round cells were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and negative for cytokeratin. The surface cells were positive for TTF-1, EMA, and cytokeratin. Therefore, a final diagnosis of sclerosing hemangioma was confirmed. In conclusion, pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is uncommon and rare in the pulmonary hilar region. CT scanning is useful to determine its benignity, although imaging features are not specific for a definite differential diagnosis from other pulmonary tumors. Therefore, tissue diagnosis is usually necessary, and pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma should be listed in the differential diagnoses of pulmonary hilar tumors. PMID:27761142

  4. Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Yasmin; Khuder, Sadik; Donabedian, Haig

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary. PMID:16916461

  5. Effects of Smoking on Non-AIDS-Related Morbidity in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Daniel K.; Kaner, Robert J.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has many adverse health consequences. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection smoke at very high rates, and many of the comorbidities associated with smoking in the general population are more prevalent in this population. It is likely that a combination of higher smoking rates along with an altered response to cigarette smoke throughout the body in persons with HIV infection leads to increased rates of the known conditions related to smoking. Several AIDS-defining conditions associated with smoking have been reviewed elsewhere. This review aims to summarize the data on non-AIDS-related health consequences of smoking in the HIV-infected population and explore evidence for the potential compounding effects on chronic systemic inflammation due to HIV infection and smoking. PMID:23572487

  6. Latinos and HIV/AIDS: Examining Factors Related to Disparity and Identifying Opportunities for Psychosocial Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Ellen Setsuko; Collins, Erin Marie; Durán, Ron E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Latinos maintain an AIDS case rate more than 3 times higher than whites, a greater rate of progression to AIDS, and a higher rate of HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Three broad areas are reviewed related to these disparities: (1) relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and socio-cultural factors among Latinos; (2) drug abuse and mental health problems in Latinos relevant to HIV/AIDS outcomes; and (3) opportunities for psychosocial intervention. Latinos living with HIV are a rapidly growing group, are more severely impacted by HIV than whites, and confront unique challenges in coping with HIV/AIDS. A body of research suggests that depression, substance abuse, treatment adherence, health literacy, and access to healthcare may be fruitful targets for intervention research in this population. Though limited, the current literature suggests that psychosocial interventions that target these factors could help reduce HIV/AIDS disparities between Latinos and whites and could have important public health value. PMID:18498050

  7. Translational Research in NeuroAIDS: A Neuroimmune Pharmacology-Related Course

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled “Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)” at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by developing mentoring programs for (1) doctoral and postdoctoral candidates and junior faculty from racial and ethnic minorities and (2) non-minority individuals at the same levels, whose research focuses on NeuroAIDS disparity issues such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This web-based interactive course overcomes the limitations of traditional education such as access to expert faculty and financial burden of scientists from racial and ethnic minority groups in the field of NeuroAIDS research and NIP and identifies rich nurturing environments for investigators to support their careers. The TR-NAMH program identifies a cadre of talented students and investigators eager to commit to innovative educational and training sessions in NeuroAIDS and NIP. The interplay between NIP changes precipitated by HIV infection in the brain makes the study of HAND an outstanding way to integrate important concepts from these two fields. The course includes activities besides those related to didactic learning such as research training and long-term mentoring; hence, the newly learned topics in NIP are continually reinforced and implemented in real-time experiences. We describe how NIP is integrated in the TR-NAMH program in the context of HAND. PMID:20496178

  8. [SEM investigations on the human sclerosed dentinal tubules].

    PubMed

    Yagi, T; Suga, S

    1990-08-01

    Sclerotic changes of dentinal tubules appeared in the dentin beneath the carious, attrition and abrasion lesions and in the transparent root dentin were investigated using the scanning electron microscopy. 1) Shape of crystal-like substances appeared in the dentinal tubules could not be closely related to kinds of dentin destruction. 2) In the dentinal tubules beneath the carious lesions, cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped, short rod-like, long rod-like, plate-like and droplet-like crystals were mainly observed. Combination of cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped and short rod-like crystals or that of long rod-like and plate-like crystals were most frequently observed. 3) In the dentinal tubules beneath attrition and abrasion lesions, cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped, short rod-like and droplet-like crystals were mainly observed, however, the size of cuboidal or rhomboid-shaped crystal was usually smaller than that observed beneath carious lesion and they deposited compactly within the tubules. 4) In the sclerosed dentinal tubules in the transparent root dentin, compact deposition of rhomboid-shaped and irregular sand-like crystals were usually observed. Size of rhomboid-shaped crystal is smaller than that observed beneath carious lesion. The deposit of sand-like crystal in the tubules was easily discriminated from the matrix of peritubular dentin. 5) In any case, the kinds of crystals and pattern of deposition were not necessarily same between the neighboring tubules. However, in a tubule, they were almost same in shape and mode of deposition throughout the entire length of tubule from the outer side to the pulpal side. These facts seem to indicate that mineral deposition within the tubule due to sclerosis is performed under individual condition. 6) Finding showing biological control of mineral deposition within the dentinal tubules by the odontoblasts could not be observed.

  9. Regional Differences in AIDS and Non-AIDS Related Mortality in HIV-Positive Individuals across Europe and Argentina: The EuroSIDA Study

    PubMed Central

    Reekie, Joanne; Kowalska, Justyna D.; Karpov, Igor; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Karlsson, Anders; Rakhmanova, Aza; Horban, Andrzej; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D.; Mocroft, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in access to care and treatment have been reported in Eastern Europe, a region with one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics, compared to the rest of Europe. This analysis aimed to establish whether there are regional differences in the mortality rate of HIV-positive individuals across Europe, and Argentina. Methods 13,310 individuals under follow-up were included in the analysis. Poisson regression investigated factors associated with the risk of death. Findings During 82,212 person years of follow-up (PYFU) 1,147 individuals died (mortality rate 14.0 per 1,000 PYFU (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.1–14.8). Significant differences between regions were seen in the rate of all-cause, AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality (global p<0.0001 for all three endpoints). Compared to South Europe, after adjusting for baseline demographics, laboratory measurements and treatment, a higher rate of AIDS related mortality was observed in East Europe (IRR 2.90, 95%CI 1.97–4.28, p<.0001), and a higher rate of non-AIDS related mortality in North Europe (IRR 1.51, 95%CI 1.24–1.82, p<.0001). The differences observed in North Europe decreased over calendar-time, in 2009–2011, the higher rate of non-AIDS related mortality was no longer significantly different to South Europe (IRR 1.07, 95%CI 0.66–1.75, p = 0.77). However, in 2009–2011, there remained a higher rate of AIDS-related mortality (IRR 2.41, 95%CI 1.11–5.25, p = 0.02) in East Europe compared to South Europe in adjusted analysis. Interpretations There are significant differences in the rate of all-cause mortality among HIV-positive individuals across different regions of Europe and Argentina. Individuals in Eastern Europe had an increased risk of mortality from AIDS related causes and individuals in North Europe had the highest rate of non-AIDS related mortality. These findings are important for understanding and reviewing HIV treatment strategies and policies across the European region

  10. Creating and sustaining an effective coaching culture in home care: one organization's performance improvement related to aides and aide retention.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marki

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between aides and their supervisors are often challenging. Unproductive disciplinary conversations lead to increased dissatisfaction, low morale, high turnover, and stress levels among staff. This cycle can continue to spiral if not effectively addressed and aimed in a positive direction. This article shares the experience of an organization that addressed this concern through a performance improvement initiative.

  11. Addressing Ebola-related Stigma: Lessons Learned from HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davtyan, Mariam; Brown, Brandon; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) are contemporary epidemics associated with significant social stigma in which communities affected suffer from social rejection, violence, and diminished quality of life. Objective To compare and contrast stigma related to HIV/AIDS and EVD, and strategically think how lessons learned from HIV stigma can be applied to the current EVD epidemic. Methods To identify relevant articles about HIV/AIDS and EVD-related stigma, we conducted an extensive literature review using multiple search engines. PubMed was used to search for relevant peer-reviewed journal articles and Google for online sources. We also consulted the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Institutes of Health to retrieve up-to-date information about EVD and HIV/AIDS. Results Many stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors directed towards those with EVD are strikingly similar to those with HIV/AIDS but there are significant differences worthy of discussion. Both diseases are life-threatening and there is no medical cure. Additionally misinformation about affected groups and modes of transmission runs rampant. Unlike in persons with EVD, historically criminalized and marginalized populations carry a disproportionately higher risk for HIV infection. Moreover, mortality due to EVD occurs within a shorter time span as compared to HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Stigma disrupts quality of life, whether it is associated with HIV infection or EVD. When addressing EVD, we must think beyond the immediate clinical therapeutic response, to possible HIV implications of serum treatment. There are emerging social concerns of stigma associated with EVD infection and double stigma associated with EVD and HIV infection. Drawing upon lessons learned from HIV, we must work to empower and mobilize prominent members of the community, those who recovered from the disease, and organizations working at the grassroots

  12. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma--an update of its clinicopathological features and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Suja; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSVPTC) is an uncommon variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this review is to critically analyse the features of this entity. A search of the literature revealed 25 clinicopathological studies with in-depth analysis of features of DSVPTC. Overall, the prevalence of DSVPTC varies from 0.7-6.6% of all papillary thyroid carcinoma. Higher prevalence of DSVPTC was noted in paediatric patients and in patients affected by irradiation. DSVPTC tends to occur more frequently in women and in patients in the third decade of life. Macroscopically, DSVPTC can involve the thyroid gland extensively without forming a dominant mass. Microscopic examination of DSVPTC revealed extensive fibrosis, squamous metaplasia and numerous psammoma bodies. The latter pathological feature can aid in the pre-operative diagnosis of the entity by fine needle aspiration and ultrasound. Compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, DSVPTC had a higher incidence of lymph node metastases at presentation. Distant metastases were noted in approximately 5% of the cases. Patients with DSVPTC were recommended to be managed by aggressive treatment protocols. It is likely that as a result of this, the prognosis of the patients with DSVPTC was noted to be similar to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. Overall, cancer recurrence and cancer related mortality have been reported in 14% and 3%, respectively, of patients with DSVPTC. In immunohistochemical studies, DSVPTC showed different expression patterns of epithelial membrane antigen, galectin 3, cell adhesion molecules, p53 and p63 when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. On genetic analysis, the occurrence of BRAF and RAS mutations are uncommon events in DSVPTC and activation of RET/PTC rearrangements are common. To conclude, DSVPTC has different clinical, pathological and molecular profiles when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild retardation, in relation HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Naseema; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kay; Chohan, Ebrahim

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. Questionnaires were personally administered to a saturation sample of 90 adolescents with MMR drawn from one specialised educational institution in Durban, South Africa. The study revealed critical gaps and erroneous beliefs regarding knowledge of HIV/AIDS, especially with regard to its existence, transmission and cure. Participants indicated a high degree of exposure to various sources of information, particularly media messages. The results indicate that gender-role prescriptions and prevailing social constructions of immorality have had a negative influence on the attitudes and behaviour of participants, particularly with regard to sexual practices and preventative risk behaviours. Furthermore, the sample was found to have low levels of self-efficacy in relation to sexual negotiation and decision-making, more specifically with regard to condom use. It should be noted, however, that only a small proportion of the sample was sexually active and the use of contraceptives was accordingly found to be extremely low. The findings are discussed against the backdrop of the empirical literature on HIV/AIDS, developmental theory, and pertinent theories and models of health behaviour. This study may help to promote a better understanding of the psycho-educational dynamics of HIV infection in this special group of adolescents, and also help to inform attempts to tailor suitable educational programmes, as well as promote further research to add to our knowledge as we address the problems of HIV/AIDS among this group.

  14. AIDS-related information exposure in the mass media and discussion within social networks among married women in Bombay, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, N

    1999-08-01

    Married women are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection in India and health education remains the most feasible preventive tool in their context. In a survey conducted among 350 married women in Bombay, it was found that a majority had acquired information about AIDS from the mass media, especially television. Although 87% of women who knew of AIDS had been exposed to AIDS-related information in the mass media in the past four weeks, only 57% had discussed it within their social networks. Those with more exposure to AIDS information in the mass media were significantly more likely to discuss AIDS within social networks. The women were most likely to discuss AIDS with their husbands as a general social issue, followed by friends and family members and least likely to talk to husbands about AIDS as a personal issue relating to their sexual relationship. Increased frequency and duration of AIDS messages on television will have a positive influence on AIDS knowledge in this group.

  15. Framing, agenda setting, and disease phobia of AIDS-related coverage in the South Korean mass media.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the concrete role of the press in discourses on AIDS. This study investigated the AIDS discourses created by the major media. In particular, from the perspective of the agenda-setting theory, it examines differences in the framing of AIDS-related news depending on the political orientation and news sources of the press. This study analyzed the thematic frames and news sources implied by AIDS-related coverage. The 2 major media representing conservatism and progressivism were selected as the objects of analysis. As for the search engine for content analysis, the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System was used, and 151 articles containing "AIDS" or "HIV" over 5 years from January 2005 to December 2010 were analyzed. According to the results of the analysis, there were the 6 following frames: aid/support, accident, human rights, risk, prevention, and biomedicine. Whereas the conservative press in South Korea continued to frame AIDS in the traditional way, the progressive press tended relatively more often to attempt new agenda setting, from the perspective of human rights and inequality. However, both newspaper companies tended mostly to select experts as the sources of AIDS news, thus continuing to exclude infectees and civil and society organizations.

  16. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. PMID:25421088

  17. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-11-23

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

  18. Dynamic Relation Between Working Memory Capacity and Speech Recognition in Noise During the First 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use

    PubMed Central

    Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. PMID:25421088

  19. Rare case of sclerosing mesenteritis and low grade follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Seema; Mahy, Gillian; Roche, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of long standing sclerosing mesenteritis; initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a mesenteric mass with surrounding fat oedema and stranding with a pseudocapsule and fat ring sign were clearly visualised on the initial computed tomography scan. Laparotomy showed diffuse thickening at the root of the mesentery and histology from this specimen revealed fat necrosis and reactive lymphoid tissue consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis. Initial treatment with steroids and tamoxifen relieved the symptoms and the mass. He was maintained on tamoxifen. Three years later he developed a recurrence of his symptoms and abdominal mass that responded to a course of steroids. Two years following this, he developed a follicular Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:27099861

  20. Oxidant and antioxidant status in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Mustafa; Cemek, Mustafa; Cemek, Fatma

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, and ascorbic acid levels and malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione concentrations on erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid in 30 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status. Serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid levels, and erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid reduced glutathione concentrations were decreased; however, erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were increased in the patients. Cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were different between clinical stages of the disease (P < .05). Higher cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde level was associated with the more severe clinical stage. A positive correlation was found between cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde level and clinical stages (r = 0.42; P < .05) and between erythrocyte malondialdehyde level and clinical stages (r = 0.40; P < .05). Our findings showed presence of oxidative damage in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and that antioxidants were increased as defense mechanisms of the organism against oxidative damage.

  1. Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis: A Rare Tumor of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Christopher G; Fong, Justin B; Axelsson, Karen L; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Case Presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented to the Head and Neck Surgery clinic with a 4-year history of a slowly growing, painful, left-sided neck mass in the tail of the parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration suggested well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Discussion and Results: The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and super-selective neck dissection (level 2). Pathology revealed a tumor consistent with sclerosing polycystic adenosis. Conclusion: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis is a rare inflammatory process that causes fibrocystic changes in the salivary gland. Apocrine-like metaplasia and epithelial atypia are common pathologic features. To our knowledge, a total of 51 cases have been described in the English-language literature. PMID:27043832

  2. How does susceptibility to proactive interference relate to speech recognition in aided and unaided conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Rachel J.; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2015-01-01

    Proactive interference (PI) is the capacity to resist interference to the acquisition of new memories from information stored in the long-term memory. Previous research has shown that PI correlates significantly with the speech-in-noise recognition scores of younger adults with normal hearing. In this study, we report the results of an experiment designed to investigate the extent to which tests of visual PI relate to the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss, in aided and unaided conditions. The results suggest that measures of PI correlate significantly with speech-in-noise recognition only in the unaided condition. Furthermore the relation between PI and speech-in-noise recognition differs to that observed in younger listeners without hearing loss. The findings suggest that the relation between PI tests and the speech-in-noise recognition scores of older adults with hearing loss relates to capability of the test to index cognitive flexibility. PMID:26283981

  3. Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

  4. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis after drug-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Coulter, J B; Balch, N; Best, P V

    1979-08-01

    A girl developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Eight years earlier she had had measles infection contracted shortly after cytotoxic treatment and radiotherapy for a spinal neuroblastoma. The case illustrates that typical SSPE, like immunosuppressive measles encephalopathy, can arise after drug-induced immunosuppression, and supports the view that these diseases probably represent opposite ends of a spectrum induced by measles virus infection in an individual with some form of immunological deficiency.

  5. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Current and Future Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, John E.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.

    2013-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease. The etiology of this disorder is unknown and there are no effective medical therapies. PSC is associated with inflammatory bowel disease and an increased risk for hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinical features and diagnostic approach to patients with suspected PSC, characterize associated comorbidities, review screening strategies for PSC associated malignancies and review contemporary and future therapies. PMID:23682242

  6. Altered matrix mineralization in a case of a sclerosing osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Roschger, Andreas; Puchner, Stephan E; Dominkus, Martin; Sulzbacher, Irene; Windhager, Reinhard; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the tumor matrix mineralization of highly sclerotic osteosarcoma. We used quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) of a highly sclerosing osteosarcoma of the proximal tibia as well as adjacent normal bone of a 10-year-old girl following chemotherapy according to the EURAMOS-1 protocol. Data were compared to recently published normative reference data for young individuals. Backscattered electron imaging of the tumor region revealed a dense accumulation of mineralized tumor bone matrix (up to 90% of the medullar space). The BMDD was shifted tremendously towards higher matrix mineralization (CaMean +18.5%, CaPeak +22.5%, CaHigh +100 fold) compared to normal bone. Additionally the BMDD became much wider, indicating a higher heterogeneity in mineralization (CaWidth +40%). In contrast to lamellar bone, which mineralizes via a mineralization front, the mineralization of the tumor matrix starts by randomly distributed spots of mineral clusters fusing together to a highly mineralized non-lamellar bone matrix. We also found an altered BMDD of the patient's normal bone when compared with the reference BMDD of young individuals. In conclusion this high radiodensity region of the sclerosing sarcoma is not only due to the high amount of tumor matrix but also to its high mineralization density. Chemotherapy may lead to altered matrix mineralization of normal bone due to suppression of bone turnover. The mechanism of matrix mineralization in a sclerosing osteosarcoma warrants further studies.

  7. Pain-related anxiety in relation to anxiety and depression among persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Charles P; Zvolensky, Michael J; Daumas, Stephanie D; Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) experience clinically significant pain as a result of HIV and such pain is often related to increased levels of anxiety/depression. Pain-related anxiety has been identified as a mechanism in the onset and progression of pain experience and associated affective distress. However, there has not been empirical study of pain-related anxiety in relation to affective processes among PLHA. To address this gap, hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using SPSS v.21 to examine pain-related anxiety (as measured using the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale) in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms (as measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire) among 93 PLHA (10.8% female; Mean age = 49.63, SD = 8.89). Pain-related anxiety was significantly related to anxious arousal symptoms (β = .43) and anhedonic depressive symptoms (β = .25); effects were evident beyond the variance accounted for by CD4 count, race, sex, income level, and current level of bodily pain. The present results suggest that pain-related anxiety may play a role in the experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms among PLHA.

  8. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel

    PubMed Central

    Nwokoji, Ugboga Adaji; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2004-01-01

    Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%). The majority (88.1%) had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and interact freely with civilian

  9. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.

  10. IgG4-negative autoimmune pancreatitis with sclerosing cholangitis and colitis: possible association with primary sclerosing cholangitis?

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keita; Hozawa, Shigenari; Miyata, Naoteru; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Soma, Hiromitsu; Iwao, Yasushi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) with cholangiography and histopathology showing features characteristic of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and colitis. A 55-year-old previously-healthy man was diagnosed with anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)-positive AIP according to the finding of serum biochemistry, abdominal US (ultrasonography), CT (computed tomography) and ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). However, bead-like strictures of intrahepatic bile ducts were also found and liver tissue showed onion skin-like periductal fibrosis but no anti-IgG4-positive cells. In addition, colon fiberscopy showed a pancolitis similar to ulcerative colitis indicating that, in this case, there may be an association with PSC. Here, we report a rare case of IgG4-negative AIP with sclerosing cholangitis and colitis with many clinical features that support an association with PSC. PMID:18480579

  11. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  12. AIDS-Related EBV-Associated Smooth Muscle Tumors: A Review of 64 Published Cases

    PubMed Central

    Purgina, Bibianna; Rao, Uma N. M.; Miettinen, Markku; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-01-01

    The number of reported cases of smooth muscle tumor (SMT) arising in patients with AIDS has been increasing since the mid-1990s. The aim of this study is to characterize the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathologic features, prognosis and, management of Epstein-Barr virus-related SMT (EBV-SMT) in patients with AIDS. An English language literature search identified 53 articles including 64 reported cases of EBV-SMT. The majority of these reports involved patients who were young, severely immunosuppressed, and had multifocal tumors. The central nervous system was the most common site to be involved. Histologically, tumors had smooth muscle features and were immunoreactive for muscle markers and all but two tumors demonstrated the presence of EBV by either immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and/or PCR. While mitoses and/or necrosis were used to separate leiomyoma from leiomyosarcoma, these features did not correlate with clinical outcome. Treatment included primarily resection, and less often radiotherapy, chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, EBV-SMTs appear to have variable aggressiveness and clinical outcome and may exhibit a more favorable prognosis compared to conventional leiomyosarcoma. Tumor-related death from EBV-SMT occurred in only 4 of 51 patients. PMID:21437186

  13. Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Little, Richard F; Pluda, James M; Wyvill, Kathleen M; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R; Tosato, Giovanna; Catanzaro, Andrew T; Steinberg, Seth M; Yarchoan, Robert

    2006-06-15

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) enhances Th1-type T-cell responses and exerts antiangiogenic effects. We initiated a phase 1 pilot study of IL-12 in 32 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) whose KS was progressing while on antiretroviral therapy. Fifteen patients had poor prognosis T(1)S(1) disease. IL-12 was administered subcutaneously twice weekly at doses from 100 to 625 ng/kg. The maximum tolerated dose was 500 ng/kg, and the principal toxicities were flulike symptoms, transaminase or bilirubin elevations, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, and depression. No tumor responses were seen at the lowest dose (100 ng/kg), but 17 of 24 evaluable patients at the higher doses had partial or complete responses (response rate, 71%; 95% confidence interval, 48%-89%). Only 3 of 17 patients had a change in antiretroviral therapy before responding, and there were no significant differences between responders and nonresponders with regard to changes in CD4 counts or viral loads. Patients had increases in their serum IL-12, interferon-gamma, and inducible protein-10 (IP-10) after the first dose, and increases above baseline persisted after week 4. These results provide preliminary evidence that IL-12 has substantial activity against AIDS-related KS with acceptable toxicity and warrants further investigation for this indication.

  14. Photodynamic therapy for treatment of AIDS-related mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1992-06-01

    Since 1975, Phase I/II studies have demonstrated the successfulness of hematoporphyrin derivative photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of various malignancies of the skin, eye, bladder, lung, and head and neck. Moreover, in 1981 two cases of traditional Western cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (TKS) have been treated with photodynamic therapy with both early and late complete response. To date, attempts to cure and palliation of the more aggressive AIDS-related oral Kaposi's sarcoma with conventional radiation, chemotherapy or immunotherapy, or surgical excision have been limited and often associated with debilitating mucositis and further immunosuppression. Certain aspects of photodynamic therapy may be efficacious for treatment of mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma: (1) the selective retention of hematoporphyrin derivative by neoplastic lesions (endothelial cell tumors); (2) a tumor- specific cytotoxic agent (i.e., free oxygen radical); (3) absence of systemic toxicity from immunosuppression; (4) the potential for retreatment without increasing side effects; and (5) porphyrin-mediated photoinactivation of enveloped viruses. Herein presented are seven cases of AIDS-related KS (EKS) with diffuse, superficial, and nodular mucocutaneous lesions treated with dihematoporphyrin derivative and photodynamic therapy with subsequent dramatic early partial and complete responses.

  15. Economic empowerment and AIDS-related stigma in rural Kenya: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Katherine; Ruiz, Jamie; Kellett, Nicole; Sussman, Andrew; Sullivan, Mary Ann; Montoya, Maria; Levin, Nick; Tomedi, Angelo; Mwanthi, Mutuku A

    2013-01-01

    Economic empowerment, HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma appear intricately intertwined for women in Kenya. Their interaction must be understood in order to implement effective economic interventions that also decrease HIV risk and stigma. We conducted a qualitative study amongst women in a rural Kamba-speaking community of southeastern Kenya to pursue whether engagement in an economic empowerment initiative (a basket weaving cooperative) influences women's perspectives and experiences with HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma. We conducted seven women's focus groups: participants in the local basket-weaving cooperative comprised four focus groups and non-participants comprised the remaining three groups. The HIV status of the women was not known. Three dominant themes emerged from the focus groups: empowerment, pervasive vulnerability and unanticipated social paradoxes. Contradictions found in these themes suggest that economic empowerment can become a double-edged sword. Economic empowerment enhanced perceived individual, domestic and social community status. However, this enhancement was not protective of domestic violence and perceived HIV risk. Social perceptions may have paradoxically contributed barriers to HIV testing and treatment putting women at greater HIV risk. In conclusion, economic empowerment initiatives for women in developing countries in the context of the HIV epidemic should be coupled with peer mediated support and HIV-risk education. PMID:23668536

  16. Economic empowerment and AIDS-related stigma in rural Kenya: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Katherine; Ruiz, Jamie; Kellett, Nicole; Sussman, Andrew; Sullivan, Mary Ann; Montoya, Maria; Levin, Nick; Tomedi, Angelo; Mwanthi, Mutuku A

    2013-01-01

    Economic empowerment, HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma appear intricately intertwined for women in Kenya. Their interaction must be understood in order to implement effective economic interventions that also decrease HIV risk and stigma. We conducted a qualitative study amongst women in a rural Kamba-speaking community of southeastern Kenya to pursue whether engagement in an economic empowerment initiative (a basket weaving cooperative) influences women's perspectives and experiences with HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma. We conducted seven women's focus groups: participants in the local basket-weaving cooperative comprised four focus groups and non-participants comprised the remaining three groups. The HIV status of the women was not known. Three dominant themes emerged from the focus groups: empowerment, pervasive vulnerability and unanticipated social paradoxes. Contradictions found in these themes suggest that economic empowerment can become a double-edged sword. Economic empowerment enhanced perceived individual, domestic and social community status. However, this enhancement was not protective of domestic violence and perceived HIV risk. Social perceptions may have paradoxically contributed barriers to HIV testing and treatment putting women at greater HIV risk. In conclusion, economic empowerment initiatives for women in developing countries in the context of the HIV epidemic should be coupled with peer mediated support and HIV-risk education.

  17. Surveillance of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and perceptions among the general public in Hong Kong from 1994 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, H Y

    2002-10-01

    The present study monitored the trends of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and perceptions including awareness, knowledge, self-perceived risk of HIV infection, and program evaluation among the general public in Hong Kong over a period of 7 years. Six cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted. A total of 6,795 respondents aged 18-50 randomly selected from the general population participated in the study. Over the study period, the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge has improved slightly for most of the studied items. Condom use has been more widely accepted as an efficacious means of HIV prevention. However, the public seemed to be losing interest in HIV/AIDS-related issues and were not satisfied with the efficacy and adequacy of HIV/AIDS programs in Hong Kong. Sustaining efforts to remove misconceptions and to raise the public's interest, formulation of more effective programs, and ongoing evaluation are necessary. PMID:12413187

  18. Managing age-related hearing loss: how to use hearing aids efficiently - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Williger, Bettina; Lang, Frieder R

    2014-01-01

    Using hearing aids may contribute to better functioning in the everyday lives of hearing-impaired older individuals. We introduce an integrative concept for the efficient use of hearing aids that involves both satisfaction with, and behaviour towards, hearing aids. We review theoretical and empirical work on the predictors of the efficient use of hearing aids in everyday life. Furthermore, we contend that the use of hearing aids requires improved understanding of the variability of hearing demands within specific contexts of everyday life (e.g. conversation with family members, listening to music). The efficiency of hearing aid use thus depends on the fit of situational demands, personal resources, and the specific configuration of the hearing aid device. We propose an integrative person-environment-fit model that advances concepts of selection, optimisation, and compensation to hearing aid efficiency. We discuss the implications of this model for research and for practitioners in the field of gerontology. PMID:24751499

  19. Framing of AIDS in Africa: press-state relations, HIV/AIDS news, and journalistic advocacy in four sub-Saharan Anglophone newspapers.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Paul; Pollock, John C; Kiernicki, Kristen; Shaw, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study offers the first systematic analysis of the impact of press-state relations, or media systems, on the HIV/AIDS news agenda in African news coverage. The premise is that media systems play a determining role in the degree to which journalists can independently advocate for social change when covering HIV/AIDS. Drawing on comparative research, four sub-Saharan countries were categorized into two media systems: Contained Democratic (South Africa, Nigeria) and Repressive Autocratic (Zimbabwe, Kenya). A sample of HIV/AIDS stories (n = 393) published from 2002-2007 in each country's leading Anglophone newspaper was content analyzed. Across all coverage, the topic of social costs was framed more for the responsibility borne by nongovernmental agents than governmental agents. In Contained Democratic media systems, however, story emphasis shifted toward government agents taking responsibility for addressing the social costs of HIV/AIDS. Prevention campaigns were framed more as progress than decline across all newspapers; however, campaigns were reported as being more efficacious in Contained Democratic systems than in Repressive Autocratic systems. No impact of media system on framing of medical developments was found. Results show the value of comparative analysis in understanding the agenda-setting process: with greater emphasis on positive efficacy and government initiative, the news agenda in Contained Democratic media systems can facilitate stronger positive societal-level responses than the news agenda in Repressive Autocratic media systems.

  20. Osteolytic lesions and bacillary angiomatosis in HIV infection: radiologic differentiation from AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Baron, A L; Steinbach, L S; LeBoit, P E; Mills, C M; Gee, J H; Berger, T G

    1990-10-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is a newly recognized multisystem bacterial infectious disease seen in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The disease is marked by cutaneous vascular lesions that contain a bacterium similar to the cat scratch disease bacillus. Antibiotic therapy leads to the resolution of both cutaneous and systemic manifestations. Of 17 HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions of bacillary angiomatosis, six (35%) had symptomatic osteolytic bone lesions that improved following antibiotic therapy. The authors describe the appearance of the bone lesions on radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, magnetic resonance (MR) images, and radionuclide studies. Osteolytic lesions are a relatively common feature of bacillary angiomatosis in patients with HIV infection. The presence of bone lesions aids in differentiation of bacillary angiomatosis from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma, which has similar cutaneous abnormalities but no associated bone lesions.

  1. The relationship between Chinese construction workers' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Qu, B; Guo, H Q; Liu, J; Zuo, T M; Zhang, Y; Sun, G

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in migrant urban construction workers using structural equation modelling (SEM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 male subjects on three building sites in Shenyang City. The SEM model of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour was built using LISREL version 8.5 and it fitted the data well, as shown by an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.82 and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.094. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS was closely correlated with attitudes and behaviour. Age was an important factor affecting HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. These findings suggest that increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge could improve the attitude and behaviour of migrant urban construction workers, enabling them to avoid high-risk behaviour that increases the spread of HIV/AIDS. Any intervention used will need to take the important factor of age into consideration.

  2. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: a Review Featuring a Women's Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Marchioni Beery, Renée M.; Vaziri, Haleh; Forouhar, Faripour

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are two major types of chronic cholestatic liver disease. Each disorder has distinguishing features and variable progression, but both may ultimately result in cirrhosis and hepatic failure. The following offers a review of PBC and PSC, beginning with a general overview of disease etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical features, natural course, and treatment. In addition to commonly associated manifestations of fatigue, pruritus, and fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, select disease-related topics pertaining to women's health are discussed including metabolic bone disease, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular risk, and pregnancy-related issues influencing maternal disease course and birth outcomes. This comprehensive review of PBC and PSC highlights some unique clinical considerations in the care of female patients with cholestatic liver disease. PMID:26357630

  3. HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes and recent HIV testing among Beijing men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yanming; He, Xiong; Li, Chunmei; Raymond, H. F.; McFarland, Willi; Sun, Jiangping; Pan, Stephen W.; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H.; Xiao, Yan; Ruan, Yuhua; Jia, Yujiang

    2014-01-01

    The study was to assess the correlates for recent HIV testing and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study probed demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV testing, and prevention services. Of 500 participants, 39.3% recently received a test for HIV. Recent testing was independently associated with expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes, more male sex partners, no female sexual partners and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. Expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with recent testing, younger age, and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. This study revealed that HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes were common and inversely associated with recent HIV testing. Low levels of testing highlighted the urgent needs to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination and expand HIV testing among Beijing MSM. PMID:22350831

  4. Silicone-induced Penile Sclerosing Lipogranuloma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Tsili, Athina C; Xiropotamou, Olga N; Nomikos, Michael; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing lipogranuloma is a rare benign disease, representing a peculiar granulomatous reaction of fatty tissue. The majority of cases are secondary to injection of exogenous foreign bodies, such as silicone, paraffin, mineral, or vegetable oils. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of a silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma in a 52-year-old man evaluated with a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, including diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI of the penis by combining both conventional and functional information represents an important imaging tool in the preoperative workup of silicone-induced penile lipogranuloma. PMID:26958433

  5. [X-ray diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis].

    PubMed

    Khalikov, T Kh; Maksumova, Z I; Ibragimova, T V; Isakov, I M

    1990-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) should be regarded as a disease of the bile tracts which is difficult to diagnose rather than a rare disease. Combined radiodiagnostic investigation in the preoperative period is of great importance. Direct methods of an induced contrast study of the biliferous system (transcutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography) play a major role in the diagnosis of PSC. The authors present 11 cases, describing in detail x-ray semiotics of various sites of PSC and its differential diagnosis with similar diseases.

  6. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS IN A DOG.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden

    2015-01-01

    An approximately 5-month-old American Staffordshire terrier was presented with a history of recurrent peritoneal effusion. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasound showed a loculated effusion in the ventral abdomen with dorsal displacement of abdominal organs, hepatomegaly and rounding of liver and splenic margins. Computed tomography demonstrated centrally located gastrointestinal segments surrounded by a thin soft tissue band and a thickened peritoneal lining. At necropsy a fibrous membrane continuous with liver and splenic capsules encapsulated all abdominal organs. Microscopically the abdominal wall and fibrous capsule consisted of an irregular thick layer of hypocellular connective tissue. The final diagnosis was sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. PMID:26095283

  7. Response to: Practice of first aid in burn related injuries in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Khor, Wee Sim; Khwaja, Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Traditional remedies for burns first aid are rarely compliant with current best practice. Greater Manchester is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the UK. Our burns centre has noted the prevalent use of traditional remedies over recognised first aid prior to presentation. We review traditional burns remedies and highlight the importance of burns first aid education that is accessible to migrant communities. PMID:26428366

  8. Genetics Home Reference: SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing loss, vision loss, and a sense of smell that is diminished (hyposmia) or completely absent (anosmia). ... Registry: Sclerosteosis MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Facial Paralysis MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Smell--Impaired These resources from MedlinePlus offer information about ...

  9. Decision-making orientation and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Hispanic, African-American, and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Warheit, G J; Duncan, R C

    1993-05-01

    How adolescents' personal sense of directedness (i.e., peer, parent, or self-directed orientation) affects the decision-making processes of adolescent students regarding AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and skills (KABBS) is examined. The sample consisted of 10th-grade students in 8 public high schools (N = 2,515) in Dade County (greater Miami), Florida. The findings showed that decision-making orientation and directedness was a significant predictor of AIDS-related KABBS of adolescents. Overall, the level of AIDS-related KABBS that were associated with low risk was found significantly more often among self-directed students and least often among peer-directed students. The findings of this study suggest that future preadult health-risk research should incorporate the concept of differences of information processing across adolescents. PMID:8500453

  10. Forms and determinants of migration and HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border.

    PubMed

    Infante, Cesar; Aggleton, Peter; Pridmore, Pat

    2009-12-01

    In this study we examined the origins and consequences of HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border. To explore these issues, an inductive/deductive approach was taken. Data were collected using qualitative methods including nonparticipant observation, in-depth interviews, and informal conversation. Informants included Central American immigrants, locals, and contextual key informants. Findings reveal that gender, social class, and race/ ethnicity function as key determinants of HIV/AIDS-related stigma, but serve also as the basis around which migration-related stigma is constructed within this particular context. These issues need to be taken into account in addressing the vulnerability of mobile populations, as well as the stigma attached to migration and HIV/AIDS. To be effective, responses should be based in the social and contextual realities faced by migrants and mobile populations, and be part of a more general process of empowerment that improves their legal, social, economic, and health status. PMID:19949216

  11. "Doing Right by": Teacher Aides, Students with Disabilities, and Relational Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Gill

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Gill Rutherford seeks to understand, from the perspectives of teacher aides, the influence of their work on the school experiences of New Zealand students with disabilities. Rutherford contributes to a growing body of international research regarding the role of teacher aides that documents the complex and ambiguous nature of…

  12. Responding to AIDS-Related Bereavement in the South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demmer, Craig

    2007-01-01

    AIDS continues to be a death sentence for many individuals living in South Africa where it remains the leading cause of death. Little is currently known about what it is like to experience the loss of a loved one to AIDS from the South African perspective and how to assist individuals who are living in a context vastly different from similarly…

  13. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: evidence for direct stimulatory effect of glucocorticoid on cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, W. X.; Antakly, T.

    1995-01-01

    Glucocorticoid therapy has been linked to increased risk of development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which has become epidemic among HIV-infected individuals. However, no experimental evidence is available to explain the role of glucocorticoid in KS biopathology. We investigated the direct effect of dexamethasone (Dex) on the growth of cultured KS cells derived from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients (AIDS-KS). Dex significantly stimulated the proliferation of AIDS-KS cells. Moreover, simultaneous exposure to Dex and oncostatin M, a KS major cytokine, produced a dramatic synergistic effect on proliferation of AIDS-KS cell. This suggests an interaction between glucocorticoid and growth factor intracellular pathways in KS cells. The expression of glucocorticoid receptor protein and mRNA in AIDS-KS cell cultures was examined by radioimmunoassay and in situ hybridization, respectively. Compared with other well studied cell lines, AIDS-KS cells contain an unusually high level of glucocorticoid receptor protein, which is further upregulated by glucocorticoid treatment. RU-486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, completely abolished the stimulatory effect of Dex and reduced the synergistic effect of Dex and oncostatin M on proliferation of AIDS-KS. These findings demonstrate that glucocorticoid stimulates directly the proliferation of AIDS-KS cells via the modulation of glucocorticoid receptor expression. Images Figure 3 PMID:7887453

  14. AIDS-Related Training in U.S. Schools of Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Yolanda E.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 70 master of social work programs to determine how curricula included instruction on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Most programs offered training in foundation areas pertinent to AIDS (health/mental health systems, practice with racial/ethnic minorities, substance abuse prevention/treatment). Over 40% of programs provided no…

  15. Postsplenectomy sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor with unexpected good clinical evolution: morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of one case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Ojopi, Elida B P; Chioato, Lucimara; Cordeiro, Danielle Leão; Negretti, Fabio; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-05-01

    Sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumor has been described as a rare manifestation of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm. The lack of knowledge about this entity has caused it to be mistaken for many types of nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic tumors. We present the case of a 71-year-old lady with a long history of primary myelofibrosis, which developed multiple abdominal sclerosing extramedullary hematopoietic tumors with good clinical evolution. Nonchronic myeloid leukemia myeloproliferative neoplasm included a JAK2 mutation as part of the diagnosis algorithm. Particularly, idiopathic myelofibrosis is related with a JAK2 mutation in 50% of the cases with a pejorative prognosis. The absence of JAK2 demonstrated in the paraffin samples of the tumors may be related to the unusual evolution in this particular case. Morphologically differential diagnoses considered in the evaluation of this entity and in our case included sarcomas mainly liposarcoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma.

  16. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Arastéh, K; Hannah, A

    2000-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm associated with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. KS involves the skin and mucous membranes as well as other organs and can lead to tumor-associated edema and ulcerations. Despite therapy with highly active antiviral agents, most patients with HIV-1-related KS eventually develop disseminated disease. In the treatment of KS, a strong rationale exists for the use of agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Angiogenesis appears to be an important feature of this disease, and recent experimental studies have demonstrated the role of VEGF and its receptors in the pathogenesis of KS. Thus, therapeutic agents that target the VEGF pathway may be an effective strategy in reducing the tumor growth and edema associated with KS. Phase I study results with SU5416, a synthetic low molecular-weight inhibitor of the VEGF-Flk-1/KDR receptor tyrosine kinase, demonstrate that this agent is well tolerated. Preliminary results show that in a majority of patients with autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related disease, SU5416 clearly has biological activity (it flattens, shrinks, or dissolves lesions and reduces or resolves edema) or stabilizes the disease. Angiogenesis inhibition with SU5416 is a promising therapeutic approach in treating patients with KS, and further clinical evaluation is currently under way.

  17. Corynebacterium parvum versus tetracycline as pleural sclerosing agents in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F S; Wang, N S; Teixeira, L R; Carmo, A O; Silva, L M; Light, R W

    1995-12-01

    Tetracycline has been one of the most commonly used agents for producing a pleurodesis. However, it is no longer available due to more stringent requirements on the manufacturing process. The objective of this project was to determine whether Corynebacterium parvum is an effective sclerosant in an experimental model in rabbits. The following medications were instilled intrapleurally in anaesthetized male rabbits: tetracycline 35 mg.kg-1 or C. parvum 4 or 8 mg, all diluted with bacteriostatic saline solution. Twenty eight days after the instillation, the animals were sacrificed and the pleural spaces assessed macroscopically for evidence of pleurodesis and microscopically for evidence of fibrosis and inflammation. The intrapleural injection of C. parvum was ineffective in creating pleural fibrosis. The mean degree of pleurodesis in the 10 rabbits who received tetracycline was 3.5 +/- 0.7 (scale 0-4) whilst in the 10 rabbits that received 4 mg C. parvum it was 0.0 +/- 0.0, and in the 10 rabbits that received 8 mg C. parvum it was 0.5 +/- 0.8. Based on this study, we recommend that C. parvum should not be used as a pleural sclerosant in patients with normal pleura. PMID:8666113

  18. Health Emergency 2003: The Spread of Drug-Related AIDS and Hepatitis C among African American and Latinos. Health Emergency Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Dawn

    This report is the fifth in a series detailing the impact of the injection-related AIDS epidemic on African Americans and Latinos. Ten chapters include: (1) "Health Emergency: The Spread of AIDS among African Americans Who Inject Drugs"; (2) "Health Emergency: The Spread of AIDS Among Latinos Who Inject Drugs"; (3) "A Neglected Opportunity: Drug…

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction among nursing students in southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Farotimi, Adekunbi A; Nwozichi, Chinomso Ugochukwu; Ojediran, Tolulope D

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the reported obstacles to the achievement of universal access to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention, treatment, care, and support programs includes stigma and discrimination from health workers, particularly nurses. Since nursing students would become future practising nurses and are most likely exposed to caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PL WHA) during their training, it is of great importance to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses toward the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used. A total of 150 nursing students were selected using the simple random sampling technique of fish bowl method with replacement. Data were obtained using a self-administered (33-item) validated questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses with regard to HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction strategies. Reliability of the tool was tested using Cronbach alpha (R) yielding a reliability value of 0.72. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Results: Majority (76.0%) of the respondents were females and 82.7% were married. Respondents were found to have high knowledge (94.0%) of strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Also, 64% had moderate discriminatory attitude, 74% engaged in low discriminatory practice, while 26% engaged in high discriminatory practice. Conclusions: Student nurses had adequate knowledge about strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination; negative discriminatory attitude toward PLWHA and some form of discriminatory practices exist in participants’ training schools. It is, therefore, recommended that an educational package on reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination be developed and implemented for the participants. PMID:26793257

  20. Concurrent zidovudine levels in semen and serum determined by radioimmunoassay in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, K.; Chinnock, B.J.; Quinn, R.P.; Fletcher, C.V.; de Miranda, P.; Balfour, H.H.

    1988-05-27

    Zidovudine was present in the semen and serum of six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or the related complex who were receiving 200 mg of the drug orally every four to six hours. Mean semen zidovudine levels (as measured by a new radioimmunoassay) in samples collected 0.75 to 1.25 hours after oral dosing were 3.63 to 7.19 ..mu..mol/L. Levels in semen samples collected 3.0 to 4.5 hours after oral dosing were 1.68 to 6.43 ..mu..mol/L. These values are above the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Mean serum concentrations at the early and late times after oral dosing were 0.22 to 3.07 ..mu..mol/L and 0.10 to 1.42 ..mu..mol/L, respectively. Ratios of semen/serum zidovudine levels ranged from 1.3 to 20.4. It is possible that a pH-dependent trapping mechanism, which has been described in the prostate for other antibiotics, was responsible for the relatively high semen levels observed.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the business community relative to HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G

    1991-01-01

    One of the goals of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) policy on the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is to support business organizations in implementing HIV and AIDS information, education, and prevention activities. However, the response of the American business community to HIV infection and AIDS has been varied. Although company executives consider AIDS to be one of the leading problems in the country, surveys typically indicate that less than one-third of businesses have or are developing some type of AIDS policy. The workplace appears to be a valid site for AIDS information and education programs, given the weight employees attach to information received there. However, workplace education and information programs are undertaken primarily by large companies. Many small companies do not devote much time and effort to these activities, even though extensive, indepth educational programs are likely to have positive impacts on worker attitudes and behavior, whereas short programs or literature distribution may only increase workers' fears. The question of what is an effective workplace program still needs additional research. Very little is known about the magnitude of the costs of HIV infection and AIDS to business. These costs, which are affected by the changing roles of employer-based health insurance, cost shifting, and public programs, will influence how employers react to the epidemic and how they respond to CDC's prevention initiatives. PMID:1956975

  2. Family relations in the context of HIV/AIDS in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2016-10-01

    In China, an estimated 780,000 people have been infected with HIV (China AIDS, 2012 ). Even as this stigmatized population rapidly grows, with the majority of reproductive age (20-40 years old), information about their daily experiences in the domestic sphere has been scarce. Because the family remains a central unit of social and ethical organization in China, the current qualitative study examines family relations among people living with HIV (PLWH) with the goal of identifying the effect of HIV on family relations and, conversely, the effect of family relations on those with HIV. We analyzed data from 90 in-depth interviews with PLWH and people around them (i.e., their children, health care providers, other community members) in southwest China (Guangxi province). Through analyzing the families' experiences with illness, three themes emerged: how individuals with HIV interact with their community; how they cope with stigma alongside and against their family; and how families can support those with HIV. Our data ultimately showed the critical role of family in the quality of PLWH's well-being. Because concealment of their serostatus was the primary coping strategy, stigma manifestation was most obvious in the domestic spheres. Yet, when help was received, PLWH regarded family support as the most helpful, as those who received empathy from their families remained more optimistic. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing efficacious intervention programs that could lead to maximize family support, involving the families of PLWH, with a particular attention to family dynamics in daily interactions. Despite our awareness of the significance of family in China, this study reveals a particular kind of role of family that has rarely been considered, namely the role of family in healing and sustaining social bonds within the context of stigmatization, when those bonds might otherwise be broken. PMID:27160680

  3. Human Exportin-1 is a Target for Combined Therapy of HIV and AIDS Related Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Boons, Eline; Vanstreels, Els; Jacquemyn, Maarten; Nogueira, Tatiane C.; Neggers, Jasper E.; Vercruysse, Thomas; van den Oord, Joost; Tamir, Sharon; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef; Snoeck, Robert; Pannecouque, Christophe; Andrei, Graciela; Daelemans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Infection with HIV ultimately leads to advanced immunodeficiency resulting in an increased incidence of cancer. For example primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with very poor prognosis that typically affects HIV infected individuals in advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Here we report on the dual anti-HIV and anti-PEL effect of targeting a single process common in both diseases. Inhibition of the exportin-1 (XPO1) mediated nuclear transport by clinical stage orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors (SINE) prevented the nuclear export of the late intron-containing HIV RNA species and consequently potently suppressed viral replication. In contrast, in CRISPR-Cas9 genome edited cells expressing mutant C528S XPO1, viral replication was unaffected upon treatment, clearly demonstrating the anti-XPO1 mechanism of action. At the same time, SINE caused the nuclear accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as inhibition of NF-κB activity in PEL cells resulting in cell cycle arrest and effective apoptosis induction. In vivo, oral administration arrested PEL tumor growth in engrafted mice. Our findings provide strong rationale for inhibiting XPO1 as an innovative strategy for the combined anti-retroviral and anti-neoplastic treatment of HIV and PEL and offer perspectives for the treatment of other AIDS-associated cancers and potentially other virus-related malignancies. PMID:26501108

  4. Human Exportin-1 is a Target for Combined Therapy of HIV and AIDS Related Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Boons, Eline; Vanstreels, Els; Jacquemyn, Maarten; Nogueira, Tatiane C; Neggers, Jasper E; Vercruysse, Thomas; van den Oord, Joost; Tamir, Sharon; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef; Snoeck, Robert; Pannecouque, Christophe; Andrei, Graciela; Daelemans, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Infection with HIV ultimately leads to advanced immunodeficiency resulting in an increased incidence of cancer. For example primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with very poor prognosis that typically affects HIV infected individuals in advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Here we report on the dual anti-HIV and anti-PEL effect of targeting a single process common in both diseases. Inhibition of the exportin-1 (XPO1) mediated nuclear transport by clinical stage orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitors (SINE) prevented the nuclear export of the late intron-containing HIV RNA species and consequently potently suppressed viral replication. In contrast, in CRISPR-Cas9 genome edited cells expressing mutant C528S XPO1, viral replication was unaffected upon treatment, clearly demonstrating the anti-XPO1 mechanism of action. At the same time, SINE caused the nuclear accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as inhibition of NF-κB activity in PEL cells resulting in cell cycle arrest and effective apoptosis induction. In vivo, oral administration arrested PEL tumor growth in engrafted mice. Our findings provide strong rationale for inhibiting XPO1 as an innovative strategy for the combined anti-retroviral and anti-neoplastic treatment of HIV and PEL and offer perspectives for the treatment of other AIDS-associated cancers and potentially other virus-related malignancies.

  5. Blood vessel growth blocker may treat AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with an AIDS-associated cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), showed improvement after receiving the combination of bevacizumab, a cancer drug that blocks the growth of new blood vessels, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  6. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  7. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  8. With and without: the bereavement experiences of gay men who have lost a partner to non-AIDS-related causes.

    PubMed

    Hornjatkevyc, Nina L

    2011-10-01

    This study gives voice to the experiences of gay men who have lost a partner to non-AIDS-related causes, a subject that has received little attention in the psychological literature. Interviews were conducted with 8 gay men. An analysis informed by hermeneutic phenomenology generated themes and contexualized meanings regarding the participants' diverse experiences. The themes identified areas of similarity and difference between the bereavement of these participants from those who have participated in general bereavement studies and from those who have lost a partner to AIDS. Implications for counseling practice and further research are discussed.

  9. Distinctive inflammatory bowel disease phenotype in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, A Boudewijn; Janse, Marcel; Blokzijl, Hans; Weersma, Rinse K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the current literature for the specific clinical characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS: A systematical review for clinical characteristics of IBD in PSC was performed by conducting a broad search for “primary sclerosing cholangitis” in Pubmed. “Clinical characteristics” were specified into five predefined subthemes: epidemiology of IBD in PSC, characteristics of IBD in PSC (i.e., location, disease behavior), risk of colorectal cancer development, IBD recurrence and de novo disease after liver transplantation for PSC, and safety and complications after proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Papers were selected for inclusion based on their relevance to the subthemes, and were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Only full papers relevant to PSC-IBD were included. Additionally the references of recent reviews for PSC (< 5 years old) were scrutinized for relevant articles. RESULTS: Initial literature search for PSC yielded 4704 results. After careful review 65 papers, comprising a total of 11406 PSC-IBD patients, were selected and divided according to subtheme. Four manuscripts overlapped and were included in two subthemes. Prevalence of IBD in PSC shows a large variance, ranging from 46.5% to 98.7% with ulcerative colitis (UC) being the most common type (> 75%). The highest IBD rates in PSC are found in papers reviewing both endoscopic and histological data for IBD diagnosis. Although IBD in PSC is found to be a quiescent disease, pancolitis occurs often, with rates varying from 35% to 95%. Both backwash ileitis and rectal sparing are observed infrequently. The development of dysplasia or colorectal carcinoma is increased in PSC-IBD; the cumulative 10 years risk varying between 0% and 11%. Exacerbation of IBD is common after liver transplantation for PSC and de novo disease is seen in 1.3% to 31.3% of PSC-IBD patients. The risk for development of pouchitis

  10. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as schizophrenia with an alpha coma pattern in a child.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ayşe; Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çitak; Gürkaş, Esra; Aydin, Kurşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2014-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, can present atypically with uncharacteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) features at its onset albeit typically with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. An atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis, thus hindering early treatment. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations. The patient's electroencephalography on admission showed an alpha coma pattern. In spite of antipsychiatric treatment (olanzapine 20 mg/d) for 3 months, a progressive deterioration in neurologic function was observed. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected and diagnosis was confirmed by increased titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. The attention of pediatricians should be drawn to psychiatric symptoms as possible initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in order to avoid needless diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  11. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  12. HIV-K: an integrative knowledge base for semantic integration of AIDS-related malignancy data and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Ramos, A; Saltz, Joel; Lechowicz, Mary Jo

    2010-01-01

    Technological innovations such as web services and collaborative Grid platforms like caGrid can create opportunities to converge the worlds of health care and clinical research, by facilitating access and integration of HIV-related malignancy clinical and outcomes data at more sophisticated, semantic levels. At the same time, large numbers of randomized clinical trial and outcomes data on AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) have been produced during the last few years. There is still much work to do, though, on obtaining clear conclusions from the integration of such information. This is a white paper on work in progress from Emory University's HIV/AIDS related malignancy data integrative knowledge base project (HIV-K). We are working to increase the understanding of available clinical trial data and outcomes of ADM such as lymphoma, as well as nADM such as anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or liver cancer. Our hypothesis is that, by creating prototypes of tools for semantics-enabled integrative knowledge bases for HIV/AIDS-related malignancy data, we will facilitate the identification of patterns and potential new overall evidence, as well as the linking of integrated data and results to registries of interest.

  13. Upregulation of ATM in sclerosing adenosis of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R A; Kairouz, R; Watters, D; Lavin, M F; Kearsley, J H; Lee, C S

    1998-01-01

    The gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia (ATM) has an established tumour suppressor role in breast cancer. ATM appears to be expressed in most normal cells, including breast epithelium, where it has been postulated to have a nuclear role in cell cycle regulation following DNA damage. However, ATM is not upregulated after DNA damage. In this study, we demonstrate an absence of immunohistologically detectable levels of ATM in the normally quiescent myoepithelial cells that line normal breast ducts. This contrasts dramatically with the significant expression of ATM in the proliferative myoepithelium of sclerosing adenosis (n = 7). This upregulation of ATM suggests that ATM expression is coupled to the proliferative status of the myoepithelium. Our results also indicate that there are factors other than ATM gene mutations that can dramatically influence ATM expression in the breast and that these factors should be considered for their possible implications in carcinogenesis. PMID:9893751

  14. Cerebral glucose metabolism in the course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, M.; Herholz, K.; Pawlik, G.; Szelies, B.; Juergens, R.H.; Heiss, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was studied in a 15-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis before and after therapy with human interferon beta, using positron emission tomography of fluorine 18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose. At first examination, metabolism was symmetrically decreased in the thalamus, cerebellum, and all cortical areas except prerolandic motor cortex, but increased in lentiform nucleus. A computed tomographic scan was normal. Six months later, bilateral focal necrosis centered in the previously hypermetabolic putamen was demonstrated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The caudate nucleus and the superoposterior part of the putamen were spared, still showing increased metabolism. Corresponding with some clinical improvement, cortical glucose consumption rates had returned to a normal level.

  15. Medical and endoscopic therapy of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Weismüller, Tobias J; Lankisch, Tim O

    2011-12-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare cholestatic liver disease mainly affecting young male patients. PSC is characterised by chronic inflammation and fibrotic strictures of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary system, which eventually lead to cholestasis and biliary cirrhosis. However, the clinical course remains very variable. As the aetiology remains unknown, the development of a causative treatment is challenging and today no specific medical therapy is available. Ursodeoxycholic acid has been widely used for the treatment of PSC, but improved only biochemistry and/or symptoms in low- or medium dosages and is probably harmful in higher dosages. Other drugs such as immunosuppressive, antifibrotic or antibiotic agents have not been proven to be effective in large clinical trials. The endoscopic therapy encompasses balloon-dilatation and/or stenting of strictures, relieves clinical symptoms and improves a cholestatic enzyme profile. However, endoscopic therapy is limited to patients in advanced stages of PSC with biliary obstruction.

  16. Primary sclerosing cholangitis – The arteriosclerosis of the bile duct?

    PubMed Central

    Fickert, Peter; Moustafa, Tarek; Trauner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the large bile ducts and characterized by periductal fibrosis and stricture formation, which ultimately result in biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. Arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of altered lipids and lipoproteins in large arteries; this drives inflammation and fibrosis and ultimately leads to narrowing of the arteries and hypoperfusion of dependent organs and tissues. Knowledge of the causative factors is crucial to the understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of specific treatment. Based on pathogenetic similarities between PSC and arteriosclerosis, we hypothesize that PSC represents "arteriosclerosis of the bile duct" initiated by toxic biliary lipids. This hypothesis is based on common molecular, cellular, and morphological features providing the conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of their pathogenesis. This hypothesis should stimulate translational research to facilitate the search for novel treatment strategies for both diseases. PMID:17254334

  17. Radiologic bone changes of polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Maekelae, P.; Virtama, P.; Jaervi, O.; Hakola, P.

    1982-03-01

    More than 50 cases of polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia (PLO) with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (SL) have been described in Finland, Sweden, Japan, and in the USA. Radiographic bone changes, including symmetrical cystic lesions in the small bones of the extremities and trabecular loss in the distal ends of the long tubular bones, represent primary abnormalities in the diagnosis of the disease. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, frontal syndrome, and pyramidal signs make the patients dangerous to themselves. They are often involved in traffic accidents are prone to multiple spontaneous or almost spontaneous fractures. PLO usually starts with slight bone pain around the age of 20 years. Progress is very slow during the next ten years, but faster after the age of 40 years. The patients usually die before the age of 50 years having total dementia and epileptiform convulsions.

  18. Evaluation of lymphocyte subgroups in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Yuca, S A; Yilmaz, N; Oner, A F; Caksen, H

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be fully elucidated, although it follows infection with a hypermutant defective M-protein measles virus. This study analysed peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups to determine their role in the pathophysiology of SSPE. It included 22 children with SSPE aged 2 - 15 years (patient group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy children (control group). In children < 6 years old, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the proportions of lymphocytes expressing the surface markers CD3, CD8, CD19 or CD16/56, or in CD4/CD8 ratio. The proportion of CD4(+) lymphocytes in SSPE patients < 6 years of age was significantly lower compared with the control group. In children >or= 6 years old, there were no significant differences in the lymphocyte subgroups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a low CD4(+) lymphocyte count might be responsible for SSPE in younger children.

  19. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with AIDS: a relatively uncommon condition associated with reduced survival.

    PubMed Central

    Parente, F; Cernuschi, M; Valsecchi, L; Rizzardini, G; Musicco, M; Lazzarin, A; Bianchi Porro, G

    1991-01-01

    To determine the cumulative incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and its effect upon survival in patients with AIDS, 453 consecutive AIDS patients diagnosed in our hospital between June 1985 and March 1989 were followed for a median period of six months (maximum 42 months). The cumulative probability of acute gastrointestinal bleeding was 3% at six months and 6% at 14 months. This event was associated with significantly reduced survival. Independent risk factors for bleeding were: severe thrombocytopenia at the time of diagnosis and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as the first clinical manifestation of AIDS. The potential causes of bleeding were investigated in all cases by emergency endoscopy or by necropsy examination in those patients whose clinical condition precluded the procedure. In nine of 15 patients, bleeding was due to lesions specifically associated with AIDS, but in the remainder the source of bleeding was not a direct consequence of HIV infection. We conclude that acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding rarely complicates the course of AIDS, but its occurrence is associated with decreased survival. As many of the causes are potentially treatable, a complete diagnostic approach is indicated in these patients, except those who are terminally ill. PMID:1916503

  20. HIV/AIDS - Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Practices among Migrant Wives in Rural Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Dai, Xin; Meng, Xiaojun; Wang, Huadong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Yongqing; Tang, Song; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant wives have been increasing in some poor rural regions of China and they may bridge HIV transmission across regions. This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices among this population in rural Anhui Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaire of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices between June 2011 and May 2012. A total of 730 migrant wives and 207 local women were enrolled in this study. Unpaired T-test, Chi-square was utilized to compare the difference of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices between migrant wives and local women. Results Around 80% of the migrant wives were from Yunnan, Guizhou, or Sichuan Provinces. The main sources of HIV/AIDS information were TV/radio, posters, and newspapers/periodicals. HIV/AIDS knowledge level among migrant wives was significantly lower than that among local women (e.g. 47.1% vs 57.0% (p<0.001) answered “Yes” for the question “Can an apparently healthy person be HIV-infected?”), and stigma and prejudice towards HIV/AIDS among migrant wives were more common than those among local women (e.g. 73.2% vs 65.7% (p=0.006) answered “No” for the question “If a shopkeeper or food seller had the HIV, would you buy food from them?”). Compared to local women, migrant wives were more likely to have ever had sex during menstruation (6.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.065) and extramarital sex (17.5% vs 10.1%, p=0.01), and were less likely to consistently use condoms with their husbands (45.8% vs 57.5%, p<0.001) or extramarital sex partners (48.8% vs 58.95, p<0.001). Conclusions Migrant wives in rural China had a low HIV/AIDS knowledge level and high prevalence of stigma and prejudice and risky sexual behaviors. Local HIV/AIDS prevention programs should target this neglected population. PMID:25844269

  1. AIDS-Kaposi Sarcoma and Classic Kaposi Sarcoma: are different ultrasound patterns related to different variants?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy of endothelial skin cells with multifocal localization on the skin, lymph nodes and visceral organs. Although all clinical variants are associated with HHV-8 infection, specific differences in the clinical onset and in the natural history of AIDS-KS and Classic-KS have been described. The present randomised prospective-observational study aimed to investigate whether the ultrasound pattern and color Doppler flow imaging of vascularisation of skin lesions of patients with Classic KS (CKS) or AIDS-KS could provide useful information to the evaluation of clinical activity of the disease. Methods Cutaneous lesions of 24 patients with histologically confirmed KS were investigated using very high frequency ultrasound probes; 16 patients had CKS and 8 had AIDS-KS. HHV-8 infection was confirmed in all patients by investigating the specific humoral response to viral antigens. Immunological and virological parameters were also assessed to monitor HIV or HHV-8 viral infection. For each patient, a target skin lesion was selected on the basis of size (diameter from 0.4 to 2 cm). Each lesion was analyzed in terms of size, depth and color Doppler pattern. Results The B-mode ultrasound patterns of skin lesions did not differ when comparing CKS patients to AIDS-KS patients, whereas the color Doppler signal, which is associated with vascular activity, was detected in the KS lesions of 6/8 AIDS-KS patients (75.0%) and in 2/16 CKS (16,7%); the latter two patients showed a clinically progressive and extensive disease stage (IV B). Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest that small cutaneous KS lesions - in both CKS and AIDS-KS patients- display similar B-mode ultrasound patterns ( hypoechoic, well defined, superficial lesions). However, the color Doppler signal, which is associated with endothelial activity and angiogenesis, which play a substantial role in KS progression, could constitute a useful tool for evaluating disease activity

  2. [Educational needs relative to human sexuality and AIDS among secondary school students and teachers in Lima].

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F; Rosasco, A M; Munoz, S; Gotuzzo, E; Mandel, J; Hearst, N

    1992-01-01

    Between November 1989 and January 1990, a pilot study was conducted among state secondary school students and teachers in Lima Peru by questionnaires with the objective of determining their knowledge about human sexuality, sexual behavior, pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), AIDS, drug abuse, and sexual activity. 110 students (64 boys and 46 women) aged 13-18 of low and medium-low socioeconomic background from metropolitan Lima participated. 40 teachers (70% females) aged 40.1 + or - 9.3 years also took part. THe adolescent focus groups were anxious to talk openly about sexuality to dispel their doubts. The levels of knowledge reached 46% for human sexuality, 50% for physiology and pregnancy, 35% for STDs and preventive sexual behavior, 50-60% for AIDS (transmission and risk groups), and only 35% for prevention. 21 had heterosexual experiences: 19 males and 2 females. 6 youngsters had homosexual experiences: 4 males and 2 females, 3 of these also had heterosexual sex. 20 of students without sexual experience expressed on interest, in engaging in sexual behavior if they fell in love. 33 adolescents reported using alcohol, 1/4 of these had consumed more than 6 bottles the previous week. The report on drug use was low, because 32% failed to answer this question. 60-70% of the teachers knew about human sexuality, while 72% knew about AIDS. 76.5% of them considered sex education in schools inadequate. 88.2% thought that adolescents need an explicit preventive program which should start in primary school and continue through all grades. This would require additional school resources. The teachers deemed daily life more educational about sexuality than information from schools and universities. 52% said that AIDS education messages had to be clear about preventive sexual behavior. 32% believed that correct use of the condom had to be demonstrated in class. 78% identified the mass media for dissemination of AIDS information, and only 15% judged their knowledge

  3. Multiple viral mutations rather than host factors cause defective measles virus gene expression in a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, R; Schmid, A; Billeter, M A; Sheppard, R D; Udem, S A

    1988-01-01

    A measles virus (MV) genome originally derived from brain cells of a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patient expressed in IP-3-Ca cells an unstable MV matrix protein and was unable to produce virus particles. Transfection of this MV genome into other cell lines did not relieve these defects, showing that they are ultimately encoded by viral mutations. However, these defects were partially relieved in a weakly infectious virus which emerged from IP-3-Ca cells and which produced a matrix protein of intermediate stability. The sequences of several cDNAs related to the unstable and intermediately stable matrix proteins showed many differences in comparison with a stable matrix protein sequence and even appreciable heterogeneity among themselves. Nevertheless, partial restoration of matrix protein stability could be ascribed to a single additional amino acid change. From an examination of additional genes, we estimated that, on average, each MV genome in IP-3-Ca cells differs from the others in 30 to 40 of its 16,000 bases. The role of extreme variability of RNA virus genomes in persistent viral infections is discussed in the context of the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and of other human diseases of suspected viral etiology. Images PMID:3346948

  4. The Use of Graphs as Decision Aids in Relation to Information Overload and Managerial Decision Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Y.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information overload focuses on a study of masters degree students at a Hong Kong university that investigated the effectiveness of graphs as decision aids to reduce adverse effects of information overload on decision quality. Results of a simulation of a business prediction task with a sample of business managers are presented.…

  5. AIDS/HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behavior. Minnesota Student Survey Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    The Minnesota Student Survey, including questions on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus transmission and sexual activity, was completed by approximately 88,000 6th-, 9th-, and 12th-graders during the 1988-89 school year. Sexual activity questions were not asked of sixth graders. Over 90% of high school students knew about sharing…

  6. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa: thinking ahead on programmatic tasks and related operational research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Until now, we have all been desperately trying to run behind the HIV/AIDS epidemic and catch up with it, but despite all our efforts, the epidemic remains well ahead of us. In 2010, the antiretroviral treatment (ART) gap was about 60%, AIDS-related deaths were almost two million a year, and on top of these figures, for every one person started on ART, there were two new HIV infections. What is needed to change this situation is to think ahead of the epidemic in terms of the programmatic tasks we will be faced with and try to act boldly in trying to implement those tasks. From a programmatic perspective, we: a) highlight what needs to fundamentally change in our thinking and overall approach to the epidemic; and b) outline a number of key task areas for implementation and related operational research. PMID:21967983

  7. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa: thinking ahead on programmatic tasks and related operational research.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Rony; Van Damme, Wim; Arendt, Vic; Schmit, Jean Claude; Harries, Anthony D

    2011-01-01

    Until now, we have all been desperately trying to run behind the HIV/AIDS epidemic and catch up with it, but despite all our efforts, the epidemic remains well ahead of us. In 2010, the antiretroviral treatment (ART) gap was about 60%, AIDS-related deaths were almost two million a year, and on top of these figures, for every one person started on ART, there were two new HIV infections. What is needed to change this situation is to think ahead of the epidemic in terms of the programmatic tasks we will be faced with and try to act boldly in trying to implement those tasks. From a programmatic perspective, we: a) highlight what needs to fundamentally change in our thinking and overall approach to the epidemic; and b) outline a number of key task areas for implementation and related operational research.

  8. A study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behaviors among female sex workers in Shanghai China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P < 0.05). The percentage of FSWs who reported having experiences in commercial sexual services without the use of condoms was 33.6%. Condom slippage or breakage was reported as having occurred at least once by 51.2% of the FSWs. FSWs from suburban areas were found to more often engage in high-risk behaviors, including oral and anal sex, than those from downtown areas (P < 0.001). Many of the FSWs (65.7%) reported having non-client sexual partners (most were identified as boyfriends or husbands); however, condom usage with these partners were lower (34.3%). Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the

  9. Efficacy and safety of Stealth liposomal doxorubicin in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The International SL-DOX Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, F. D.; Goldstein, D.; Goos, M.; Jablonowski, H.; Stewart, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The utility of current chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) is often compromised by both limited efficacy and substantial toxicity. Pegylated (Stealth) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (SL-DOX) has been demonstrated specifically to deliver high concentrations of doxorubicin to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions. This phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SL-DOX in the treatment of moderate to severe AIDS-KS. Patients were treated biweekly with 10, 20, or 40 mg m-2 SL-DOX. Tumour response was assessed according to AIDS Clinical Trials Groups (ACTG) criteria before each cycle. Best response was determined for 238 patients and was achieved after a mean of 2.3 cycles (range 1-20). Fifteen patients (6.3%) had a complete response to SL-DOX, 177 (74.4%) had a partial response, 44 (18.5%) had stable disease and two (0.8%) had disease progression. SL-DOX was well tolerated: ten patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events, in four cases because of neutropenia. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred after 281 of 2023 cycles (13.9%) but involved 137 of 240 patients (57.1%) for whom data were available. SL-DOX has substantial activity in AIDS-KS. Best response is typically seen after fewer than three cycles of chemotherapy and in some cases may be prolonged. The most important adverse event is neutropenia, which occurs after a minority of cycles but which may occur in over half of all patients. PMID:8611437

  10. Challenges of a pandemic: HIV/AIDS-related problems affecting Kenyan widows.

    PubMed

    Luginaah, Isaac; Elkins, David; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Landry, Tamara; Mathui, Mercy

    2005-03-01

    The paper reports the findings of a qualitative study using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews about the challenges faced by widows as they confront the direct and indirect impacts of HIV/AIDS in Nyanza, Kenya. Two focus groups were conducted with widows from two community-based organizations. This was followed by in-depth interviews with four members and two leaders from each of the community-based organizations. The contents were analysed using grounded theory. The findings reveal several challenges encountered by widows in their struggles with the direct and indirect impacts of HIV/AIDS. Widows who know or do not know their HIV status are conscious about the possibility of contracting or transmitting the virus. Wife inheritance (a Luo custom), emerged as an outstanding issue for the widows in the context of HIV/AIDS transmission. The widows employ various strategies to resist being inherited. Widows in the current epidemic navigate issues of sexuality in various ways, such as insisting their partners use condoms or permanently abstaining from sexual intercourse.

  11. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness. PMID:2364555

  12. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness.

  13. Gene Expression by PBMC in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Evidence for Dysregulation of Immune Mediated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Christopher A.; Dawson, Kevin; Kenny, Thomas P.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic disease of the bile ducts characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate and obliterative fibrosis. The precise role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of PSC remains unknown. We used RNA microarray analysis to identify immune-related genes and pathways that are differentially expressed in PSC. Messenger RNA (mRNA) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was isolated from both patients with PSC and age and sex matched healthy controls. Samples from 5 PSC patients and 5 controls were analyzed by microarray and based upon rigorous statistical analysis of the data, relevant genes were chosen for confirmation by RT-PCR in 10 PSC patients and 10 controls. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, gene expression in PSC was statistically different from our control population. Interestingly, genes within the IL-2 receptor beta, IL-6 and MAP Kinase pathways were found to be differently expressed in patients with PSC compared to controls. Further, individual genes, TNF-α induced protein 6 (TNFaip6) and membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A (ms4a) were found to be upregulated in PSC while similar to Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 5 (SMAD 5) was downregulated. In conclusion, several immune-related pathways and genes were differentially expressed in PSC compared to control patients, giving further evidence that this disease is systemic and immune-mediated. PMID:17162367

  14. Challenging empowerment: AIDS-affected South African children and the need for a multi-level relational approach.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Critics of empowerment have highlighted the concept's mutability, focus on individual transformation, one-dimensionality and challenges of operationalisation. Relating these critiques to children's empowerment raises new challenges. Drawing on scholarship on children's subjecthood and exercise of power, alongside empirical research with children affected by AIDS, I argue that empowerment envisaged as individual self-transformation and increased capacity to act independently offers little basis for progressive change. Rather it is essential to adopt a relational approach that recognises the need to transform power relationships at multiple levels. This analysis has implications for our wider understanding of empowerment in the 21st century.

  15. Neuronal damage and its relation to dementia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Trillo-Pazos, G; Everall, I P

    1996-01-01

    There are an estimated 21.8 million people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide [Weekly Epidemiol Rec 1996; 27:204-208] and 90% of these people will have some form of neuropathological abnormality during the course of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this review, we will highlight the primary HIV-associated brain disorders. The role of HIV proteins and cytokines on neuronal damage will be assessed. We will also discuss the role of neuronal loss and functional damage in HIV-associated dementia.

  16. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in a long-term propranolol user

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Se Hui; So, Hoonsub; Kim, Yu Seok; Suh, Dong Jin; Yoon, Sang Nam

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare cause of bowel obstruction that is characterized by the encasement of the small bowel by a thick, whitish, and fibrous membrane. The pathophysiology of SEP is poorly understood and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Previous reports suggest that SEP may be linked to the chronic use of β-adrenergic blockers. A 46-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis presented with recurrent abdominal pain and borborygmi. He had been taking propranolol to prevent bleeding from gastroesophageal varices for the past 15 years. Abdominal computed tomography showed ileal loops encapsulated by soft tissue with dilatation of the proximal small bowel on the right side of the abdomen. Barium follow-through showed conglomerated distal ileal loops with a cauliflower-like appearance. Explorative laparotomy revealed a thick, fibrous, whitish capsule encapsulating the ileal loops. The covering membrane was dissected and excised, resulting in an improvement in symptoms after surgery. Accordingly, a final diagnosis of SEP was made. Due to the lack of other apparent causes for SEP, we conclude that in this case, the long-term use of propranolol may be associated with the development of SEP. PMID:27799890

  17. A case of sclerosing hemangioma forming a pedunculated mass.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Junji; Nakahara, Kazuki; Kina, Satsuki; Miyanaga, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience with an unusual case of sclerosing hemangioma (SH) that formed a pedunculated mass protruding into the thoracic cavity. A pulmonary tumor was found in a 60-year-old female during the medical examination. Computed tomography showed a 19 × 17-mm nodule with a clear border and smooth margin contiguous with the diaphragm in the right S8 segment. Uneven enhancement following contrast medium administration was observed. We performed a 3-port thoracoscopic wedge resection of the right lower lobe. We observed a yellow pedunculated tumor protruding from the diaphragmatic surface of the right lower lobe. The surface of the tumor was smooth and encapsulated. Microscopically, we diagnosed it as a SH. SHs usually exist adjacent to the visceral pleura, but rarely form pedunculated tumors protruding into the cavity as seen in this case. By thoracoscopic surgery, we successfully diagnosed and treated the patient in a minimally invasive manner. Since there have been reported cases of recurrence, we anticipate that periodic follow-up observations will be required.

  18. How Should Cancer Surveillance in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Be Performed?

    PubMed Central

    Ehlken, Hanno; Schramm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the intra- and extrahepatic bile duct system that can ultimately cause liver cirrhosis. Apart from the risk of progression to end-stage liver disease the prognosis of PSC is primarily determined by the risk to develop hepatobiliary or extrahepatic malignancies. A reasonable surveillance strategy for PSC patients must allow the detection of early cancer that will permit a potentially curative therapy. Methods Current guidelines on malignancy within the context of PSC as well as the primary literature were reviewed for this article. Results Here, we focus on a concise review of the three tumors most commonly associated with PSC: cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA), gallbladder cancer, and colorectal carcinoma. For cancer surveillance in this patient group, endoscopy, cholangiography, cross-sectional imaging, and the use of serum tumor markers are principally available. Furthermore, for the diagnosis of CCA novel approaches were recently suggested to improve sensitivity and specificity to detect this malignancy. Conclusion We review different aspects of cancer surveillance in patients with PSC. Since prospective data on the surveillance of malignant tumors is unavailable, we discuss a rational approach on how to perform cancer surveillance in patients with PSC. PMID:26468311

  19. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis – Diagnosis, Prognosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Talwalkar, Jayant A.

    2013-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the liver of unclear etiology, characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis of bile ducts. It primarily affects middle aged men, and is associated with 4-fold increased mortality as compared to ageand gender-matched population. Progressive biliary and hepatic damage results in portal hypertension and hepatic failure in a significant majority of patients over a 10–15 year period from initial diagnosis. In addition, PSC confers a markedly increased risk of hepatobiliary cancer, including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer as compared to the general population, and cancer is the leading cause of mortality in patients with PSC. It is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in 70% patients, and increases the risk of colorectal cancer almost 10-fold. Despite significant research efforts in this field, the pathogenic mechanisms of PSC are still incompletely understood, although growing evidence supports the role of genetic and immunologic factors. There are no proven medical therapies that alter the natural course of the disease. Thus, liver transplantation is the only available treatment for patients with advanced PSC, with excellent outcomes in this population. PMID:23454027

  20. Isolated lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis involving the pancreatic tail.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tad; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Dixon, Lisa R; Hochwald, Steven N

    2008-07-01

    We present an interesting case of a 62-year-old woman with a 3-month history of vague, left-sided abdominal pain. CT imaging revealed a hypodense lesion in the tail of the pancreas. The patient had no history of pancreatitis or autoimmune diseases. Laboratory testing revealed a normal CA19-9 (33 U/mL) and an elevated IgG4 (133 mg/dL). Due to concerns of pancreatic malignancy, she underwent operation. We found a dense, inflammatory mass in the tail of the pancreas, which was removed via an open distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Histologic analysis revealed a pancreas with sclerotic ducts and surrounding lymphoplasmacytic inflammation most consistent with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP). LPSP, also termed autoimmune pancreatitis, is a benign disease of the pancreas, which can mimic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. It is the most common benign finding diagnosed on pathology after pancreatic resection for presumed malignancy. LPSP most commonly involves the head and, more uncommonly, the tail of the pancreas. It can be successfully treated with steroids obviating the need for resection. IgG4 levels may assist in recognition of this disease. As our experience with utilization of IgG4 testing and knowledge of the systemic nature of LPSP increase, patients with this disease may be spared unnecessary resection.

  1. Garré's sclerosing osteomyelitis: case report.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Motta, Tainá Melo Vieira; Severin, Alessandra Assis; de Alencar Faria, Deniel; de Oliveira César, Fernanda; de Souza Carneiro, Siderlei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report on a rare case of Garré's sclerosing osteomyelitis. The patient was a 54-year-old woman with a history of treatment for lupus using corticoids for 20 years, and for osteoporosis using alendronate for five years. She presented edema and developed a limitation of left knee movement one year earlier, with mild effusion and pain on metaphyseal palpation, but without fever. She was in a good general state, without local secretion. Images of her knee showed trabecular osteolysis of the distal metaphysis of the femur and a periosteal reaction in both proximal tibias and both distal femurs, compatible with chronic osteomyelitis of low virulence and slow progression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hypersignal in the femur and tibia. Curettage was performed on the left distal femur, with release of secretion, but this was negative on culturing. A biopsy showed chronic infection and inflammation, fibrosis, xanthogranulomatous reaction and foci of suppuration. Antibiotic therapy was administered for six months. The etiology was not clarified: bacterial infection was suspected, but culturing was generally negative. The chronic process was maintained by low-virulence infection or even after treatment. The differential diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia, syphilis, pustulosis palmoplantaris, rectocolitis, Crohn's disease, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) and Paget's disease. The unifocal diseases were osteoid osteoma, Ewing's disease, osteosarcoma and eosinophilic granuloma. PMID:26229835

  2. Garré's sclerosing osteomyelitis: case report.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Motta, Tainá Melo Vieira; Severin, Alessandra Assis; de Alencar Faria, Deniel; de Oliveira César, Fernanda; de Souza Carneiro, Siderlei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report on a rare case of Garré's sclerosing osteomyelitis. The patient was a 54-year-old woman with a history of treatment for lupus using corticoids for 20 years, and for osteoporosis using alendronate for five years. She presented edema and developed a limitation of left knee movement one year earlier, with mild effusion and pain on metaphyseal palpation, but without fever. She was in a good general state, without local secretion. Images of her knee showed trabecular osteolysis of the distal metaphysis of the femur and a periosteal reaction in both proximal tibias and both distal femurs, compatible with chronic osteomyelitis of low virulence and slow progression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hypersignal in the femur and tibia. Curettage was performed on the left distal femur, with release of secretion, but this was negative on culturing. A biopsy showed chronic infection and inflammation, fibrosis, xanthogranulomatous reaction and foci of suppuration. Antibiotic therapy was administered for six months. The etiology was not clarified: bacterial infection was suspected, but culturing was generally negative. The chronic process was maintained by low-virulence infection or even after treatment. The differential diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia, syphilis, pustulosis palmoplantaris, rectocolitis, Crohn's disease, SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) and Paget's disease. The unifocal diseases were osteoid osteoma, Ewing's disease, osteosarcoma and eosinophilic granuloma.

  3. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) Database: an integrated database for HIV-related studies.

    PubMed

    Cserhati, Matyas F; Pandey, Sanjit; Beaudoin, James J; Baccaglini, Lorena; Guda, Chittibabu; Fox, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    We herein present the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium-Data Coordinating Center (NNTC-DCC) database, which is the only available database for neuroAIDS studies that contains data in an integrated, standardized form. This database has been created in conjunction with the NNTC, which provides human tissue and biofluid samples to individual researchers to conduct studies focused on neuroAIDS. The database contains experimental datasets from 1206 subjects for the following categories (which are further broken down into subcategories): gene expression, genotype, proteins, endo-exo-chemicals, morphometrics and other (miscellaneous) data. The database also contains a wide variety of downloadable data and metadata for 95 HIV-related studies covering 170 assays from 61 principal investigators. The data represent 76 tissue types, 25 measurement types, and 38 technology types, and reaches a total of 33,017,407 data points. We used the ISA platform to create the database and develop a searchable web interface for querying the data. A gene search tool is also available, which searches for NCBI GEO datasets associated with selected genes. The database is manually curated with many user-friendly features, and is cross-linked to the NCBI, HUGO and PubMed databases. A free registration is required for qualified users to access the database.

  4. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  5. Sclerosing polidocanol injections of small vessels to treat the chronic painful tendon.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Lorentzon, R

    2007-04-01

    The chronic painful tendon (tendinopathy, tendinosis) is generally considered difficult to treat, not seldom causing long-term disability and sometimes ending the sports or work carreér. Most common sites for tendinopathy are the Achilles-, patellar-, extensor carpi radialis brevis (ERCB)-, and supraspinatus tendons. The origin of pain has for many years been unknown, but recently, by using ultrasound (US) + colour Doppler (CD), immunohistochemical analyses of tendon biopsies, and diagnostic injections of local anaestesia, we found a close relationship between areas with vasculo-neural ingrowth and tendon pain. Sensory nerves (Substance-P-SP and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide-CGRP) were found inside and outside the vascular wall. In following clinical studies we have demonstrated good short-and mid-term clinical results using treatment with US+CD-guided sclerosing polidocanol injections, targeting the area with neovessels outside the tendon. Two-year follow ups have showed remaining good clinical results, and sonographically signs of remodelling with a significantly thinner tendon with a more normal structure. Whether the effects of polidocanol are mediated through destruction of neovessels, activity on nerves or a combination, is under evaluation. PMID:17430133

  6. [CLINICAL CASE OF COMBINATION OF PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS WITH NONSPECIFIC ULCERATIVE COLITIS IN TWINS MONOZYGOTIC].

    PubMed

    Gubergrits, N B; Belyayeva, N V; Klochkov, A Ye; Fomenko, P G; Lukashevich, G M

    2015-01-01

    The article presents discussion of basic hypotheses of pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): genetically conditioned pathology, autoimmune pathology, result of inflammatory reaction in bile ducts, cholangiopathy. The authors presents a clinical case of monozygotic twins with association of PSC and nonspecific ulcerative colitis (NUC). The first twin had a severe course of PSC and mild course of NUC; he died due to bacterial complications of cholangitis. The second twin--patient B--had an opposite situation: severe course of NUC, while PSC was suspected only after determination of cholestasis biochemical markers. As soon as cholestasis was revealed, patients B was treated with Ursofalk and Budenofalk (2001). He received Salofalk as a remedy of basic therapy for NUC. Repeated liver biopsy (2005) showed no progression of PSC, but there were present minimal biochemical signs of cholestasis. So, it is necessary to investigate the first degree relatives of patients with PSC. The timely administered treatment in some cases gives the possibility of the control of the disease course.

  7. Diffuse sclerosing variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma: diagnostic challenges occur with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chin; Chen, Wen-Chung; Peng, Shu-Ling; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Diffuse sclerosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPTC) is a relatively rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with distinct histological features, radiological characteristics, and biological aggressiveness. Compared with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, DSPTC is characterized by scattered microscopic tumor islands, diffuse fibrosis, calcification, and abundant lymphocytic aggregation. A preoperative diagnosis is challenging in the absence of nodules and scanty fine needle aspiration cytology samples. We describe a unique DSPTC patient, an 18-year-old woman who presented with a neck mass that grew slowly for 2 years. The palpable neck mass was nontender, well defined, firm, and unmovable. Laboratory studies showed normal thyroid function and positive autoimmune markers: antithyroglobulin antibody = 1:1600 and antimicrosomal antibody = 1:1600. A neck ultrasound showed diffusely prominent microcalcifications with one small vague nodule. Hashimoto's thyroiditis with an accompanying malignancy was suspected. Based on the result of intraoperative pathology reports, the patient was given a total thyroidectomy. Lymph node dissection and histological analysis revealed bilateral DSPTC in addition to lymphocytic thyroiditis in nonmalignant areas of the thyroid. Clinical and histological diagnostic challenges usually occur when DSPTC presents with a diffuse thyroid enlargement, dispersed microscopic tumor islands (frequently without mass formation), extensive fibrosis, and abundant lymphocytic infiltration mimicking thyroiditis.

  8. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and information behaviour: an ethnographic study in the UK.

    PubMed

    Namuleme, Robinah Kalemeera

    2015-03-01

    This feature explores the information behaviour of people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. It investigates specifically the difficult issue of stigma and how this shapes the ways in which people interact with vital information. The study adopted an ethnographic whereby the researcher worked as a part-time volunteer at an HIV support centre in the North of England for over a year. This is the first time that such an approach has been reported in this feature and is interesting from this perspective alone. The very rich data which was gathered as a result of the approach is also instructive. The study formed part of a PhD thesis, which Robinah Kalemeera Namuleme completed at the University of Sheffield in March 2013. PMID:25684027

  9. Endoscopic appearance of AIDS-related gastrointestinal lymphoma with c-MYC rearrangements: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shohei; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Mine, Sohtaro; Igari, Toru; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Sugihara, Jun; Honda, Haruhito; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) remains the main cause of AIDS-related deaths in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recently, rearrangement of MYC is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI)-ARL with MYC rearrangements and coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection presenting with various endoscopic findings. A 38-year-old homosexual man who presented with anemia and was diagnosed with an human immunodeficiency virus infection for the first time. GI endoscopy revealed multiple dish-like lesions, ulcerations, bloody spots, nodular masses with active bleeding in the stomach, erythematous flat lesions in the duodenum, and multiple nodular masses in the colon and rectum. Magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging showed a honeycomb-like pattern without irregular microvessels in the dish-like lesions of the stomach. Biopsy specimens from the stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma concomitant with EBV infection that was detected by high tissue EBV-polymerase chain reaction levels and Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a fusion between the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and c-MYC genes, but not between the IgH and BCL2 loci. After 1-mo of treatment with HAART and R-CHOP, endoscopic appearance improved remarkably, and the histological features of the biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of lymphoma. However, he died from multiple organ failure on the 139th day after diagnosis. The cause of his poor outcome may be related to MYC rearrangement. The GI tract involvement in ARL is rarely reported, and its endoscopic findings are various and may be different from those in non-AIDS GI lymphoma; thus, we also conducted a literature review of GI-ARL cases. PMID:23922484

  10. Endoscopic appearance of AIDS-related gastrointestinal lymphoma with c-MYC rearrangements: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shohei; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Mine, Sohtaro; Igari, Toru; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Sugihara, Jun; Honda, Haruhito; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) remains the main cause of AIDS-related deaths in the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era. Recently, rearrangement of MYC is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Here, we report a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI)-ARL with MYC rearrangements and coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection presenting with various endoscopic findings. A 38-year-old homosexual man who presented with anemia and was diagnosed with an human immunodeficiency virus infection for the first time. GI endoscopy revealed multiple dish-like lesions, ulcerations, bloody spots, nodular masses with active bleeding in the stomach, erythematous flat lesions in the duodenum, and multiple nodular masses in the colon and rectum. Magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging showed a honeycomb-like pattern without irregular microvessels in the dish-like lesions of the stomach. Biopsy specimens from the stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma concomitant with EBV infection that was detected by high tissue EBV-polymerase chain reaction levels and Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a fusion between the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and c-MYC genes, but not between the IgH and BCL2 loci. After 1-mo of treatment with HAART and R-CHOP, endoscopic appearance improved remarkably, and the histological features of the biopsy specimens revealed no evidence of lymphoma. However, he died from multiple organ failure on the 139(th) day after diagnosis. The cause of his poor outcome may be related to MYC rearrangement. The GI tract involvement in ARL is rarely reported, and its endoscopic findings are various and may be different from those in non-AIDS GI lymphoma; thus, we also conducted a literature review of GI-ARL cases. PMID:23922484

  11. Compensation for research-related injury in NIH-sponsored HIV/AIDS clinical trials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas; Singh, Nivedhna

    2013-02-01

    Concern has been voiced in the research ethics literature that under U.S. federal regulations U.S. sponsors, particularly the NIH, are not required to provide compensation for the treatment of research-related injury for trial participants or to allow grant funds to be used by investigators for appropriate insurance. This is problematic in developing country contexts because most participants are unlikely to have health insurance, resulting in overburdened and under-resourced health systems in many developing countries being responsible for providing care and treatment for research-related injury. This study provides preliminary insight into how respondent principal investigators of NIH-sponsored HIV/AIDS clinical trials in Africa and African research ethics committees deal with compensation for research-related injury. The majority of PIs surveyed provided free treatment for research-related injury, but few provided other forms of financial reparation to participants. The study also found that half of the PIs surveyed indicated that NIH funds were used for compensation, highlighting a contradiction between literature and practice. The majority of REC chairs surveyed indicated that their RECs routinely reviewed compensation plans for research-related injury and that their ethics application forms specifically requested information on compensation. Findings from one southern African country revealed that NIH funds were not used to provide treatment and/or financial reparation for research-related injury. Instead, PIs from this country relied on the government or the individual research participant (and/or their medical aid/health insurer) to cover the costs of research-related injury. The findings are discussed in the light of the recent (December 2011) U.S. Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethics report which recommends that research participants are morally entitled to compensation for research-related injury.

  12. Intraoral sclerosing perineurioma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-Arriagada, Wilfredo Alejandro; Leon, Jorge Esquiche; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Paes de Almeida, Oslei; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2010-05-01

    Sclerosing perineurioma is an extraneural soft tissue lesion that has been reported in the extremities of young adults. It is composed of oval epithelioid or plump spindled cells scattered to form ill-defined fascicles in a storiform, whorled, or trabecular pattern and dermal sclerosis represented by thickened collagen bundles in a lamellar array that express epithelial membrane antigen and are negative for S-100 protein. The treatment is surgical excision, and no recurrence or metastases are expected. Herein is presented the first case of intraoral sclerosing perineurioma of the lower lip, emphasizing its histopathologic and immunohistochemical features. PMID:20416518

  13. Extensive Sclerosing Mesenteritis of the Rectosigmoid Colon Associated with Erosive Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nobili, C.; Degrate, L.; Caprotti, R.; Franciosi, C.; Leone, B. E.; Romano, F.; Dinelli, M.; Uggeri, Fr.

    2009-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare, idiopatic, usually benign, inflammatory process of the mesenteric adipose tissue. The most common site of involvement is the small bowel mesentery. We present a case of sclerosing mesenteritis of the rectosigmoid colon as a cause of severe abdominal pain, abdominal obstruction, and ischemic colic mucosal lesions. Contrast enema, colonoscopy, angiography, and CT were the imaging modalities used. A 20 cm diameter, fibrotic mass causing extensive compression of rectosigmoid colon was found at laparotomy. Histological examination showed extended fibrosis, inflammatory cells infiltration, lipophages, and granulomas within the mesenteric adipose tissue associated with erosive colitis. Clinical presentation and treatment are discussed. PMID:19365585

  14. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C.

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  15. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  16. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  17. Aids-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a retrospective study in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vidal, José E; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C; Fink, Maria Cristina D S; Pannuti, Cláudio S; Trujillo, J Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from Brazil. The objectives of this study were to describe the main features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic diseases admitted to the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2003 to April 2004. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed. Twelve (6%) cases of PML were identified among 219 patients with neurological diseases. The median age of patients with PML was 36 years and nine (75%) were men. Nine (75%) patients were not on antiretroviral therapy at admission. The most common clinical manifestations were: focal weakness (75%), speech disturbances (58%), visual disturbances (42%), cognitive dysfunction (42%), and impaired coordination (42%). The median CD4+ T-cell count was 45 cells/microL. Eight (67%) of 12 patients were laboratory-confirmed with PML and four (33%) were possible cases. Eleven (92%) presented classic PML and only one case had immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-related PML. In four (33%) patients, PML was the first AIDS-defining illness. During hospitalization, three patients (25%) died as a result of nosocomial pneumonia and nine (75%) were discharged to home. Cases of PML were only exceeded by cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and CNS tuberculosis, the three more frequent neurologic opportunistic infections in Brazil. The results of this study suggest that PML is not an uncommon HIV-related neurologic disorder in a referral center in Brazil.

  18. Macaque Homologs of EBV and KSHV Show Uniquely Different Associations with Simian AIDS-related Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, A. Gregory; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Barcy, Serge; Bakke, Angela M.; Lewis, Patrick; Tsai, Che-Chung; Murnane, Robert D.; Rose, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Two gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Lymphocryptovirus genus) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (Rhadinovirus genus) have been implicated in the etiology of AIDS-associated lymphomas. Homologs of these viruses have been identified in macaques and other non-human primates. In order to assess the association of these viruses with non-human primate disease, archived lymphoma samples were screened for the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) homologs of EBV, and macaque rhadinoviruses belonging to the RV1 lineage of KSHV homologs or the more distant RV2 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. Viral loads were determined by QPCR and infected cells were identified by immunolabeling for different viral proteins. The lymphomas segregated into three groups. The first group (n = 6) was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of LCV (1–25 genomes/cell) and expressed the B-cell antigens CD20 or BLA.36. A strong EBNA-2 signal was detected in the nuclei of the neoplastic cells in one of the LCV-high lymphomas, indicative of a type III latency stage. None of the lymphomas in this group stained for the LCV viral capsid antigen (VCA) lytic marker. The second group (n = 5) was associated with D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (9–790 genomes/cell) and expressed the CD3 T-cell marker. The third group (n = 3) was associated with SIV/SHIV infections, contained high levels of RV2 rhadinovirus (2–260 genomes/cell) and was negative for both CD20 and CD3. In both the CD3-positive and CD3/CD20-negative lymphomas, the neoplastic cells stained strongly for markers of RV2 lytic replication. None of the lymphomas had detectable levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV), the macaque RV1 homolog of KSHV. Our data suggest etiological roles for both lymphocryptoviruses and RV2 rhadinoviruses in the development of simian AIDS-associated lymphomas and

  19. Biliary Multifocal Chromosomal Polysomy and Cholangiocarcinoma in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, John E.; Barr Fritcher, Emily G.; Gores, Gregory J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Tabibian, James H.; Topazian, Mark D.; Gossard, Andrea A.; Halling, Kevin C.; Kipp, Benjamin R.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Polysomy detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). However, a subset of PSC patients with polysomy do not manifest CCA even after long-term follow-up. It is unknown if patients with chromosomal gains detected by FISH in multiple areas of the biliary tree (i.e., multifocal polysomy, MFP) are more likely to be diagnosed with CCA than patients with unifocal polysomy (UFP). Therefore, our aim is to determine whether patients with MFP are more likely to manifest CCA compared with patients with other chromosomal abnormalities including UFP and other FISH subtypes. METHODS We performed a retrospective review of PSC patients without a mass lesion who underwent FISH testing at our institution from 1 January 2005 to 1 July 2013. RESULTS Three-hundred and seventy-one PSC patients were included. Compared with patients with UFP, those with MFP were more likely to have weight loss (32 vs. 9%), suspicious cytology (45 vs. 13%) and develop serial polysomy (91 vs. 35%). MFP was associated with CCA (hazard ratio (HR), 82.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 24.50–277.31) and was the strongest predictor of cancer diagnosis. Suspicious cytology (HR, 26.31; 95% CI, 8.63–80.24) and UFP (HR, 13.27; 95% CI, 3.32–53.08) were also predictive of CCA. MFP, UFP and suspicious cytology remained associated with CCA in the multivariable model. CONCLUSIONS Compared with other FISH subtypes, MFP is the strongest predictor of CCA. However, patients with UFP and suspicious cytology (regardless of FISH status) are also at an increased risk for CCA. PMID:25623660

  20. Therapy of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis--Today and Tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Halilbasic, Emina; Fuchs, Claudia; Hofer, Harald; Paumgartner, Gustav; Trauner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) represents a fibro-obliterative bile duct disease with unpredictable individual clinical course that may progress to liver cirrhosis and malignancy. Due to our incomplete understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease, the therapeutic options are still rather limited. Bile acids play a key role in mediating cholangiocellular and hepatocellular injury in cholangiopathies such as PSC. Therefore, strategies targeting bile composition and homeostasis are valid approaches in PSC. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the paradigm therapeutic bile acid and its role in medical therapy of PSC is still under debate. Promising novel bile acid-based therapeutic options include 24-norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA), a side chain-shortened C23 homologue of UDCA, and bile acid receptor/farnesoid X receptor agonists (e.g. obeticholic acid). Other nuclear receptors such as fatty acid-activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, vitamin D receptor and vitamin A receptors (retinoic acid receptor, retinoid X receptor) are also of potential interest and can be targeted by already available drugs. Furthermore, drugs targeting the gut-liver axis (e.g. intregrin blockers such as vedolizumab, antibiotics) appear promising, based on the close link of PSC to inflammatory bowel disease and the emerging relevance of the gut microbiome for the development of PSC. Finally, fibrosis represents a valid therapeutic target for anti-fibrotic drugs (e.g. simtuzumab) in PSC as paradigm fibro-obliterative disease. This review summarizes the current status and recent progress in the development of targeted therapeutic approaches based on increasing knowledge about the pathogenesis of this disease.

  1. Assessing a conceptual framework of health-related quality of life in a HIV/AIDS population.

    PubMed

    Vidrine, Damon J; Amick, Benjamin C; Gritz, Ellen R; Arduino, Roberto C

    2005-05-01

    With the recognition of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as an important outcome in the course of HIV-disease, it is important to gain a better understanding of the complex relationships among the various factors that influence it. This study assesses a conceptual framework of HRQOL, consisting of disease status, socio-economic status (SES), behavioral variables, symptom status, role-specific functional status and HRQOL, among a multiethnic, economically disadvantaged population of individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Self-report data were collected from 348 patients receiving care at a large HIV/AIDS care center, serving residents of a large metropolitan area. The relationships between the study variables were examined using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the hypothesized framework provided a well-fitted solution to the data, chi2(44df) = 57.62], p = 0.08 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.03, 90% confidence interval 0.01; 0.05. This framework suggests that health-related variables fall along a continuum, beginning with disease status and ending in generic HRQOL. In addition, the framework suggests that behavioral factors (i.e., smoking status, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use) and SES exert significant effects along this continuum and should be carefully considered when analyzing and interpreting HRQOL data.

  2. Unhealthy substance-use behaviors as symptom-related self-care in persons with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brion, John M; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K; Sloane, Rick; Corless, Inge B; Lindgren, Teri G; Wantland, Dean J; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Nokes, Kathleen M; Kirksey, Kenn M; Eller, Lucille; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L; Portillo, Carmen J; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen; Willard, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Unhealthy substance-use behaviors, including a heavy alcohol intake, illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage their disease-related symptoms. This study, based on data from a larger randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual, examines the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms. The mean age of the sample (n = 775) was 42.8 years and 38.5% of the sample was female. The mean number of years living with HIV was 9.1 years. The specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were the use of marijuana, cigarettes, a large amount of alcohol, and illicit drugs. A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance-use behaviors, including amphetamine and injection drug use, heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. The implications for clinical practice include the assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons regarding the self-management of HIV. PMID:21352430

  3. It takes a village: community-based organizations and the availability and utilization of HIV/AIDS-related services in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kakietek, Jakub; Geberselassie, Tesfayi; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Krivelyova, Anya; Bausch, Sarah; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Fruh, Joseph; Gar, Sani

    2013-01-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) have emerged as a vital part of the response to HIV/AIDs in Nigeria. The evaluation, on which this article is based, conducted in 28 communities in 6 states and the Federal capital Territory in Nigeria, assessed the effects of the CBO engagement on a set of outcomes related to HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices, stigma, service availably and utilization and social capital. It consisted of three components: a household survey conducted in all 28 communities, qualitative data collected from CBO staff and key informants (KIs), and a funding allocation study (qualitative interviews and the funding allocation study were conducted in a subset of 14 communities). This article focuses on the association between CBO engagement and reported availability and utilization of HIV/AIDS-related services. It shows that CBO engagement has a potential to add value to the national response to HIV/AIDS by increasing the awareness, availability, and utilization of HIV/AIDS-related services, especially in the area of prevention, care and support. The CBOs in the evaluation communities focused on prevention activities as well as on providing support for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and prevention and care and support were the highest expenditure categories reported by CBOs. Respondents in communities with a stronger CBO engagement were more likely to: (1) be aware of any HIV/AIDs-related services, (2) report that prevention and care services were available in their communities, and (3) have used any HIV/AIDS related services, prevention-related and care-related services than respondents in communities where CBO engagement was weaker. The association between service awareness and service use and CBO engagement was stronger in rural than in urban areas.

  4. Recombinant alpha-2a interferon treatment in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC): clinical and immunological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mezzaroma, I; Avella, A; Paganelli, R; Ensoli, B; d'Offizi, G; Sirianni, M C; Luzi, G; Valdarchi, C; Aiuti, F

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated clinical efficacy and tolerability of recombinant alpha 2a interferon (IFN), in a group of 16 patients with AIDS and ARC, including 3 children. All patients were followed up monthly for clinical and immunological studies. The frequency of oportunistic infections (OI) in AIDS, and the following symptoms in all patients were studied: fever, night sweats, fatigue, diarrhoea, weight loss. Immunological parameters (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes, skin tests to recall antigens, NK activity, lymphoproliferative response to PHA) were also evaluated. Adult patients were treated with 3-6 million IU of r-alpha 2a IFN daily im for 3 months and the 3 times weekly up to 12 months. Pediatric cases were treated with lower doses of 0.5-1.5 million IU using the same time schedule. We observed clinical improvement and reduction of severe infections in 10/15 evaluable patients (4/4 ARC and 6/11 AIDS). Immunological parameters were transiently improved in one third of cases. We observed only mild side effects in r-alpha IFN treatment. We suggest therapy with r-alpha 2a IFN at low dosage should be tried in patients with AIDS for its beneficial effects on OI development.

  5. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access. PMID:25840048

  6. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access.

  7. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Presentation, Cholangiographic Features, Natural History, and Outcome: A Series of 16 Cases.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Silke; Veltzke-Schlieker, Wilfried; Adler, Andreas; Schott, Eckart; Eurich, Dennis; Faber, Wladimir; Neuhaus, Peter; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP) is an important differential diagnosis in patients presenting with cholestasis and PSC-like cholangiographic changes in endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). As a relatively newly described entity, SSC-CIP is still underdiagnosed, and the diagnosis is often delayed. The present study aims to improve the early detection of SSC-CIP and the identification of its complications.A total of 2633 records of patients who underwent or were listed for orthotopic liver transplantation at the University Hospital Charité, Berlin, were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical presentation and outcome (mean follow-up 62.7 months) of the 16 identified SSC-CIP cases were reviewed.Cholestasis was the first sign of SSC-CIP. GGT was the predominant enzyme of cholestasis. Hypercholesterolemia occurred in at least 75% of the patients. SSC-CIP provoked a profound weight loss (mean 18 kg) in 94% of our patients. SSC-CIP was diagnosed by ERC in all patients. The 3 different cholangiographic features detected correspond roughly to the following stages: (I) evidence of biliary casts, (II) progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, and (III) picture of pruned tree. Biliary cast formation is a hallmark of SSC-CIP and was seen in 87% of our cases. In 75% of the patients, the clinical course was complicated by cholangiosepsis, cholangitic liver abscesses, acalculous cholecystitis, or gallbladder perforation. SSC-CIP was associated with worse prognosis; transplant-free survival was ∼40 months (mean).Because of its high rate of serious complications and unfavorable prognosis, it is imperative to diagnose SSC-CIP early and to differentiate SSC-CIP from other types of sclerosing cholangitis. Specific characteristics enable identification of SSC-CIP. Early cooperation with a transplant center and special attention to biliary complications are required after diagnosis of SSC-CIP. PMID:26656347

  8. Social Support, AIDS-Related Symptoms, and Depression among Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Robert B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined impact of social support and HIV-related conditions on depression among 508 gay men. Number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related symptoms experienced significantly predicted depression cross-sectionally and one year later. Satisfaction with each of three types of social support (emotional, practical, informational) was inversely…

  9. Diffuse sclerosing variant of thyroid carcinoma presenting as Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vukasović, Anamarija; Kuna, Sanja Kusacić; Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Prgomet, Drago; Banek, Tomislav

    2012-11-01

    The aim of report is to present a case of a rare diffuse sclerosing variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma. A 15-year old girl referred for ultrasound examination because of painless thyroid swelling lasting 10 days before. An ultrasound of the neck showed diffusely changed thyroid parenchyma, without nodes, looking as lymphocytic thyroiditis Hashimoto at first, but with snow-storm appearance, predominantly in the right lobe. Positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-AT) also suggested Hashimoto thyroiditis. Repeated US-FNAB (fine needle-aspiration biopsy) of the right lobe revealed diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and patient underwent total thyreoidectomy. Patohistologic finding confirmed diffuse sclerosing variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the both thyroid lobes and several metastatic lymph nodes. Two months later patient recived radioablative therapy with 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of 1-131 followed by levothyroxine replacement. At the moment, patient is without evidence of local or distant metastases and next regular control is scheduled in 6 months. In conclusion, a diffuse sclerosing variant is rare form of papillary thyroid carcinoma that echographically looks similar to Hashimoto thyroiditis and sometimes could be easily overlooked.

  10. Pain-Related Anxiety in Relation to Anxiety, Depression, Perceived Health, and Interference in Daily Activities among Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Charles P.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Daumas, Stephanie D.; Grover, Kristin W.; Gonzalez, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) experience clinically-significant pain as a result of HIV and such pain is often related to increased levels of anxiety/depression. Pain-related anxiety has been identified as a mechanism in the onset and progression of pain experience and associated affective distress. However, there has not been empirical study of pain-related anxiety in relation to affective processes among PLHA. To address this gap, hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using SPSS v.21 to examine pain-related anxiety (as measured using the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale) in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms (as measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire) among 93 PLHA (10.8% female; Mean age = 49.63, SD = 8.89). Pain-related anxiety was significantly related to anxious arousal symptoms (β = .43) and anhedonic depressive symptoms (β = .25); effects were evident beyond the variance accounted for by CD4 count, race, sex, income level, and current level of bodily pain. The present results suggest that pain-related anxiety may play a role in the experience of anxiety and depressive symptoms among PLHA. PMID:26477684

  11. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  12. Total HIV/AIDS Expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province in 2010: The First Systematic Evaluation of Both Health and Non-Health Related HIV/AIDS Expenditures in China

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiangping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhongdan; Yuan, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Fu, Jeannia; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Duan, Song; Bulterys, Marc; Sante, Michael; Ye, Runhua; Xiang, Lifen; Yang, Yuecheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations. Methods 2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS’ National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology. Results Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4%) prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM), with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%. Conclusions Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation. PMID:23825694

  13. Dose-Modified Oral Chemotherapy in the Treatment of AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mwanda, Walter O.; Orem, Jackson; Fu, Pingfu; Banura, Cecilia; Kakembo, Joweria; Onyango, Caren Auma; Ness, Anne; Reynolds, Sherrie; Johnson, John L.; Subbiah, Vivek; Bako, Jacob; Wabinga, Henry; Abdallah, Fatuma K.; Meyerson, Howard J.; Whalen, Christopher C.; Lederman, Michael M.; Black, Jodi; Ayers, Leona W.; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Remick, Scot C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Africa is burdened by the AIDS epidemic and attendant increase in HIV/AIDS-related malignancies. Pragmatic approaches to therapeutic intervention could be of great value. Dose-modified oral chemotherapy for AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is one such approach. Patients and Methods The oral regimen consisted of lomustine 50 mg/m2 on day 1 (cycle 1 only), etoposide 100 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3, and cyclophosphamide/procarbazine 50 mg/m2 each on days 22 to 26 at 6-week intervals (one cycle) for two total cycles in HIV-infected patients with biopsy-proven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results Forty-nine patients (21 in Uganda and 28 in Kenya) were treated. The majority of patients were female (59%) and had a poor performance status (63%); 69% of patients had advanced-stage disease; and 18 patients (37%) had access to antiretroviral therapy. In total, 79.5 cycles of therapy were administered. The regimen was well tolerated, had modest effects (decline) on CD4+ lymphocyte counts (P = .077), and had negligible effects on HIV-1 viral replication. Four febrile neutropenia episodes and three treatment-related deaths (6% mortality rate) occurred. The overall objective response rate was 78% (95% CI, 62% to 88%); median follow-up time was 8.2 months (range, 0.1 to 71 months); median event-free and overall survival times were 7.9 months (95% CI, 3.3 to 13.0 months) and 12.3 months (95% CI, 4.9 to 32.4 months), respectively; and 33% of patients survived 5 years. Conclusion Dose-modified oral chemotherapy is efficacious, has comparable outcome to that in the United States in the pre–highly active antiretroviral therapy setting, has an acceptable safety profile, and is pragmatic in sub-Saharan Africa. The international collaboration has been highly successful, and subsequent projects should focus on strategies to optimize combination antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy and follow-up tissue correlative studies. PMID:19470940

  14. Expression of Ley antigen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human T cell lines and in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC)

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Ley determinant (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----4[Fuc alpha 1---- 3]GlcNAc beta 1----R) defined by mAb BM-1 is highly expressed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T cell lines and in CD3+ peripheral mature T cells of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with AIDS-related complex (ARC). Ley expression increased greatly in the CD3+ population in the advanced stage of AIDS when the CD4+ population decreased greatly. Six other carbohydrate antigens tested by their respective mAbs were not detected in these same cells. None of the carbohydrate antigens tested by the seven mAbs used in this study were found in noninfected T cell lines and in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:3258005

  15. Conservation of allelic richness in wild crop relatives is aided by assessment of genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, D J; Brown, A H

    1993-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic variation for improving domesticated species. Given limited resources, methods for maximizing the genetic diversity of collections of wild relatives are needed to help spread protection over a larger number of populations and species. Simulations were conducted to investigate the optimal strategy of sampling materials from populations of wild relatives, with the objective of maximizing the number of alleles (allelic richness) in collections of fixed size. Two methods, based on assessing populations for variation at marker loci (e.g., allozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms), were developed and compared with several methods that are not dependent on markers. Marker-assisted methods yielded higher overall allelic richness in the simulated collections, and they were particularly effective in conserving geographically localized alleles, the class of alleles that is most subject to loss. PMID:8248153

  16. Specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies in sera from patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) and healthy homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, R Q; Johnson, E A; Donnelly, R P; Lavia, M F; Tsang, K Y

    1988-01-01

    The presence and specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies (ALA) was investigated in sera from male homosexuals with AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) as well as healthy homosexuals. Individuals in the healthy homosexual group had no detectable antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies reactive with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected by Western blot analysis in sera from both groups of homosexuals. Of those individuals whose sera contained ALA, 71% of ARC patients and 83% of healthy homosexuals had antibodies recognizing a 73 kilodalton (kD) molecule. ALA present in ARC sera reacted with CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes while little reactivity with B cells was observed. Our results indicate that ALA appear in homosexuals prior to HIV infection and are reactive primarily with T lymphocytes. A 73 kD structure associated with the T cell membrane is frequently the target for these antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052941

  17. [AIDS in a woman having had sexual relations with a patient with hemophilia A. Characteristic findings in DNA image cytometry].

    PubMed

    Schaar, H; Auffermann, W; Böcking, A; Franke, P; Pusztai-Markos, Z; Reininghaus, A; Schmitt, H

    1986-12-19

    A 37-year-old female patient reported marked weight loss, prolonged alopecia, recurrent infections and watery diarrhoea. Examination revealed Salmonella infection, candidiasis and immunological signs of previous toxoplasmosis. Between 1978 and 1981, the patient had had close sexual relations to a patient with haemophilia A. Due to this fact, AIDS was suspected. Serological tests for HIV were not available at the time. The findings in DNA image cytometry (nuclear DNA inclusion bodies, polyploid lymphocyte nuclei and binuclear lymphocytes) suggested a viral infection of the lymphoid cells. Electron microscopy revealed in hepatocytes and cerebral cells intranuclear inclusion bodies whose size and contents were not compatible with an infection caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes virus or Epstein-Barr virus. In autopsy, infections of various organ systems such as pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, urocystitis, pyelonephritis, Candida oesophagitis and enteritis were found.

  18. A systematic review on skin complications of bone-anchored hearing aids in relation to surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Shwan; Khan, Imran; Hey, S Y; Hussain, S S Musheer

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review to study the skin complications associated with the bone-anchored hearing aid in relation to surgical techniques. The following databases have been searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library , Google scholar and the PubMed. The literature search date was from January 1977 until November 2013. Randomised controlled trials and retrospective studies were included. Initial search identified 420 publications. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria of this review. The most common surgical techniques identified were full-thickness skin graft, Dermatome and linear incision techniques. The result shows that dermatome technique is associated with higher rate of skin complications when compared to linear incision and skin graft techniques. Based on the available literature, the use of a linear incision technique appears to be associated with lower skin complications; however, there is limited data available supporting this. Higher quality studies would allow a more reliable comparison between the surgical techniques.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, and Estimate of Congenital and AIDS-Related Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG) against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8–7.8) (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9–6.5), and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5–21.7) (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1–19.3), respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked meat, as

  20. Attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS in urban religious congregations: Barriers and opportunities for HIV-related interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Palar, Kartika; Mendel, Peter; Kanouse, David E.; Corbin, Dennis E.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigmas have been seen as a barrier to greater religious congregation involvement in HIV prevention and care in the United States and elsewhere. We explored congregational and community norms and attitudes regarding HIV, sexuality, and drug use through a qualitative case study of 14 diverse religious congregations in Los Angeles County, California between December 2006 and May 2008. Data collected included semi-structured interviews with 57 clergy and lay leaders across the congregations, structured observations of congregational activities, review of archival documents, and a questionnaire on congregational characteristics. Across and within congregations, we found a wide range of views towards HIV, people with HIV, and populations at risk for HIV, from highly judgmental and exclusionary, to “loving the sinner, not the sin,” to accepting and affirming. Attitudes and norms about HIV, homosexuality, and substance abuse appeared to be related to the type and intensity of congregational HIV-related activities. However, even among the higher activity congregations, we found a range of perceptions, including ones that were stigmatizing. Results suggest that affirming norms and attitudes are not a prerequisite for a congregation to initiate HIV activities, a finding relevant for HIV service providers and researchers seeking to engage congregations on this issue. HIV stigma-reduction is not a prerequisite for congregational HIV involvement: both may occur simultaneously, or one before the other, and they dynamically affect each other. Strategies that are congruent with congregations’ current levels of comfort and openness around HIV can themselves facilitate a process of attitudinal and normative change. PMID:22445157

  1. Stresses on grandparents and other relatives caring for children affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Linsk, Nathan L; Mason, Sally

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated the needs of relative caregivers of children in the child welfare system whose parents had HIV. Families of children supported by the state child welfare agency were invited to participate in the study; 17 families reported that HIV affected them and 11 families did not identify HIV as an issue. The findings indicate that complex emotional and behavioral issues stressed the HIV-affected kin caregivers; these issues included the children's behavioral problems, HIV-related concerns, adolescent issues, emotional difficulties, and sexual abuse, HIV-affected caregivers had more concern about their health and multiple roles. Nonaffected caregivers were less likely to report severe parenting stress and more likely to report financial stress. HIV-affected caregivers require attention and intervention by social workers, child welfare workers, and case managers.

  2. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in genetically diverse populations listed for liver transplantation: Unique clinical and HLA associations

    PubMed Central

    Bowlus, Christopher L.; Li, Chin-Shang; Karlsen, Tom H.; Lie, Benedicte A.; Selmi, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is well characterized in European populations. We aimed to characterize clinical characteristics and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in a population of European American, Hispanic and African-American PSC patients listed for liver transplantation. Demographic, clinical, and HLA data stratified by population from 6,767 liver transplant (LT) registrants of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) with a diagnosis of PSC (4.7% of registrants) were compared to registrants with other diagnoses. Compared to European Americans and Hispanics, African American cases were significantly younger (46.6 ± 13.7, 42.3 ± 15.9, and 39.7 ± 13.1, respectively; p = 0.002), listed with a higher Model of End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (15.2 ± 7.5, 14.9 ± 7.6, and 18.1 ± 9.3, respectively; p = 0.001), and less frequently noted to have inflammatory bowel disease (71.4% versus 60.5%, p < 0.01) compared to European Americans. In multivariate analysis, African origin was a significant factor associated with listing for LT with PSC (OR relative to European Americans 1.33, 95% C.I. 1.27 – 1.41). HLA associations in European Americans, Hispanics and African Americans with PSC compared to alcoholic liver disease were detected for HLA-B8, HLA-DR13 and the protective HLA-DR4. However, HLA-DR3, which is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B8, only showed associations in European Americans and Hispanics. African Americans with PSC listed for LT differ clinically from European Americans and Hispanics. The association with HLA-B8 but not HLA-DR3 in African Americans should make possible the refinement of the HLA associations in PSC. PMID:21031548

  3. HIV and/or AIDS-related deaths and modifiable risk factors: A descriptive study of medical admissions at Oshakati Intermediate Hospital in Northern Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Mgori, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background High rates of HIV infection have decreased life expectancy in many African countries. Regardless of worldwide efforts to escalate treatment, care and prevention strategies, the number of deaths due to AIDS-related disorders is still high. Local healthcare workers suspect that there are modifiable factors in the care of HIV and/or AIDS patients which can be identified and improved. Aim To describe the HIV and/or AIDS-related causes of adult mortality and identify modifiable factors amongst patients admitted to Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, northern Namibia. Methods Data was extracted retrospectively and coded using the modified CoDe protocol for AIDS. Modifiable factors relating to the patient, health system or clinical care were identified using a standardised data collection tool. Results A total of 177 HIV and/or AIDS patients were identified, 94 (53.1%) were male and 120 (68%) had a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mL. The common HIV-related causes of death were tuberculosis (25.9%), renal failure (15.8%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (11.3%), cryptococcal meningitis (9%), HIV wasting syndrome (7.9%) and AIDS-defining malignancy (7.9%). The analysis revealed 281 modifiable factors; patient-related factors were the most common (153 [54.4%]), followed by health system factors (97 [34.5%]) and healthcare personnel factors (31 [11%]). Conclusion Our findings have highlighted the challenges in overall HIV and/or AIDS inpatient care and surrounding primary care facilities. The identification of specific modifiable factors can be used to reduce mortality by providing training as well as rational monitoring, planning and resource allocation.

  4. Vulnerability to health problems in female informal caregivers of persons with HIV/AIDS and age-related dementias.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Lee, P

    2001-01-01

    The health of informal caregivers is often studied from the perspective of caregivers' and care receivers' personal and interpersonal characteristics. This study offers an alternative explanation based on a vulnerable populations framework and considers the role of resource availability to the health status of informal caregivers (n=76). Caregivers in a convenience sample were females of diverse ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and care recipients were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) or age-related dementias (ARD). Personal interviews using structured instruments were conducted with caregivers who were attending outpatient clinics at a public hospital and a VA hospital. Instruments included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-Scale (CES-D), the Global Health Assessment (GHA), the Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), the Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (MBPC) and items from the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) measuring anger, anxiety and loneliness. Caregivers were experiencing both physical and mental health problems. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among resources available to caregivers, conditions that put caregivers at risk for poorer health, and health status itself. Analyses were conducted for each group of caregivers separately (HIV and ARD) and for the total group, using depressive symptoms and perception of physical health as dependent variables. In caregivers of people with HIV/AIDS (PWHIV), caregiver distress over care recipient symptoms, anxiety and education were related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, anger and functional status of the PWHIV were related to caregivers' perception of poorer physical health. In caregivers of people with ARD, there were no significant predictors for depressive symptoms or perception of physical health. In the total group of caregivers, lower income and more anger were related to depressive symptom

  5. Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.A.; Keeffe, E.B.; Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Gilbert, S.; Eklem, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid planar biliary scintigraphy combined with single photon emission computed tomography could detect sclerosing cholangitis and provide additional information regarding the extent and severity of disease. Thirteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and 13 normal control subjects were studied. Scintigraphic results were also compared with previously reported studies of patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction and with primary biliary cirrhosis. The planar scintigraphy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis showed beading or bandlike constrictions of the biliary tract corresponding to lesions seen on cholangiography, and the image pattern was distinctly different from images obtained from patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction or primary biliary cirrhosis. The single photon emission computed tomography images of the liver in patients with sclerosing cholangitis demonstrated multiple focal areas of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid retention, representing bile stasis in intrahepatic bile ducts. Compared to controls, the mean hepatic clearance half-time of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid was markedly delayed in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (6-10 times normal). Individual patients with sclerosing cholangitis had wider variation in isotope clearance half-time from three regions of the liver than patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction, consistent with regional difference in disease severity and variable impairment of bile flow. In 4 patients with sclerosing cholangitis with incomplete filling of the right and left hepatic ducts at cholangiography, planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provided evidence of significant intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis.

  6. iAIDS: HIV-related internet resources for the practicing clinician.

    PubMed

    Krakower, Douglas; Kwan, Candice K; Yassa, David S; Colvin, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    In this review, we collate 25 clinically useful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Web sites to facilitate efficient access to online resources according to themes of clinical inquiry: (1) comprehensive clinical information, (2) opportunistic infections, (3) antiretroviral drug interactions, (4) care of HIV-infected women and children, and (5) continuing medical education. We evaluated these Web sites for clinical content and quality using criteria including the currency of information, inclusion of references, sponsors, whether the site is useful in resource-limited settings, ease of navigation, and content specific for each theme. Using the specified criteria, we provided overall ratings for each Web site. We conclude that the Web sites listed in this review can help extend knowledge about best practices and provide real-time patient care support to clinicians. PMID:20738185

  7. The politics of protection: aid, human rights discourse, and power relations in Kyaka II settlement, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Clark-Kazak, Christina R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualisation and application of 'protection' by the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR), Ugandan government, and Congolese refugees in Kyaka II refugee settlement, Uganda. Analysing the origins and consequences of a demonstration against school fees, and drawing on other ethnographic data, it explores how different interpretations of this incident reflect different conceptions of, and approaches to, protection. Ugandan government officials viewed the demonstration as a security incident; Congolese and Ugandan adults responded with increased monitoring and 'sheltering' of children and young people; students justified the demonstration as a legitimate manifestation of their rights; while UNHCR promoted assistance and resettlement. The paper argues that prevailing protection responses, including 'sensitisation', sheltering, and resettlement, are de-contextualised from daily realities and fail to address the underlying power relations that undermine protection. It concludes with recommendations on how international refugee agencies can reorient assistance to address protection concerns in refugee contexts.

  8. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  9. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: accounts of HIV-positive Caribbean people in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (HASD) on HIV-positive Caribbean people in the Caribbean and the UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 25 HIV-positive people of Caribbean origin, using primary selection criteria of sex, age, sexuality and country of birth. Interviews with respondents revealed that they are keenly aware of the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS, which some attribute to a particularly Caribbean combination of fear of contamination, homophobia, and ignorance, reinforced by religious beliefs. In fact, religion serves a double role: underpinning stigma and assisting in coping with HIV. HASD has usually occurred where respondents have lost or do not have control over disclosure. Compared to UK-born respondents, the accounts of Caribbean-born respondents, most of whom were born in Jamaica, include more reports of severe HASD, particularly violence and employment discrimination. All respondents mobilise a variety of strategies in order to avoid HASD, which have implications for their social interactions and emotional well being. While some manage to avoid the "spoiled identity" of the stigmatised, thereby creating their own understandings of HIV infection, these may remain individual-level negotiations. HASD affects HIV-positive Caribbean people at home and in the diaspora in a variety of ways: emotionally, mentally, financially, socially and physically. Interventions specifically addressing stigma and discrimination must be formulated for the UK's Caribbean population. Tackling stigma and discrimination requires more than education; it requires "cultural work" to address deeply entrenched notions of sexuality.

  10. Factors Related to Sexual Self-Efficacy among Thai Youth Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viseskul, Nongkran; Fongkaew, Warunee; Settheekul, Saowaluck; Grimes, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sexual behavior among HIV-infected Thai youth show conflicting results due to the different ages of the respondents. This study examined the relationships between sexual self-efficacy and risk behaviors among 92 HIV-positive Thai youth aged 14 to 21 years. A questionnaire previously validated in Thailand measured sexual self-efficacy. There were low levels of sexual activity with 13 respondents having sex in the last 6 months. The sexual self-efficacy scales were inversely related to the risk behaviors of having sex, having multiple partners, and drinking alcohol in the last 6 months. The scores of the sexual self-efficacy scale and its subscales were significantly lower in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. Sexual risk behaviors were significantly higher in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. These findings suggest that interventions to increase sexual self-efficacy should be emphasized as HIV-infected Thai youth reach late adolescence.

  11. Visiting Holocaust-Related Sites with Medical Students as an Aid in Teaching Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    González-López, Esteban; Ríos-Cortés, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    During the Nazi period numerous doctors and nurses played a nefarious role. In Germany they were responsible for the sterilization and killing of disabled persons. Furthermore, the Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments for military or racial purposes. A study of the collaboration of doctors with National Socialism exemplifies behavior that must be avoided. Combining medical teaching with lessons from the Holocaust could be a way to transmit Medical Ethics to doctors, nurses and students. The authors describe a study tour with medical students to Poland, to the largest Nazi extermination camp, Auschwitz, and to the city of Krakow. The tour is the final component of a formal course entitled: "The Holocaust, a Reflection from Medicine" at the Autónoma University of Madrid, Spain. Visiting sites related to the Holocaust, the killing centers and the sites where medical experiments were conducted has a singular meaning for medical students. Tolerance, non-discrimination, and the value of human life can be both learnt and taught at the very place where such values were utterly absent.

  12. Visiting Holocaust-Related Sites with Medical Students as an Aid in Teaching Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    González-López, Esteban; Ríos-Cortés, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    During the Nazi period numerous doctors and nurses played a nefarious role. In Germany they were responsible for the sterilization and killing of disabled persons. Furthermore, the Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments for military or racial purposes. A study of the collaboration of doctors with National Socialism exemplifies behavior that must be avoided. Combining medical teaching with lessons from the Holocaust could be a way to transmit Medical Ethics to doctors, nurses and students. The authors describe a study tour with medical students to Poland, to the largest Nazi extermination camp, Auschwitz, and to the city of Krakow. The tour is the final component of a formal course entitled: "The Holocaust, a Reflection from Medicine" at the Autónoma University of Madrid, Spain. Visiting sites related to the Holocaust, the killing centers and the sites where medical experiments were conducted has a singular meaning for medical students. Tolerance, non-discrimination, and the value of human life can be both learnt and taught at the very place where such values were utterly absent. PMID:27430079

  13. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS.

  14. Sclerosing Mesenteritis and Disturbance of Glucose Metabolism: A New Relationship? A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, João Pedro Tavares; Romão, Vera; Eulálio, Margarida; Jorge, Rita; Breda, Filipe; Calretas, Suzana; Leitão, Sara; Eugénio, Gisela; Santos, Rui; Carvalho, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 51 • Male, 70 • Male, 63 • Male, 67 • Female, 76 Final Diagnosis: Sclerosing mesenteritis Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colcicine Specialty: Metabolic Disorders and Diabetics Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Sclerosing mesenteritis is an idiopathic inflammatory and fibrotic disease that affects the mesentery. It is a rare disease, with the total number of reported cases in the literature ranging from 122 to 300. It mainly affects men in the sixth decade of life, and its etiology remains unknown. Clinical presentation is variable, but it is frequently asymptomatic. Diagnosis is often made by computed tomography (CT) scan, although biopsy may be needed for confirmation. An association between other diseases (e.g., neoplasms) and sclerosing mesenteritis has been described, but the relationship between the latter and glucose changes is not disclosed in the currently available literature. Case Report: Five cases of sclerosing mesenteritis and glucose metabolism disorders (impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus) were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean age was 65±9.3 years, 80% were male, and all patients were white. Three patients were asymptomatic and the other 2 (40%) had non-specific chronic abdominal pain. Blood tests revealed normal inflammatory parameters (mean HbA1c was 6.4% and fasting blood glucose was 140 mg/dL). The diagnosis was made by abdominal CT scan. The 2 symptomatic patients underwent therapy with colchicine 1 mg/day, with clinical improvement. During the mean 43-month follow-up period, there was no symptomatic progression, thereby maintaining the usual benign course of this condition. Conclusions: Sclerosing mesenteritis has only been described in small series and isolated cases, but its diagnosis is becoming more common due to greater access to diagnostic methods and higher awareness of the disease in the medical community

  15. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  16. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  17. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.

  18. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  19. Examining a Financial Climate of Support: How Institutional-Level Financial Aid Relates to Teamwork, Leadership, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in college access and student success. It plays an increasingly important role as the college-going population continues to diversify and the cost of college continues to rise at both public and private institutions. In this study, the authors examined whether institutional level financial aid has any direct…

  20. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  1. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  2. Gender differentials on the health consequences of care-giving to people with AIDS-related illness among older informal carers in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Madise, Nyovani; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2011-12-01

    Informal caregivers, most often older people, provide valuable care and support for people ill due to AIDS, especially in poor-resource settings with inadequate health care systems and limited access to antiretroviral therapy. The negative health consequences associated with care-giving may vary depending on various factors that act to mediate the extent of the effects on the caregiver. This paper investigates the association between care-giving and poor health among older carers to people living with AIDS, and examines potential within-gender differences in reporting poor health. Data from 1429 men and women aged 50 years or older living in two slum areas of Nairobi are used to compare AIDS-caregivers with other caregivers and non-caregivers based on self-reported health using the World Health Organization disability assessment (WHODAS) score and the presence of a severe health problem. Women AIDS-caregivers reported higher disability scores for mobility and the lowest scores in self-care and life activities domains while men AIDS-caregivers reported higher scores in all domains (except interpersonal interaction) compared with other caregivers and non-caregivers. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the association of providing care with health outcomes while controlling for other confounders. Consistently across all the health measures, no significant differences were observed between female AIDS-caregivers and female non-caregivers. Male AIDS-caregivers were however significantly more likely to report disability and having a severe health problem compared with male non-caregivers. This finding highlights a gendered variation in outcome and is possibly an indication of the differences in care-giving gender-role expectations and coping strategies. This study highlights the relatively neglected role of older men as caregivers and recommends comprehensive interventions to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS on caregivers that embrace men as well as women.

  3. Western blot analyses of measles virus antibody in normal persons and in patients with multiple sclerosis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, or atypical measles.

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, R W; Black, F L

    1986-01-01

    A version of the Western blot was developed to detect serum antibodies against measles virus polypeptides. With this technique, a seroepidemiological survey of antibodies to the several measles virus proteins in diverse measles-related conditions was conducted. The sera were obtained from individuals with a recent or long-past history of natural measles, from persons with a history of immunization with live attenuated measles vaccine, and from patients with multiple sclerosis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, or atypical measles. The findings indicated that live attenuated measles vaccine elicits an antibody response qualitatively resembling that of a natural infection. In addition, multiple sclerosis patients made less antibody to the measles virus M protein than did individuals with a long-past history of natural measles. Thus, the immunological reaction of multiple sclerosis patients to measles virus is qualitatively, as well as quantitatively, different from that of normal persons. Finally, persons with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and atypical measles mounted abnormally high antibody responses to measles virus polypeptides, in particular the P protein. PMID:3531224

  4. GD-aided IOL (input-output linearisation) controller for handling affine-form nonlinear system with loose condition on relative degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunong; Chen, Dechao; Jin, Long; Zhang, Yinyan; Yin, Yonghua

    2016-04-01

    Input-output linearisation (IOL) may encounter a singularity problem when applied to the tracking control of affine-form nonlinear system (AFNS), which may not have a well-defined relative degree. The singularity problem has occurred in the area of control for decades. In this paper, we incorporate the gradient dynamics (GD) into IOL, which leads to the GD-aided IOL method to solve the singularity problem, with the proposition of the loose condition on relative degree. Moreover, detailed theoretical analyses on tracking-error bound and convergence performance of the corresponding GD-aided IOL controller are presented. Simulations and comparisons substantiate that the proposed GD-aided IOL method is capable of completing the tracking-control task and conquering the singularity encountered in the AFNS.

  5. [Association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 10 year old girl].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lozón, Ana; Iglesias Blázquez, Cristina; Menéndez Arias, Cristina; Domínguez Sánchez, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    A 10 year old girl with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss and fever of one month and a half of evolution. Analytical and sonographic findings raised the possibility of inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopy and histology showed findings consistent with Crohn's disease. Treatment was initiated with mesalazine and exclusive enteral nutrition. Later corticosteroid treatment, immunosuppressive drugs and ursodeoxycholic acid were added due to cholestasis and persistent hypergammaglobulinemia. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The association between Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis is rare, predominantly in males between 20 and 40 years old and it presents a great clinical variability. The confirmation of the diagnosis requires magnetic resonance cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The prognosis is poor and there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

  6. Pediatric Fulminant Leptospirosis Complicated by Pericardial Tamponade, Macrophage Activation Syndrome and Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilbaş, Osman; Kıhtır, Hasan Serdar; Yıldırım, Hamdi Murat; Hatipoğlu, Nevin; Şevketoğlu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Although it is usually asymptomatic and self-limited, severe potentially fatal illness accompanied by multi-organ failure may occur. Case Report: Here we report an unusual case of severe leptospirosis successfully treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The patient presented with pericardial tamponade, renal failure and macrophage activation syndrome, and later suffered prolonged jaundice and sclerosing cholangitis during hospitalization in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). To the best of our knowledge, sclerosing cholangitis due to leptospirosis has not been reported in the literature. Conclusion: Leptospirosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock with fever, thrombocytopenia, jaundice and renal failure. TPE and CVVHF should start early after the diagnosis of leptospirosis with multiorgan failure. PMID:27761292

  7. [A case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis caused by chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Taku; Nakamura, Yukiko; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman had received 9 months of chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel for locally advanced breast cancer. During the treatment, she was well and showed no major side effects except for alopecia and arthralgia. The tumor showed a tendency to reduction. However, chemotherapy was discontinued because of liver dysfunction. MRCP and ERCP demonstrated multiple stenoses of the hepatic ducts and the intrahepatic bile ducts. We diagnosed chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis caused by nab-paclitaxel. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid and steroid was ineffective. We added bezafibrate, which resulted in a gradual improvement in liver function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nab-paclitaxel-induced secondary sclerosing cholangitis. PMID:25947025

  8. Use of a sclerosing agent (1% polidocanol) to treat an orbital mucocele in a dog.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Jane Ashley; Miller, William W; Almond, Gregory T

    2012-05-01

    A case of a salivary gland mucocele in a dog causing nonpainful exopthalmos with dorsolateral deviation of the globe and protrusion of the third eyelid. Diagnosis was made via ultrasound and confirmed with computed tomography. Aspiration of the cystic material along with injection of a sclerosing agent, 1% polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol), was used to destroy the mucocele. Follow-up monthly examination post injection confirmed resolution of clinical signs to date, namely abnormal globe position, with no complications observed.

  9. Ulcerative colitis has an aggressive course after orthotopic liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Papatheodoridis, G; Hamilton, M; Mistry, P; Davidson, B; Rolles, K; Burroughs, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—The course of inflammatory bowel disease after liver transplantation has been reported as variable with usually no change or improvement, but there may be an increased risk of early colorectal neoplasms. In many centres steroids are often withdrawn early after transplantation and this may affect inflammatory bowel disease activity. 
Aims—To evaluate the course of inflammatory bowel disease in primary sclerosing cholangitis transplant patients who were treated without long term steroids. 
Methods—Between 1989 and 1996, there were 30 patients transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis who survived more than 12 months. Ulcerative colitis was diagnosed in 18 (60%) patients before transplantation; two had previous colectomy. All patients underwent colonoscopy before and after transplantation and were followed for 38 (12-92) months. All received cyclosporin or tacrolimus with or without azathioprine as maintenance immunosuppression. 
Results—Ulcerative colitis course after transplantation compared with that up to five years before transplantation was the same in eight (50%) and worse in eight (50%) patients. It remained quiescent in eight and worsened in four of the 12 patients with pretransplant quiescent course, whereas it worsened in all four patients with pretransplant active course (p=0.08). New onset ulcerative colitis developed in three (25%) of the 12 patients without inflammatory bowel disease before transplantation. No colorectal cancer has been diagnosed to date. 
Conclusions—Preexisting ulcerative colitis often has an aggressive course, while de novo ulcerative colitis may develop in patients transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis and treated without long term steroids. 

 Keywords: liver transplantation; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; primary sclerosing cholangitis; immunosuppression PMID:9824344

  10. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland presenting with a Warthin tumor.

    PubMed

    Tokyol, Ciğdem; Aktepe, Fatma; Hastürk, Güler Senyıldız; Yıldız, Hüseyin; Miman, Murat Cem

    2012-01-01

    Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) frequently presents as an isolated process, however it may involve adjacent benign salivary gland neoplasia. In this article, we present a 77-year-old female case with a 10-year history of a slow-growing mass of the left parotid gland of SPA presenting with a Warthin tumor. The patient underwent left superficial parotidectomy. The histopathological examination revealed SPA and multifocal Warthin tumor.

  11. Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua: results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette C; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach's alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV.

  12. Successful treatment with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    NAGAI, Yuya; MORI, Minako; INOUE, Daichi; KIMURA, Takaharu; SHIMOJI, Sonoko; TOGAMI, Katsuhiro; TABATA, Sumie; MATSUSHITA, Akiko; NAGAI, Kenichi; Imai, Yukihiro; Takafuta, Toshiro; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2009-11-01

    A 62-year-old man was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection while suffering from recurrent herpes zoster infection. Laboratory examination revealed CD4(+) lymphocyte count 16 cells/mul and HIV loading 150,000 copies/ml at presentation. In addition, he had multiple lymph node swelling. Histologic diagnosis of a biopsied lymph node was diffuse, large, B cell-type malignant lymphoma. The karyotype of the lymphoma cells was t(8;14)(q24;q32), which was confirmed by G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Positron emission tomography (PET)-combined CT scanning revealed systemic extranodal tumors involving the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and bone marrow. The clinical stage of the lymphoma was IVB and the international prognosis index was categorized as high. Complete remission (CR) of the lymphoma was obtained after 2 courses of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisolone) chemotherapy and 4 subsequent courses of rituximab-combined CHOP (R-CHOP). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was started at the initiation of CHOP. Because of the poor prognosis of AIDS-related lymphoma, he received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with the MEAM protocol (ranimustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) as a conditioning procedure without a severe infectious episode. He remains in CR 24 months after the transplantation. PMID:20009441

  13. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1992-02-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services.

  14. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  15. Sociocultural Constraints: The Relation between Generations in the United States, Parental Education, Income, Hispanic Origin and the Financial Aid Packages of Hispanic Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Razo, Parvati Heliana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…

  16. The Unfinished Nature of Rights-Informed HIV- and AIDS-Related Education: An Analysis of Three School-Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miedema, Esther; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, there has been growing investment in concepts of rights in the areas of HIV prevention, care and treatment, including HIV- and AIDS-related education delivered in schools. Despite this increasing commitment to the notion of rights, few efforts appear to have been made to understand the varying conceptions of rights that…

  17. With and With"out": The Bereavement Experiences of Gay Men Who Have Lost a Partner to Non-AIDS-Related Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornjatkevyc, Nina L.; Alderson, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    This study gives voice to the experiences of gay men who have lost a partner to non-AIDS-related causes, a subject that has received little attention in the psychological literature. Interviews were conducted with 8 gay men. An analysis informed by hermeneutic phenomenology generated themes and contextualized meanings regarding the participants'…

  18. Reliance by gay men and intravenous drug users on friends and family for AIDS-related care.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D; Stall, R; Smith, K

    1995-01-01

    A group of gay-identified men (n = 81) and intravenous drug users (n = 88) diagnosed with AIDS in San Francisco were interviewed regarding their use of friends and family to meet their care needs. Analytic of quantitative data revealed that gay men relied more than did IDUs on friends for care. Neither group relied primarily on their families for care. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five primary barriers to care. First, many people with AIDS are not accustomed to asking for help and often avoid it when possible. Second, the social stigma surrounding AIDS sometimes leads to isolation. Third, some people with AIDS have kin with health problems of their own, thereby sometimes compromising this potential source of care. Fourth, the AIDS epidemic has devastated identifiable sub-populations, leaving surviving members of these groups emotionally exhausted and sometimes unable to provide as much help as they might have liked. Finally, some respondents choose to voluntarily cut themselves off from 'supportive' relationships that they perceive to be destructive now that they have been diagnosed with a fatal illness. Professional care providers and health care planners should be aware of dynamics within informal care networks of people with AIDS that may leave patients without necessary care.

  19. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, sources and perceived need among senior high school students: a cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Huang, H; Xu, G; Cai, Y; Shi, R; Shen, X

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, sources and perceived need among senior high school students in China. A total of 2668 senior high school students aged 15.17-23.42 years participated in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on HIV/sexually transmitted infection-related knowledge, sources and perceived information need. The results showed that levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge were distributed as follows: low for 6.8%, moderate for 29.6% and high for 63.7%. The most important information sources were, in rank order, TV/photographic recording (72.1%), school heath education curriculum (51.8%) and reading materials (45.7%). About half of the students, 46.3%, confirmed a need for more information and 87.8% of the sampled senior high school students communicated with others if he/she had problems related to HIV/AIDS. Strengthening and improving information sources, particularly its accuracy and comprehensiveness, would help in ensuring that adolescents obtained the HIV/AIDS health information they needed.

  20. Serum Immunoglobulin G4 and Immunoglobulin G1 for Distinguishing Immunoglobulin G4-Associated Cholangitis From Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Kirsten; Culver, Emma L; de Buy Wenniger, Lucas Maillette; van Heerde, Marianne J; van Erpecum, Karel J; Poen, Alexander C; van Nieuwkerk, Karin MJ; Spanier, BW Marcel; Witteman, Ben JM; Tuynman, Hans ARE; van Geloven, Nan; van Buuren, Henk; Chapman, Roger W; Barnes, Eleanor; Beuers, Ulrich; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y

    2014-01-01

    The recent addition of immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-associated cholangitis (IAC), also called IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IRSC), to the spectrum of chronic cholangiopathies has created the clinical need for reliable methods to discriminate between IAC and the more common cholestatic entities, primary (PSC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis. The current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases practice guidelines for PSC advise on the measurement of specific Ig (sIg)G4 in PSC patients, but interpretation of elevated sIgG4 levels remains unclear. We aimed to provide an algorithm to distinguish IAC from PSC using sIgG analyses. We measured total IgG and IgG subclasses in serum samples of IAC (n = 73) and PSC (n = 310) patients, as well as in serum samples of disease controls (primary biliary cirrhosis; n = 22). sIgG4 levels were elevated above the upper limit of normal (ULN = >1.4 g/L) in 45 PSC patients (15%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11-19). The highest specificity and positive predictive value (PPV; 100%) for IAC were reached when applying the 4× ULN (sIgG4 > 5.6 g/L) cutoff with a sensitivity of 42% (95% CI: 31-55). However, in patients with a sIgG4 between 1× and 2× ULN (n = 38/45), the PPV of sIgG4 for IAC was only 28%. In this subgroup, the sIgG4/sIgG1 ratio cutoff of 0.24 yielded a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 51-95), a specificity of 74% (95% CI: 57-86), a PPV of 55% (95% CI: 33-75), and a negative predictive value of 90% (95% CI: 73-97). Conclusion: Elevated sIgG4 (>1.4 g/L) occurred in 15% of patients with PSC. In patients with a sIgG4 >1.4 and <2.8 g/L, incorporating the IgG4/IgG1 ratio with a cutoff at 0.24 in the diagnostic algorithm significantly improved PPV and specificity. We propose a new diagnostic algorithm based on IgG4/IgG1 ratio that may be used in clinical practice to distinguish PSC from IAC. (Hepatology 2014;59:1954–1963) PMID:24375491

  1. Socio-demographic and spatial aspects of male mortality from HIV-AIDS related diseases in New South Wales, Australia, 1990-1994.

    PubMed

    Burnley, I H

    1999-09-01

    During 1990-1994, a very high proportion of males aged under 40 who died from HIV-AIDs related diseases in New South Wales were never married. However, a significant minority of men aged 40-64 who died had been married at some stage in their lives and in the cities of Newcastle, Wollongong and in higher income areas of Sydney this proportion approached 40%. AIDS related mortality was over-represented in professional, managerial, paraprofessional and service occupations even though educational levels were higher in these groups and, thus, presumably knowledge about risk behaviour and preventative behaviour. AIDS related mortality was also elevated among men with no stated occupation. Thus, with males, AIDS was in part a disease of affluence, even though the highest proportions of those dying resided in lower income areas, where marginalised persons may also be at risk. The proportion of deaths to men over age 40 was markedly higher than that in Australia in the 1980s. Elevated mortality with the New Zealand and the Americas birthplace groups may reflect overseas travel and exposure to risk in overseas countries, of persons domiciled in Australia. There was a very strong spatial pattern of AIDS-related mortality in the inner and eastern suburbs in Sydney and there is limited evidence of persons having migrated back to places of origin to be cared for by families. The impact on total mortality under age 65 in these localised areas was considerable. Prevention strategies should include the sensitive targeting of bisexual men, men generally having sex with men and those who are both gay and members of the drug sub-culture.

  2. Granuloma faciale: a cutaneous lesion sharing features with IgG4-associated sclerosing diseases.

    PubMed

    Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Lonardi, Silvia; Facchetti, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of granuloma faciale (GF), framed in the group of cutaneous vasculopathic dermatitis, is poorly understood. The present study investigated whether GF might be part of the spectrum of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases (IgG4-RD). Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED), believed to belong to the same group of disorders as GF, was also studied for comparison. Thirty-one biopsies of GF obtained from 25 patients (18 men, 7 women) and 5 cases of EED (4 women and 1 man) were analyzed morphologically and for the expression of IgG and IgG4 by immunohistochemistry. The distribution of Th1, T regulatory and Th2 T-cell subsets, respectively, identified by anti-T-bet, anti-FoxP3, and anti-GATA-3 antibodies, was also evaluated. The dermal inflammatory infiltrate in GF contained eosinophils and plasma cells in variable proportions. Obliterative venulitis was found in 16 cases, and storiform fibrosis, a typical feature of IgG4-RD, was observed in 8 cases and was prominent in 3 of them. On immunohistochemical analysis 7 of 31 biopsies (22.6%) from 6 GF patients fulfilled the criteria for IgG4-RD (IgG4/IgG ratio >40%, and absolute number of IgG4 per high-power field >50). Interestingly, the 6 patients were male, and 4 showed recurrent and/or multiple lesions. In an additional 5 cases, only the IgG4/IgG ratio was abnormal. None of the 5 EED cases fulfilled the criteria for IgG4-RD. The T-cell subsets in GF were quite variable in number, GATA-3 lymphocytes were generally more abundant, but no relationship with the number of IgG4 plasma cells was found. The study indicates that a significant number of GF cases are associated with an abnormal content of IgG4 plasma cells; this association was particularly obvious in male patients and in cases presenting with multiple or recurrent lesions. As morphologic changes typically found in IgG4-RD, such as obliterative vascular inflammation and storiform sclerosis, are found in GF, we suggest that GF might represent a localized form of

  3. HIV/AIDS - Related Stigma and Discrimination in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies and future directions for Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Smesny, Andrea; Essien, E. James

    2009-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS remain a major public health crisis in Nigeria which harbors more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India. A significant challenge to the success of achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010 is HIV-AIDS stigma and discrimination. Eight studies looking at some degree of measurement of stigma and discrimination in Nigeria were reviewed in an attempt to investigate the cultural context of stigma, health seeking behavior and the role both perceived and community stigma play in HIV prevention. Results suggest that reducing stigma does increase the individual as well as community acceptance of people living with HIV-AIDS (PLWHAs), but long term studies are needed. Some suggestions are recommended for future research on culture specific stigma studies in Nigeria. PMID:20690259

  4. Nematode-associated intramural alimentary nodules in pumas are histologically similar to gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Eckstrand, C D; Barr, B C; Woods, L W; Spangler, T; Murphy, B

    2013-05-01

    Intramural alimentary nodules in the gastric pylorus and proximal duodenum are a common finding in free-ranging pumas (Puma concolor) in North America, and are often associated with the presence of an indwelling nematode (most commonly Cylicospirura spp.). This study compares the histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical appearance of three proximal gastrointestinal nodules in pumas with four cases of eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia in domestic cats. Histologically, the pattern of inflammation and repair was strikingly similar, consisting of lamillated anastomosing trabeculae of dense sclerotic collagen with interspersed inflammatory cells and reactive fibroblasts. The stromal trabeculae were histologically reminiscent of osteoid and were uniformly positive for collagenous protein by Masson's trichrome stain and negative for mineralized osteoid deposits with Von Kossa's stain. Trabecular cells expressed osteonectin, but not osteocalcin immunohistochemically. Collectively, these findings are most consistent with a stroma comprised of dense collagenous trabeculae that resembles, but is distinct, from osteoid. Both the puma and domestic cat lesions demonstrated an eosinophilic inflammatory component; however, eosinophils were present in small numbers in the puma nodules relative to the nodules in domestic cats. These entities likely represent a unique and stereotypic gastrointestinal repair response of felids, given their similar histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical profiles.

  5. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  6. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  7. AIDS-Related Stigmas and Safe-Sex Practices of African-American College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…

  8. Belief in AIDS-Related Conspiracy Theories and Mistrust in the Government: Relationship With HIV Testing Among At-Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One in 4 persons living with HIV/AIDS is an older adult (age 50 or older); unfortunately, older adults are disproportionately diagnosed in late stages of HIV disease. Psychological barriers, including belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories (e.g., HIV was created to eliminate certain groups) and mistrust in the government, may influence whether adults undergo HIV testing. We examined relationships between these factors and recent HIV testing among at-risk, older adults. Design and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among older adults enrolled in a large venue–based study. None had a previous diagnosis of HIV/AIDS; all were seeking care at venues with high HIV prevalence. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate the associations between self-reported belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories, mistrust in the government, and HIV testing performed within the past 12 months. Results: Among the 226 participants, 30% reported belief in AIDS conspiracy theories, 72% reported government mistrust, and 45% reported not undergoing HIV testing within the past 12 months. Belief in conspiracy theories was positively associated with recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–3.60), whereas mistrust in the government was negatively associated with testing (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26–0.73). Implications: Psychological barriers are prevalent among at-risk older adults seeking services at venues with high HIV prevalences and may influence HIV testing. Identifying particular sources of misinformation and mistrust would appear useful for appropriate targeting of HIV testing strategies. PMID:23362210

  9. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  10. Autograft HIV-DNA load predicts HIV-1 peripheral reservoir after stem cell transplantation for AIDS-related lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zanussi, Stefania; Bortolin, Maria Teresa; Pratesi, Chiara; Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Basaglia, Giancarlo; Abbruzzese, Luciano; Mazzucato, Mario; Spina, Michele; Vaccher, Emanuela; Tirelli, Umberto; Rupolo, Maurizio; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Di Mascio, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a widely used procedure for AIDS-related lymphomas, and it represents an opportunity to evaluate strategies curing HIV-1 infection. The association of autograft HIV-DNA load with peripheral blood HIV-1 reservoir before ASCT and its contribution in predicting HIV-1 reservoir size and stability during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after transplantation are unknown. Aiming to obtain information suggesting new functional cure strategies by ASCT, we retrospectively evaluated HIV-DNA load in autograft and in peripheral blood before and after transplantation in 13 cART-treated HIV-1 relapse/refractoring lymphoma patients. Among them seven discontinued cART after autograft infusion. HIV-DNA was evaluated by a sensitive quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After debulking chemotherapy/mobilization, the autograft HIV-1 reservoir was higher than and not associated with the peripheral HIV-1 reservoir at baseline [median 215 HIV-DNA copies/10(6) autograft mononuclear cells, range 13-706 vs. 82 HIV-DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), range 13-479, p = 0.03]. After high dose chemotherapy and autograft infusion, HIV-DNA levels reached a plateau between month 6 and 12 of follow-up. No association was found between peripheral HIV-DNA levels at baseline and after infusion in both cART interrupting and not interrupting patients. Only in the last subgroup, a stable significant linear association between autograft and peripheral blood HIV-1 reservoir emerged from month 1 (R(2) = 0.84, p = 0.01) to month 12 follow-up (R(2) = 0.99, p = 0.0005). In summary, autograft HIV-1 reservoir size could be influenced by the mobilization phase and predicts posttransplant peripheral HIV-1 reservoir size in patients on continuous cART. These findings could promote new research on strategies reducing the HIV-1 reservoir by using the ASCT procedure.

  11. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155), 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009), a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009), a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg) and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13) and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1). Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp), were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0), intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that SIVcpz

  12. Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the spleen, focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma of the liver: A tale of three lesions.

    PubMed

    Cafferata, Barbara; Pizzi, Marco; D'Amico, Francesco; Mescoli, Claudia; Alaggio, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a benign vascular lesion with peculiar histological features. The pathogenesis of SANT is still largely unknown and variable etiologies have been proposed, including autoimmune, inflammatory, and/or vascular disorders. The present report describes a unique case of splenic SANT, associated with focal nodular hyperplasia and a sclerosing hemangioma of the liver. The clinic-pathological features of such an unusual case are thoroughly illustrated. Its possible pathogenic mechanisms are also briefly addressed. PMID:27450658

  13. Multiple pulmonary sclerosing hemangiomas (pneumocytoma) mimicking lung metastasis detected in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mehta, Sangita; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH), or the alternative name of “sclerosing pneumocytoma,” is a rare benign neoplasm. PSH is often asymptomatic and presents as a solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules on radiologic imaging studies. Few articles have been reported to describe the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings about PSH. The authors describe an interesting but uncommonly encountered cause of false positive FDG PET scan in the thorax in a 25-year-old woman, a known case of arteriovenous malformation of oral cavity who underwent embolization and presented with incidental detection of bilateral lung nodules. She is asymptomatic and is on follow-up. PMID:25210285

  14. Multiple pulmonary sclerosing hemangiomas (pneumocytoma) mimicking lung metastasis detected in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajan, Firoz; Mehta, Sangita; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH), or the alternative name of "sclerosing pneumocytoma," is a rare benign neoplasm. PSH is often asymptomatic and presents as a solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules on radiologic imaging studies. Few articles have been reported to describe the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings about PSH. The authors describe an interesting but uncommonly encountered cause of false positive FDG PET scan in the thorax in a 25-year-old woman, a known case of arteriovenous malformation of oral cavity who underwent embolization and presented with incidental detection of bilateral lung nodules. She is asymptomatic and is on follow-up.

  15. The relationship between expressed HIV/AIDS-related stigma and beliefs and knowledge about care and support of people living with AIDS in families caring for HIV-infected children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hamra, M; Ross, M W; Karuri, K; Orrs, M; D'Agostino, A

    2005-10-01

    At the end of 2001, AIDS-related deaths had left an estimated 900,000 living orphans in Kenya (UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiology fact sheet, Kenya report, 2004). Many of those orphans are also HIV+. In Eastern Kenya, the Lea Toto Kangemi Outreach Program provides support to families caring for HIV+ children, many of whom are orphaned or soon to be orphaned. A major challenge for these families is the stigma attached to the family. In 2003, the Kangemi Program conducted a household survey of client families. We examined markers of expressed stigma and the association between expressed stigma and other demographic and belief/knowledge domains. The focus of the present study was the specific belief/knowledge domain surrounding care/support of HIV+ persons. Our goal was to explore this domain in the Kangemi families and to examine its relationship to expressed stigma. We created an AIDS-related stigma scale from selected items in the household survey and cross-tabulated stigma scores with care/support knowledge items. We found significant associations between less expressed stigma and greater care/support knowledge. Our results have implications for interventions that reduce expressed stigma and/or improve quality of care.

  16. Idiopathic Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis: A Rare Cause of Subacute Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Niketa Chandrakant; Giron, Danilo Medina

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 50-year-old gentleman who had recurrent vomiting and abdominal pain of two-month duration. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with abdominal cocoon on computed tomography. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, also known as abdominal cocoon, is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Visualization of variable encasement of the small bowel loops by a characteristic membranous sac, either preoperatively with cross-sectional imaging or intraoperatively, is the key to diagnosis. This is a highly treatable condition; surgical excision of the sac with adhesiolysis facilitates a full recovery in affected patients.

  17. [Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the paravertebral column. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Puerta Roldán, Patricia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Bagué Rossell, Silvia; de Juan Delago, Manel; Molet Teixidó, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare variant of low-grade fibrosarcoma, with specific histological and immunohistochemical features and a poor prognosis. We report a case of SEF of the paravertebral column in a 49-year old male who presented a paraspinal mass with extension into the L4-L5 neural foramen and invasion of the L5 nerve root. Histology of the tumourectomy specimen and its immunohistochemical study led to the diagnosis of SEF. This case was particularly unusual due to its paravertebral column location and, despite its low grade, illustrates the malignant potential of SEF.

  18. Idiopathic Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis: A Rare Cause of Subacute Intestinal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mei Chin; Chotai, Niketa Chandrakant; Giron, Danilo Medina

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 50-year-old gentleman who had recurrent vomiting and abdominal pain of two-month duration. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with abdominal cocoon on computed tomography. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, also known as abdominal cocoon, is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Visualization of variable encasement of the small bowel loops by a characteristic membranous sac, either preoperatively with cross-sectional imaging or intraoperatively, is the key to diagnosis. This is a highly treatable condition; surgical excision of the sac with adhesiolysis facilitates a full recovery in affected patients. PMID:27642301

  19. Idiopathic Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis: A Rare Cause of Subacute Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Niketa Chandrakant; Giron, Danilo Medina

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 50-year-old gentleman who had recurrent vomiting and abdominal pain of two-month duration. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with abdominal cocoon on computed tomography. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, also known as abdominal cocoon, is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Visualization of variable encasement of the small bowel loops by a characteristic membranous sac, either preoperatively with cross-sectional imaging or intraoperatively, is the key to diagnosis. This is a highly treatable condition; surgical excision of the sac with adhesiolysis facilitates a full recovery in affected patients. PMID:27642301

  20. Sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis manifesting as suspicious microcalcifications with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Choi, Seung Joon; Jung, Hyun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis (SLL) is a rare inflammatory disorder, which is also known as fibrous mastopathy and lymphocytic mastitis. It is commonly associated with autoimmune disorders, particularly type 1 diabetes and thyroiditis. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman diagnosed as SLL with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but without diabetes. She presented suspicious microcalcifications without palpable mass in routine mammograms in both breasts. She had been diagnosed as Hashimoto's thyroiditis several years before and had been followed up in endo-clinics. PMID:23834442

  1. Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis identifies two non-HLA susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Melum, Espen; Franke, Andre; Schramm, Christoph; Weismüller, Tobias J; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Offner, Felix A; Juran, Brian D; Laerdahl, Jon K; Labi, Verena; Björnsson, Einar; Weersma, Rinse K; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Teufel, Andreas; Rust, Christian; Ellinghaus, Eva; Balschun, Tobias; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Ellinghaus, David; Bergquist, Annika; Sauer, Peter; Ryu, Euijung; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Wedemeyer, Jochen; Lindkvist, Björn; Wittig, Michael; Porte, Robert J; Holm, Kristian; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stokkers, Pieter; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Runz, Heiko; Stiehl, Adolf; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sterneck, Martina; Vermeire, Severine; Beuers, Ulrich; Villunger, Andreas; Schrumpf, Erik; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Manns, Michael P; Schreiber, Stefan; Karlsen, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic bile duct disease affecting 2.4–7.5% of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 2,466,182 SNPs in 715 individuals with PSC and 2,962 controls, followed by replication in 1,025 PSC cases and 2,174 controls. We detected non-HLA associations at rs3197999 in MST1 and rs6720394 near BCL2L11 (combined P = 1.1 × 10−16 and P = 4.1 × 10−8, respectively). PMID:21151127

  2. Understanding Culture and Its Influence on HIV/AIDS-Related Communication Among Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ambar; Dillon, Patrick J; Romero-Daza, Nancy

    2016-11-01

    Scholarly research and government surveillance reports demonstrate that African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) bear an inequitable burden of new HIV infections. Among the estimated 31,896 HIV infections attributed to male-to-male sexual contact in 2011, approximately 62% occurred in African American (38.2%) and Latino (23.5) MSM. Simultaneously, recent scholarship on minority MSM and HIV/AIDS reports a dearth of qualitative communication research that address this health issue. This manuscript reports a research study that seeks to fill this gap in health communication theory and praxis. Through in-depth interviews with 17 MSM of color, this article draws upon the culture-centered approach to demonstrate how cultural and contextual nuances, (in)access to structural resources, and participants' agentive capacity to act upon available knowledge/resources influences the ways they manage (the threat of) HIV/AIDS.

  3. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  4. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  5. Predicting HIV/AIDS-Related Risk Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Examination of Psychosocial Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabato, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. They represent more than half of all persons living with HIV and over 60% of HIV-infected men. Although as a group MSM no longer account for the majority of new HIV infections, they are estimated to account for 43% of all new infections--more than…

  6. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  7. Alternating and intermittent regimens of zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) and dideoxycytidine (2',3'-dideoxycytidine) in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex.

    PubMed

    Skowron, G; Merigan, T C

    1990-05-21

    The deoxynucleoside analogues 2',3'-dideoxy-cytidine (ddC) and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, AZT) are active as single agents in conferring immunologic and virologic benefits in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex. Both drugs, however, produce dose-limiting toxicities. AZT is associated with unacceptable levels of bone marrow suppression, and ddC can cause painful peripheral neuropathy. The different toxicity profiles of these two drugs provide the rationale for testing them in alternating dosing combinations in an attempt to retain the antiretroviral activity of each against human immunodeficiency virus, while reducing the toxicities of both. A preliminary trial showed that 200 mg AZT given orally every four hours for seven-day periods, alternating with ddC at 0.03 mg/kg body weight orally every four hours for seven-day periods is a promising treatment regimen. An expanded multicenter study is evaluating ddC at 0.01 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg alternating with AZT at 200 mg in weekly or monthly periods. Weekly intermittent doses of AZT at 200 mg and ddC at 0.03 mg/kg are also being tested. The rationale and methods of the trial are discussed.

  8. Detergent sclerosants at sub-lytic concentrations induce endothelial cell apoptosis through a caspase dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Cooley-Andrade, Osvaldo; Cheung, Kelvin; Chew, An-Ning; Connor, David Ewan; Parsi, Kurosh

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the apoptotic effects of detergent sclerosants sodium tetradecylsulphate (STS) and polidocanol (POL) on endothelial cells at sub-lytic concentrations. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and labelled with antibodies to assess for apoptosis and examined with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Isolated HUVECs viability was assessed using propidium iodide staining. Early apoptosis was determined by increased phosphatidylserine exposure by lactadherin binding. Caspase 3, 8, 9 and Bax activation as well as inhibitory assays with Pan Caspase (Z-VAD-FMK) and Bax (BI-6C9) were assessed to identify apoptotic pathways. Porimin activation was used to assess cell membrane permeability. Cell lysis reached almost 100 % with STS at 0.3 % and with POL at 0.6 %. Apoptosis was seen with both STS and POL at concentrations ranging from 0.075 to 0.15 %. PS exposure increased with both STS and POL and exhibited a dose-dependent trend. Active Caspase 3, 8 and 9 but not Bax were increased in HUVECs stimulated with low concentrations of both STS and POL. Inhibitory assays demonstrated Caspase 3, 8, 9 inhibition at low concentrations (0.075 to 0.6 %) with both STS and POL. Both agents increased the activation of porimin at all concentrations. Both sclerosants induced endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis at sub-lytic concentrations through a caspase-dependant pathway. Both agents induced EC oncosis. PMID:27225250

  9. Changes of the hepatic proteome in murine models for toxically induced fibrogenesis and sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Corinna; Roderfeld, Martin; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hillebrandt, Sonja; Lammert, Frank; Meyer, Helmut E; Stühler, Kai; Graf, Jürgen; Roeb, Elke

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the changes in the hepatic proteome in murine models for toxic-induced fibrogenesis and sclerosing cholangitis. A comprehensive comparison of protein changes observed is made and the mechanistical basis of the expression changes is discussed. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by repetitive intraperitoneal CCl4 treatment of BALB/c mice or developed spontaneously in BALB/c-ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, member 4 (Abcb4) knock out mice. Fibrosis was verified by a morphometric score and assessment of hydroxyproline content of liver tissue, respectively. The innovative difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technique was used to analyse protein expression levels of the mouse proteome. Results were confirmed by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. In CCl4-induced fibrosis 20 out of 40 and in BALB/c-Abcb4(-/-) mice 8 out of 28 differentially expressed proteins were identified utilizing DIGE. Only two proteins, selenium-binding protein (Sbp2) and carbonic anhydrase 3, have been unidirectionally expressed (i.e. down-regulated) in both models. Relevant differences in the pathogenesis of toxically induced liver fibrosis and sclerosing cholangitis exist. The only novel protein with regard to liver fibrosis depicting a unidirectional expression pattern in both animal models was Sbp2. An explicit protein function could not be clarified yet.

  10. [X-linked hyper-IGM syndrome associated to sclerosing cholangitis and gallbladder neoplasm: clinical case].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristián; Carrión, Flavio; Marinovic, María Angélica; Chávez, Eduardo; Preisler, Jessica; Pooley, Francisco; Futatani, Takeshi; Ochs, Hans D

    2003-03-01

    We report a 11 years old male diagnosed as a X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome that presented with recurrent infections and sclerosing cholangitis and later developed a gallbladder cancer. Immunological evaluation showed decreased levels of serum IgG and IgA with elevated levels of IgM. Study of CD40 ligand expression on mitogen activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed total absence of this marker on T lymphocytes. Molecular analysis detected, in the patient and his mother, a nonsense mutation in exon 1 of the transmembrane segment of the CD40 ligand. He also presented elevation of alkaline phosphatases and mild elevation of liver enzymes. Liver biopsy demonstrated the presence of idiopathic sclerosing cholangitis. The patient was started on monthly IVIG therapy at 400 mg/kg, as well as ursodeoxycholic acid and vitamin E, with normalization of his IgG and IgM levels a decrease in the incidence of infections and normalization of liver function. Three years after diagnosis, we detected the presence of polyps inside the gallbladder that were reported at biopsy as adenocarcinoma. He underwent hepatic bisegmentectomy (VI B-V) and local lymphadenectomy.

  11. AIDS-related dementia and competency to stand trial: a potential abuse of the forensic mental health system?

    PubMed

    Perlin, M L; Dvoskin, J A

    1990-01-01

    Public health officials, hospital administrators, forensic directors, jail wardens, judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys must confront the issue: how should cases of individuals with AIDS dementia be treated when they are found to be permanently incompetent to stand trial? Although charges are sometimes dismissed in advanced cases of dementia, the more common pattern involves placement of the defendant in a public facility while awaiting trial. The refusal of some state facilities to accept these patients raises a host of legal, moral, and medical questions that virtually every urban state's forensic system will have to consider in the near future.

  12. 'Do you feel sorry for him?': gift relations in an HIV/AIDS on-line support forum.

    PubMed

    Bar-Lev, Shirly

    2010-03-01

    Sociologists have debated whether meaningful emotional relationships can be formed on-line. Drawing on Mauss' concept of the gift, I explore how caregivers who participate in Hope, an on-line support forum dedicated to HIV/AIDS, incorporate moral percepts and understandings about ethics into their caregiving experiences. Their intense discussions on the essence of familial loyalties give rise to emotionally vibrant, empathic communities in which a socio-emotional economy is formulated. Can the Internet act as a moral space? How are concepts such as reciprocity, obligation, and commitment talked about and practiced in an on-line forum that exists in the ever present?

  13. Leukemoid reaction, a rare manifestation of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a case of small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Salagre, Kaustubh D; Sahay, Ravindra Nath; Patil, Anuja; Pati, Anuja; Joshi, Amita; Shukla, Akash

    2013-10-01

    A 48 year old lady presented with jaundice and exertional breathlesness. Her laboratory reports showed anaemia, reticulocytosis, leucocytosis, elevated Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase levels, hyperbillirubinemia and positive direct Coomb's test. After ruling out all the other causes of autoimmunity and hemolytic anemia, she was diagnosed as leukemoid reaction due to autoimmune hemolytic anemia with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Patient showed immediate improvement after corticosteroids.

  14. Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Little, Richard F; Aleman, Karen; Kumar, Pallavi; Wyvill, Kathleen M; Pluda, James M; Read-Connole, Elizabeth; Wang, Victoria; Pittaluga, Stefania; Catanzaro, Andrew T; Steinberg, Seth M; Yarchoan, Robert

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), followed by 500 ng/kg subcutaneous IL-12 twice weekly for up to 3 years. All received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-two had poor-prognosis KS (T(1)S(1)). Thirty patients had a major response, including 9 with complete response, yielding an 83.3% major response rate (95% confidence interval: 67.2%-93.6%). Median time to first response was 2 cycles. Median progression was not reached at median potential follow-up of 46.9 months. Of 27 patients with residual disease when starting maintenance IL-12, 15 had a new major response compared with this new baseline. The regimen was overall well tolerated; principal toxicities were neutropenia, anemia, transaminitis, and neuropsychiatric toxicity. Patients had increases in serum IL-12, interferon gamma, and inducible protein-10 (IP-10), and these remained increased at weeks 18 and 34. The regimen of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin yielded rapid tumor responses and a high response rate in patients with AIDS-KS receiving HAART, and responses were sustained on IL-12 maintenance therapy. A randomized trial of IL-12 in this setting may be warranted. This study is registered at (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) as no. NCT00020449.

  15. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  16. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  17. Is there a legacy of the U.S. Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee in HIV/AIDS-related beliefs among heterosexual African-Americans and Latinos?

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M; Coles, Courtney N; Cochran, Susan D

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the US Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee is sometime cited as a principal reason for the relatively low participation rates seen among racial/ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans, in biomedical research. However, only a few studies have actually explored this possibility. We use data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 510 African-Americans and 253 Latinos, age 18 to 45 years, to investigate associations between knowledge of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee and endorsement of HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. All respondents were drawn from an area of low-income, predominantly race-segregated inner city households in Los Angeles. Results indicate that African Americans were significantly more likely than Latinos to endorse HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. Further, African Americans were more aware of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee (SST). Nevertheless, 72% of African Americans and 94% of Latinos reported that they have never heard of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. Further, while awareness of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee was a significant predictor of endorsing HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories, results suggest that other factors may be more important in accounting for low biomedical and behavioral study participation rates. PMID:23308036

  18. Perceptions of Prostate Cancer Screening Controversy and Informed Decision Making: Implications for Development of a Targeted Decision Aid for Unaffected Male First-Degree Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Davis, Stacy N.; Wilson, Shaenelle; Patel, Mitul; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Meade, Cathy D.; Rivers, Brian M.; Yu, Daohai; Torres-Roca, Javier; Heysek, Randy; Spiess, Philippe E.; Pow-Sang, Julio; Jacobsen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose First-degree relatives (FDRs) of prostate cancer (PC) patients should consider multiple concurrent personal risk factors when engaging in informed decision making (IDM) about PC screening. This study assessed perceptions of IDM recommendations and risk-appropriate strategies for IDM among FDRs of varied race/ethnicity. Design A cross-sectional, qualitative Setting Study setting was a cancer center in southwest Florida. Participants The study comprised 44 participants (24 PC patients and 20 unaffected FDRs). Method Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison methods. Results Patients and FDRs found the PC screening debate and IDM recommendations to be complex and counterintuitive. They overwhelmingly believed screening saves lives and does not have associated harms. There was a strongly expressed need to improve communication between patients and FDRs. A single decision aid that addresses the needs of all FDRs, rather than separating by race/ethnicity, was recommended as sufficient by study participants. These perspectives guided the development of an innovative decision aid that deconstructs the screening controversy and IDM processes into simpler concepts and provides step-by-step strategies for FDRs to engage in IDM. Conclusion Implementing IDM among FDRs is challenging because the IDM paradigm departs from historical messages promoting routine screening. These contradictions should be recognized and addressed for men to participate effectively in IDM. A randomized pilot study evaluating outcomes of the resulting decision aid is underway. PMID:24968183

  19. What contribution have human rights approaches made to reducing AIDS-related vulnerability in sub-Saharan Africa? Exploring the case study of access to antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Forman, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Human rights approaches may offer powerful tools to deal with HIV and AIDS-related vulnerabilities experienced throughout the subcontinent's endemic regions. This paper examines how such approaches have contributed to remediating health and dignity violations posed by the inaccessibility of antiretrovirals in the region. Increases in regional access and key changes in the causal chain of drug access are explored. Rights-based social campaigns that produced domestic as well as global shifts in related law and policy are described in the key low- and middle-income countries of South Africa, Brazil and Thailand. Finally, I consider the implications of these shifts in relation to the strengths and weaknesses of rights-based approaches to reducing AIDS-related vulnerability in the region, arguing that these experiences indicate the need for structural fixes that codify the right to health at domestic and international levels, so as to entrench the right to medicines and enable social actors and policy-makers alike to better meet essential health needs. PMID:23549704

  20. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  1. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  2. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  3. Latina women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worth, D; Rodriguez, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in Latina women is over 11 times that of white women. Women account for 13% of all Latino AIDS deaths since 1980. This examination of the impact of AIDS on Latino women concentrates on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The AIDS deaths among Puerto Rican women in this neighborhood are predominantly intravenous drug abuse related. Latina women accounted for more than 1/2 of all female AIDS deaths on the Lower East Side during the 1980-1985 period. The age range is parallel with that in the rest of New York City, with the exception of a higher number of deaths on the Lower East Side in the age ranges of 15-19 and over 40. Serious obstacles exist to providing AIDS risk reduction information to Puerto Rican women and their partners. Latinos account for 11% of all US AIDS cases among gay and bisexual men. The cultural proscription against these sexual practices in the Puerto Rican community makes AIDS education related to such practices extremely difficult. Many of the female sex partners of these men are unaware of their bisexuality, and, therefore not aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. The Latina women most at risk are young, poor, and have low educational levels. Latina women seriously underutilize ongoing primary health care, family planning, prenatal or pediatric care. Attempts to reach Latina women with AIDS risk reduction education must also contend with issues such as cultural gender roles. Females tend to be dependent on males and defer to male decision making related to sexual practices. In formulating policy regarding services and education, it is essential to involve the leadership of the Latino community. PMID:12268416

  4. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Urano, Makoto; Abe, Masato; Horibe, Yoshimune; Kuroda, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei

    2002-01-01

    We encountered two cases of low malignant mucoepidermoid carcinoma with scanty cellular atypism which originated in the parotid or submandibular gland and was characterized by marked fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration within tumor tissue despite the predominance of the squamous component. Here we report these two cases and provide a review of the literature. We believe that clinically these two tumors with stromal fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration have a low malignant potential, although histological examination revealed a scanty mucus-producing epithelial component. Therefore, we consider this type of tumor as a new subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. A low-malignant mucoepidermoid carcinoma with stromal fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration, as described in these two cases, may be misdiagnosed as a highly malignant mucoepidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma because of its histologically scanty mucus-producing epithelial component. The objective of this study was to clarify their differences and to discuss the rendering of an accurate histological diagnosis, the degree of malignancy in relation to prognosis prediction, and the choice of therapy. In addition, we propose regarding this type of tumor as a new subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:12049340

  5. Clinical evaluation of 451 patients with HIV related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: experience on the Italian cooperative group on AIDS and tumors (GICAT).

    PubMed

    Tirelli, U; Spina, M; Vaccher, E; Errante, D; Tavio, M; Simonelli, C; Sinicco, A; Gastaldi, R; Rossi, G; Rizzardini, G

    1995-12-01

    We report the clinical experience in 451 patients with HIV related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HIV-NHL) observed within the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and Tumors (GICAT: Gruppo Italiano Cooperativo AIDS e Tumori), a significant number of them being treated at the Aviano Cancer Center (ACC). High grade histology according to the Working Formulation, stages III-IV and B symptoms were detected in the majority of patients. The median survival was 6 months. Based on the Cox model, three factors appeared to influence survival: advanced stage, treatment received and failure to obtain complete remission (CR). In another study aimed at comparing between chemotherapy with or without G-CSF it was shown that G-CSF significantly reduced white blood cells (WBC) nadir duration, the mean delays between cycles, the mean hospitalization time for toxicity per patient treated, without increasing significantly the overall costs. Furthermore, of 77 GICAT patients treated at the ACC with (group A) or without (group B) long-lasting CR, performance status and the mean CD4+ cell count at time of NHL diagnosis were the only parameters of statistical relevance. Based on our data HIV related NHLs are highly aggressive malignancies which are associated with a poor prognosis per se, and because of the underlying HIV infection. Long-term survivals and possible cures can, nonetheless, be obtained in a subgroup of patients, who have a better performance status and a less advanced immune dysfunction related to HIV infection.

  6. Health-related quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy at a tertiary care facility in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mafirakureva, N; Dzingirai, B; Postma, M J; van Hulst, M; Khoza, S

    2016-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a broad concept reflecting a patient's general subjective perception of the effect of an illness or intervention on physical, psychological and social aspects of their daily life. HRQoL among patients infected with HIV has become an important indicator of impact of disease and treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out at Chitungwiza Central Hospital, Zimbabwe, to assess HRQoL in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), using two validated instruments. The HIV/AIDS-targeted quality of life (HAT-QoL) and EuroQoL Five-dimensions-Three-level (EQ-5D-3L) instruments were used to assess HRQoL. Internal consistency reliability and convergent validity of the two instruments were also evaluated. For construct validity, the relationships between HRQoL scores and socio-economic and HIV/AIDS-related characteristics were explored. The median scores for the HAT-QoL dimensions ranged from 33.3 (financial worries) to 100 (HIV mastery). A considerably low HAT-QoL dimension score of 50.0 was observed for sexual function. There were ceiling effects for all HAT-QoL dimension scores except for financial worries and disclosure worries. Floor effects were observed for financial worries and sexual function. The median of the EQ-5D-3L index and visual analogue scale (VAS) was 0.81 and 79.0, respectively. There were no floor or ceiling effects for both the EQ-5D-3L index and VAS. The overall scale Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 for HAT-Qol and 0.67 for EQ-5D-3L. HAT-QoL demonstrated good convergent validity with EQ-5D index (0.58) and VAS (0.40). A higher level of HRQoL was positively and significantly related to income, education and employment. The patients' self-reported HRQoL was generally satisfactory in all the HAT-QoL dimensions as well as the two components on the EQ-5D-3L instrument. The two instruments demonstrated good measurement properties in HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART and have potential for use

  7. Prospective randomized comparison of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and polidocanol as variceal sclerosing agents.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, D K; Singh, B; Dogra, R; Dasarathy, S; Sharma, M P

    1992-02-01

    A prospective randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate differences in efficacy and complication rate between the two most commonly used sclerosing agents, sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STD) and polidocanol. Of 52 patients with esophageal variceal bleeding, 26 were randomized to receive sclerotherapy with 1.5% STD and 26 to receive 1% polidocanol at weekly intervals. Eradication of varices was achieved in 88% patients each of the STD and polidocanol group. There was no significant difference between patients injected with STD and polidocanol with regard to re-bleeding (27% vs. 15%) and mortality (11.5% in both). The use of STD, in contrast to polidocanol, was associated with a higher incidence of complications in terms of severe retrosternal pain (27% vs. 4%), deep ulceration (53% vs. 23%), dysphagia (88% vs. 46%), and stricture formation (27% vs. 8%). It was concluded that these two agents were similar in efficacy. However, polidocanol was superior due to a lower incidence of complications.

  8. Paraffin induced sclerosing lipogranuloma of eyelids and anterior orbit following endonasal sinus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Witschel, H; Geiger, K

    1994-01-01

    During the past 5 years we have seen 10 patients who had developed sclerosing lipogranuloma of the lid and orbit after endonasal sinus surgery with subsequent ipsilateral monocular haematoma. The histopathological examination of all and the additional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic examination of four surgical specimens in combination with the typical clinical course led to the conclusion that the granulomas were caused by small paraffin droplets. These in turn stemmed from the ointment plugs applied to the sinuses at the end of the operation, and were washed out into the surrounding tissues by the postoperative haemorrhage. As the chronic and recurring granulomas can lead to considerable cosmetic and functional impairment, the application of ointment plugs at the end of sinus surgery should be abandoned, especially when peri- or postoperative bleeding occurs. Images PMID:8110702

  9. Diagnosis and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis-perspectives from a therapeutic endoscopist

    PubMed Central

    Modha, Kunjam; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, cholestatic liver condition characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and destruction of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. The therapeutic endoscopist plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of PSC. In patients presenting with a cholestatic profile, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is warranted for a definite diagnosis of PSC. Dominant strictures of the bile duct occur in 36%-57% of PSC patients. Endoscopic balloon dilatation with or without stenting have been employed in the management of dominant strictures. In addition, PSC patients are at increased risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma with a 20% lifetime risk. Brush cytology obtained during ERCP and use of fluorescence in situ hybridization forms the initial diagnostic step in the investigation of patients with dominant biliary strictures. Our review aims to summarize the current evidence supporting the role of a therapeutic endoscopist in the management of PSC patients. PMID:25914780

  10. Persistent ascites due to sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis mimicking ovarian carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Çağlar, Mete; Çetinkaya, Nilüfer; Özgü, Emre; Güngör, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, also known as ‘Cocoon Syndrome’, is a rare cause of bowel obstruction. The condition might be congenital or acquired and has non-specific symptomatology. Abdominal pain occurs due to the limitation of intestinal motility or segment obstruction by a thick homogenous fibrotic mantle covering the intra-peritoneal organs. Altered peritoneal fluid dynamics result in persistent ascites. Leading pathogenic theories are not well defined, but genetic factors, retrograde trans-tubal flow of causative agents, peritoneal infections, medications and peritoneal invasive procedures are all thought to play a role. There are no specific diagnostic criteria and exact diagnosis is only confirmed during surgery when the investing thick fibrous folds covering the bowel loops are visualised. We present here a case that had been suspected to have an ovarian malignancy due to a huge abdominal heterogeneous mass and ascites on preoperative diagnostic workup, but had a final diagnosis of abdominal Cocoon Syndrome made during surgery. PMID:25317050

  11. Pathogenesis of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Advances in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, John E.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Gores, Gregory J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), first described in the mid-1850’s, is a complex liver that is heterogeneous in its presentation. PSC is characterized by chronic cholestasis, associated with chronic inflammation of the biliary epithelium, resulting in multi-focal bile duct strictures that can affect the entire biliary tree. Chronic inflammation leads to fibrosis involving the hepatic parenchyma and biliary tree, which can lead to cirrhosis and malignancy. The etiology of PSC is not fully understood which in part explains a lack of effective medical therapy for this condition. However, we have begun to better understand the molecular pathogenesis of PSC. The recognition of specific clinical subtypes and their pattern of progression could improve phenotypic and genotypic classification of the disease. We review our current understanding of this enigmatic disorder and discuss important topics for future studies. PMID:23827861

  12. Primary sclerosing cholangitis - What is the difference between east and west?

    PubMed Central

    Shorbagi, Ali; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive, cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrotic obliteration of the hepatic biliary tree. It is commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A number of complications can occur which require special consideration, the most important of which is the development of cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Unfortunately, no medical therapy is currently available for the underlying liver disease. Liver transplantation is an effective, life-extending option for patients with advanced PSC. Geographical variations between East and West include a second peak for age with a lower association with IBD in a Japanese population and female predominance in a lone study from Turkey. The clinical and biochemical Mayo criteria may not be universally applicable, as different patients show variations regarding the initial presentation and natural course of the disease. Directing research towards explaining these geographical differences and understanding the pathogenesis of PSC is required in order to develop better therapies for this devastating disease. PMID:18609680

  13. Surgical Treatment of Rare Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis of the Deep Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Ohashi, Ryuji; Peng, Wei-Xia; Naito, Zenya; Ogawa, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We experienced a rare case of sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) arising in a parotid gland. A 33-year-old man who underwent unspecified surgery for a lesion in the left parotid gland 23 years ago presented with a lesion on the same site. Computed tomography scan revealed an encapsulated 3 × 2 cm lesion. Intraoperative findings showed that the tumor was embedded deep in the parotid gland. Marginal tumor excision was performed to preserve the facial nerve. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings led to the final diagnosis of SPA. The surgery was not associated with any other complications. To date, 28 months after surgery, recurrence has not been observed. The treatment protocol of SPA has not yet been established. To make plastic surgeons familiar with this disease, we describe this case, which was successfully treated without any complications. PMID:27257575

  14. Sclerosing variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor in the female genital organs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Masao; Saitou, Toshiaki; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2011-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComas), other than angiomyolipoma, clear cell 'sugar' tumor of the lung, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that arises in the soft tissue and visceral organs. We report herein two cases of sclerosing PEComa; a distinctive variant of PEComa, which is characterized by extensive stromal hyalinization, occurring in the uterus and broad ligament. The patients were 34- and 51-year-old females with no family history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the tumors had white to gray cut surfaces and were microscopically composed of predominantly spindle- to polygon-shaped cells with clear to slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei focally arranged in a perivascular pattern, accompanied by marked stromal hyalinization. These tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for HMB45 and α-smooth muscle actin. Although this variant of PEComa is very rare, this entity should be considered as a potential primary neoplasm of the female genital organs.

  15. Oral Vancomycin Therapy in a Child with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Severe Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Buness, Cynthia; Miloh, Tamir

    2016-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a rare progressive liver disease characterized by cholestasis and bile duct fibrosis, has no accepted, effective therapy known to delay or arrest its progression. We report a 15 year old female patient diagnosed with PSC and moderate chronic active ulcerative colitis (UC) who achieved normalization of her liver enzymes and bile ducts, and resolution of her UC symptoms with colonic mucosal healing, after treatment with a single drug therapy of the antibiotic oral vancomycin. We postulate that the oral vancomycin may be acting both as an antibiotic by altering the intestinal microbiome and as an immunomodulator. Oral vancomycin may be a promising treatment for PSC that needs to be further studied in randomized trials. PMID:27738604

  16. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian-Bao; Hu, Bao-Guang; Liu, Da-Wei; Gao, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Han-Ping; Dong, Wen-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) is a rare benign splenic vascular lesion. Since it was first defined in 2004, a total of 132 cases of SANT have been reported in ~50 studies in the English literature. However, it remains difficult to form a definitive pre-operative differential diagnosis of SANT compared with other splenic tumors or malignant lesions. The present study reports a pathologically proven case of SANT in a 29-year-old man who initially presented with left upper quadrant and back discomfort. The study also provides a review of the current knowledge on the condition, including the clinical profile, imaging features, cytological features, differential diagnosis and treatment of SANT. The most important distinguishing features of SANT are its typical vascular character and lack of other features that are typical of a granuloma. A splenectomy is required and the diagnosis is based on pathological analysis. PMID:27446372

  17. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Characteristic Findings of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis on Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography: Which is the Most Common Finding?

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad; Shahnazi, Anahita; Rasoulzadeh, Aida; Shams, Esmaeel; Mohammadi, Manijeh; Darabi, Farideh; Behdad, Mahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease and one of the most common indications for liver transplantation in adults. There are conflicting data regarding characteristic findings of PSC disease on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP). We undertook this study to clarify whether there is a specific pattern of involvement of the biliary tract in patients with PSC and to evaluate features of PSC disease on ERCP in order to be able to manage this disease better. Methods This retrospective study included 45 patients admitted to Taleghani Hospital in 2004–2010 and diagnosed to have PSC on the basis of typical cholangiographic findings in combination with clinical and laboratory data. Patients suspected to have secondary sclerosing cholangitis were excluded. Demographic and clinical data were recorded, along with cholangiographic findings and the frequency of large duct and small duct PSC. Results Forty-five patients of mean age 34.8 (range 15–66) years were included. Twenty-nine patients (64.4%) had inflammatory bowel disease, and the frequency of large duct PSC and small duct PSC was 93.4% and 6.6%, respectively. The intrahepatic ducts alone were involved in 11 (24.4%) patients and the extrahepatic ducts were involved in 14 (31.1%), with 17 (37.7%) patients having both intrahepatic and extrahepatic PSC. Three (6.6%) patients did not have bile duct involvement on ERCP, and their disease was diagnosed by liver biopsy as small duct PSC. The most common type of cholangiographic feature of intrahepatic duct involvement was type 2, found in 15 (33.3%) patients, with type 3 being the most common type of extrahepatic duct involvement and detected in 16 (35.5%) patients. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the most common PSC finding on ERCP is involvement of both the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, with small duct PSC being less common than large duct PSC. PMID:24833928

  19. Daily physical activity and the use of a walking aid in relation to falls in elderly people in a residential care setting.

    PubMed

    Graafmans, W C; Lips, P; Wijlhuizen, G J; Pluijm, S M; Bouter, L M

    2003-02-01

    Physical activity is usually considered as an important component of a healthy lifestyle, including a preventive effect on the risk of falls in the elderly. The relationship between physical activity and falls is complex: physical activity is a prerequisite to maintain neuromuscular functioning, necessary to keep balance and to react to a fall, but a higher level of physical activity also implies a greater exposure to environmental threats, possibly leading to a fall. Related to this greater exposure to threats, the use of a walking aid may protect against falls in those who have impaired mobility. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between daily physical activity and falls and the use of a walking aid in elderly subjects. Participants were 131 men and 563 women, aged 70 years and over (mean age and standard deviation: 82+/-6 years), living in homes for the elderly (n=335) and apartment houses for elderly (n=359). Data on baseline characteristics and falls in the previous year were obtained using a questionnaire. The level of daily physical activity in the previous year was obtained by means of a questionnaire regarding household and leisure activities. Subjects with a lower extremity fracture in the previous year were excluded from the analyses. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, and residence. In the past year, 40% of the participants fell at least one time, and 19% of the participants fell two times or more. Since falls and recurrent falls were nonlinearly related to the level of daily physical activity, the physical activity score was grouped into quartiles: the highest quartile corresponding to the highest activity level. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for falls and recurrent falls for subjects in the highest quartile contrasted with those in the lowest quartile were 0.5 (0.3-0.9) and 0.3 (0.2-0.6), respectively. The risk of falls and recurrent falls was not lower for those

  20. Sclerosing cholangitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... replace what is lost from the disease itself Antibiotics to treat infections in the bile ducts Medicines to quiet the immune system (such as prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or methotrexate) These ...

  1. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  2. Gender Relations and the Production of Difference in School-based Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Lyn

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from an evaluation of a high school sexuality education program to examine gender relations and production of difference. Participating schools incorporated teaching and learning that normalized sexual diversity and explored HIV-related discrimination and homophobia. Discussion of gender, power, and menstruation and heterosexism and…

  3. Immunoglobulin G4 -related Sclerosing Mastitis: AIRP Best Cases in Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Zalaquett, Eugenio; Razmilic, Dravna; Oddo, David

    2016-01-01

    Editor's Note.-RadioGraphics continues to publish radiologic-pathologic case material selected from the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology (AIRP) "best case" presentations. The AIRP conducts a 4-week Radiologic Pathology Correlation Course, which is offered five times per year. On the penultimate day of the course, the best case presentation is held at the American Film Institute Silver Theater and Cultural Center in Silver Spring, Md. The AIRP faculty identifies the best cases, from each organ system, brought by the resident attendees. One or more of the best cases from each of the five courses are then solicited for publication in RadioGraphics. These cases emphasize the importance of radiologic-pathologic correlation in the imaging evaluation and diagnosis of diseases encountered at the institute and its predecessor, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP). PMID:27399235

  4. Primary Renal Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma: Report of Two Cases with EWSR1-CREB3L1 Gene Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Argani, Pedram; Lewin, Jack R.; Edmonds, Pamela; Netto, George J.; Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Zhang, Lei; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first two genetically confirmed cases of primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), occurring in a 17 year-old male and a 61 year-old female. In both cases, the tumors demonstrated the typical epithelioid clear cell morphology associated with extensive hyalinizing fibrosis, raising the differential diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor, metanephric stromal tumor, and the sclerosing variant of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Both neoplasms demonstrated diffuse immunoreactivity for MUC4, a highly specific marker for SEF, and both demonstrated evidence of rearrangement of both the EWSR1 and CREB3L1 genes which have recently shown to be fused in this entity. Both neoplasms presented with metastatic disease. Primary renal SEF represents yet another translocation-associated sarcoma now shown to arise primarily in the kidney. PMID:25353281

  5. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  6. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  7. The Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Presenting as Innumerable Diffuse Microcalcifications in Underlying Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common diffuse thyroid disease and is characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. However, the ultrasonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise from Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the pediatric and adolescent population are not well known. We report a rare ultrasonographic finding in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose from underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis: innumerable diffuse microcalcifications instead of a typical malignant-appearing nodule. PMID:27015194

  8. Fractionated doses of oral etoposide in the treatment of patients with aids-related kaposi sarcoma: a clinical and pharmacologic study to improve therapeutic index.

    PubMed

    Sprinz, E; Caldas, A P; Mans, D R; Cancela, A; DiLeone, L; Dalla Costa, T; Schwartsmann, G

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antitumor activity, toxic effects, and plasma pharmacokinetics of fractionated doses of oral etoposide aiming at the achievement of prolonged safe and active plasma drug levels in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS). This was designed as a phase II trial in which consecutive patients with progressing AIDS-KS after at least 3 months of active antiretroviral therapy received oral etoposide at the dose of 20 mg/m2 every 8 hours daily for 7 days every 21 days, with the study of its plasma pharmacokinetics. Eligible patients were 18 to 60 years old, with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of AIDS-related KS, human immunodeficiency virus-positive test, progressing after at least 3 months of active antiretroviral therapy, World Health Organization (WHO) performance status 0 to 3, New York University staging IIA or greater, no active infection except oral candidiasis, normal bone marrow, liver, and renal function, and who signed an informed consent. Objective tumor responses were evaluated after at least one full treatment course according to a modified WHO criteria, and toxicity was evaluated weekly and graded using the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) criteria. For the pharmacokinetic study, plasma was obtained from patients during the first drug administration immediately before and at various time points thereafter. Etoposide was measured after extraction from plasma by a standard high-performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-one patients were accrued for the study, and 18 of them met the eligibility criteria. They were all men, with median age of 36 years old (range: 25-50 years), median WHO performance status 0 (range: 0-3) median CD4+ count (cells/mm3) 67 (range: 8-443), prior AIDS diagnosis in 10 of 18 cases, NYU staging IIA (1 patient), IIB (1), IIIA (7), IIIB (1), IVA (4), and IVB (4) sites of disease: mucocutaneous only (5), mucocutaneous/lymph nodes (5), mucocutaneous

  9. Dementia-Related Work Activities of Home Care Nurses and Aides: Frequency, Perceived Competence, and Continuing Education Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debra G.; Kosteniuk, Julie G.; O'Connell, Megan E.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Stewart, Norma J.; Karunanayake, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the specific dementia learning needs of home care staff is needed to plan relevant continuing education (CE) programs and supports. The study's objective was to examine frequency and perceived competence in performing 20 dementia-related work activities, and identify CE priorities among home care staff. A cross-sectional survey…

  10. Can Cross-Cultural Understanding Aid Second Language Acquisition? Toward a Theory of Ethno-Lingual Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citron, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The term "ethno-lingual relativity" is a perspective that is not limited by one's own cultural and linguistic experiences, but rather is open to the contrasting cultural and linguistic patterns of other peoples. This article explores the hypothesis that having such a perspective might facilitate second language acquisition. (19 references)…

  11. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Mass Communication Programs to Change HIV/AIDS-Related Behaviors in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane T.; O'Reilly, Kevin; Denison, Julie; Anhang, Rebecca; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This review systematically examined the effectiveness of 24 mass media interventions on changing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The intervention studies were published from 1990 through 2004, reported data from developing countries and compared outcomes using (i) pre- and post-intervention data, (ii)…

  12. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users' preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA) processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1) performance on a measure of reading span (RS) is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR) strength, (2) similar relations exist for two different, non-verbal measures of executive function, (3) pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and microphone directionality (DIR) also influence preferred NR strength, and (4) preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker) relations between worse performance on one non-verbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings. PMID

  13. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  14. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  15. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  16. Computer aided screening of secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4): a potential control for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Shamshari, Waseem Akhtar; Ur-Rahman, Mahmood; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2014-07-11

    Diabetes mellitus is a life threatening disease and scientists are doing their best to find a cost effective and permanent treatment of this malady. The recent trend is to control the disease by target base inhibiting of enzymes or proteins. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is found to cause five times more risk of diabetes when expressed above average levels. This study was therefore designed to analyze the SFRP4 and to find its potential inhibitors. SFRP4 was analyzed by bio-informatics tools of sequence tool and structure tool. A total of three potential inhibitors of SFRP4 were found, namely cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril. These inhibitors showed significant interactions with SFRP4 as compared to other inhibitors as well as control (acetohexamide). The findings suggest the possible treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 by inhibiting the SFRP4 using the inhibitors cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril.

  17. HIV and AIDS-related stigma in the context of family support and race in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Darigg C.; BeLue, Rhonda; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this paper, we describe the first phase of a research project designed to quantify the role of race and cultural identity in HIV-related stigma. The ultimate purpose is to develop an intervention that could be implemented in Black and Colored communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Design The PEN-3 model provided the theoretical basis for this research. A total of 397 Black and Colored participants were recruited from two communities to complete a 16-item multi-part questionnaire that was developed based on focus groups and key informant interviews. A total of 196 questionnaires were administered in Mitchell’s Plain and 201 were administered in Gugulethu. Both communities are located approximately 20 km outside the city of Cape Town in an area known as the Cape Flats. Data were collected on individuals’ perceptions of stigma in the contexts of the family, healthcare settings, and the community. However, only the family context is explored here. Participants were also asked to identify what they felt should be the most important area of emphasis for researchers in eliminating stigma. Similarities and differences in perceptions between Black and Colored South Africans were examined. Results Data were compiled on the family support domain of stigma. Though most either disagreed or were neutral, nearly equal numbers of Blacks and Coloreds thought stigma occurred in families. Blacks were also more likely than Coloreds to report experiencing stigma in their families. Both Blacks and Coloreds felt the family should be the most important focus of interventions for eliminating HIV-related stigma. Conclusion Within the context of the family race, cultural values, and religious and spiritual values all contribute to HIV stigma in South Africa. Interventions should address the role of stigma within families in order to promote better HIV prevention, treatment, and care. PMID:20582774

  18. Social support and social undermining as explanatory factors for health-related quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, John; Wilcox, Bryan; Archiopoli, Ashley; Avila, Magdalena; Hell, Cia; Hill, Ricky; Muhammad, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of social support (from personal networks and health care providers) and social undermining (from personal networks) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL; general health perceptions, physical functioning, and depression). Specifically, the authors aimed to identify the nature of the effects (direct, mediating, or moderating) of social support and social undermining on HRQOL. A total of 344 people living with HIV/AIDS and who were patients in a federally funded clinic in New Mexico completed a self-report survey questionnaire. The major findings of this study are the following: (a) social support and social undermining had direct and indirect effects on HRQOL-there was no evidence of a moderating effect of social support and social undermining; (b) for direct effects, social undermining was a stronger predictor of HRQOL than social support with social support variables having positive relations and social undermining variables having negative relations with HRQOL; and (c) for indirect effects, providers' social support partially mediated the influence of unstable employment/unemployment and social undermining on HRQOL. PMID:24479678

  19. Clinical and pathological features and treatment of AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in Chinese Han patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X-K; Lu, S-H; Liu, J-F; Lai, Y-R

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to observe the clinicopathological features and immunological phenotypes, and explore effective treatment and prognosis for 12 Chinese Han patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. All 12 patients were human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and underwent the standard highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin lesions mainly presented as purple, or rufous papules, or plaques; skin biopsy showed diffuse or flaky infiltration of spindle cells, active proliferation of slit-like vasculature, erythrocyte exudation, hemosiderin deposition, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression of Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (+), and CD31 (+) in T-cells; factor VIII (+) and HHF-35 (+) in the proliferating vascular endothelial cells; vimentin (+) and S-100 protein (-) in the vessel wall; and CD34 (+++) in the spindle cells of 6 cases, with 1 case of negative CD34 expression. Four patients with confined lesions underwent surgery and microwave therapy, and received a favorable prognosis. Two patients with limited lesions underwent microwave therapy, and the lesions subsided. Of six patients with widely distributed sarcomas, five underwent microwave therapy and one received combined chemotherapy; five attained significant efficacy, and one died. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological features and immunological phenotypes between the Chinese Han patients and those from other populations. Along with basal HAART, patients in early stages, with sarcomas <2 cm in diameter should undergo surgery and microwave therapy, while patients with sarcomas >2 cm in diameter should undergo chemotherapy and microwave therapy.

  20. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  1. Whole-exome sequencing identifies recurrent AKT1 mutations in sclerosing hemangioma of lung

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Sung-Hak; Park, Hyun-Chun; Choi, Hyun Joo; Maeng, Leeso; Min, Ki Ouk; Kim, Jeana; Park, Tae In; Shin, Ok Ran; Kim, Tae-Jung; Xu, Haidong; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Song, Sang Yong; Lee, Charles; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a benign tumor with two cell populations (epithelial and stromal cells), for which genomic profiles remain unknown. We conducted exome sequencing of 44 PSHs and identified recurrent somatic mutations of AKT1 (43.2%) and β-catenin (4.5%). We used a second subset of 24 PSHs to confirm the high frequency of AKT1 mutations (overall 31/68, 45.6%; p.E17K, 33.8%) and recurrent β-catenin mutations (overall 3 of 68, 4.4%). Of the PSHs without AKT1 mutations, two exhibited AKT1 copy gain. AKT1 mutations existed in both epithelial and stromal cells. In two separate PSHs from one patient, we observed two different AKT1 mutations, indicating they were not disseminated but independent arising tumors. Because the AKT1 mutations were not found to co-occur with β-catenin mutations (or any other known driver alterations) in any of the PSHs studied, we speculate that this may be the single-most common driver alteration to develop PSHs. Our study revealed genomic differences between PSHs and lung adenocarcinomas, including a high rate of AKT1 mutation in PSHs. These genomic features of PSH identified in the present study provide clues to understanding the biology of PSH and for differential genomic diagnosis of lung tumors. PMID:27601661

  2. [Epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Okinawa, Japan (1977-2005)].

    PubMed

    Hirayasu, Kyomi; Oshiro, Satoshi; Nakada, Yukikatsu

    2010-11-01

    The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has changed since the introduction of measles immunization in 1970's. We studied the incidence of SSPE in Okinawa. There were 22 cases (16 males and 6 females) of SSPE from 1977 to 2005 in Okinawa. The incidence was 0.63 per million population per year from 1977 to 1986, 0 from 1987 to 1993, 1.17 from 1994 to 1999 and 0.75 from 2000 to 2005. Twenty-one SSPE patients had a history of non-immunized measles and 19 of them (90%) had measles infection under 2 years of age. There were measles epidemic every 2-5 years in Okinawa. Ten of 21 cases contracted measles in 1990-1991. The percentage of patients with measles infection under 2 years of age during measles epidemics ranged from 46% to 56%. Early measles infection (under 2 years of age) is a risk factor for SSPE. Routine measles immunization to prevent measles infection is very important for the prevention of SSPE.

  3. Update on inflammatory bowel disease in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Tsaitas, Christos; Semertzidou, Anysia; Sinakos, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) complicated by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represent a distinct subset of patients with unique characteristics, which have serious clinical implications. The aim of this literature review was to shed light to the obscure clinical and molecular aspects of the two diseases combined utilizing current data available and putting issues of diagnosis and treatment into perspective. The prevalence of IBD, mainly ulcerative colitis in PSC patients is estimated to be 21%-80%, dependent on screening programs and nationality. PSC-associated colitis is likely to be extensive, characterized by rectal sparing, backwash ileitis, and generally mild symptoms. It is also more likely to progress to colorectal malignancy, making it imperative for clinicians to maintain a high level of suspicion when tackling PSC patients. There is no optimal surveillance strategy but current guidelines advocate that colonoscopy is necessary at the time of PSC diagnosis with annual endoscopic follow-up. Random biopsies have been criticized and a shift towards targeted biopsies using chromoendoscopy, laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging has been noted. Techniques directed towards genetic mutations instead of histological abnormalities hold promise for easier, more accurate diagnosis of dysplastic lesions. Chemopreventive measures against colorectal cancer have been sought in these patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid seemed promising at first but subsequent studies yielded conflicting results showing anticarcinogenic effects in low doses (8-15 mg/kg per day) and carcinogenic properties in high doses (15-30 mg/kg per day). PMID:24799986

  4. Skull sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XU, JINGJING; WANG, JIAWEI; ZHANG, MINMING; LI, BAIZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is an unusual variant of fibrosarcoma that was previously considered to be a low-grade tumor with an indolent course. The tumor occurs most commonly in the soft tissue of the limb, trunk, head and neck, and occasionally in the bone and visceral organs. The skull is a rare primary site for SEF, with only 3 cases reported to date. The current study reports a case of SEF occurring in the occipital bone of a 24-year-old man, who lacked neurological symptoms. Imaging revealed a large mass emanating from the occipital bone and involving the superior sagittal sinus, torcular herophili and adjacent brain tissue. Histological and immunohistochemical characteristics confirmed the diagnosis of SEF. The patient experienced local recurrence and distant metastasis at 10 and 15 months, respectively, subsequent to the resection of the primary mass. The current case and review of the literature suggest that skull SEF may behave clinically as an aggressive malignant sarcoma. Radiological findings indicated the biological and histopathological characteristics of the tumor. Thus, its clinical behavior and certain imaging features may suggest this diagnosis. PMID:27123127

  5. A role for dual viral hits in causation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Oldstone, Michael B A; Dales, Samuel; Tishon, Antoinette; Lewicki, Hanna; Martin, Lee

    2005-11-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with persistent infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by measles virus (MV), biased hypermutations of the viral genome affecting primarily the matrix (M) gene with the conversion of U to C and A to G bases, high titers of antibodies to MV, and infiltration of B cells and T cells into the CNS. Neither the precipitating event nor biology underlying the MV infection is understood, nor is their any satisfactory treatment. We report the creation of a transgenic mouse model that mimics the cardinal features of SSPE. This was achieved by initially infecting mice expressing the MV receptor with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Cl 13, a virus that transiently suppressed their immune system. Infection by MV 10 days later resulted in persistent MV infection of neurons. Analysis of brains from infected mice showed the biased U to C hypermutations in the MV M gene and T and B lymphocyte infiltration. These sera contained high titers of antibodies to MV. Thus, a small animal model is now available to both molecularly probe the pathogenesis of SSPE and to test a variety of therapies to treat the disease. PMID:16260490

  6. Genetic Abnormalities in Biliary Brush Samples for Distinguishing Cholangiocarcinoma from Benign Strictures in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, Margriet R.; Lau, Chiu T.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Fockens, Paul; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and is strongly associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The lack of efficient diagnostic methods for CCA is a major problem. Testing for genetic abnormalities may increase the diagnostic value of cytology. Methods. We assessed genetic abnormalities for CDKN2A, TP53, ERBB2, 20q, MYC, and chromosomes 7 and 17 and measures of genetic clonal diversity in brush samples from 29 PSC patients with benign biliary strictures and 12 patients with sporadic CCA or PSC-associated CCA. Diagnostic performance of cytology alone and in combination with genetic markers was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve analysis. Results. The presence of MYC gain and CDKN2A loss as well as a higher clonal diversity was significantly associated with malignancy. MYC gain increased the sensitivity of cytology from 50% to 83%. However, the specificity decreased from 97% to 76%. The diagnostic accuracy of the best performing measures of clonal diversity was similar to the combination of cytology and MYC. Adding CDKN2A loss to the panel had no additional benefit. Conclusion. Evaluation of MYC abnormalities and measures of clonal diversity in brush cytology specimens may be of clinical value in distinguishing CCA from benign biliary strictures in PSC. PMID:27127503

  7. Shear wave elastography diagnosis of the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Nianyu; Xu, Youfeng; Huang, Pintong; Zhang, Shengmin; Wang, Hongwei; Yu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to report the shear wave elastography (SWE) findings in a patient with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSVPTC). Since patients with DSVPTC may present with typical clinicopathological features and initially appear to have Hashimoto's thyroiditis, a thorough clinical evaluation and an early diagnosis are important. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a 1-month history of a neck mass and sore throat. Conventional ultrasound and SWE were performed using an AIXPLORER system with 14-5 MHz linear transducer. The patient had undergone total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck lymph node dissection, and an intraoperative pathology consultation to confirm the malignancy of lymph node metastasis. Pathological diagnosis was DSVPTC in both lobes, with lymph node metastases in the bilateral neck. The clinical presentation and serological findings were all indicative of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed diffuse enlargement of the both lobes, heterogenous echogenicity without mass formation, diffuse scattered microcalcifications and poor vascularization. SWE revealed stiff values of the thyroid: The mean stiffness was 99.7 kpa, the minimum stiffness was 59.1 kpa and the maximum stiffness was 180.1 kpa. The maximum stiffness of the DSVPTC (180.1 kpa) was higher compared with the diagnostic criteria of malignant thyroid nodules (65 kPa). SWE may be considered as a novel and valuable method to diagnose DSVPC. PMID:27446574

  8. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.; Cattaneo, R.; Budka, H.; Ter Meulen, V.

    1986-08-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue.

  9. A review of the medical treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Elizabeth C.; Rushbrook, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that progresses to end-stage liver disease and cirrhosis. Recurrent biliary inflammation is thought to lead to dysplasia, and as such PSC confers a high risk of cholangiocarcinoma. PSC accounts for 10% of all UK liver transplants, although transplantation does not guarantee a cure with 20% recurrence in the graft. At present there are no effective medical treatment options for PSC, and trials of novel therapeutic agents are limited by the time taken to reach clinically significant endpoints with no well defined early surrogate markers for disease outcome. Moreover, PSC appears to be a heterogeneous disease with regards to disease distribution, associated inflammatory bowel disease and subsequent disease outcome, further compounding the issue. Thus existing trials have taken place in heterogeneous groups, are likely to be underpowered to detect any individual subgroups effect. The current mainstay of medical treatment is still with ursodeoxycholic acid, although there is no evidence that it alters long-term outcome. Small pilot studies of immunosuppressive agents have taken place, but despite evidence that may support studies in larger groups, these have not been conducted. Recent advances in our understanding of the disease pathogenesis may therefore pave the way for trials of novel therapeutic agents in PSC, even given the limitations described. This review explores the controversial evidence underlying current treatment strategies and discounted treatments, and explores prospective agents that may bring new hope to the treatment of PSC in the 21st century. PMID:26770670

  10. Central Retinal and Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion After Intralesional Injection of Sclerosant to Glabellar Subcutaneous Hemangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study is to describe vision loss caused by central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery occlusion as a consequence of sclerotherapy with a polidocanol injection to a glabellar hemangioma. An 18-year-old man underwent direct injection with a 23-gauge needle of 1 mL of a polidocanol-carbon dioxide emulsion into the glabellar subcutaneous hemangioma under ultrasound visualization of the needle tip by radiologists. He developed lid swelling the next day, and 3 days later at referral, the visual acuity in the left eye was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed central retinal artery occlusion and fluorescein angiography disclosed no perfusion at all in the left fundus, indicating concurrent posterior ciliary artery occlusion. The patient also showed mydriasis, blepharoptosis, and total external ophthalmoplegia on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the swollen medial rectus muscle. In a month, blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia resolved but the visual acuity remained no light perception. Sclerosing therapy for facial hemangioma may develop a severe complication such as permanent visual loss.

  11. Natural history of restricted synthesis and expression of measles virus genes in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Haase, A T; Gantz, D; Eble, B; Walker, D; Stowring, L; Ventura, P; Blum, H; Wietgrefe, S; Zupancic, M; Tourtellotte, W

    1985-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slow infection caused by measles virus in which several years separate recovery from typical acute measles and the development of a slowly progressive neurological disease. We have investigated replication of measles virus in brain tissue obtained after the onset of neurological disease and in the terminal phase. With a hybridization tomographic technique that combines in situ hybridization with macroradioautographic screening of large areas of tissue, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of virus genes in vivo, using region- and strand-specific probes for the nucleocapsid and matrix genes. We show that early in the course of SSPE there is a global repression in the synthesis and expression of the genome. In the final stage of SSPE most infected cells still have depressed levels of plus- and minus-strand viral RNA and contain nucleocapsid protein but lack matrix protein. These findings provide further evidence for a unified view of slow infections of the nervous system, where the general constraints on virus gene expression provide an explanation for persistence of virus in the face of the host's immune response, and the slow evolution of pathological change. In the final phases of SSPE the more specific block in virus replication accounts for the cell-associated state of the virus and the difficulty in virus isolation. Images PMID:3857631

  12. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis: in vitro measles immunity and sensitization to myelin basic protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sheremata, W.; Sazant, A.; Watters, G.

    1978-01-01

    Three children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 12 healthy persons were studied by the macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) assay with measles and rubella antigens and with myelin basic protein. For the SSPE patients the mean migration indexes +/- standard deviation were 44.1 +/- 10.9 for measles antigen, 38.7 +/- 12.3 for rubella antigen and 49.8 +/- 25.7 for myelin basic protein; for the MS patients the indexes were 103.0 +/- 10.6, 93.8 +/- 15.0 and 89.3 +/- 19.9; and for the healthy subjects the indexes were 68.8 +/- 22.6, 77.7 +/- 31.3 and 100.1 +/- 6.5. The results of this study showed increased cellular immunity to measles and rubella in SSPE patients as compared with healthy persons, and absence of immunity to measles in MS patients. Patients with MS showed hypersensitivity to myelin basic protein during clinical exacerbations that was not associated with changes in immunity to measles, whereas all SSPE patients showed a significant response regardless to stage of illness. PMID:343902

  13. Whole-exome sequencing identifies recurrent AKT1 mutations in sclerosing hemangioma of lung.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Sung-Hak; Park, Hyun-Chun; Choi, Hyun Joo; Maeng, Leeso; Min, Ki Ouk; Kim, Jeana; Park, Tae In; Shin, Ok Ran; Kim, Tae-Jung; Xu, Haidong; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Song, Sang Yong; Lee, Charles; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2016-09-20

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a benign tumor with two cell populations (epithelial and stromal cells), for which genomic profiles remain unknown. We conducted exome sequencing of 44 PSHs and identified recurrent somatic mutations of AKT1 (43.2%) and β-catenin (4.5%). We used a second subset of 24 PSHs to confirm the high frequency of AKT1 mutations (overall 31/68, 45.6%; p.E17K, 33.8%) and recurrent β-catenin mutations (overall 3 of 68, 4.4%). Of the PSHs without AKT1 mutations, two exhibited AKT1 copy gain. AKT1 mutations existed in both epithelial and stromal cells. In two separate PSHs from one patient, we observed two different AKT1 mutations, indicating they were not disseminated but independent arising tumors. Because the AKT1 mutations were not found to co-occur with β-catenin mutations (or any other known driver alterations) in any of the PSHs studied, we speculate that this may be the single-most common driver alteration to develop PSHs. Our study revealed genomic differences between PSHs and lung adenocarcinomas, including a high rate of AKT1 mutation in PSHs. These genomic features of PSH identified in the present study provide clues to understanding the biology of PSH and for differential genomic diagnosis of lung tumors. PMID:27601661

  14. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings in sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Etit, Demet; Pilch, Ben Z; Osgood, Rebecca; Faquin, William C

    2007-07-01

    Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) is a recently described, rare lesion of the salivary gland analogous to fibrocystic disease of the breast. Recognition of this benign entity is important since the differential diagnosis includes other more common benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms, particularly mucoepidermoid carcinoma and tumors with cystic and oncocytic features. While the histomorphology of SPA is well documented, there is only one other cytologic description of SPA in the English-language literature. Here we describe the fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings in a case of SPA of the parotid gland in an 84-year-old woman. The aspirate was characterized by flat cohesive sheets of epithelial cells with moderate amounts of finely granular oncocytic cytoplasm and enlarged round nuclei with indistinct nucleoli. Some epithelial groups formed glandular structures with lumens, and the background contained small amounts of delicate mucoproteinaceous material. Occasional markedly vacuolated cells were present as well as many cells with apocrine change manifested by well-defined apical snouting. Familiarity with the cytomorphologic features of SPA, including its characteristic apocrine changes, is important for distinguishing it from other more clinically significant salivary gland lesions.

  15. Living with HIV/AIDS in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter article is concerned with understanding what schools can and must do to sustain life in the age of human immunodeficiency virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The article looks at the incidence of AIDS and reviews legislation related to AIDS infection and school attendance. School policy as it relates to…

  16. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  17. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  18. Children's Aid and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, William M.; Duane, Edward A.

    In Ontario, Canada, the agency which has the foremost obligation for the discovery and amelioration of child abuse and neglect is Children's Aid. Elementary schools are the target of much child-abuse detection. This article develops the perceptions of a representative group of 10 workers in Children's Aid on the schools relative to child abuse.…

  19. Frequent disruption of the Nf1 gene by a novel murine AIDS virus-related provirus in BXH-2 murine myeloid lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, B C; Shaughnessy, J D; Largaespada, D A; Bedigian, H G; Buchberg, A M; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G

    1995-01-01

    Evi-2, a common site of viral integration in BXH-2 myeloid lymphomas, is located within a large intron of the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene. Viral integration at Evi-2 appears to induce disease by disrupting normal Nf1 expression. During our attempts to characterize the nature of the proviruses located at Evi-2, we found that approximately half of the proviruses were defective nonecotropic proviruses (A. M. Buchberg, H. G. Bedigian, N. A. Jenkins, and N. G. Copeland, Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:4658-4666, 1990). This was surprising, since most proviruses characterized at other BXH-2 common integration sites are full-length ecotropic viruses. In the studies described here, we found that this defective provirus carries two large deletions, one in pol and one in env, and is structurally related to another murine retrovirus, the murine AIDS retrovirus. By using oligonucleotide probes specific for this defective provirus, designated MRV, we showed that MRV-related proviruses are carried as endogenous germ line proviruses in most inbred strains. In addition, we identified the endogenous MRV provirus that gives rise to the defective proviruses identified at Evi-2. We present a model that accounts for the positive selection of MRV proviruses at Evi-2, which may allow selective identification of common viral integration sites harboring tumor suppressor genes. PMID:7474134

  20. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  1. High Accuracy of Common HIV-Related Oral Disease Diagnoses by Non-Oral Health Specialists in the AIDS Clinical Trial Group

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Chen, Huichao; Secours, Rode; Lee, Anthony; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Evans, Scott; Bernard, Daphné; Reznik, David; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Hosey, Lara; Sévère, Patrice; Aberg, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many studies include oral HIV-related endpoints that may be diagnosed by non-oral-health specialists (non-OHS) like nurses or physicians. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of clinical diagnoses of HIV-related oral lesions made by non-OHS compared to diagnoses made by OHS. Methods A5254, a cross-sectional study conducted by the Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance within the AIDS Clinical Trial Group, enrolled HIV-1-infected adults participants from six clinical trial units (CTU) in the US (San Francisco, New York, Chapel Hill, Cleveland, Atlanta) and Haiti. CTU examiners (non-OHS) received standardized training on how to perform an oral examination and make clinical diagnoses of specific oral disease endpoints. Diagnoses by calibrated non-OHS were compared to those made by calibrated OHS, and sensitivity and specificity computed. Results Among 324 participants, the majority were black (73%), men (66%), and the median CD4+ cell count 138 cells/mm3. The overall frequency of oral mucosal disease diagnosed by OHS was 43% in US sites, and 90% in Haiti. Oral candidiasis (OC) was detected in 153 (47%) by OHS, with erythematous candidiasis (EC) the most common type (39%) followed by pseudomembranous candidiasis (PC; 26%). The highest prevalence of OC (79%) was among participants in Haiti, and among those with CD4+ cell count ≤ 200 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA > 1000 copies/mL (71%). The sensitivity and specificity of OC diagnoses by non-OHS were 90% and 92% (for EC: 81% and 94%; PC: 82% and 95%). Sensitivity and specificity were also high for KS (87% and 94%, respectively), but sensitivity was < 60% for HL and oral warts in all sites combined. The Candida culture confirmation of OC clinical diagnoses (as defined by ≥ 1 colony forming unit per mL of oral/throat rinse) was ≥ 93% for both PC and EC. Conclusion Trained non-OHS showed high accuracy of clinical diagnoses of OC in comparison with OHS, suggesting their usefulness in studies in resource-poor settings

  2. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptor in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in vivo suggests paracrine and autocrine mechanisms of tumor maintenance.

    PubMed Central

    Stürzl, M; Roth, W K; Brockmeyer, N H; Zietz, C; Speiser, B; Hofschneider, P H

    1992-01-01

    As previously described, proliferation of Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-derived cells in vitro is dependent on the presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). To test the hypothesis that PDGF may also be a major growth factor for KS cells in vivo, we performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining for PDGF and PDGF receptors in tissue sections of AIDS-related KS. The data suggest that KS consists of two types of tumor cells. (i) The main population are spindle-shaped cells with elongated nuclei (KS-s cells). They reveal a strong expression of PDGF beta receptors but do not express the PDGF-A and PDGF-B isoforms. (ii) A minor population of KS cells express PDGF beta receptor as well as PDGF-A and PDGF-B (KS-p cells). These cells are often grouped in whorls and surrounding vascular slits. They reveal spherical nuclei with evenly distributed chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. PDGF alpha receptor is not expressed in either form of KS cells. The results suggest that the isoforms of PDGF and the PDGF beta receptor are differentially expressed in two different cell types in KS and that PDGF isoforms may contribute to the pathogenesis of KS. Images PMID:1323124

  3. Direct and indirect effects of perceived social support on health-related quality of life in persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Tsegaye; Rourke, Sean B; Tucker, Ruthann; Greene, Saara; Sobota, Michael; Koornstra, Jay; Monette, Laverne; Rueda, Sergio; Bacon, Jean; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W; Dunn, James; Guenter, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Research has established a link between perceived social support and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among persons living with HIV/AIDS. However, little is known about the ways through which social support influences HRQOL. This study examined the direct and indirect effects of perceived social support on physical and mental HRQOL in a sample of 602 adults living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV (MOS-HIV) health survey, the MOS-HIV Social Support Scale (MOS-HIV-SSS), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-Revised scale. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics were also collected. The direct and indirect effects of social support on the two MOS-HIV HRQOL summary measures, that is, physical health summary (PHS) and mental health summary (MHS), were estimated in multiple linear regression analyses. Perceived social support had significant direct effects on PHS (B=0.04, p<0.01) and MHS (B=0.05, p<0.01). It also had significant indirect effect on both PHS (B=0.04, p<0.01) and MHS (B=0.11, p<0.01), mediated by depressive symptoms. Interventions that enhance social support have the potential to contribute to better HRQOL either directly or indirectly by decreasing the deleterious effect of depressive symptoms on HRQOL.

  4. Ultrasound and Point Shear Wave Elastography in Livers of Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Mjelle, Anders Batman; Mulabecirovic, Anesa; Hausken, Trygve; Havre, Roald Flesland; Gilja, Odd Helge; Vesterhus, Mette

    2016-09-01

    Point shear wave elastography (pSWE) is an ultrasound-based method for non-invasive quantification of liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was to explore liver pSWE in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) for assessment of fibrosis. Fifty-five non-transplant patients with PSC (38 males, 17 females; mean age: 46.4 y) were included and compared with 24 matched controls. Median (range) PSC duration was 8.1 (0-33) y. Ultrasonographic scanning followed by liver stiffness measurement by pSWE was performed using a conventional ultrasound system (Philips iU22). Signs of liver fibrosis on B-mode were identified in 21 patients (38%). Splenomegaly was found in 19 patients (35%) and ascites in two patients (4%). Successful pSWE measurements were achieved in the right liver lobe of all individuals and in the left liver lobe of 36 patients (65.5%). PSC patients had significantly higher median shear wave velocity (SWV) than controls in the right liver (median [range] SWV 1.26 [0.73-2.57] m/s vs. 1.09 [0.88-1.25] m/s, p < 0.001). SWV measured in the left liver lobe and spleen did not differ between PSC patients and controls. Our findings indicate that PSC patients have increased median SWV, indicating more fibrosis compared with controls; however, a wide range of SWV values were obtained among PSC patients, possibly reflecting the various stages in disease development. PMID:27262519

  5. Humoral and cellular immune responses to matrix protein of measles virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Dhib-Jalbut, S; McFarland, H F; Mingioli, E S; Sever, J L; McFarlin, D E

    1988-01-01

    The immune response to matrix (M) protein of measles virus was examined in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and controls. Antibodies specific for M and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins in 11 serum and 8 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with SSPE were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using affinity-purified measles virus proteins. Geometric mean anti-NC antibody titers were higher in the serum (6.58 +/- 0.98 [mean +/- standard deviation]) and CSF (4.38 +/- 0.74) of SSPE patients compared with controls. Anti-M antibodies were present in the serum and CSF of all SSPE samples tested but in titers lower than those of anti-NC antibodies. Geometric mean anti-M antibody titer was 3.35 +/- 0.53 in sera from patients with SSPE compared with 3.05 +/- 0.66 in sera from patients with other neurological diseases and 3.12 +/- 0.74 in sera from healthy individuals. Geometric mean anti-M antibody titer was 2.59 +/- 0.86 in the CSF of eight patients with SSPE compared with a mean less than 1.00 for patients with other neurological disease (controls). Intrathecal synthesis of anti-M or anti-NC antibodies was established in four patients with SSPE. The cellular immune responses to M, F, HA, and NC proteins were examined in four of the patients with SSPE by lymphoproliferation and were not significantly different from those in five healthy controls. The results demonstrate humoral and cellular immune responses to M protein in patients with SSPE and indicate that it is unlikely that a defect in the immune response to this virus component accounts for the disease process in the patients studied. Images PMID:3373575

  6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is characterised by intestinal dysbiosis independent from IBD

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, João; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Machiels, Kathleen; Joossens, Marie; Falony, Gwen; Ballet, Vera; Ferrante, Marc; Van Assche, Gert; Van der Merwe, Schalk; Vermeire, Severine; Raes, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease often leading to end-stage liver disease. Its pathogenesis remains largely unknown, although frequent concomitant IBD hints towards common factors underlying gut and bile duct inflammation. Considering the mounting evidence on the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in initiating and determining IBD phenotype, we investigated intestinal microbiota composition in patients with PSC. Design Stool samples were collected from 147 individuals (52 patients with PSC, 52 age, gender and body mass index-matched healthy volunteers, 13 UC and 30 patients with Crohn's disease). An independent validation cohort of 14 PSC and 14 matched controls was recruited. 16S rDNA sequencing of faecal DNA was performed (Illumina MiSeq). Results The microbiota of patients with PSC was characterised by decreased microbiota diversity, and a significant overrepresentation of Enterococcus (p=3.76e-05), Fusobacterium (p=3.76e-05) and Lactobacillus (p=0.0002) genera. This dysbiosis was present in patients with PSC with and without concomitant IBD and was distinct from IBD, and independent of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. A decision tree based on abundances of these three genera allowed reliable classification in the validation cohort. In particular, one operational taxonomic unit belonging to the Enterococcus genus was associated with increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (p=0.048), a marker of disease severity. Conclusions We here present the first report of PSC-associated faecal dysbiosis, independent from IBD signatures, suggesting the intestinal microbiota could be a contributing factor in PSC pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess causality. PMID:27207975

  7. Combined MEG-EEG source localisation in patients with sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, J; Sinha, Sanjib; Nagappa, Madhu; Mariyappa, N; Bindu, P S; Ravi, G S; Hazra, Nandita; Thennarasu, K; Ravi, V; Taly, A B; Satishchandra, P

    2016-08-01

    To study the genesis and propagation patterns of periodic complexes (PCs) associated with myoclonic jerks in sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (SSPE) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Simultaneous recording of MEG (306 channels) and EEG (64 channels) in five patients of SSPE (M:F = 3:2; age 10.8 ± 3.2 years; symptom-duration 6.2 ± 10 months) was carried out using Elekta Neuromag(®) TRIUX™ system. Qualitative analysis of 80-160 PCs per patient was performed. Ten isomorphic classical PCs with significant field topography per patient were analysed at the 'onset' and at 'earliest significant peak' of the burst using discrete and distributed source imaging methods. MEG background was asymmetrical in 2 and slow in 3 patients. Complexes were periodic (3) or quasi-periodic (2), occurring every 4-16 s and varied in morphology among patients. Mean source localization at onset of bursts using discrete and distributed source imaging in magnetic source imaging (MSI) was in thalami and or insula (50 and 50 %, respectively) and in electric source imaging (ESI) was also in thalami and or insula (38 and 46 %, respectively). Mean source localization at the earliest rising phase of peak in MSI was in peri-central gyrus (49 and 42 %) and in ESI it was in frontal cortex (52 and 56 %). Further analysis revealed that PCs were generated in thalami and or insula and thereafter propagated to anterolateral surface of the cortices (viz. sensori-motor cortex and frontal cortex) to same side as that of the onset. This novel MEG-EEG based case series of PCs provides newer insights for understanding the plausible generators of myoclonus in SSPE and patterns of their propagation.

  8. Refinement of the MHC Risk Map in a Scandinavian Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Population

    PubMed Central

    Næss, Sigrid; Lie, Benedicte A.; Melum, Espen; Olsson, Marita; Hov, Johannes R.; Croucher, Peter J. P.; Hampe, Jochen; Thorsby, Erik; Bergquist, Annika; Traherne, James A.; Schrumpf, Erik; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent the strongest genetic susceptibility factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Identifying the causal variants within this genetic complex represents a major challenge due to strong linkage disequilibrium and an overall high physical density of candidate variants. We aimed to refine the MHC association in a geographically restricted PSC patient panel. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 365 PSC cases and 368 healthy controls of Scandinavian ancestry were included in the study. We incorporated data from HLA typing (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB3, -DRB1, -DQB1) and single nucleotide polymorphisms across the MHC (n = 18,644; genotyped and imputed) alongside previously suggested PSC risk determinants in the MHC, i.e. amino acid variation of DRβ, a MICA microsatellite polymorphism and HLA-C and HLA-B according to their ligand properties for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors. Breakdowns of the association signal by unconditional and conditional logistic regression analyses demarcated multiple PSC associated MHC haplotypes, and for eight of these classical HLA class I and II alleles represented the strongest association. A novel independent risk locus was detected near NOTCH4 in the HLA class III region, tagged by rs116212904 (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.32 [1.80, 3.00], P = 1.35×10−11). Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that classical HLA class I and II alleles, predominantly at HLA-B and HLA-DRB1, are the main risk factors for PSC in the MHC. In addition, the present assessments demonstrated for the first time an association near NOTCH4 in the HLA class III region. PMID:25521205

  9. Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis without inflammatory bowel disease is genetically different from large duct disease

    PubMed Central

    Næss, Sigrid; Björnsson, Einar; Anmarkrud, Jarl A.; Al Mamari, Said; Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Chapman, Roger; Bergquist, Annika; Melum, Espen; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Schrumpf, Erik; Lie, Benedicte A.; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Karlsen, Tom H.; Hov, Johannes R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is phenotypically a mild version of large duct PSC, but it is unknown whether these phenotypes share aetiology. We aimed to characterize their relationship by investigating genetic associations in the HLA complex, which represent the strongest genetic risk factors in large duct PSC. Methods Four classical HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1) were genotyped in 87 small duct PSC patients, 485 large duct PSC patients and 1117 controls across three geographical regions. Results HLA-DRB1*13:01 (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.4, P=0.01) and HLA-B*08 (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, P=0.02) were significantly associated with small duct PSC compared with healthy controls. Based on the observed frequency of HLA-B*08 in small duct PSC, the strongest risk factor in large duct PSC, an estimated 32% (95% CI 4%–65%) of this population can be hypothesized to represent early stages or mild variants of large duct PSC. This subgroup may be constituted by small duct PSC patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which greatly resembled large duct PSC in its HLA association. In contrast, small duct PSC without IBD was only associated with HLA-DRB1*13:01(P=0.03) and was otherwise distinctly dissimilar from large duct PSC. Conclusions Small duct PSC with IBD resembles large duct PSC in its HLA association and may represent early stages or mild variants of large duct disease. Different HLA associations in small duct PSC without IBD could indicate that this subgroup is a different entity. HLA-DRB1*13:01 may represent a specific risk factor for inflammatory bile duct disease. PMID:24517468

  10. Indications and Outcomes in Liver Transplantation in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ina M.; Fosby, Bjarte; Boberg, Kirsten M.; Clausen, Ole P. F.; Jebsen, Peter; Melum, Espen; Line, Pål D.; Foss, Aksel; Schrumpf, Erik; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is 1 of the leading causes of liver transplantation (LTX) in Scandinavia, and an increasing number of PSC patients have been transplanted in Norway during the last 2 decades. This trend is partly attributable to the recently established practice in Norway of offering LTX to PSC patients with cholangiocellular dysplasia. Based on the controversy associated with this practice, we herein aimed to report the main features and outcomes of our LTX program in PSC. Methods The primary indication for LTX (quality of life/end-stage liver disease or suspected neoplasia) was retrospectively determined for 222 patients undergoing LTX for PSC or other autoimmune liver diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis/autoimmune hepatitis) with at least 5 years of follow-up. Results In PSC patients impaired quality of life (43.5%) and end-stage liver disease (38.4%) were the most frequent indications for LTX, whereas suspected neoplasia accounted for 18.1%. The proportion of PSC patients with manifest encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, or ascites declined over time. In patients with suspected neoplasia as the primary indication for LTX (n = 25), neoplasia was confirmed in the explanted liver in 20 patients (80%). Five-year survival rates for PSC patients transplanted between 2001 and 2009 were 91.9% for patients receiving LTX due to impaired quality of life or end-stage liver disease and 83.3% for suspected neoplasia. Conclusions The PSC patients are increasingly listed for LTX at an earlier stage of their liver disease. In patients with suspected neoplasia before LTX, 5-year survival was acceptable, despite confirmation of neoplasia in 80% of the liver explants. PMID:27500239

  11. Mutational Characterization of the Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Hov, Johannes R.; Keitel, Verena; Laerdahl, Jon K.; Spomer, Lina; Ellinghaus, Eva; ElSharawy, Abdou; Melum, Espen; Boberg, Kirsten M.; Manke, Thomas; Balschun, Tobias; Schramm, Christoph; Bergquist, Annika; Weismüller, Tobias; Gotthardt, Daniel; Rust, Christian; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Onnie, Clive M.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Sterneck, Martina; Teufel, Andreas; Runz, Heiko; Stiehl, Adolf; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Vatn, Morten H.; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Vermeire, Severine; Mathew, Christopher G.; Lie, Benedicte A.; Beuers, Ulrich; Manns, Michael P.; Schreiber, Stefan; Schrumpf, Erik; Häussinger, Dieter; Franke, Andre; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2010-01-01

    Background TGR5, the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), has been linked to inflammatory pathways as well as bile homeostasis, and could therefore be involved in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. We aimed to extensively investigate TGR5 sequence variation in PSC, as well as functionally characterize detected variants. Methodology/Principal Findings Complete resequencing of TGR5 was performed in 267 PSC patients and 274 healthy controls. Six nonsynonymous mutations were identified in addition to 16 other novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms. To investigate the impact from the nonsynonymous variants on TGR5, we created a receptor model, and introduced mutated TGR5 constructs into human epithelial cell lines. By using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and a cAMP-sensitive luciferase assay, five of the nonsynonymous mutations (W83R, V178M, A217P, S272G and Q296X) were found to reduce or abolish TGR5 function. Fine-mapping of the previously reported PSC and UC associated locus at chromosome 2q35 in large patient panels revealed an overall association between the TGR5 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs11554825 and PSC (odds ratio  = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.26, p = 0.010) and UC (odds ratio  = 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.11–1.27, p = 8.5×10−7), but strong linkage disequilibrium precluded demarcation of TGR5 from neighboring genes. Conclusions/Significance Resequencing of TGR5 along with functional investigations of novel variants provided unique insight into an important candidate gene for several inflammatory and metabolic conditions. While significant TGR5 associations were detected in both UC and PSC, further studies are needed to conclusively define the role of TGR5 variation in these diseases. PMID:20811628

  12. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of major salivary glands. A clinicopathologic analysis of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, B C; Ellis, G L; Slater, L J; Foss, R D

    1996-02-01

    We describe nine cases of a histologically distinct and previously unreported lesion of the major salivary glands. The patients ranged in age from 12 to 63 years and included four males, five females. The lesions were slow-growing masses in the parotid gland (eight cases) and submandibular gland (one case). The clinical impression in each case was a benign salivary gland tumor. Grossly, the lesions were discrete, pale, rubbery nodules embedded within the salivary gland parenchyma. Microscopically, the lesions were unencapsulated, circumscribed masses of sclerotic and hyalinized collagenous tissue. Irregularly distributed throughout the collagenous tissue in a vaguely lobular pattern were hyperplastic ductal and acinar elements that were usually accompanied by cystically ectatic ducts. The dilated ducts frequently showed apocrine-like metaplasia and epithelial hyperplasia, which often formed transluminal bridges in a cribriform pattern. This epithelial hyperplasia sometimes surrounded eosinophilic globules as seen in so-called collagenous spherulosis. The combination of fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia, and cystic changes were reminiscent of fibrocystic changes of the breast. Focally, acinar elements contained large, intensely eosinophilic, periodic acid-Schiff's-positive, intracytoplasmic granules believed to represent altered zymogen granules. A sparse to focally intense lymphocytic infiltrate accompanied the epithelial proliferations. Previous interpretations of these masses have included mucoepidermoid carcinoma, low-grade adenocarcinoma, benign adenoma, and mixed tumor. The limited available follow-up suggests that this process has a favorable prognosis despite recurrences in two cases. It is postulated that these lesions represent a pseudoneoplastic condition that results in both fibrosis and epithelial proliferation. We suggest the term sclerosing polycystic adenosis for these rare lesions.

  13. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of salivary glands: a review with some emphasis on intraductal epithelial proliferations.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Fredrik

    2013-07-01

    Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) is a rare condition of salivary glands. The most common site is the parotid gland (80 % of cases). SPA shows no gender predilection and occurs over a wide age spectrum (9-84 years). SPA is mostly unifocal, but may rarely be multifocal. Histologically, SPA are sharply circumscribed mostly unencapsulated lesions composed of acinar and ductal components with variable cytomorphological characteristics, including foamy, vacuolated, apocrine, mucous, clear/ballooned, squamous, columnar and oncocyte-like cells. Characteristic for SPA is the presence of large acinar cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules. The stroma is densely collagenized, frequently harbouring a variably intense chronic inflammatory infiltrate and may contain fat. Rarely the stroma is myxoid. Some degree of intraductal epithelial proliferations have been reported in at least 50 % of cases. The proportion of cases with epithelial proliferations that fulfill criteria for high-grade ductal carcinoma in-situ is <10 %. Immunohistochemically, both ductal and acinar cells are positive for broad spectrum cytokeratins. There is variable immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen and S-100 protein. CEA, p53 and HER2 is reportedly negative. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 is strongly expressed in the acinar component. There is consistent but variable expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. The proliferative index (Ki-67) is low (1-2 %) in the benign (acinar and ductal) components. Using HUMARA methodology (non-random inactivation of X-chromosomes), six cases with atypical epithelial proliferations have been shown to be clonal processes. Recurrences have been reported in up to 19 % of cases.

  14. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  15. Mass Media Use and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroman, Carolyn A.; Seltzer, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Examines the associations between media use and knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Explores how media consumption is related to attitudes toward AIDS and policy issues pertaining to AIDS. Finds newspaper users better informed than television viewers. Finds television news users more likely to be misinformed than frequent…

  16. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  17. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  18. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  19. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  20. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  1. HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P

    2013-06-01

    Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.

  2. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  3. [AIDS. The trend of HIV/AIDS and the nurse's role in AIDS care].

    PubMed

    Chang, S B

    1993-01-01

    Since the first case of AIDS was found among male homosexuals, the AIDS related problem has been in the male homosexual population, but the AIDS trend is changing from homosexuals to heterosexuals, with the majority of cases in the general population. Even though currently the reported HIV/AIDS cases in Korea are only 324 in Korea, the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS is projected to increase greatly over the next few years. As the number of these cases increases, there will be a major strain on nursing care resources. Since there is no known cure, the only way of halting this epidemic is through the prevention of further infection. In various stages of HIV infection, different problems occur, calling for various specific services and nursing skills. Nurses must develop a strategy to alleviate the negative attitudes related to care of AIDS patients and anxiety and dislike for care of terminally ill patients. Also, nurses must be prepared for teaching the general population about prevention of AIDS, counseling individuals in risk of HIV infection, HIV testing, and transmission risks, and caring for AIDS patients using Hospice concepts in various settings.

  4. Overexpression of MicroRNAs from the miR-17-92 Paralog Clusters in AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Dharma R.; Li, Xinmin; Jamieson, Beth D.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals infected by HIV are at an increased risk for developing non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (AIDS-NHL). In the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, there has been a significant decline in the incidence of AIDS-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). However, only a modest decrease in incidence has been reported for other AIDS-NHL subtypes. Thus, AIDS-NHLs remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Recently, much attention has been directed toward the role of miRNAs in cancer, including NHL. Several miRNAs, including those encoded by the miR-17-92 polycistron, have been shown to play significant roles in B cell tumorigenesis. However, the role of miRNAs in NHL in the setting of HIV infection has not been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We used quantitative realtime PCR to assess the expression of miRNAs from three different paralog clusters, miR-17-92, miR-106a-363, and miR-106b-25 in 24 cases of AIDS-NHLs representing four tumor types, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL, n = 6), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n = 8), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, n = 5), and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, n = 5). We also used microarray analysis to identify a differentiation specific miRNA signature of naïve, germinal center, and memory B cell subsets from tonsils (n = 4). miRNAs from the miR-17-92 paralog clusters were upregulated by B cells, specifically during the GC differentiation stage. We also found overexpression of these miRNA clusters in all four AIDS-NHL subtypes. Finally, we also show that select miRNAs from these clusters (miR-17, miR-106a, and miR-106b) inhibited p21 in AIDS-BL and DLBCL cases, thus providing a mechanistic role for these miRNAs in AIDS-NHL pathogenesis. Conclusion Dysregulation of miR-17-92 paralog clusters is a common feature of AIDS-associated NHLs. PMID:21698185

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV and syphilis, and knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenzhe; Wu, Gohui; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Zhihang; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High HIV prevalence and incidence burdens have been reported in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing, China. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), to appraise the knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among MSM, and to analyze the possible causes of deviation between behavior and knowledge to make better strategies. We recruited 617 MSM from February to July in 2008 by using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Chongqing, China. Through the collection of questionnaire-based data and biological testing results from all objects, we launched a cross-sectional survey. STATA/SE was used for data analysis by frequency, ANOVA, rank sum test and logistic regression models. MSM with syphilis (OR=4.16, 95%CI: 2.35-7.33, P<0.0001) were more likely to be HIV infected. Being a company employee (OR=3.64, 95%CI: 1.22-10.08, P<0.0001) and having bought male for sex (OR=3.52, 95%CI: 1.10-11.32, P < 0.034) were associated with a higher probability of syphilis. MSM with younger age, higher education and greater monthly income had a higher mean knowledge score. MSM who had HIV testing had a higher mean knowledge score than those who never had. Students, venues for finding sex partners by Internet and homosexuals in MSM had a higher mean knowledge score compared to other occupations, venues for finding sex partners and sexual orientation. There is an urgent need for delivery of barrier and biomedical interventions with coordinated behavioral and structural strategies to improve the effect of HIV interventions among MSM.

  6. Quantifying and Projecting Relative Sea-Level Rise At The Regional Scale: The Bangladesh Sea-Level Project (BanD-AID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, C. K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Guo, J.; Shang, K.; Tseng, K. H.; Wan, J.; Calmant, S.; Ballu, V.; Valty, P.; Kusche, J.; Hossain, F.; Khan, Z. H.; Rietbroek, R.; Uebbing, B.

    2014-12-01

    The potential for accelerated sea-level rise under anthropogenic warming is a significant societal problem, in particular in world's coastal deltaic regions where about half of the world's population resides. Quantifying geophysical sources of sea-level rise with the goal of improved projection at local scales remains a complex and challenging interdisciplinary research problem. These processes include ice-sheet/glacier ablations, steric sea-level, solid Earth uplift or subsidence due to GIA, tectonics, sediment loading or anthropogenic causes, hydrologic imbalance, and human processes including water retention in reservoirs and aquifer extraction. The 2013 IPCC AR5 concluded that the observed and explained geophysical causes of global geocentric sea-level rise, 1993-2010, is closer towards closure. However, the discrepancy reveals that circa 1.3→37.5% of the observed sea-level rise remains unexplained. This relatively large discrepancy is primarily attributable to the wide range of estimates of respective contributions of Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets and mountain/peripheral glaciers to sea-level rise. Understanding and quantifying the natural and anthropogenic processes governing solid Earth (land, islands and sea-floor) uplift or subsidence at the regional and local scales remain elusive to enable addressing coastal vulnerability due to relative sea-level rise hazards, such as the Bangladesh Delta. This study focuses on addressing coastal vulnerability of Bangladesh, a Belmont Forum/IGFA project, BanD-AID (http://Belmont-SeaLevel.org). Sea-level rise, along with tectonic, sediment load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have exacerbated Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability, affecting 150 million people in one of the world's most densely populated regions. Here we present preliminary results using space geodetic observations, including satellite radar and laser altimetry, GRACE gravity, tide gauge, hydrographic, and GPS/InSAR observed

  7. Screening for AIDS.

    PubMed

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  8. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  9. Nursing home employee attitudes towards AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sarvela, P D; Moore, J R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines nursing home employee attitudes toward issues related to AIDS and is based on data collected from 343 employees from 13 nursing homes in rural, small towns in sourthern Illinois during the spring of 1988. Results suggested that a large majority of the employees had negative attitudes toward people with AIDS. For example, 67% of the sample indicated that it was more important to limit the spread of AIDS rather than to protect the rights of people with AIDS. Furthermore, 42% suggested that AIDS patients should be sent to sanitariums to protect others from AIDS. Greater than half of the sample (56%) responded that they would feel uncomfortable around people with AIDS. About one third (32%) felt that being around someone with AIDS would put their health in danger, and 21% would be afraid to even take care of a family member with AIDS. With regard to job-specific AIDS attitudes, 51% indicated that health-care workers should be able to refuse to work with AIDS patients, and another 46% felt that hospitals and nursing homes should be able to refuse to admit people with AIDS. In addition to these and other results, this article presents a brief discussion concerning possible educational strategies which might be implemented in this setting to reduce the negative attitudes of these employees. Considerations are also presented for nursing home administrators, who face the problem of developing effective policies for dealing with the rising number of AIDS patients who will be admitted to their facilities.

  10. Recent concepts of autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Uchida, Kazushige; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies suggested the existence of two subtypes of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP): type 1 related with IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis; LPSP) and type 2 related with a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis; IDCP). Apart from type 2 AIP, the pathological features of type 1 AIP with increased serum IgG4/IgE levels, abundant infiltration of IgG4+ plasmacytes and lymphocytes, fibrosis, and steroid responsiveness are suggestive of abnormal immunity such as allergy or autoimmunity. Moreover, the patients with type 1 AIP often have extrapancreatic lesions such as sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing sialadenitis, or retroperitoneal fibrosis showing similar pathological features. Based on these findings, many synonyms have been proposed for these conditions, such as "multifocal idiopathic fibrosclerosis", "IgG4-related autoimmune disease", "IgG4-related sclerosing disease", "IgG4-related plasmacytic disease", and "IgG4-related multiorgan lymphoproliferative syndrome", all of which may refer to the same conditions. Therefore, the Japanese Research Committee for "Systemic IgG4-related Sclerosing Disease" proposed a disease concept and clinical diagnostic criteria based on the concept of multifocal fibrosclerosis in 2009, in which the term "IgG4-related disease" was appointed as a minimal consensus on these conditions. Although the significance of IgG4 in the development of "IgG4-related disease" remains unclear, we have proposed a hypothesis for the development of type 1 AIP, one of the IgG4-related disease. The concept and diagnostic criteria of "IgG4-related disease" will be changed in accordance with future studies. PMID:21170607

  11. Positioning the image of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cooter, Roger; Stein, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    AIDS posters can be treated as material objects whose production, distribution and consumption varied across time and place. It is also possible to reconstruct and analyse the public health discourse at the time these powerful images appeared. More recently, however, these conventional historical approaches have been challenged by projects in literary and art criticism. Here, images of AIDS are considered in terms of their function in and for a new discursive regime of power centred on the human body and its visualization. How images of AIDS came to be understood in Western culture in relation to wider political and economic conditions redefines the historical task.

  12. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  14. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  15. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis and overlap syndromes in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Saich, Rebecca; Chapman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic progressive disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic inflammation and stricture formation of the biliary tree. Symptoms include itch and lethargy and in advanced cases cholangitis and end-stage liver disease, however increasing numbers of asymptomatic individuals are being identified. The disease is rare in the general population but is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affecting up to 5% of patients with Ulcerative Colitis, with a slightly lower prevalence (up to 3.6%) in Crohn's disease. The strength of this association means that the vast majority (> 90%) of patients with PSC also have IBD, although many may have only mild gastro-intestinal symptoms. Usually IBD presents before PSC, although vice-versa can occur and the onset of both conditions can be separated in some cases by many years. Mean age of diagnosis of PSC is in the fifth decade of life with a strong male predominance. Risk is increased in those with a family history of PSC, suggesting a genetic predisposition and the disease is almost exclusive to non-smokers. The ulcerative colitis associated with PSC is characteristically mild, runs a quiescent course, is associated with rectal sparing, more severe right sided disease, backwash ileitis and has a high risk of pouchitis post-colectomy. Most worrisome is the high risk of colorectal malignancy which necessitates routine colonoscopic surveillance. Cholangiocarcinoma is also a frequent complication of PSC with a 10%-15% lifetime risk of developing this condition. Treatment with high dose ursodeoxycholic acid offers some chemoprotective effects against colorectal malignancy and may decrease symptoms, biochemical and histological progression of liver disease. Small duct PSC patients characteristically have normal cholangiography, and liver biopsy is required for diagnosis, it appears to have a more favourable prognosis. Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) is also more prevalent

  16. Evaluation of Biliary Calprotectin as a Biomarker in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, Annika; Sauer, Peter; Stiehl, Adolf; Rupp, Christian; Krisam, Johannes; Leopold, Yvonne; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts with limited therapeutic options except liver transplantation. Reliable biomarkers to predict the disease course are unavailable, and currently employed disease activity scores such as the Mayo risk score (MRS) have limitations. The present study aims to evaluate biliary calprotectin as a marker of disease activity and prognosis in PSC. This is a monocentric retrospective observational study. Calprotectin concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in bile samples collected by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography from 106 PSC patients and 20 controls. Biliary calprotectin concentrations were compared between the 2 groups. In PSC patients, results were evaluated with regard to the presence of dominant bile duct stenoses, bile microbiology, MRS, survival free of liver transplantation, and necessity for bile duct interventions in the further disease course. Median (interquartile ranges) biliary calprotectin concentrations were higher in PSC patients than in controls (3646 ng/mL, 249–9748 vs 116 ng/mL, 104–655; P < 0.001). In the PSC cohort, higher biliary calprotectin concentrations were associated with the presence of microbes in bile (P = 0.02), the occurrence of dominant bile duct stenosis at any time in the disease course (P = 0.005), and the necessity for future bile duct interventions (P = 0.02). Patients with biliary calprotectin concentrations above a cut-off of 11,610 ng/mL displayed significantly shorter transplantation-free survival than those with biliary calprotectin concentrations ≤11,610 ng/mL (P < 0.001). Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed high biliary calprotectin concentration (>11,610 ng/mL) as a risk factor of shorter transplantation-free survival of PSC patients (P < 0.001) beside high plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration (>142.5 U/L) (P = 0.006), high MRS (

  17. Public School Survey of Construction Aid Needs Related to the Education of Reservation Indian Children. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Albuquerque, NM.

    Resulting from a House Appropriation Subcommittee's interest in the need for adequate school facilities for reservation American Indian children in public school districts, a survey of the construction aid needs of all eligible districts was conducted. Objectives were to: analyze and interpret data from school districts in the 23 States…

  18. Results of the Survey of North Carolina's Country Directors of Social Services Concerning Future Service and Training Needs Related to HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listokin, Monica; Relos, Ruth

    The Community Services Branch of the Family Services Section of the North Carolina Department of Social Services (DSS) surveyed all 100 DSS county directors to determine if directors saw HIV/AIDS as a problem now and/or as a potential problem in 5 years. Forty-one percent of the directors indicated an immediate need for difficult-to-provide…

  19. Restoration of hearing by hearing aids: conventional hearing aids – implantable hearing aids – cochlear implants – auditory brainstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Leuwer, R.; Müller, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this report is to explain the current concept of hearing restoration using hearing aids. At present the main issues of conventional hearing aids are the relative benefits of analogue versus digital devices and different strategies for the improvement of hearing in noise. Implantable hearing aids provide a better sound quality and less distortion. The lack of directional microphones is the major disadvantage of the partially implantable hearing aids commercially available. Two different clinical studies about fully implantable hearing aids have been started in 2004. One of the most-promising developments seems to be the electric-acoustic stimulation. PMID:22073051

  20. Correlation between viral load, plasma levels of CD4 - CD8 T lymphocytes and AIDS-related oral diseases: a multicentre study on 30 HIV+ children in the HAART era.

    PubMed

    Nesti, M; Carli, E; Giaquinto, C; Rampon, O; Nastasio, S; Giuca, M R

    2012-01-01

    This experimental retrospective multicenter study carried out on 30 seropositive children treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), between the ages of 18 months and 14 years, in the clinical categories Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classification 1993 A (mildly symptomatic), B (moderately symptomatic) and C (severely symptomatic) aims to: 1) clinically and immunologically demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of HAART; 2) monitor the frequency of AIDS-related oral diseases in seropositive children with HAART therapy; 3) monitor the plasma levels of total CD4, CD4 percent, CD8 percent, CD4-CD8 lymphocytes and viral load from 1997 to 30 April, 2011. The statistic methods used are the analysis of covariance and the Bonferroni Test. More than 100 AIDS-related oral diseases were found in the study samples, the most frequent being: oral candidiasis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, HSV-1 herpetic esophagyitis, herpetic gingivolstomatitis (RHOG), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), parotid swelling, oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), Herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing gingivitis (NUG), facial lipodistrophy, facial-cervical lymphadenopathy (FCL), xerostomia, dysgeusia, hyposmia, oral mucosa hyperpigmentation (OMP). The Bonferroni test showed a significant difference between the mean plasma values (mpVTL) of total CD4, CD4 percentage, CD4-CD8 T lymphocytes and Viral Load (VL) of the various oral diseases found in the study samples. The therapeutic benefits of HAART are: immune reconstitution; reduction of the HIV/AIDS-related stomatology diseases; prevention and cure of the AIDS correlated neoplasias; reduction in maternal-fetal transmission of the HIV virus. The negative effects of HAART in relation to odontostomatolgy are: increase in oral lesions from HPV; xerostomia; dysgeusia/ageusia, hyposmia, perioral paresthesia; hyperpigmentation of oral mucosa; facial lipodystrophy, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). No case of

  1. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  2. Electrostatic Modifications of the Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR P9 Peptide-Binding Pocket and Susceptibility to Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Hov, Johannes R; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Traherne, James A; Olsson, Marita; Boberg, Kirsten M; Bergquist, Annika; Schrumpf, Erik; Bradley, J Andrew; Taylor, Craig J; Lie, Benedicte A; Trowsdale, John; Karlsen, Tom H

    2011-01-01

    The strongest genetic risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are found in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex at chromosome 6p21. Genes in the HLA class II region encode molecules that present antigen to T lymphocytes. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with most autoimmune diseases, most likely because they contribute to the specificity of immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure and electrostatic properties of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DR in relation to PSC. Thus, four-digit resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed in 356 PSC patients and 366 healthy controls. Sequence information was used to assign which amino acids were encoded at all polymorphic positions. In stepwise logistic regressions, variations at residues 37 and 86 were independently associated with PSC (P = 1.2 × 10−32 and P = 1.8 × 10−22 in single-residue models, respectively). Three-dimensional modeling was performed to explore the effect of these key residues on the HLA-DR molecule. This analysis indicated that residue 37 was a major determinant of the electrostatic properties of pocket P9 of the peptide-binding groove. Asparagine at residue 37, which was associated with PSC, induced a positive charge in pocket P9. Tyrosine, which protected against PSC, induced a negative charge in this pocket. Consistent with the statistical observations, variation at residue 86 also indirectly influenced the electrostatic properties of this pocket. DRB1*13:01, which was PSC-associated, had a positive P9 pocket and DRB1*13:02, protective against PSC, had a negative P9 pocket. Conclusion: The results suggest that in patients with PSC, residues 37 and 86 of the HLA-DRβ chain critically influence the electrostatic properties of pocket P9 and thereby the range of peptides presented. (Hepatology 2011;53:1967-1976) PMID:21413052

  3. Ki-67 Expression in Sclerosing Adenosis and Adjacent Normal Breast Terminal Ductal Lobular Units: A Nested Case-Control Study from the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Aziza; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Stallings-Mann, Melody L.; Degnim, Amy C.; Radisky, Derek C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Visscher, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sclerosing adenosis (SA) increases risk for invasive breast cancer (BC) 2.1 times relative to that in the general population. Here, we sought to evaluate whether the proliferation marker Ki-67 stratifies risk among women with SA. Methods A nested case-control sample of patients with SA was obtained from the Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease Cohort. Ki-67 expression was evaluated in SA lesions and in the adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) in women who did (cases, n =133) or did not (controls, n =239) develop BC. Ki67 was scored by intensity and number of positively stained cells per one high-power field (magnification, ×40) (40×HPF) for both SA and normal TDLU. Associations of Ki-67 expression with case-control status were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with case-control status in both SA (P=.03) and normal background TDLU (P=.006). For the SA lesion, >2 average positively stained cells/40×HPF showed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1–3.4) compared to samples with an average of ≤2 positively stained cells. For background TDLU, lobules with >2 but ≤6 average positively stained cells showed an adjusted OR of 1.3 to 1.5, whereas those with an average of >6 positively stained cells had an OR of 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1–5.3) compared to those with an average of <2 positively stained cells. Conclusions Among women with SA, increased Ki-67 expression in either the SA lesion or the normal background TDLU carried an approximately 2-fold increased odds of subsequent BC as compared to lower Ki-67 expression. PMID:25863475

  4. Theories of AIDS Transmission: Their Development and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol; And Others

    This study examined knowledge of AIDS transmission, attitudes toward interacting with people who have AIDS, and concerns about being personally affected by AIDS in childhood and adolescence. Subjects were 188 children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years old. An open-ended interview covering a wide range of AIDS-related topics was conducted…

  5. Development Aid: A Guide to Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Silva, Leelananda

    This eight-chapter book provides information on Official Development Assistance (ODA), its importance in relation to developed and developing countries, and its prospects and limitations. Major areas discussed include: (1) the institutional evolution of development aid; (2) forms of ODA, including project aid, program aid, bilateral aid,…

  6. AIDS and Ethics: The Agenda for Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses critical ethical issues for social workers concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): (1) mandatory testing for AIDS; (2) the confidentiality of information related to AIDS; and (3) the delivery of services to persons with AIDS, their families, and their partners. (ABL)

  7. Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

  8. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious.

  9. Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma of the Bone: A Case Report of High Resistance to Chemotherapy and a Survey of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Grunewald, Thomas G. P.; von Luettichau, Irene; Weirich, Gregor; Wawer, Angela; Behrends, Uta; Prodinger, Peter M.; Jundt, Gernot; Bielack, Stefan S.; Gradinger, Reiner; Burdach, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma mostly occurring in extraosseous sites. SEF represents a clinically challenging entity especially because no standardized treatment regimens are available. Intraosseous localization is an additional challenge with respect to the therapeutical approach. We report on a 16-year-old patient with SEF of the right proximal tibia. The patient underwent standardized neoadjuvant chemotherapy analogous to the EURAMOS-1 protocol for the treatment of osteosarcoma followed by tumor resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction. Histopathological analysis of the resected tumor showed >90% vital tumor cells suggesting no response to chemotherapy. Therefore, therapy was reassigned to the CWS 2002 High-Risk protocol for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. To date (22 months after diagnosis), there is no evidence of relapse or metastasis. Our data suggest that SEF may be resistant to a chemotherapy regimen containing Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, and Methotrexate, which should be considered in planning treatment for patients with SEF. PMID:20396630

  10. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  11. Dilatation of biliary strictures through the afferent limb of a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, D G; Russell, E; Levi, J U; Jeffers, L J; Reddy, K R; Yrizarry, J M; Scagnelli, T; Sleeman, D; Schiff, E R; Livingstone, A S

    2001-10-01

    Repeated dilatation of biliary strictures in patients with sclerosing cholangitis through a subcutaneously placed afferent limb of a choledochojejunostomy is technically feasible and safe. This study is a prospective 15-year evaluation of 36 patients treated by repeat dilatation through this jejunal limb. There was one operative death and one major complication of dilatation. The 5-year survival of all patients was 74%. If patients with cirrhosis or unproven cholangiocarcinoma at the time of operation are not included, the 5-year survival is 86%. The 15-year survival of all patients was 30%; it was 64% if those with cirrhosis and unproven cholangiocarcinoma at the time of operation are not included. Six patients are presently alive with an average survival of 159 months. The study suggests that a combination of repeated dilatations combined with transplantation is the approach of choice in selected patients. PMID:11596884

  12. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  13. The relative resistance of HIV type 1-infected chimpanzees to AIDS correlates with the maintenance of follicular architecture and the absence of infiltration by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Koopman, G; Haaksma, A G; ten Velden, J; Hack, C E; Heeney, J L

    1999-03-01

    Lymphoid tissues are the focus of critical events in HIV pathogenesis. Persistent and high levels of virus production, extensive trapping of virus particles in germinal centers, and progressive degenerative changes in lymph node architecture are characteristics of progressive HIV-1 infection. Infiltrates of granzyme B- and TIA-expressing CD8+ "cytotoxic" T lymphocytes (CTLs) precede involution of germinal centers in humans who develop AIDS. Similar to humans, HIV-1 infection in chimpanzees is active and persistent. However, in contrast to humans, they remain relatively resistant to AIDS. Lymph node biopsies from chimpanzees infected with HIV-1 or a related chimpanzee lentivirus were studied for the level and pattern of virus expression, changes in lymphoid architecture, CD8+ T cell infiltrates and the presence or absence of CTL markers. In stark contrast to HIV-1-infected humans, lymph nodes from infected chimpanzees had little virus deposition in germinal centers and a paucity of virus-expressing cells. Although some of the lymph nodes examined from infected animals had moderate follicular hyperplasia with infiltrating CD8+ T cells, none had evidence of follicular fragmentation. Most importantly, in marked contrast to infected humans, CD8+ T cells infiltrating the germinal center were negative for the CTL marker granzyme B. This evidence suggests that the infiltration of CD8+ CTLs into the germinal centers of lymph nodes may be a key determinant in AIDS pathogenesis.

  14. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    Contractor's work for Lewis Research Center on "thermal barrier" coatings designed to improve aircraft engine efficiency resulted in two related but separate spinoffs. The Materials and Manufacturing Technology Center of TRW, Inc. invented a robotic system for applying the coating, and in the course of that research found it necessary to develop a new, extremely accurate type of optical gage that offers multiple improvements in controlling the quality of certain manufactured parts.

  15. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  16. The Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Presenting as Innumerable Diffuse Microcalcifications in Underlying Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-03-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common diffuse thyroid disease and is characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. However, the ultrasonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise from Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the pediatric and adolescent population are not well known.We report a rare ultrasonographic finding in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose from underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis: innumerable diffuse microcalcifications instead of a typical malignant-appearing nodule. PMID:27015194

  17. [The joint work of NGOs and UNAIDS in realizing a project for the prevention of HIV/AIDS among people using narcotics by injection in a region with relatively low rates of HIV infection spread].

    PubMed

    Polonets, V V; Andrushchak, L I

    2000-01-01

    In recent years the Ukraine has become the epicenter of AIDS in Eastern Europe, though there are still regions with a relatively low number of HIV-infected persons, such as Vinnitsa Province. After the comprehensive study of the factors contributing to the spread of HIV infection in groups of risk the realistic evaluation of the epidemiological danger could be made and the preventive work could be carried out with the help of collaboration between a non-governmental organization (NGO) and the UN Theme Group on the Problems of HIV/AIDS. The successful work of the Public Congress "Stalist" one of such NGO, in Vinnitsa in 1998-1999, carried out with the financial and methodological support of UNAIDS in the Ukraine, created conditions for the introduction of such components of the strategy of harm reduction as information and educational work, as well as the exchange of syringes and needles, which showed a high degree of efficiency in controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  18. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    PubMed

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population.

  19. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    PubMed

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population. PMID:24111859

  20. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  1. Fuel dispenser aid

    SciTech Connect

    Bobst, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

  2. Mammographically Occult Asymptomatic Radial Scars/Complex Sclerosing Lesions at Ultrasonography-Guided Core Needle Biopsy: Follow-Up Can Be Recommended.

    PubMed

    Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-10-01

    An increasing number of radial scars are detected by ultrasound (US), but their management is controversial. This study investigated the upgrade rate in mammographically occult radial scars/complex sclerosing lesions without epithelial atypia at US-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy in asymptomatic patients. Nineteen mammographically occult benign radial scars/complex sclerosing lesions (median size, 7 mm; range, 3-23 mm) were included. Patients underwent surgical excision (n = 10) or vacuum-assisted excision, with follow-up US at least 6 mo after benign vacuum-assisted excision results (n = 8), or underwent US follow-up for 2 y after core needle biopsy (n = 1). Any cases with change in diagnosis to high-risk lesions or malignancy at excision were considered upgrades. The upgrade rate was 0.0%. Based on US findings, 15.8% (3/19) were Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3, 68.4% (13/19) were BI-RADS category 4a and 15.8% (3/19) were BI-RADS category 4b. Follow-up with US can be considered for mammographically occult benign radial scar/complex sclerosing lesions diagnosed by US core needle biopsy in asymptomatic patients. PMID:27444865

  3. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  4. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  5. HIV/AIDS and blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Kestelyn, P. G.; Cunningham, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS: ocular complications are common, affecting 50% to 75% of all such patients at some point during the course of their illness. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is by far the most frequent cause of vision loss in patients with AIDS. Although the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis is decreasing in industrialized countries because of the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, between 10% and 20% of HIV-infected patients worldwide can be expected to lose vision in one or both eyes as a result of ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Less frequent but important causes of bilateral vision loss in patients with HIV/AIDS include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus retinitis, HIV-related ischaemic microvasculopathy, ocular syphilis, ocular tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and ocular toxic or allergic drug reactions. At present, most patients with HIV/AIDS in developing countries who lose their vision have a very limited life expectancy. As antiretroviral therapy makes its way to these countries, however, both life expectancy and the prevalence of blindness related to HIV/AIDS can be expected to increase dramatically. PMID:11285664

  6. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  7. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  8. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  9. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  10. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  11. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  12. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  13. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  14. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  15. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  16. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  17. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  18. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  19. Do Hearing Aids Improve Affect Perception?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Juliane; Herzog, Diana; Scharenborg, Odette; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Normal-hearing listeners use acoustic cues in speech to interpret a speaker's emotional state. This study investigates the effect of hearing aids on the perception of the emotion dimensions arousal (aroused/calm) and valence (positive/negative attitude) in older adults with hearing loss. More specifically, we investigate whether wearing a hearing aid improves the correlation between affect ratings and affect-related acoustic parameters. To that end, affect ratings by 23 hearing-aid users were compared for aided and unaided listening. Moreover, these ratings were compared to the ratings by an age-matched group of 22 participants with age-normal hearing.For arousal, hearing-aid users rated utterances as generally more aroused in the aided than in the unaided condition. Intensity differences were the strongest indictor of degree of arousal. Among the hearing-aid users, those with poorer hearing used additional prosodic cues (i.e., tempo and pitch) for their arousal ratings, compared to those with relatively good hearing. For valence, pitch was the only acoustic cue that was associated with valence. Neither listening condition nor hearing loss severity (differences among the hearing-aid users) influenced affect ratings or the use of affect-related acoustic parameters. Compared to the normal-hearing reference group, ratings of hearing-aid users in the aided condition did not generally differ in both emotion dimensions. However, hearing-aid users were more sensitive to intensity differences in their arousal ratings than the normal-hearing participants.We conclude that the use of hearing aids is important for the rehabilitation of affect perception and particularly influences the interpretation of arousal. PMID:27080645

  20. Perceptions of Women Living with AIDS in Rural India Related to the Engagement of HIV-Trained Accredited Social Health Activists for Care and Support

    PubMed Central

    NYAMATHI, ADELINE M.; WILLIAM, RAVI RAJ; GANGULY, KALYAN K.; SINHA, SANJEEV; HERAVIAN, ANISA; ALBARRÁN, CYNTHIA R.; THOMAS, ALEXANDRA; GREENGOLD, BARBARA; EKSTRAND, MARIA; RAMAKRISHNA, PADMA; RAO, PANTANGI RAMA

    2011-01-01

    A community-based participatory research study was conducted using focus groups with 39 women living with AIDS (WLA) in the rural setting of Andhra Pradesh, India. In addition, three nurses, two physicians, and five reproductive health accredited social health activists (ASHAs) took part in focus groups. The WLA offered insight into the benefits of HIV-trained ASHAs including emotional support, assistance with travel to health care providers and antiretroviral therapy medication adherence. Health care providers also identified benefits of using HIV-trained ASHAs and suggested modalities for how to train these individuals. These findings will contribute to the design of a future program of care involving HIV-trained ASHAs. PMID:21331322

  1. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS.

  2. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25086143

  3. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  4. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  5. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  6. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  7. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  8. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  9. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  10. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  11. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  12. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  13. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  14. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  15. Assistive Technology for Children with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Neena; Feist-Price, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    This discussion of assistive technology for children with AIDS considers management in the school setting, functional limitations related to HIV/AIDS, and the use of assistive technology to address HIV/AIDS- related bodily, mental, sensory, and speech and language impairments. (Contains references.) (DB)

  16. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  17. Workers' Reactions to AIDS and Other Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Eugene P.; And Others

    Previous research on the public's response to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been concerned with attitudes and knowledge in relation to the disease itself. This study investigated people's willingness to interact with individuals with AIDS in the workplace. Participants (N=358) were college students with an average age of 25.…

  18. STATE AID AND SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAMTER, EUGENE C.

    THE EFFECTS OF A 1962 NEW YORK STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WERE INVESTIGATED IN RELATION TO AN OLD FOUNDATION PROGRAM. THIS STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WAS BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF SHARED COST. BOTH NEW AND OLD PROGRAMS WERE APPRAISED WITH RESPECT TO THE OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY--EQUITY OF SUPPORT (EQUAL TREATMENT OF EQUALS), EQUALIZATION…

  19. Audio-Visual Aids: Historians in Blunderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Graeme

    1988-01-01

    A history professor relates his experiences producing and using audio-visual material and warns teachers not to rely on audio-visual aids for classroom presentations. Includes examples of popular audio-visual aids on Canada that communicate unintended, inaccurate, or unclear ideas. Urges teachers to exercise caution in the selection and use of…

  20. Capitalization and the Incidence of School Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyckoff, Paul Gary

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes goals of state education aid, presents a conceptual model of aid's welfare effects, and examines the literature of tax and expenditure effects. Capitalization changes the relative desirability of two goals; equalizing resources across districts becomes less important than equalizing school districts' actual spending levels. (Contains 45…