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Sample records for aids risk knowledge

  1. Culturally sensitive AIDS education and perceived AIDS risk knowledge: reaching the "know-it-all" teenager.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, H C; Gay, K M; Josar, L

    1995-04-01

    Video education is the most popular and effective medium for informing the adolescent population. This study investigated the impact of a culturally relevant HIV/AIDS video education. One hundred and ninety-four African-American teenagers were assigned to either a culturally sensitive or culturally dissimilar video education intervention. Results indicate that both interventions were effective in increasing AIDS knowledge scores. An interaction effect was found between levels of perceived AIDS risk knowledge and participation in the culturally sensitive intervention (CSV). Only the CSV intervention was effective with adolescents who claimed to "know a lot" about AIDS (e.g., "Know-It-All" subgroup). Students in both conditions who were worried about getting AIDS demonstrated higher AIDS risk knowledge at post-assessment. This study provides further evidence of within-ethnicity diversity among African-American youth and for developing culture- and subgroup-specific HIV/AIDS education. PMID:7542465

  2. AIDS communication: role of knowledge factors on perceptions of risk.

    PubMed

    Melkote, S R; Muppidi, S R

    1999-06-01

    The AIDS epidemic is a challenge for health practitioners, educators, mass media communicators, and social workers. The current absence of pharmacological, immunological, and medical interventions against HIV/AIDS demands that social and behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions be given central focus. Efforts to reduce the practice of high-risk HIV behaviors are key to preventing or reducing HIV infection. However, effecting such changes poses many challenges since it must be addressed in the situational, social, cultural, and individual psychological contexts of different societies. While sexual abstinence is the most effective way to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS, it is unrealistic to expect that most adults and adolescents will abstain from sex to avoid HIV infection. Rather, studies are needed to identify which factors influence the change of risk behaviors. Findings are presented from a study conducted to identify which factors contribute to the self-perception of risk for contracting HIV among 323 university students in a US midwestern city. At least 2 knowledge factors and the practice of safe sex behaviors were found to contribute to perceptions of lower risk of being infected with HIV. Media campaigns which deliver only accurate and comprehensive AIDS information from a medical and immunological perspective, and fail to address the subjective images people have about AIDS, may be less effective in reducing perceptions of risk than are message and educational strategies which also deal with people's subjective concerns. PMID:12349162

  3. AIDS knowledge and risk behaviors among culturally diverse women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, D F; Wambach, K G; Byers, J B; Imershein, A W; Levine, P; Maddox, K; Quadagno, D M; Fordyce, M L; Jones, M A

    1991-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey of women at risk for HIV infection. The sample (n = 620) included black (50.6%), white (28.7%), Hispanic (13.4%), and Haitian (5.0%) adult women from south Florida. Data concerning their AIDS knowledge, prevalence of risk behaviors, and perceived vulnerability are presented. Results indicate differences in certain knowledge areas and risk behaviors by race/ethnicity and a consistent incidence of unprotected sex with their main partners across all racial/ethnic groups. PMID:1873140

  4. Sexual Risk Behaviors, AIDS Knowledge, and Beliefs about AIDS among Runaways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Koopman, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Examined young runaways' current risk behaviors, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about preventing AIDS by questioning 130 male and female subjects from shelters in New York City in 1988-89. Results did not explain the 6.7 percent seroprevalence rate reported in l988. Recommends closer inquiries regarding IV drug use and prostitution. (DM)

  5. HIV/AIDS knowledge and occupational risk in primary care health workers from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Baltica Cabieses; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Villarroel, Luis Antonio; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli; Miner, Sarah; Silva, Margarita Bernales

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between knowledge level and occupational risk exposure to HIV/AIDS in primary care health workers. Methodology Analytical cross-sectional study. 720 health workers from Santiago answered a survey about HIV/AIDS that included: knowledge level (appropriate, inappropriate), occupational risk (with or without risk), and control variables (age, gender, health center, education and marital status). Descriptive and association analysis were performed. Odds Ratio (OR) was estimated through simple and multiple regressions logistics. Results 58.7% of the participants reported HIV occupational risk. 63.8% of the participants from the exposed group reported an appropriate level of knowledge, versus 36.1% of the non-exposed group (Adjusted OR of 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p<0.0001). Technicians and cleaning staff reported a lower proportion of appropriate level of knowledge compared to the employees with college education (p<0.0001). Conclusion The level of HIV/AID occupational risk is directly associated with the level of knowledge of the disease. PMID:25284913

  6. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge and Behaviors Among Most-at-Risk Populations in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Taryn; Semrau, Katherine; Hamer, Davidson H; Loan, Le Thi Thanh; Sabin, Lora L

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MOH) in implementing behavior change strategies to slow the HIV epidemic. These programs target commercial sex workers (CSW), injection drug users (IDU), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Using data from a program evaluation to assess effectiveness of the PEPFAR intervention, we conducted a sub-analysis of HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexual behaviors, and injection drug risk behaviors among 2,199 Vietnamese respondents, including those reporting recent contact with an outreach worker and those who did not report contact. We found overall high levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, low rates of needle sharing, and moderate to high rates of inconsistent condom use. Average knowledge scores of IDU were significantly higher than non-IDU for antiretroviral treatment knowledge, while MSM had significantly less knowledge of treatment compared to non-MSM. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was not significantly associated with needle-sharing practices. Knowledge was modestly but significantly associated with more consistent use of condoms with primary and commercial sex partners, even after controlling for contact with an outreach worker. Contact with an outreach worker was also an independent predictor of more consistent condom use. Outreach programs appear to play a meaningful role in changing sexual behavior, though the effect of outreach on IDU risk behaviors was less clear. More research is needed to understand the relationship between outreach programs and skill development, motivation, and use of referral services by most-at-risk populations in Vietnam. PMID:23173025

  7. HIV/AIDS knowledge and high risk sexual practices among southern California Vietnamese.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G A; Maxwell, R M; Higgins, K V; Mai, K K; Lowery, R; Doll, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Vietnamese immigration to the U.S. since the conclusion of the Vietnam war has been substantial and in Orange County, CA, Vietnamese Americans comprise 3% of the population (the largest community in the US). Our objective was to collect data on the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-reported high risk behaviours within this community. METHODS--A survey instrument was administered anonymously in Vietnamese to 532 respondents in their homes. Individuals from three population strata were randomly sampled: men 18 to 35 years old (N = 193); men 36 to 45 years old (N = 137); and women 18 to 35 years old (N = 202). Data were gathered on: (1) degree of acculturation; (2) knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS; and (3) self-reported sexual and other high risk practices. RESULTS--Survey data indicated that 38% of respondents were very worried about themselves and 83% were worried about a family member getting AIDS. Knowledge about actual modes of HIV transmission was generally accurate, but a substantial minority still believed that HIV can be transmitted through casual contact, and 68% from needles used in hospitals. Women demonstrated less accurate knowledge than men on five key items. Quarantine of the HIV infected was agreed to by 45%. Twenty-nine percent did not believe that the epidemic would affect them personally, and 49% stated that they did not have enough information about AIDS to protect themselves. Regarding sexual practices, 31% reported never having had sex. Of the others, 8% had two or more sexual partners in the prior 12 months. No same sex behaviour was reported. Six percent of men had visited a female prostitute; of these, 24% had visited 2 or more in the prior 12 months; half of encounters in this time period were outside the US. Substantial percentages of sexually active, unmarried respondents indicated that they never use (17-40%) or only sometimes use (10-32%) condoms. Less than 1% had used injection drugs. CONCLUSIONS

  8. Impact of culturally sensitive AIDS video education on the AIDS risk knowledge of African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, H C; Davis, G

    1994-02-01

    AIDS video education is a major mode of providing information about the spread and prevention of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Very little has been written about the need for culturally salient messages in increasing the acquisition and retention of HIV/AIDS prevention information, even though there is considerable agreement that limited culturally sensitive information is reaching African-American youth. This investigation sought to ascertain the impact of a culturally similar AIDS video on the acquisition of AIDS knowledge and endorsement of HIV/AIDS prevention beliefs. This study randomly assigned classes of African-American teenagers to one of two treatment groups: culturally similar video (CSV) AIDS education and culturally dissimilar video (CDV) AIDS education. Results suggest that the CSV group demonstrated significant improvement in pre- to post- AIDS knowledge scores compared to the CDV group (using ANCOVA procedures). The intervention was not significant in demonstrating change in beliefs about prevention. Implications for the development of HIV/AIDS prevention programs for inner-city African-American youth are discussed. PMID:8024942

  9. HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scores and Perceptions of Risk Among African American Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Madeline Y.; Hardnett, Felicia P.; Wright, Pierre; Wahi, Sagina; Pathak, Sonal; Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective African American young adults are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and often unaware of their personal risk for HIV. Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) enroll 25% of college-educated African American young adults and can play an important role in HIV prevention. We examined HIV/AIDS knowledge of students at HBCUs to inform and strengthen our HIV prevention efforts at HBCUs. Methods African American undergraduate HBCU students completed online surveys assessing HIV/AIDS knowledge and behaviors, and we analyzed data to assess their knowledge and behaviors. Results A total of 1,051 of 1,230 surveys completed (85.4%) were analyzable. Eighty-two percent of students had average/high HIV knowledge scores. Seventy-nine percent of students surveyed perceived themselves to be at low risk for HIV infection; 64% of those who had at least two or more sex partners had not used a condom at last sex encounter. In the final model, significant independent effects were identified for average/high knowledge of HIV risk, including agreeing with assessing a potential partner's HIV risk by all of the five actions listed (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7, 4.3) and never using a needle to inject drugs (AOR=5.6, 95% CI 3.2, 9.7). Conclusions Educating students about effectively assessing sex partner risk will improve HIV knowledge and prevention efforts at HBCUs. PMID:21886325

  10. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  11. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Risk Perception among Pregnant Women in a Teaching Hospital, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24826022

  12. Out-of-School and "At Risk?" Socio-Demographic Characteristics, AIDS Knowledge and Risk Perception among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product…

  13. School Teachers' Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Van; Spangler, Tracy

    A survey was conducted of 100 elementary and secondary teachers in northwestern Ohio concerning their knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results indicated a lack of basic knowledge of AIDS among the majority of respondents, with a mean score of 14 out of 21 points (67 percent). Several of the most frequently missed questions…

  14. A Comparison between a 1986 and 1989 Cohort of Inner-City Adolescent Females on Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk Factors for AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Maxine L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared responses of inner-city adolescent girls to measures of knowledge, beliefs and risk factors for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) obtained in 1986 (n=205) and in 1989 (n=510). Between 1986 and 1989, number of sexual partners increased whereas concern about AIDS decreased. Those adolescents with most sexual partners also had most…

  15. AIDS/HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behavior. Minnesota Student Survey Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    The Minnesota Student Survey, including questions on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus transmission and sexual activity, was completed by approximately 88,000 6th-, 9th-, and 12th-graders during the 1988-89 school year. Sexual activity questions were not asked of sixth graders. Over 90% of high school students knew about sharing…

  16. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  17. Knowledge about AIDS among Leaving Certificate students.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, J

    1990-03-01

    A self-administered anonymous questionnaire on knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was administered to 2,614 Leaving Certificate students in 50 Galway second-level schools. Levels of knowledge regarding routes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and non-transmission were assessed together with student opinion on related lifestyle issues and awareness of local services. Although 91% had heard of HIV infection only 61% knew that there is a difference between this and AIDS. Over 95% of respondants were aware of the epidemiologically proven means of transmission and between 73% and 98% understood that no transmission risk existed in a range of ordinary social contact situations. Fifty-one per cent of students believed in a HIV transmission risk from receiving blood transfusions in Ireland and 24% doubted the safety of blood donation. Seventy-four per cent of students indicated the media as their main information source on AIDS. Preference for further AIDS information were Health Education sources (30%) and teachers (20%). Only 22% and 23% of respondants respectively were aware of the local Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic and AIDS telephone information service. These data indicate areas in which information on AIDS should be improved by education in the school setting. PMID:2361831

  18. AIDS, risk and social governance.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2000-05-01

    This paper considers the discursive properties of public health literature produced around AIDS in the 1980s and early 1990s. Attention is focused upon the role of health promotion in the UK government's response to the epidemic and on the language used in the educational campaigns conducted by the Health Education Council and its replacement the Health Education Authority. Using an analytical approach influenced by the work of Michel Foucault, the paper argues that the knowledges of AIDS produced by these various public health institutions constructed discursive boundaries between the idea of 'normal' and 'abnormal' behavioural practices. The notion of risk, produced as it is from epidemiological knowledge, is a central mechanism in this process. It is through the production, articulation and normalisation of 'at risk' groups that society is fragmented and hence subject to the governance strategies of late-modern liberal economies. PMID:10728847

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV and syphilis, and knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenzhe; Wu, Gohui; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Zhihang; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High HIV prevalence and incidence burdens have been reported in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing, China. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), to appraise the knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among MSM, and to analyze the possible causes of deviation between behavior and knowledge to make better strategies. We recruited 617 MSM from February to July in 2008 by using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Chongqing, China. Through the collection of questionnaire-based data and biological testing results from all objects, we launched a cross-sectional survey. STATA/SE was used for data analysis by frequency, ANOVA, rank sum test and logistic regression models. MSM with syphilis (OR=4.16, 95%CI: 2.35-7.33, P<0.0001) were more likely to be HIV infected. Being a company employee (OR=3.64, 95%CI: 1.22-10.08, P<0.0001) and having bought male for sex (OR=3.52, 95%CI: 1.10-11.32, P < 0.034) were associated with a higher probability of syphilis. MSM with younger age, higher education and greater monthly income had a higher mean knowledge score. MSM who had HIV testing had a higher mean knowledge score than those who never had. Students, venues for finding sex partners by Internet and homosexuals in MSM had a higher mean knowledge score compared to other occupations, venues for finding sex partners and sexual orientation. There is an urgent need for delivery of barrier and biomedical interventions with coordinated behavioral and structural strategies to improve the effect of HIV interventions among MSM.

  20. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  1. Knowledge, People, and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mandate is to take risks to got into space while applying its best knowledge. NASA's knowledge is the result of scientific insights from research, engineering wisdom from experience, project management skills, safety and team consciousness and institutional support and collaboration. This presentation highlights NASA's organizational knowledge, communication and growth efforts.

  2. College Students' Awareness and Interpretation of the AIDS Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freimuth, Vicki S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to provide insight on college students' perception about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Focuses on students knowledge about AIDS, their perceptions about their own risk, and any change in behavior they have made in response to the AIDS risk. (TW)

  3. HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-esteem among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oxley, G M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of HIV/AIDS is rapidly increasing among adolescents and young adults with some studies linking sexual risk taking and self-esteem. A convenience sample of 39 ethnically diverse adolescents, ages 14-18, participated in a pilot study designed to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and to build self-esteem. Adolescents selected from two centers in California completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Student Health Questionnaire (SHQ) before beginning and after completing a program of six 2-hour educational sessions. These sessions focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge and building self-esteem. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission increased by 2096 from pretest to posttest. Practitioners addressing the needs of adolescents should focus on in-depth information regarding HIV/AIDS, especially in the area of prevention strategies and cultural factors influencing levels of self-esteem. PMID:11881719

  4. AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, and factors related to condom use among male commercial sex workers and male tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Wirawan, D N; Fajans, P; Thorpe, L

    1995-07-01

    Interviews conducted in 1992-93 with 80 male commercial sex workers in Bali, Indonesia, and 100 of their tourist clients revealed low levels of accurate knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and widespread high-risk sexual behaviors. Although most male sex workers were aware of AIDS, 30% did not know that healthy-appearing persons could be infected. The mean number of clients in the week preceding the interview was 2.8 (range, 0-12); 61% had engaged in anal intercourse in that period. Condom use with clients averaged 48% for receptive anal intercourse, 55% for insertive anal intercourse, and 14-17% for oral intercourse; these rates were 19%, 33%, and 0%, respectively, for unpaid partners. Only 30% of clients serviced by male prostitutes insisted on condom use. Factors related to condom use with commercial clients were condom beliefs, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility to infection, and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases. The tourist clients, 60% of whom were from Europe and 25% from Australia, were significantly older (mean age, 38.4 years) than the sex workers. 64% reported a history of STD infection, primarily gonorrhea. In the week before the interview, clients had an average of 1.7 paid and 0.3 unpaid partners and 53% engaged in anal intercourse. Condom use was 75% for receptive and 69% for insertive anal intercourse. Although 87% of tourists brought condoms to Bali, only 62% knew of a local source. Factors related to condom use with a commercial sex worker were condom beliefs and self-efficacy. PMID:7546421

  5. Eroding gains in safe sex behavior, HIV/AIDS knowledge, and risk perceptions among royal Thai Navy conscripts after 28 years of the AIDS epidemic in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yuntadilok, Nuntawun; Timmuang, Rattana; Timsard, Somkid; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Heylen, Elsa; Mandel, Jeffrey; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive early prevention efforts, recent surveys suggest that sexual risk taking may again be on the rise in Thailand. The present cross-sectional study surveyed 3,299 recruits in the Thai Navy in 2010, to examine their rates and correlates of consistent condom use. Most participants were aged 21-22 years, unmarried, and had a secondary education. Almost half were employed in labor/agriculture. Only 17 % of sexually experienced recruits were consistent condom users, and 53 % reported multiple sex partners in the past 3 months. In multiple logistic regression, residence in the Northeast (AOR 1.47), age (AOR 1.43), being single (AOR 2.13), non-MSM status (AOR 1.41), voluntary testing (AOR 1.24), and condom use at first sex (AOR 4.29) were significantly associated with consistent condom use. These findings suggest gaps in Thailand's condom campaign targeting both sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. Interventions targeting naval recruits may benefit from including sex education in the training curriculum, building drillmasters' capacities to facilitate sex education/counseling, and creating a supportive environment with better access to condoms. PMID:23700222

  6. Knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian students

    PubMed Central

    Tavoosi, Anahita; Zaferani, Azadeh; Enzevaei, Anahita; Tajik, Parvin; Ahmadinezhad, Zahra

    2004-01-01

    Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%), public swimming pools (21%), and public toilets (20%) were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive) students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools. PMID:15157281

  7. Knowledge About HIV/AIDS Among Secondary School Students

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratibha; Anjum, Fatima; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Srivastav, JP; Zaidi, Zeashan Haider

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS has emerged as the single most formidable challenge to public health. School children of today are exposed to the risk of HIV/AIDS. Aims: The study was conducted to determine the knowledge among secondary school students regarding HIV/AIDS and provide suggestions for HIV/AIDS education in schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of tenth to twelfth standard in the intermediate schools of Lucknow, India, from July to October 2011. A total of 215 students, both boys and girls, were enrolled in the study. Results: In this study, for majority of the students (85%), the source of information about HIV/AIDS was the television. Regarding knowledge about modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS among girl students, 95.1% of them told that it is through unprotected sex. A total of 75.8% students said that it was transmitted from mother to child. Conclusion: It was observed that the knowledge of the school students was quite satisfactory for most of the variables like modes of transmission, including mother-to-child transmission of the disease. However, schools should come forward to design awareness campaigns for the benefit of the students. PMID:23641373

  8. HIV/AIDS Content Knowledge and Presentation Strategies in Biology for Effective Use in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS education should empower students to create knowledge using everyday life experiences. Such knowledge should then be used to construe experience and resolve social problems such as risk behaviour that leads to infection. In South Africa, attempts to reduce the spread of HIV include incorporating HIV/AIDS education in the biology…

  9. A Systematic Review of HIV/AIDS Knowledge Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anne K.; Admiraal, Kristen R.

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge measures are widely used to determine the efficacy of HIV/AIDS prevention and education efforts. While much research has looked at the interventions, less attention has been paid to the quality of the measures themselves. Objectives: (a) To identify HIV/AIDS knowledge measures created for use with adults; (b) to determine the…

  10. Sexual behavior, knowledge, and attitudes about AIDS among college freshmen.

    PubMed

    McGuire, E; Shega, J; Nicholls, G; Deese, P; Landefeld, C S

    1992-01-01

    We surveyed 158 college freshmen on an urban campus to determine their sexual practices and their knowledge and attitudes about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many students (47%) were heterosexually active; 1% were homosexual, 1% were bisexual, and 51% had not been sexually active. Among the 77 sexually active students, many engaged in activities that can facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): 58% did not always use condoms with a new partner; 31% had had two or more sex partners in the last year; 8% engaged in anonymous sex; and 14% of sexually active women had anal intercourse. Although most sexually active students said they would use condoms more or reduce the number of their sexual partners if they believed these changes would reduce "my risk for getting AIDS," few students had adopted these safer sexual practices. Safer sexual practices were associated with heightened personal concerns about AIDS but not with knowledge, which was at a high level. These findings underscore the need for preventive programs that overcome the gap between knowledge and safer sexual behaviors in this and similar groups of adolescents and suggest that programs that heighten personal concerns may be most effective. Community-based physicians who care for adolescents should develop such preventive programs and integrate them into their practices. PMID:1524859

  11. Knowledge, Awareness and Behavior: HIV/AIDS and Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Both males and females continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. They are often drug users or participate in street/drug subculture. Recent weather disasters have required identification of knowledge, beliefs, conduct norms and behavior patterns that are HIV/AIDS risk factors for disaster survivors. This paper examines patterns of behavior and common practices related to HIV among disaster survivors. Study background Data for this paper come from a three year renewal project which focused upon the processes by which illicit drug markets were reformulated after disasters and practices of risk behaviors for HIV/AIDS. Hurricanes Katrina, Gustav and Ike presented the opportunity to examine the impact of disasters upon risky behavior among illicit drug users and sellers. Methods From 2010-2013 ethnographic study was conducted in New Orleans, Louisiana, Houston and Galveston, Texas. Staff completed in-depth interviews with 132 focal respondents of drug users and sellers. There were 57 focus groups with 243 focus group participants; 350 drug using/selling respondents completed a survey protocol (CAPI), organized around their experiences during the hurricanes. Results In both cities respondents displayed knowledge about HIV, modes of transmission and knew that HIV infection can lead to AIDS. Knowledge about time between exposure and infection was mostly imprecise. Most respondents reported they had been tested for HIV multiple times. A large number of participants reported learning about HIV in school, older respondents (mid-40s to 60) reported their knowledge came from television or the streets. Participants expressed fatalistic attitudes toward HIV, believing the virus was fatal even with medication. Conclusion With the increase of disasters, more attention needs to be placed upon programs focused on drug consumers. Schools, clinics, public information sources, i.e., TV and radio can make understanding

  12. College Students' Knowledge about AIDS and Reported Changes in Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined extent to which college students (n=180) change their sexual behavior in response to understanding of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Results suggest students have an understanding of AIDS. For this sample, some high-risk behaviors did decrease, presumably as a result of this knowledge, but there was much behavior that still…

  13. Evolution of college students' AIDS-related behavioral responses, attitudes, knowledge, and fear.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J D; Misovich, S J

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected (a) to document extant levels of AIDS-risk behavior, AIDS-preventive behavior, AIDS-knowledge, and attitudes toward prevention among college students, (b) to assess the evolution from 1986 to 1988 of college students' behavioral and attitudinal responses to the AIDS epidemic, and (c) to document changes over time in college students' knowledge about AIDS. Although students' current levels of AIDS-knowledge were found to be relatively high, and their attitudes toward prevention were in the neutral range, actual preventive behavior was low, and unsafe sexual practices were high. Concerning changes in these dimensions across time, data using comparable samples of undergraduates in 1986, 1987, and 1988 indicated that there were substantial increases in knowledge about AIDS, in the favorability of attitudes toward certain "safer-sex" behaviors (e.g., discussing "safer sex"), and in the utilization of relevant informational resources. Students' perceptions of others' vulnerability to AIDS (but not their own vulnerability), had also increased. However, at the same time, students reported a decrease in the safety of their sexual behaviors. Numbers of sexual partners, likelihood of being in an intimate (sexual) relationship, and unsafe sexual practices have all increased since 1986. Finally, evidence suggested that alcohol may play a significant role in students' AIDS-risk behavior. PMID:2288814

  14. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  15. Improving HIV/AIDS Knowledge Management Using EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Erik D.; Phan, Thao M.; Harmon, Glynn; Nauert, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary goal for the development of EHRs and EHR-related technologies should be to facilitate greater knowledge management for improving individual and community health outcomes associated with HIV / AIDS. Most of the current developments of EHR have focused on providing data for research, patient care and prioritization of healthcare provider resources in other areas. More attention should be paid to using information from EHRs to assist local, state, national, and international entities engaged in HIV / AIDS care, research and prevention strategies. Unfortunately the technology and standards for HIV-specific reporting modules are still being developed. Methods: A literature search and review supplemented by the author’s own experiences with electronic health records and HIV / AIDS prevention strategies will be used. This data was used to identify both opportunities and challenges for improving public health informatics primarily through the use of latest innovations in EHRs. Qualitative analysis and suggestions are offered for how EHRs can support knowledge management and prevention strategies associated with HIV infection. Results: EHR information, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, and other vital statistics can help public health practitioners to more quickly identify at-risk populations or environments; allocate scarce resources in the most efficient way; share information about successful, evidenced-based prevention strategies; and increase longevity and quality of life. Conclusion: Local, state, and federal entities need to work more collaboratively with NGOs, community-based organizations, and the private sector to eliminate barriers to implementation including cost, interoperability, accessibility, and information security. PMID:23569643

  16. Evaluating Evidence Aid as a complex, multicomponent knowledge translation intervention.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Dominic

    2015-02-01

    Evidence Aid, an initiative established by members of The Cochrane Collaboration in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami in December 2004, celebrates its first 10 years later this year. Whilst the principles of the Evidence Aid initiative are firmly rooted in evidence-based medicine and public health practice, the initiative itself was born of a humanitarian imperative, compassion and the expressed moral duty to help. The evidence-base for Evidence Aid, (that is, for knowledge translation interventions focused on dissemination of evidence), was not, and is not, well-established This article, which is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India presents a unifying conceptual framework for use when researching the impact of Evidence Aid as a knowledge translation intervention. It highlights how each of the core activities can be mapped to this framework and identifies key outcomes of interest for evaluation. PMID:25594582

  17. AIDS and behavioral change to reduce risk: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M H; Joseph, J G

    1988-01-01

    Published reports describing behavioral changes in response to the threat of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) are reviewed. These studies demonstrate rapid, profound, but expectably incomplete alterations in the behavior of both homosexual/bisexual males and intravenous drug users. This is true in the highest risk metropolitan areas such as New York City and in areas with lower AIDS incidence. Risk reduction is occurring more frequently through the modification of sexual or drug-use behavior than through its elimination. In contrast to aggregate data, longitudinal descriptions of individual behavior demonstrate considerable instability or recidivism. Behavioral change in the potentially vulnerable heterosexual adolescent and young adult populations is less common, as is risk reduction among urban minorities. Reports of AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes generally parallel the pattern of behavioral changes. Nonetheless, few studies investigate the relationship of knowledge and attitudes to risk reduction. Future studies should provide much-needed information about the determinants as well as the magnitude of behavioral changes required to reduce the further spread of AIDS. PMID:3279837

  18. Enhancing Special Educators' Knowledge and Understanding of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.; Prater, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to spread among children, youth, and young adults across all racial, ethnic, and cultural populations, including those with disabilities. This article considers information on HIV/AIDS such as individuals' health-risk behaviors, environmental circumstances, and perceptions that may contribute to HIV-infection; how disability…

  19. Knowledge of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Foster Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, E. V.; Pryde, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    The sample consisted of 533 adolescent state wards. Knowledge levels were classified by sex and race. Scores were compared with results of National Adolescent Student Health Survey. Within sample, females scored higher than males, and whites scored higher than nonwhites. Variations in knowledge levels and implications for AIDS prevention education…

  20. Knowledge Discovery as an Aid to Organizational Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siau, Keng

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the concept of knowledge discovery, a process of searching for associations in large volumes of computer data, as an aid to creativity. It then discusses the various techniques in knowledge discovery. Mednick's associative theory of creative thought serves as the theoretical foundation for this research. (Contains…

  1. AIDS Knowledge and HIV Stigma among Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to assess the level of AIDS knowledge and its relationship with personal stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among children living in communities of high HIV prevalence in rural China. The data were collected in 2009 from 118 orphanage orphans (children who had lost both of their parents to HIV and…

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

  3. Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective.

    PubMed

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Despite the widespread utilization of the mass media in HIV/AIDS prevention, little is known about the knowledge gap that results from disparities in mass media use. This study examined the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related mass media use and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among urban and rural residents of northwestern Ethiopia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV/AIDS-related mass media use has both sequestering and mainstreaming effects in certain segments of the study population, although it was not a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in the total population. The knowledge gaps between individuals with high and low education and between individuals who experience high and low levels of interpersonal communication about HIV/AIDS narrowed as HIV/AIDS-related media use increased, but the gap between urban and rural residents widened. The widening gap could be explained by differences in perceptions of information salience and several theoretical assumptions. Current mass media information campaigns, which are often prepared and broadcast from urban centers, may not only fail to improve the HIV/AIDS knowledge of the rural populace but also put rural populations at a disadvantage relative to their urban counterparts. Communication interventions informed by socioecological models might be helpful to redress and/or narrow the widening knowledge gap between urban and rural residents. PMID:23644165

  4. AIDS knowledge and attitudes in a Turkish population: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ayranci, Unal

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate and present some pertinent comments concerning Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions among the general population in a city of west Turkey. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of AIDS in Turkey and the other countries. Methods Using a multistage area sampling method, a random sample of individuals aged 11–83 years, living in 65 different quarters in the city of Eskisehir, Turkey during September, October and November 2004 were interviewed. Results In all, 1048 respondents completed the survey. In most items, respondents displayed a fairly good to excellent degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Individuals with higher degrees of education indicated more correct responses in all items relating to knowledge of HIV/AIDS. In general, the respondents' attitudes towards AIDS and people with AIDS were found to be tolerant and positive, with one answer choice showing that the majority of the respondents agreed with the statement that those with HIV/AIDS must be supported, treated and helped (90.7%). Moreover, the proportions of the respondents' misconceptions were found to be significantly low for all the items. However, nearly one fourth of the respondents agreed with the misconceptions 'AIDS is a punishment by God' and 'One is not infected with HIV/AIDS if engaged in sport and well nourished'. Conclusion In general HIV/AIDS related knowledge was high and people showed positive attitudes. However, people continue to hold misconceptions about AIDS and these need to be addressed by health education programs targeting those at higher risk. PMID:16159400

  5. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students’ knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level. PMID:26941925

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.

    PubMed

    Durongritichai, Vanida

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people. PMID:23413715

  7. American Indian University Students' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Associated with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…

  8. A Survey of AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among Prostitutes in an International Border Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Felipe; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 60 prostitutes in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to AIDS. Found that the prostitutes are not utilizing risk reduction behaviors while having sexual relations with their clients. Provides implications for social workers and public health workers who must develop strategies to work effectively…

  9. Magical contagion and AIDS risk perception in a college population.

    PubMed

    Nemeroff, C J; Brinkman, A; Woodward, C K

    1994-06-01

    This study examined whether common reactions to AIDS are consistent with operation of the "magical law of contagion," a traditional belief that describes the transfer of properties, whether moral or physical, harmful or beneficial, through contact. Three features of magical contagion, explored in previous work, were re-examined. These features sometimes contrast with microbial contamination as described by modern germ theory. They are: permanence of effects; dose-insensitivity; and potential for effects to act backwards (i.e., from recipient back onto source). A fourth characteristic, previously unaddressed, was also explored: "moral-germ conflation," i.e., the tendency to incompletely distinguish illness from evil. Three hundred and ninety-nine college students completed a survey assessing each feature with regard to AIDS-related scenarios. Also assessed was general AIDS knowledge. Subjects were very well-informed about AIDS, yet a significant subset showed "magical" features of thinking. Consistent with moral-germ conflation, degree of worry about getting AIDS was better predicted by guilt than by risk behaviors and knowledge that they are risky. Implications are discussed. PMID:8080709

  10. HIV/AIDS knowledge and its implications on dentists

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun Prasad; Reddy, Venugopal; Krishnakumar, Ramalingam; Thayumanavan, Shanmugam; Swathi, Silla Swarna

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge of dentists regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire to evaluate the knowledge, fears, and attitudes was self administered to 102 dentists. The data was then evaluated using Chi-square test and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that dentists in private practice and affiliated with teaching institutions, had better knowledge than their counterparts who were into private practice alone. It was concluded that despite good knowledge many of the dentists expressed some hesitation in treating patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25097403

  11. Fear of contagion and AIDS: nurses' perception of risk.

    PubMed

    Gallop, R M; Lancee, W J; Taerk, G; Coates, R A; Fanning, M

    1992-01-01

    Nurses' fear of contagion when caring for persons with AIDS remains high despite increased levels of knowledge. This paper examines the multiple factors that contribute to nurses' perception of risk within the workplace. The authors suggests that constructs from theories such as decision making, psychoanalysis and cognitive psychology can provide insight into the assessment of risk. Findings from a recent survey of nurses are used to illustrate the complex nature of fear of contagion. Understanding this complexity may be an essential first step in order to provide opportunities for resolution of fears and modification of behaviors. PMID:1562626

  12. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among juvenile delinquents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Slonim-Nevo, V

    Fifty-six Israeli adolescents under the care of probation officers were interviewed about their AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The results suggest that these adolescents put themselves at risk of HIV infection. A substantial proportion of the sample demonstrated a lack of knowledge on issues relevant for AIDS prevention. The majority held negative attitudes toward condoms but were also sexually active, and some had experienced unprotected sexual intercourse, anal sex, and drug use. Most of the respondents, moreover, showed a lack of competence in handling situations that pressure them to act unsafely. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:1343361

  13. AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among inner city, junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D; Lazarus, N; Krasnovsky, F; Durbin, M; Chesney, M

    1991-04-01

    To gain information about AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of junior high school students, 1,967 students in three junior high schools in an inner city school district were surveyed. Ages of the participants ranged from 11-16 years, and 48% were male. Ethnically, 33% were Asian, 31% African-American, 24% Latino, and 5% white. African-American students had greater AIDS general knowledge than Asians and similar general knowledge to Latinos and whites. Most students wanted to be taught about AIDS in school. Misconceptions about casual contagion of AIDS were common. Students with these misconceptions were more likely to believe that students with AIDS should not be allowed to attend school. A high proportion of students had engaged in high-risk behavior including sexual intercourse, drinking alcoholic beverages, and using street drugs. More boys than girls reported each of these activities. Of individuals having had sexual intercourse, a positive association was found between the belief that condoms are effective in preventing HIV infection and use of condoms. These findings support the possibility that improving knowledge about HIV transmission would result in more tolerance toward students with HIV infection and would result in less high-risk behavior. PMID:1857106

  14. Research on AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and practices among street youth.

    PubMed

    Barker, G

    1993-01-01

    CHILDHOPE (with funding from the United Nations Children's Fund and the aid of nongovernmental organizations in the Philippines, Thailand, Colombia, and Kenya) conducted surveys of street youth in order to ascertain their knowledge, attitudes, and practices in regard to sex and the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The youth also participated in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and sex education activities. Youth from all 4 sites reported early sexual activity and multiple partners. Sex was used in all 4 sites to obtain pleasure (recreation), income (prostitution), food or shelter (survival sex), and power (gang rape). Philippine youth reported prostitution and survival sex, including homosexual sex, with foreigners and locals. Kenyan girls reported both prostitution (their main occupation) and survival sex. Kenyan males reported prostitution with foreigners and locals, and rapes of girls. In Bogota, males reported rapes of girls, and gang rapes of females for punishment or initiation. They also reported using sex workers and exchanging sex with men or women for food and shelter. Females from Bogota reported that their "friends" sometimes used survival sex to support their children; nearly all had been previously involved in survival sex on the street. Sexual abuse was common in Kenya and the Philippines; some youth in Manila were abused at shelters. In all 4 sites, there was a high awareness of AIDS and STDs, but information was often incorrect, especially in regard to transmission and treatment of STDs. Although nearly all of the youth knew about modes of transmission of HIV, those from the Philippines and Colombia did not have a personal realization or fear that they could contract it, while those from Kenya and Thailand believed they were at high risk and wanted assistance. 20/21 Kenyan girls were tested by the Undugu Society for HIV after detection of current STD

  15. Pediatric first aid knowledge and attitudes among staff in the preschools of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. The aims of this study were to assess a baseline level of first aid knowledge and overall attitudes regarding first aid among staff members in Shanghai preschools. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among the staff members at selected preschools. A stratified random sampling method was first used to identify suitable subjects. Data were obtained using a multiple-choice questionnaire. A standardized collection of demographics was performed and participants were given the aforementioned questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and attitudes toward first aid. Results 1067 subjects completed the questionnaire. None of the surveyed employees answered all questions correctly; only 39 individuals (3.7%) achieved passing scores. The relative number of correct answers to specific questions ranged from 16.5% to 90.2%. In particular, subjects lacked knowledge regarding first aid for convulsive seizures (only 16.5% answered correctly), chemical injuries to the eye (23%), inhaled poison (27.6%), and choking and coughing (30.1%). A multiple linear regression analysis showed scores were significantly higher among staff members with more education, those who had received first aid training before or were already healthcare providers, younger employees, and staff members from rural districts. Most employees agreed that giving first aid was helpful; the vast majority felt that it was important and useful for them to learn pediatric first aid. Conclusions The level of first-aid knowledge among preschool staffs in Shanghai was low. There is an urgent need to educate staff members regarding first aid practices and the various risk factors relating to specific injuries. PMID:22891706

  16. Erciyes University Students' Knowledge about AIDS: Differences between Students of Natural and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasci, Sultan; Baser, Muruvvet; Mucuk, Salime; Bayat, Meral; Zincir, Handan; Sungur, Gonul

    2008-01-01

    The authors' goal in this study was to assess differences in knowledge about AIDS between students of natural science (NS) and social science (SS). The authors surveyed 542 students at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey, regarding their knowledge of AIDS. Some differences in knowledge about AIDS (eg, regarding the virus that causes AIDS, the…

  17. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Mozambique's National STD/AIDS Control Program (NACP) estimates that, at present, about 8% of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The epidemic is expected to peak in 1997. By 2001, Mozambique is projected to have 1,650,000 HIV-positive adults 15-49 years of age, of whom 500,000 will have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 500,000 AIDS orphans. Incidence rates are highest in the country's central region, the transport corridors, and urban centers. The rapid spread of HIV has been facilitated by extreme poverty, the social upheaval and erosion of traditional norms created by years of political conflict and civil war, destruction of the primary health care infrastructure, growth of the commercial sex work trade, and labor migration to and from neighboring countries with high HIV prevalence. Moreover, about 10% of the adult population suffers from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including genital ulcers. NACP, created in 1988, is attempting to curb the further spread of HIV through education aimed at changing high-risk behaviors and condom distribution to prevent STD transmission. Theater performances and radio/television programs are used to reach the large illiterate population. The integration of sex education and STD/AIDS information in the curricula of primary and secondary schools and universities has been approved by the Ministry of Education. Several private companies have been persuaded to distribute condoms to their employees. Finally, the confidentiality of HIV patients has been guaranteed. In 1993, the total AIDS budget was US $1.67 million, 50% of which was provided by the European Union. The European Commission seeks to develop a national strategy for managing STDs within the primary health care system. PMID:12320532

  18. Food Safety Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Persons with AIDS: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438

  19. Will Schools Risk Teaching about the Risk of AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Discusses schools and current AIDS education; facts about AIDS; teaching about behavioral change; the use of condoms; an AIDS awareness curriculum; HIV/AIDS awareness and sex education; and HIV/AIDS awareness and democratic schooling. (SR)

  20. Comparison of AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Incarcerated Adolescents and a Public School Sample in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Data collected in 1988 from 113 incarcerated youth and 802 San Francisco high school students demonstrated that both groups are knowledgeable about AIDS. Youth in prison were less aware of risk-reduction measures and reported higher HIV risk behaviors, and should therefore be a primary target for prevention programs. (DM)

  1. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  2. Adolescents and HIV: knowledge, behaviors, influences, and risk perceptions.

    PubMed

    Facente, A C

    2001-08-01

    Although the rate of progression from HIV to AIDS has slowed, the incidence of HIV infection has continued to rise. Many teenagers are knowledgeable about the risks and consequences of HIV, yet a large percentage do not perceive that they are personally at risk. Gaining insight into the perceptions and factors influencing the behavior of teens is critical in HIV and AIDS prevention. A structured 39-item questionnaire was designed to elicit answers that explored 4 areas: knowledge of HIV and AIDS, reported sexual behavior, perceived susceptibility to HIV, and factors influencing behavior. The mean age of the 78 respondents was 15.9 years. One important finding was that 74% of respondents perceived their knowledge of HIV transmission to be "good," yet only 33% were able to answer all of the 8 test questions in this area correctly. In addition, 80% of those who reported engaging in risky behavior such as multiple sexual partners or having sex without condoms also felt they were not personally at risk for HIV. PMID:11885323

  3. Risk Communication about AIDS in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of education as the primary response of higher education to the epidemic associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Focuses on the personal, social and institutional issues that bear on AIDS education on college campuses and the important features of AIDS education programs. (TW)

  4. Knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian nurses towards patients with HIV/AIDS: findings from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zeinab M; Wahsheh, Moayad A

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian nurses toward patients with HIV/AIDS, particularly in regards to their sources of information and education. This survey utilized a cross-sectional design. A self-administered questionnaire developed by Eckstein was used in collecting the data. A total of 922 nurses completed the questionnaire. Overall, Jordanian nurses expressed negative attitudes toward patients with HIV/AIDS, and their level of HIV/AIDS knowledge was weak. Weak knowledge level was recorded among nurses in the following subsections: agent and immunology; course and manifestation; transmission and incidence; and precaution and prevention. Only in one subsection (risk group), did nurses show a good level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. More than two-thirds of nurses (84%) refused to provide care to patients who tested positive for HIV/AIDS. Most of the nurse participants believed that currently provided HIV/AIDS information resources were inadequate (81.4 %). The majority of nurses were interested in support groups for staff nurses (96.5%). The major source of HIV/AIDS information obtained by Jordanian nurses was through Internet web sites (52.7%). The majority of nurses (96.2%) ranked their fear of getting AIDS from their nursing practice as overwhelming. The total attitude of participants towards patients with HIV/AIDS in all five subsections (i.e., fear of contagion, social stigma, fatal outcome of the disease, direct care, and education and counseling) was negative (84.3%). Accurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS along with an in-depth understanding of patients? needs can help alleviate much of the fear, anxiety, and stigma associated with caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22077750

  5. Assessment of AIDS Risk among Treatment Seeking Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, John L.; And Others

    Intravenous (IV) drug abusers are at risk for contracting transmittable diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of risk behaviors for acquiring and transmitting AIDS and hepatitis B among treatment-seeking drug abusers (N=168). Subjects participated in a…

  6. Climate adaptation: Cultural knowledge and local risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    A focus on African American communities on the Eastern Shore of Maryland highlights the ways that local cultural knowledge differs from place to place, developing understanding of local climate risks and resources for adaptation.

  7. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6%) correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes), with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific characteristics. PMID:21324119

  8. AIDS related knowledge and behaviours among college students, Gondar, Ethiopia: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Teka, T

    1997-07-01

    AIDS-related knowledge and behaviours among students at the Gondar College of Medical Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia were evaluated based on identical surveys conducted in 1990 and 1992. One hundred three second year students provided information in 1992. Analysis indicated that 49% were engaged in sexual intercourse and only a third of these group used condom despite their improved knowledge and belief on condom compared to their previous position in 1990 (p < 0.004). On the other hand, their sexual behaviours regarding sexual contact with high risk individuals decreased compared to 1990 (p < 0.0005). Their general level of AIDS-related preventive knowledge increased over time (p < 0.002), although there was no significant difference in knowledge observed among different sexes and departments. Among the sexually active, a large proportion of students (22%) still had sexual contact with high risk individuals and only 33% of them were using safer methods. Continuing efforts, including peer education, specific health education interventions are still crucially needed to bring a positive change in sexual behaviour. PMID:9558757

  9. Drug Use and AIDS Risk in a Soup Kitchen Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviewed 148 drug users in urban soup kitchen. Focused on subjects' risk-taking and risk-reduction behavior related to injection drug use, perceived changes in risk behavior, perceived risk for contracting Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and socioeconomic and attitudinal correlates of injecting and sharing needles. Findings…

  10. AIDS: Are Children at Risk? ERIC Digest 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    Lack of knowledge and misinformation about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a fatal disease with no cure or vaccine, has caused widespread public concern. Education is an effective way to reduce fears and prevent the spread of the disease. Public school personnel must have accurate information about AIDS in order to make suitable…

  11. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Senegal.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors. PMID:12320531

  12. Knowledge management: an innovative risk management strategy.

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Lorri; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management effectively lends itself to the enterprise risk process. The authors introduce the concept of knowledge management as a strategy to drive innovation and support risk management. They align this work with organizational efforts to improve patient safety and quality through the effective sharing of experience and lessons learned. The article closes with suggestions on how to develop a knowledge management initiative at an organization, who should be on the team, and how to sustain this effort and build the culture it requires to drive success. PMID:21506198

  13. AIDS: Is Any Risk Too Great? The 1987 Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog-Rapp, Fay

    This report discusses public school legal liability in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) controversy with regard to the right of privacy of AIDS victims who are students and employees and the concern of risk of contagion to other students and employees and the public's right to know what is going on in their schools. Several steps…

  14. Adolescents' AIDS Risk Taking: A Rational Choice Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William; Herman, Janna

    1990-01-01

    Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…

  15. Gambling with Your Health: Predictors of Risk for AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasorsa, Dominic L.; Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    To examine risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in terms of risk-related behaviors, and to investigate the factors that may be involved in putting one at risk, a study conducted telephone interviews with 493 randomly selected adults (18 years or older) in Austin, Texas in the fall of 1987. Respondents answered approximately 40…

  16. Knowledge-aided multisensor data fusion for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistello, Giulia; Ulmke, Martin; Koch, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Multi sensor fusion techniques are widely employed in several surveillance applications (e.g., battlefield monitoring, air traffic control, camp protection, etc). The necessity of tracking the elements of a dynamic system usually requires combining information from heterogeneous data sources in order to overcome the limitations of each sensor. The gathered information might be related to the target kinematics (position, velocity), its physical features (shape, size, composition) or intentions (route plan, friend/foe, engaged sensor modes, etc). The combination of such heterogeneous sensor data proved to benefit from the exploitation of context information, i.e., static and dynamic features of the scenario, represented in a Knowledge Base (KB). A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a typical example for a KB that can be exploited for the enhancement of multi sensor data fusion. The present paper describes potential strategies for "knowledge-based" data fusion in the area of Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA). MSA is founded on the data from heterogeneous sources, including radars, Navigation Aids, air- and space-based monitoring services, and recently-conceived passive sensors. Several strategies for optimally fusing two or more of these information data flows have been proposed for MSA applications. Relevant KB information comprises port locations, coastal lines, preferred routes, traffic rules, and potentially a maritime vessel database. We propose mathematical models and techniques to integrate kinematic constraints, e.g., in terms of navigation fields, and different object behaviour into a data fusion approach. For an exemplary sensor suite, we evaluate performance measures in the framework of centralised and decentralised fusion architectures.

  17. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Abnormal Pap Test Experiences Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Bynum, Shalanda A; Brandt, Heather M; Friedman, Daniela B; Bond, Sharon M; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Richter, Donna L; Glover, Saundra H; Hébert, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer prevention knowledge deficits persist among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) despite increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/cancer. We examined associations between WLHA's cervical cancer prevention knowledge and abnormal Pap test history. We recruited 145 urban and rural WLHA from Ryan White-funded clinics and AIDS service organizations located in the southeastern USA between March 2011 and April 2012. For this analysis, women who reported a history of cervical cancer (n = 3) or had a complete hysterectomy (n = 14) and observations with missing data (n = 22) were excluded. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. Our sample included 106 predominantly non-Hispanic Black (92%) WLHA. Mean age was 46.3 ± 10.9 years. Half (50%) had ≤ high school education. One third (37%) had low health literacy. The majority (83 %) had a Pap test <1 year ago, and 84 % knew that WLHA should have a Pap test every year, once two tests are normal. Many (68%) have had an abnormal Pap test. Abnormal Pap test follow-up care knowledge varied. While 86% knew follow-up care could include a repeat Pap test, only 56% knew this could also include an HPV test. Significantly, more women who had an abnormal Pap test knew follow-up care could include a biopsy (p = 0.001). For WLHA to make informed/shared decisions about their cervical health, they need to be knowledgeable about cervical cancer care options across the cancer control continuum. Providing WLHA with prevention knowledge beyond screening recommendations seems warranted given their increased risk of developing cervical dysplasia/neoplasia. PMID:24928481

  18. A Study on the Level of the First Aid Knowledge of Educators Working in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Caglayan; Atakurt, Yildir; Simsek, Isil

    This questionnaire study examined the level of knowledge of first aid of 138 educators in private and state preschools in Turkey. Questionnaires were completed by educators between May and July 1997. The findings indicated that about 17 percent of the educators thought that they had sufficient first aid knowledge, with 62 percent indicating that…

  19. Managing Corporate Risk through Better Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neef, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explain how progressive companies are using a combination of knowledge and risk management (KRM) systems and techniques in order to help them to prevent, or respond most effectively to, ethical or reputation-damaging incidents. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains KRM, develops a corporate integrity framework, and then…

  20. The Relationship between Scientific Knowledge and Behaviour: An HIV/AIDS Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia; Ebersohn, Liesel

    2016-01-01

    Debates on the role of scientific knowledge to affect behaviour are continuing. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that behaviour is influenced by attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and not by knowledge. However, a large body of knowledge argues that increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge leads to the adoption of…

  1. Perceived Risk of AIDS among Prisoners Following Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Angela D.; Martin, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the impact of an AIDS education program on inmates' (N=140) perceived risk of HIV infection on the street and in prison. Results reveal that the men's perceived risk declined significantly, whereas the women's increased. Regression analyses indicated that change in perceptions was related to various variables outside of the prison's…

  2. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Objective The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Results The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. Conclusions The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26913902

  3. Gist Representations and Communication of Risks about HIV-AIDS: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Wilhelms, Evan A; Reyna, Valerie F; Brust-Renck, Priscila; Weldon, Rebecca B; Corbin, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, people with a range of training—from untrained adolescents to expert physicians—are susceptible to biases and errors in judgment and perception of HIV-AIDS risk. To explain why this occurs, we introduce fuzzy-trace theory as a theoretical perspective that describes these errors to be a function of knowledge deficits, gist-based representation of risk categories, retrieval failure for risk knowledge, and processing interference (e.g., base-rate neglect) in combining risk estimates. These principles explain how people perceive HIV-AIDS risk and why they take risks with potentially lethal outcomes, often despite rote (verbatim) knowledge.For example, people inappropriately generalize the wrong gist about condoms' effectiveness against fluid-borne disease to diseases that are transferred skin-to-skin, such as HPV. We also describe how variation in processing in adolescence (e.g., more verbatim processing compared to adults) can be a route to risk-taking that explains key aspects of why many people are infected with HIV in youth, as well as how interventions that emphasize bottom-line gists communicate risks effectively. PMID:26149161

  4. HIV/AIDS and disability: a pilot survey of HIV/AIDS knowledge among a deaf population in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Groce, Nora; Yousafzai, Aisha; Dlamini, Phindile; Zalud, Sarah; Wirz, Shelia

    2006-12-01

    This study sought to establish whether there were measurable differences in the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS between hearing individuals and individuals who identified themselves as deaf sign language users in Swaziland. A cross-sectional survey of 191 rural and urban hearing and deaf adults was undertaken in Swaziland in December 2003. A structured questionnaire was administered, seeking to establish whether there were statistically significant differences between hearing and deaf populations in their level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS symptoms, transmission and prevention, as well as differences in sources of information about HIV/AIDS. Additional questions were asked regarding whether there were differences in accessibility of HIV testing services and HIV/AIDS-related healthcare for the two groups. Significant differences in levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS were identified between the hearing and deaf respondents. The deaf population was significantly more likely (P<0.05) to believe in incorrect modes of HIV transmission (e.g. hugging and airborne transmission) and HIV prevention (e.g. avoiding sharing utensils and eating healthy foods). Almost all of the deaf respondents (99%) reported difficulties in communicating with healthcare facility staff, which may result in less use of HIV voluntary counseling and testing services. This paper reports the results of this study, and discusses the need for targeted HIV/AIDS education campaigns and improved accessibility in healthcare facilities for deaf sign language users in countries such as Swaziland. PMID:17106349

  5. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS--an international comparison between Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Raid, Ulla; Istomina, Natalja; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Välimäki, Maritta

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents baseline data on nurses' knowledge of and attitudes to HIV/AIDS in three countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is steadily increasing in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. At the same time, labour mobility and also nursing mobility between these countries increases. Previous international studies have shown that lack of knowledge and negative attitudes continue to exist. A total of 681 registered nurses from one Finnish (n = 322), one Estonian (n = 191) and one Lithuanian (n = 168) hospital were surveyed in spring 2006. The questionnaire was originally developed by Held in 1993 and modified for this study. The questionnaire has three scales: demographic and other background variable, nurses' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, and nurses' attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS and towards the disease itself. Across the whole sample respondents showed average levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS. Years of work experience correlated negatively with the knowledge and attitude levels. A significant correlation was found between the level of knowledge and attitudes. Significant differences were found between countries, Finnish nurses showing the highest knowledge levels and most positive attitudes towards patients with HIV/AIDS. Factors positively influencing levels of knowledge and attitudes were education, previous experience of providing care to HIV/AIDS patient or knowing someone with the infection, and willingness to provide care to HIV/AIDS patients. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen nurses' knowledge. It is important to recognize that there might be differences in knowledge and attitudes between neighbour countries. This needs to be taken into account when planning education for degrees and for further nursing education. PMID:20487059

  6. Association of Information Sources and Knowledge on HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yufeng; Wang, Huadong; Chen, Baifeng; Chen, Yujuan; Zhang, Tiejun; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the number of available information sources on HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in a rural population in China. Design We performed a cross-sectional survey on the number and types of sources of HIV/AIDS information available to rural residents of China and assessed HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in this population. We collected information from 5,355 Chinese rural residents and then correlated the results of the scores on knowledge to the numbers of information sources, and adjusted for age, sex, education and occupation. Results The sources of HIV/AIDs information reported by subjects included television, radio, newspapers, periodicals, discussions with neighbors and friends. There were significant differences in sources of information based on gender, occupation, educational level and age. The average number of information sources was 3.01 ± 1.74. The average score on the AIDS related knowledge questionnaire was 8.21 ± 4.23. Subjects who reported 6 sources of HIV/AIDS information had an average score of 11.67 ± 3.0 on the HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire. Subjects who reported between 3–7 sources of HIV/AIDS information had significantly higher scores than those who had 1,2 or 8 sources of information. Conclusions There is an association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and the number of available information sources. By increasing the sources, one could not always make more people curious or interested in HIV/AIDS knowledge. PMID:25834646

  7. Hegemonic Masculinity, HIV/AIDS Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior Change Among Young People in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ganle, John Kuumuori

    2016-05-01

    Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged. PMID:25721715

  8. Digital Libraries as Instructional Aids for Knowledge Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Smith, Terrence R.; Borgman, Christine L.; Smart, Laura J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype (ADEPT), a large-scale digital library project, can be used to assist college instructors in designing lessons. Examines two instructional aspects of digital libraries: personalized knowledge bases (the knowledge of any domain), and structured views of the knowledge base (a subset of the…

  9. HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Etana, Dula

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma is one of the major public health challenges in Ethiopia. This study examined knowledge about HIV/AIDS and factors behind stigmatisation towards people living with the virus based on demographic and health survey data collected in 2011 from women in the age group 15-49 years. The result shows that 49.3% of rural women had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared with 74.7% of urban women. About three-fourths (72.1%) of the rural women had stigmatising attitudes towards PLWHA whilst the proportion in urban areas was only about a third (34.2%). The likelihood of having adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was significantly higher among educated women but lower among those living in Afar, Somali, and Gambella regions and Dire Dawa City. Women with higher levels of education and frequent access to media had a lower tendency to stigmatise people living with the virus. Adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was also significantly associated with lower likelihood of stigmatisation. The results generally indicate that HIV/AIDS stigma in Ethiopia is partly explained by people's knowledge about HIV/AIDS and by socio-cultural factors that shape their perception of the epidemic. Awareness-raising efforts should thus consider the socio-cultural contexts in which stigma occurs to tackle discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26285101

  10. The Influence of Homophobia and Knowledge of AIDS on Empathy for Persons with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Andrew S.

    There has been considerable variation in reports of how much people know about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This study explored empathy towards persons with AIDS. The first part of the study involved pretesting subjects on two scales. Data were collected from 125 male and 125 female college students. A factor analysis revealed there…

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085

  12. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Related Behaviors, and Sources of Information among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyera; Lee, Sun Hae; Kwon, Bo Eun; Chung, Sulki; Kim, Sanghee

    2005-01-01

    To examine HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, related behaviors, and sources of HIV/AIDS information among high school-aged students in South Korea. One thousand and seventy-seven students (586 females and 491 males) from 5 high schools from 5 representative school districts participated in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire measuring…

  13. Norms and practices within marriage which shape gender roles, HIV/AIDS risk and risk reduction strategies in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Bandali, S

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing HIV/AIDS rates among married individuals, minimal research has been conducted on how men and women respond to risk in a marriage. This paper examines strategies used by married individuals to combat HIV/AIDS risk against prevailing gender norms. Qualitative data were gathered in four villages of Cabo Delgado province, Mozambique. Group discussions were held with 160 men and women to explore gender norms, HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk determinants. From the group discussions, 29 individuals were selected for further in-depth interviews to explore relationships between gender norms and risk reduction efforts within marriages. Findings illustrate how infidelity and social limitations placed on condom use not only increase HIV/AIDS risk but also entrench gender disparities. Although power differences between genders can make it difficult to negotiate safe sex, men and women are taking measures to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk in their marriage. Married men are reconstructing norms and taking responsibility to protect their family from HIV/AIDS by remaining faithful. For women, responses to HIV/AIDS risk in a marriage are more closely related to their ability to generate an income. Financially dependent women tend to leave a risky marriage altogether in contrast to financially autonomous women who will negotiate condom use with their husband. Factors such as experience with a risky partner, the desire to maintain a good social standing, fear of HIV/AIDS acquisition and parental guidance and support influence men and women to reduce perceived HIV/AIDS risk, despite constraining gender norms and power imbalances in a marriage. Nuanced understandings of the ways in which men and women are already taking measures to decrease noted HIV/AIDS risk, despite gender norms that make this a challenge, should be incorporated into localised responses. PMID:21476146

  14. Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample*

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman’s rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). Results: The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). Conclusions: It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training. PMID

  15. College Student Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Tolerance toward Safe and Unsafe Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Richard W.; And Others

    Preventing the spread of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among sexually active adolescents and adults has become a primary social concern. This study was designed to investigate the following areas relevant to safer and unsafe sexual behavior among college students: knowledge and practice; personal risk assessment; and risk…

  16. Correlates of HIV knowledge and Sexual risk behaviors among Female Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Essien, E. James; Monjok, Emmanuel; Chen, Hua; Abughosh, Susan; Ekong, Ernest; Peters, Ronald J.; Holmes, Laurens; Holstad, Marcia M.; Mgbere, Osaro

    2010-01-01

    Objective Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors among female military personnel to determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. Method The study used a cross-sectional design to examine HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 346 females drawn from two military cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected between 2006 and 2008. Using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression, HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors were described in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that level of education and knowing someone with HIV/AIDS were significant (p<0.05) predictors of HIV knowledge in this sample. HIV prevention self-efficacy was significantly (P<0.05) predicted by annual income and race/ethnicity. Condom use attitudes were also significantly (P<0.05) associated with number of children, annual income, and number of sexual partners. Conclusion Data indicates the importance of incorporating these predictor variables into intervention designs. PMID:20387111

  17. [Awareness of HIV/AIDS hazards in the youth from Southern Podlasie compared with the state of knowledge in the general population of Poland].

    PubMed

    Huk-Wieliczuk, Elzbieta B

    2002-01-01

    Southern Podlasie is a specific region as regards HIV/AIDS hazards for its geographical position (border zone) as well as social problems (high level of unemployment). The aim of the research was to find out the level of knowledge of rural youth on the subject of risk factors and ways of spreading HIV as well as AIDS clinic. 405 students aged 15-17 (197 males and 208 females) that attend chosen rural schools on the territory of Southern Podlasie were questioned. The method of diagnostic poll was employed in the research using the questionnaire "HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs" from international studies on school youth health preservation (HBSC)--the supervisor of the project in Poland is professor B. Woynarowska). The research has shown different levels of knowledge of rural youth on the subject of HIV/AIDS. There were still many false opinions among the people questioned about the ways of HIV infection. Despite considerable knowledge about the ways of reducing the risk of HIV infection, there was low level of knowledge concerning AIDS treatment compared with the results of nationwide survey, there were fewer correct answers in our study group. It is the duty of schools, parents and mass media to provide the youth with relevant information on the subject of HIV/AIDS. Only systematic education in this domain can protect the infected persons and their partners or children against the consequences of ignoring the disease. PMID:15002230

  18. Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practice of Nurses toward HIV+/AIDS Patients Diagnosed with Tuberculosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmer, Patricia R.; Jones, Sande; Moore, Jackie; Taggart, Bonnie; Parchment, Yvonne; Holloman, Faye; Quintero, Lisa Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Nurses (n=35) participating in an experimental education program on HIV-associated tuberculosis were compared with 15 controls. The experimental group had greater knowledge of tuberculosis and more adherence to universal precaution protocols. However, there was no tangible increase in their AIDS knowledge, attitudes, or concerns. (SK)

  19. HIV/AIDS Knowledge in College Students: The Implications for Individuals and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Amy L.; Prince, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of college students investigated their HIV/AIDS knowledge. Results indicated that significant sex differences existed on most subscales. Important gaps in students' knowledge include lack of awareness of HIV transmission through oral sex or from mother to infant, belief that donating blood can cause one to contract HIV, and lack of…

  20. Assessing College Students' Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior Towards HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cheri; And Others

    The purpose of this ongoing study was to assess attitudes, knowledge and behaviors in college students toward Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The researchers wanted to asses students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior for utilization in educational and skill building programs for college students.…

  1. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  2. AIDS: risk behaviors among rural Mexican women married to migrant workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Salgado de Snyder, V N; Díaz Pérez, M; Maldonado, M

    1996-04-01

    International migration between Mexico and the United States has been acknowledged as a phenomenon that may contribute to the spread of AIDS in rural Mexico. The purpose of this study is to identify the information held by the participants regarding AIDS and to describe selected high-risk behaviors for AIDS transmission among a representative sample of rural women living in Mexico who are married to immigrant temporary workers to the United States. The women who participated in the study were married, of reproductive age, and had active sex lives with their spouses. Results revealed that most of the women interviewed had at least some knowledge about AIDS. Although some misconceptions were evident, most of the information they had was accurate. About one-third of the women felt at risk for AIDS, mostly because they doubted their husbands' fidelity, or because in the last five years they had donated blood, received a blood transfusion, or received an intramuscular or intravenous injection. The results of the study are discussed within the sociocultural context that surrounds the lives of the women interviewed. PMID:8727653

  3. Knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R

    2008-01-01

    To assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in Mashhad, 960 people aged 13-58 years who were approached in the street and agreed to participate completed an anonymous questionnaire. The mean of knowledge and attitudes scores were 9.8 (SD 3.0) and 6.1 (SD 3.0) of a total 14 and 10 respectively. People with greater knowledge of HIV/AIDS had more positive attitudes to individuals with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.01). There were important misconceptions about HIV transmission such as through hugging, food, clothing, public places and insect bites. Regression analysis indicted that women had more tolerant attitudes than men (P < 0.01) and the more educated respondents had higher knowledge and attitudes scores (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001 respectively). PMID:19161107

  4. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395

  5. Hospital pharmacists’ knowledge about and attitude toward HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS in Kedah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mirza Rafi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The current study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and perception of hospital pharmacists towards HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the hospital pharmacists in three government hospitals in Kedah, using a self-administered 43-item questionnaire. Data analysis was done using non-parametric and multinomial regression. Results A total of 75 respondents participated in this study, resulting in a response rate of 60.8%. The majority were found to be well aware of the causes of HIV/AIDS. However, about 34 (45.3%) believed erroneously that HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted through tattooing or body piercing. Nearly 25 (33.3%) of the respondents believed that preventing the use of intravenous drugs may not be effective to prevent HIV/AIDS and endorsed social isolation as a measure to prevent HIV/AIDS. The majority (66.6%) had negative attitudes and about 20% held extremely negative attitudes. Findings from regression modelling revealed that hospital (–2 log likelihood = 215.182, χ2 = 18.060, Df = 8, p = 0.021) and gender (–2 log likelihood = 213.643, χ2 = 16.521, Df = 8, p = 0.035) were more likely to affect the attitudes of respondents. Conclusions Overall, more than one third of the respondents were found to have negative attitudes towards PLWHA. Gender, job experience, and hospitals with more HIV/AIDS patient visits were the main factors affecting attitudes. PMID:24482660

  6. The Role of Academic Discipline and Gender in High School Teachers' AIDS-Related Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Lori J.; Chunis, Michelle L.; Smith, Danielle M.; Carboni, Anthony A.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 141 teachers from nine Massachusetts high schools to examine their knowledge of and attitudes toward AIDS. Results indicated a direct relationship between teachers' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and positive or supportive attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. There were significant differences based on academic discipline. Allied health teachers had…

  7. Promotion of Latina Health: Intersectionality of IPV and Risk for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rountree, Michele A; Granillo, Teresa; Bagwell-Gray, Meredith

    2016-04-01

    Latina women in the United States are vulnerable to two intersecting public health concerns: intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequent risk for HIV/AIDS infection. Examination of the cultural and contextual life factors of this understudied population is crucial to developing culturally relevant HIV interventions. Focus groups with Latinas (15 monolingual; 10 bilingual) who have experienced IPV were conducted. Monolingual and bilingual Latinas endorsed that they were concerned about HIV infection, naming partner infidelity and experiences of forced and coerced sex as primary reasons for their concern. However, monolingual participants had lower levels of HIV knowledge, spending much time discussing myths of HIV infection, whereas bilingual participants spent more time discussing specific prevention techniques, including challenges related to the violence in their relationships. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS prevention programs for Latinas need to pay close attention to the different historical, contextual, and cultural experiences of this at-risk group of women. PMID:26472666

  8. Knowledge-aided GMTI in a Bayesian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, Michael; Potter, Lee C.

    2015-05-01

    Traditional ground moving target indicator (GMTI) processing attempts to separate moving objects in the scene from stationary clutter. Techniques such as space-time adaptive processing (STAP) require the use of an unknown covariance matrix of the interference (clutter, jamming, and thermal noise) that must be estimated from the remaining data not currently under test. Many problems exist with estimating the interference covariance including: heterogeneous, contaminated, and/or limited training data. There are many existing techniques for obtaining an interference covariance matrix estimate, most of which incorporate some kind of prior knowledge to improve the estimate. We propose a Bayesian framework that estimates both clutter and movers on a range-by- range basis without the explicit estimation of an interference covariance matrix. The approach incorporates the knowledge of an approximate digital elevation map (DEM), platform kinematics (platform velocity, crab angle, and antenna spacings), and the belief that movers are sparse in the scene. Computation using this Bayesian model is enabled by recent algorithm developments for fast inference on linear mixing models. The signal model and required processing steps are detailed. We test our approach using the KASSPER I dataset and compare the results to other current approaches.

  9. Emerging pattern mining to aid toxicological knowledge discovery.

    PubMed

    Sherhod, Richard; Judson, Philip N; Hanser, Thierry; Vessey, Jonathan D; Webb, Samuel J; Gillet, Valerie J

    2014-07-28

    Knowledge-based systems for toxicity prediction are typically based on rules, known as structural alerts, that describe relationships between structural features and different toxic effects. The identification of structural features associated with toxicological activity can be a time-consuming process and often requires significant input from domain experts. Here, we describe an emerging pattern mining method for the automated identification of activating structural features in toxicity data sets that is designed to help expedite the process of alert development. We apply the contrast pattern tree mining algorithm to generate a set of emerging patterns of structural fragment descriptors. Using the emerging patterns it is possible to form hierarchical clusters of compounds that are defined by the presence of common structural features and represent distinct chemical classes. The method has been tested on a large public in vitro mutagenicity data set and a public hERG channel inhibition data set and is shown to be effective at identifying common toxic features and recognizable classes of toxicants. We also describe how knowledge developers can use emerging patterns to improve the specificity and sensitivity of an existing expert system. PMID:24873983

  10. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  11. Sociodemographic factors associated with AIDS knowledge in a random sample of university students.

    PubMed

    Robb, H; Beltran, E D; Katz, D; Foxman, B

    1991-06-01

    A telephone survey was used to assess knowledge of the transmission, prevalence, and infectivity of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the safety of casual contact among 214 randomly selected university students. Males were more knowledgeable than females overall (odds ratio [OR], men/women = 4.8). Although most students understood the dangers of unprotected sex and intravenous needle sharing, up to 30% believed some kinds of casual contact (e.g., shared eating utensils) can transmit AIDS. Older students (greater than or equal to 23 yrs) were more knowledgeable than those 17 to 19 years old about the safety of casual contact (OR = 3.8). Students are in need of education programs that stress the ways AIDS is not transmitted. Since most students identified newspapers and television as their main sources of information, these may be effective vehicles for education efforts. PMID:1924104

  12. Evaluation of the effect of school-based education on adolescents' AIDS knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Farley, T A; Pomputius, P F; Sabella, W; Helgerson, S D; Hadler, J L

    1991-01-01

    To measure the effect of school-based education on adolescents' AIDS knowledge and attitudes, we conducted surveys in two high schools and compared them to a baseline survey conducted in the same schools the previous year. One month before the follow-up survey, students in one of the two schools (the intervention school) had received a two-day education program about AIDS; students in the other (control) school had received no specific AIDS education. Students in both schools showed increases in AIDS knowledge between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Students in the intervention school were more likely than students in the control school to answer questions correctly about the safety of blood donation (82% vs 73%) and the possibility of HIV transmission from a former intravenous drug user (85% vs 67%); they were also less likely than students in the control school to believe persons with AIDS should have certain restriction on their activities. We conclude that while students' level of knowledge about AIDS and HIV has been improving over time even without intervention, specific education programs can still transmit important information, including information that is necessary to prevent or change risky behaviors. PMID:2049936

  13. AIDS prevention among Hispanics: needs, risk behaviors, and cultural values.

    PubMed

    Marin, G

    1989-01-01

    Data from different sources show that Hispanics are over-represented in reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (twice their proportion of the population) and that their rate of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is three times higher than among non-Hispanic whites. The behavior risk factors most frequently associated with infection in AIDS cases are IV drug use in the Northeast and high-risk sexual behavior in the West. HIV infection prevention strategies for Hispanics need to address high risk behaviors, taking into consideration associated culture-specific characteristics. Strategies need to address as well conditions such as racism and ethnic prejudices that keep many Hispanic homosexuals and bisexuals away from white or non-Hispanic gay organizations and publications, the lack of culturally appropriate drug treatment centers, the level of mis-information among Hispanics, and the possible high incidence among men of sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prevention campaigns need to include such Hispanic cultural values as simpatia, familialism, personalismo, and power distance, if prevention campaigns are going to be perceived as relevant by Hispanics. Appropriate wording and communication channels need to be identified in order to transmit messages that will be perceived as credible and that will reach the largest possible audience. PMID:2508169

  14. Making risk meaningful: developing caring relationships with AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Reutter, L I; Northcott, H C

    1993-09-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in order to understand how nurses cope with the risk of contagion while providing care to persons with AIDS (PWAs). Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 nurses who had cared for PWAs in an acute-care hospital in a western Canadian city. The data were analysed using the constant comparative methodology of grounded theory. The analysis revealed that caring for PWAs involved achieving a sense of control over uncertainty. One aspect of this process, making risk meaningful, centred on efforts to justify caring for PWAs in the face of risk. The purpose of this paper is to describe how nurses make risk meaningful. A sense of meaning was found to be related to three major factors: accepting the patient as a person who needs and deserves care, finding work enjoyable and worthwhile, and professional commitment to care for all patients. Attaining a sense of meaning led to a reappraisal of the risk situation as worthy of investment and provided the motivation to care for patients in spite of risk. The paper concludes with implications for practice and suggestions for further research. PMID:8258595

  15. Determinants of intentions of Junior High School students to become sexually active and use condoms: implications for reduction and prevention of AIDS risk.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J A; Dusenbury, L; Botvin, G J; Diaz, T

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with young adolescents' increased risk for AIDS. A multiethnic sample of 303 seventh-grade students in three schools in the greater New York area completed questionnaires assessing their basic demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity), AIDS knowledge, substance use (cigarette smoking, alcohol use), and decision-making skills. AIDS knowledge, substance use, decision-making skills, gender, and ethnicity predicted intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. Relevant knowledge of AIDS was associated with lower intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. More frequent substance use, less frequent use of decision-making skills, and being male increased intentions to engage in sexual behavior in the future. Our findings are discussed in terms of their implications for education and prevention of adolescent sexual activity and AIDS-risk reduction. PMID:7862778

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of university students regarding HIV/AIDS: an urban--rural difference.

    PubMed

    Lal, P; Kumar, A; Ingle, G K; Gulati, N

    1994-12-01

    A total of 322 students from two colleges of Delhi University, one located in urban and the other in the rural area were surveyed to assess and compare their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. A pretested and self-administered questionnaire containing mostly close ended questions was used. Observations revealed that majority of the students were aware of various aspects of HIV/AIDS. However, they also had some misconceptions particularly regarding transmission of the disease. The science and urban students had significantly more knowledge as compared to their counter parts, there by leading to more positive attitudes among them. Findings suggest intensification of AIDS education campaign focussed on removal of misconceptions and changing negative attitudes, more so amongst rural students. Science students can prove as a potential source of peer communication to the non-science students both in urban as well as rural areas. PMID:7759799

  17. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Beliefs Among Haitian Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low-and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with their families and networks of friends, which added rich descriptions to the quantitative data. Overall knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high with the majority of adolescents identifying unprotected sex and sharing injection drug needles as HIV transmission routes. Moreover, approximately 75% of the adolescents reported condom use as an effective preventive strategy. However, misconceptions that could reduce adolescents' adoption of HIV preventive strategies were also identified. The adolescents' sources for information about HIV/AIDS as well as implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:17502921

  18. The Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Interactive Overviews During Hypermedia-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy M.

    1999-01-01

    Uses interactive overviews (IOs), a type of advance organizer, to explore the effect of interaction between organizer structure and prior knowledge on novices' ability to meet learning goals. Participants were assigned to learn about ecosystems with a hypermedia program. Results indicated that the ecosystem IO aided learners in meeting an…

  19. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  20. Measuring discrepancies between knowledge, preoccupation and fear of aids in populations.

    PubMed

    Domenighetti, G; Paccaud, F; Villaret, M; Perucchi, M

    1992-01-01

    A simple tool to quantify discrepancies between knowledge, preoccupation and fear regarding hiv and aids is presented. This tool is based on standard questions available in health surveys. Some results using recent Swiss data are presented, and the method is discussed. PMID:1414016

  1. A Snapshot: South African University Students' Attitudes, Perceptions and Knowledge of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raijmakers, L. R.; Pretorius, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey conducted in August 2004 of students' attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and sexual practices at an Institution of Higher Education. The study was set against the backdrop of the 2004 South African national survey, conducted by the Reproductive Health…

  2. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of an HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitudinal Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zometa, Carlos S.; Dedrick, Robert; Knox, Michael D.; Westhoff, Wayne; Siman Siri, Rodrigo; Debaldo, Ann

    2007-01-01

    An instrument developed in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and four attitudinal dimensions (Peer Pressure, Abstinence, Drug Use, and Threat of HIV Infection) and an instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. (1999) to measure abstinence and condom use were translated,…

  3. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  4. Russian Science Teachers' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS: Implications for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avina, Julie,; O'Connell, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The Russian Federation has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world. Prevention efforts are still in the early stage, and to this date do not include a comprehensive, national HIV prevention education approach for direct application via the educational system. This study examined HIV/AIDS related knowledge of science teachers residing…

  5. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Beliefs among Haitian Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low- and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with…

  6. Dynamics of knowledge and attitudes about AIDS among the educated in southern India.

    PubMed

    Ambati, B K; Ambati, J; Rao, A M

    1997-06-01

    AIDS awareness and attitudes among an educated segment of the Indian population were assessed. The study population was a total of 433 students and faculty in colleges and universities, and research & technical staff of the Public Health Service. While most knew that sexual intercourse (96%) & injection drug use (85%) could transmit HIV, and that shaking hands (95%) & mosquitoes (86%) could not, 63% did not know that breastfeeding was a mode of transmission and 71% falsely believed that they could acquire HIV by donating blood. The only variable to correlate positively with knowledge was education. Knowledge about true and false modes of transmission constituted three distinct dimensions as determined by factor analysis. An overwhelming majority (90%) harboured at least one hostile view towards persons with AIDS. Knowledge and education independently correlated with decreased hostility. There was great concern about the impact of the disease: 85% believed that AIDS is a very serious problem in India and 93% favoured increased government spending on AIDS education. These results display high levels of knowledge (with some gaps), and widespread support for increased action. PMID:9290837

  7. HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men: applying the item response theory

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Raquel Regina de Freitas Magalhães; Batista, José Rodrigues; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men in Brazil using the latent trait model estimated by Item Response Theory. METHODS Multicenter, cross-sectional study, carried out in ten Brazilian cities between 2008 and 2009. Adult men who have sex with men were recruited (n = 3,746) through Respondent Driven Sampling. HIV/AIDS knowledge was ascertained through ten statements by face-to-face interview and latent scores were obtained through two-parameter logistic modeling (difficulty and discrimination) using Item Response Theory. Differential item functioning was used to examine each item characteristic curve by age and schooling. RESULTS Overall, the HIV/AIDS knowledge scores using Item Response Theory did not exceed 6.0 (scale 0-10), with mean and median values of 5.0 (SD = 0.9) and 5.3, respectively, with 40.7% of the sample with knowledge levels below the average. Some beliefs still exist in this population regarding the transmission of the virus by insect bites, by using public restrooms, and by sharing utensils during meals. With regard to the difficulty and discrimination parameters, eight items were located below the mean of the scale and were considered very easy, and four items presented very low discrimination parameter (< 0.34). The absence of difficult items contributed to the inaccuracy of the measurement of knowledge among those with median level and above. CONCLUSIONS Item Response Theory analysis, which focuses on the individual properties of each item, allows measures to be obtained that do not vary or depend on the questionnaire, which provides better ascertainment and accuracy of knowledge scores. Valid and reliable scales are essential for monitoring HIV/AIDS knowledge among the men who have sex with men population over time and in different geographic regions, and this psychometric model brings this advantage. PMID:24897041

  8. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231

  9. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  10. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  11. Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) IRKM-P tightly couples risk management and knowledge management processes and tools to produce an effective "modern" work environment. IRKM-P objectives include: (1) to learn lessons from past and current programs (Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station); (2) to generate and share new engineering design, operations, and management best practices through preexisting Continuous Risk Management (CRM) procedures and knowledge-management practices; and (3) to infuse those lessons and best practices into current activities. The conceptual framework of the IRKM-P is based on the assumption that risks highlight potential knowledge gaps that might be mitigated through one or more knowledge management practices or artifacts. These same risks also serve as cues for collection of knowledge particularly, knowledge of technical or programmatic challenges that might recur.

  12. Health workers and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and experiences as determinants of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krasnik, A; Fouchard, J R; Bayer, T; Keiding, N

    1990-06-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the level of HIV/AIDS related anxiety among health care workers and identify its determinants. Data were obtained by means of a mailed, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to 2561 Danish medical doctors, nurses and nursing aides drawn randomly from the lists of members of the respective national associations. The data were analysed on the basis of a pre-study model including 12 variables hypothesizing a hierarchy of causal dependencies with anxiety at the top. 44% of the participants expressed HIV/AIDS related anxiety--hospital workers more than primary care workers, the older less than the younger. Anxiety was significantly associated with negative/restrictive attitudes towards HIV positives and gay men and with low levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and less education about HIV/AIDS. Negative/restrictive attitudes towards HIV positives were associated both with less knowledge regarding HIV transmission and fewer contacts with HIV positives. Similar associations were found regarding gay men. It is suggested that new kinds of training programmes be established which focus much more on attitudes and norms concerning HIV/AIDS--especially among health care workers with only occasional contact with HIV patients. PMID:2367820

  13. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    PubMed

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  14. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS risk perception in the Malawi tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Bisika, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Malawi has for a long time relied on agriculture for the generation of foreign exchange. Due to varied reasons like climate change, the Malawi government has, therefore, identified tourism as one way of boosting foreign exchange earnings and is already in the process of developing the sector especially in the area of ecotourism. However, tourism is associated with increasing prostitution, drug abuse and a whole range of other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems such as teenage pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This paper examines the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviour as well as risk perceptions associated with HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among staff in the tourism industry and communities around tourist facilities in Malawi. The study was descriptive in nature and used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The qualitative methods involved in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative technique employed a survey of 205 purposively selected subjects from the tourism sector. The study concludes that people in the tourism sector are at high risk of HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies and should be considered as a vulnerable group. The study further observes that this group of people has not adopted behaviours that can protect them from HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies although there is high demand for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) which offers a very good entry point for HIV prevention and treatment in the tourism sector. The study recommends that a comprehensive tourism policy covering tourists, employees and communities around tourist facilities is required. Such a policy should address the rights of HIV infected employees and the provision of prevention and treatment services for HIV/AIDS and STIs as well as a broad range of SRH and family planning services especially

  15. The rationale of interorganizational linkages to connect multiple sites of expertise, knowledge production, and knowledge transfer: an example from HIV/AIDS services for the inner city.

    PubMed

    Rier, David A; Indyk, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a long-running project in which various community-based and tertiary-based providers are being linked to each other in order to understand, reach, and engage high-risk, hard-to-reach inner-city residents for prevention, treatment, and management of HIV/AIDS. Not simply a program to link disparate actors, the work has developed into a more fundamental approach through which to build and maintain the infrastructure required to generate and sustain knowledge development and integration within and between systems. This work is grounded in the recognition that each type of provider, as well as patients and clients themselves, has a particular type of expertise. All forms of expertise are necessary to fight HIV/ AIDS. Different forms of expertise are necessary to diagnose, treat, prevent, and cure HIV/AIDS and its sequelae. This work suggests revisions in traditional approaches to expertise and to the content and geometry of dissemination networks, and ultimately challenges the very concepts of dissemination and the lay/scientific boundary. PMID:16687372

  16. The political context of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge in a South African township community.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Brian; Vandormael, Alain; Kershaw, Trace; Grobbelaar, Janis

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation of AIDS-related stigma and knowledge within the political context of the South African government's response to the AIDS epidemic. It was during the 2000 - 2004 period that key government officials publicly challenged the orthodox views of HIV/AIDS, with the South African president, Thabo Mbeki, actively positing the primary role of poverty and other socio-economic stressors in the progression of the AIDS epidemic. This discursive position had real-time effects for AIDS policy-making and ultimately delayed the implementation of a national antiretroviral (ARV) rollout programme. Consequently this position was criticised by commentators in the media and elsewhere for contributing to an already widespread climate of AIDS stigmatization and misinformation. To shed more light on these claims we conducted a survey in 2005 in Atteridgeville, a South African township, and compared results with those of a similar survey conducted shortly after ARV medications became available in 2004. Results indicated a reduction in AIDS stigma levels across the 1-year period, and that those participants who endorsed contentious political views (such as those expressed by key government officials) were more likely to have a higher level of AIDS-related stigma than those who disagreed. Nevertheless, this study cautions against drawing a causal relationship between the South African government's position and IDS-stigmatizing attitudes, and suggests that further political and social factors be accounted for in an attempt to gain a fuller understanding of this seemingly complex relationship. PMID:18709210

  17. The Influence of Knowing Someone with AIDS on Youth HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual risk behaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…

  18. AIDS knowledge gaps: results from the first decade of the epidemic and implications for future public information efforts.

    PubMed

    Salmon, C T; Wooten, K; Gentry, E; Cole, G E; Kroger, F

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the first decade of AIDS, certain populations have been disproportionately affected by its spread, particularly men, blacks, Hispanics, and the young. Just as there are population differences in the spread of the disease, there are differences in knowledge about the disease as well. This article applies the knowledge gap framework to examine the nature and magnitude of gaps in knowledge among different populations. The analysis shows that persons of low education lag behind other groups in true-transmission knowledge (i.e., knowledge about ways in which HIV/AIDS actually is transmitted) and false-transmission knowledge (i.e., misconceptions about how the disease is spread). PMID:10947357

  19. Shared Decision Making and Patient Decision Aids: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Hawai‘i Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friend, John; Chun, Maria BJ

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawai‘i's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawai‘i were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to the clinical use of DAs. One hundred and seventy four valid surveys were analyzed. Reported awareness and use of DAs were low, but recognition of the benefits of SDM and openness to the use of DAs were very high. The leading perceived barriers to the implementation of DAs were lack of awareness, lack of resources, and limited physician time to learn about DA technology. However, a significant majority of the respondents reported that DAs could empower patients by improving knowledge (88%), increasing satisfaction with the consultation process (81%), and increasing compliance (74%). Among physicians currently employing DAs, use of brochures or options matrix sheets was the most common aid tool. However, leading recommended DA formats were paper-based brochures for clinic use (75%) and interactive online website programs for outside clinic use (73.5%). Given growing emphasis on the PCC model and the recognized desire of many patients to participate in the medical decision making process, positive responses toward SDM and the use of DAs by Hawai‘i physicians are promising. PMID:24251086

  20. Risk Management In Perspective Of Knowledge Management A Brief Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Zobia; Kifor, Claudiu V.

    2015-09-01

    This article explains the application of knowledge management for project risk management in industry. Combination of knowledge management and risk management is becoming a dire need for industries nowadays, because it has become necessary to make information reach timely to its destined users to achieve the desired goals. Quick decisions are needed throughout a project life cycle to mitigate or avoid a risk, but they are only possible when knowledge about it is in hand and can be inferred for fruitful decisions. Quality engineers make huge effort in analyzing and mitigating the risk and prepare various documents about different risk management stages. But this knowledge resides in documents or underutilized databases without any relation to each other that makes it useless for complex decision making. This article shall explain how knowledge management activities are helpful in risk management and the advantages of their fusion. It will also present a conceptual architecture of an Information Technology based solution for risk management and knowledge management combination.

  1. Diabetes Risk Factor Knowledge Varies Among Multiracial College Students.

    PubMed

    Mongiello, Lorraine Laccetti; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Jones, Hollie

    2016-10-01

    All racial/ethnic groups are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes compared to whites, but it is unknown if young adults recognize their risk. Risk knowledge and individual risk perception were examined in 1579 multiracial urban college students. Students have little knowledge of diabetes risk factors; identifying less than three of ten. Considerable variation exists in the understanding of risk; only .02 % of Asian, 14.0 % of Hispanic and 22.8 % of black students recognized that their race increased risk. Among those with ≥3 risk factors (n = 541) only 39 % perceived their risk. These under-estimators had lower knowledge scores (p = .03) than those who acknowledged their risk; indicating that the cause of under-estimating risk may be, at least, in part due to a lack of information. There is a pressing need to heighten understanding of type 2 diabetes risk among young adults to decrease the future burden of this disease. PMID:26169506

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of nurses and nursing students towards HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Irma Conejeros; Sánchez, Helga Emig; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Valdés, Báltica Cabieses; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe attitudes, knowledge and perceptions of nurses and nursing students towards the people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methodology Bibliographic study in which six electronic databases were searched using the key words: “attitude”, “knowledge”, “nursing”, perceptions”, “HIV/AIDS”. Publications between 1998 and 2007 were considered. Results 560 articles limited by scientific researches or ministerial reports membership were retrieved. Finally a total of 38 publications were selected, the analysis showed that the level of knowledge of nurses and nursing students about PLWHA is good and the attitudes towards HIV/AIDS have improved over time. Nurses and nursing students have been able to identify both positive and negative aspects in the PLWHA care personally and professionally because there is a more favourable perception. Conclusion There are few studies in Latin America and Chile that study the attitudes and knowledge of the studied population towards PLWHA. According to publications found the knowledge and attitudes have improved because the perception is more favourable. PMID:27499563

  3. Physician Decision Making and Cardiac Risk: Effects of Knowledge, Risk Perception, Risk Tolerance, and Fuzzy Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Lloyd, Farrell J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite training, professionals sometimes make serious errors in risky decision making. The authors investigated judgments and decisions for 9 hypothetical patients at 3 levels of cardiac risk, comparing student and physician groups varying in domain-specific knowledge. Decisions were examined regarding whether they deviated from guidelines, how…

  4. 20 Years Later and Still at Risk: College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors about HIV/HIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polacek, Georgia Johnston N. L.; Hicks, Jennifer A.; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates in the United States continue unabated among some groups, with young adults of color at greater risk than others. This study sought to determine college students' knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to HIV/AIDS. Undergraduate students (N = 443) at a large, urban Hispanic-serving…

  5. Impact of national HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in South Africa to reduce HIV risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Parker, Warren; Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Makonko, Elias; Zuma, Khangelani; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15-55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30%) across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA. PMID:23213285

  6. Impact of National HIV and AIDS Communication Campaigns in South Africa to Reduce HIV Risk Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Parker, Warren; Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Makonko, Elias; Zuma, Khangelani; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15–55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30%) across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA. PMID:23213285

  7. Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced women to engage in HIV risk-reduction practices. The findings from this study led to the emergence of an HIV and AIDS risk assessment and reduction (HARAR) model, which is described in detail. The model helps in understanding gender-related factors influencing men and women to engage in risk-reduction practices, which can be used as a framework in other settings to design more nuanced and contextual policies and programs. PMID:25089093

  8. Public knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy in Kabarole district, western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Walter Eigen; Alibhai, Arif; Saunders, Duncan; Konde-Lule, Joseph; Ruhunda, Alex

    2009-01-01

    A study on knowledge about HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (ART) was conducted in the general population of a rural district in western Uganda. Three hundred seventy-two participants were selected by random cluster sampling and interviewed with an interview-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed quantitatively with descriptive, univariate and linear multivariate statistical analysis with the knowledge score about ART as the dependent variable. The results indicate that the mean knowledge was 7.7 in a scale from 0 to 13. Predictor for better ART knowledge was a higher educational status of the participants. Older participants over 50 years were less ART knowledgeable. Only 19% of the participants have been tested for HIV. The conclusions are that the ART knowledge in this population is remarkably high which is reaffirming and important for achieving a high adherence to ART. Of concern is the low proportion of persons tested for HIV in this general population. Kabarole district seems to be receptive and capable for intensifying HIV testing which is a precondition for the ART roll-out. PMID:19085228

  9. The effect of a decision aid intervention on decision making about coronary heart disease risk reduction: secondary analyses of a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decision aids offer promise as a practical solution to improve patient decision making about coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention medications and help patients choose medications to which they are likely to adhere. However, little data is available on decision aids designed to promote adherence. Methods In this paper, we report on secondary analyses of a randomized trial of a CHD adherence intervention (second generation decision aid plus tailored messages) versus usual care in an effort to understand how the decision aid facilitates adherence. We focus on data collected from the primary study visit, when intervention participants presented 45 minutes early to a previously scheduled provider visit; viewed the decision aid, indicating their intent for CHD risk reduction after each decision aid component (individualized risk assessment and education, values clarification, and coaching); and filled out a post-decision aid survey assessing their knowledge, perceived risk, decisional conflict, and intent for CHD risk reduction. Control participants did not present early and received usual care from their provider. Following the provider visit, participants in both groups completed post-visit surveys assessing the number and quality of CHD discussions with their provider, their intent for CHD risk reduction, and their feelings about the decision aid. Results We enrolled 160 patients into our study (81 intervention, 79 control). Within the decision aid group, the decision aid significantly increased knowledge of effective CHD prevention strategies (+21 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and the accuracy of perceived CHD risk (+33 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001), and significantly decreased decisional conflict (-0.63; adjusted p<.0001). Comparing between study groups, the decision aid also significantly increased CHD prevention discussions with providers (+31 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and improved perceptions of some features of patient

  10. Local knowledge of the link between tuberculosis and HIV-1/AIDS among the Turkana of Lodwar township: implications for tuberculosis and HIV-1/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Owiti, John Arianda

    2008-01-01

    This article is extracted from a doctoral thesis that was supported by a research grant from the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC)'s Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health Training Award, the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Northern Ireland's Emslie Horniman Scholarship Fund and McGill University, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research's Humanities and Social Sciences Research Award. This study used a broad theoretical framework encompassing an ecosystem approach to HIV-1/AIDS that partly investigated the nexus between local knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1/AIDS. According to the Turkana of Lodwar township, Kenya, HIV-1/AIDS and TB are largely contagious and are attributed to impersonal and natural causes. In addition, in line with biomedical knowledge, the Turkana's local knowledge emphasises a conceptual link between TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The study also demonstrates that factors of the ecosystem such as kaada, poverty, widow inheritance, migration and other socio-cultural practices play an influential role in the vulnerability of the Turkana to the contraction and transmission of both TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The article posits an integrated approach to the prevention of TB and HIV-1 and to the management of AIDS and TB. PMID:19369823

  11. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Perception of Knowledge and Sources of Information among University Students in USA, Turkey, South Africa and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiona, Titilayo; Balogun, Joseph; Yohannes, Eden; Adefuye, Adedeji; Yakut, Yavuz; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceptions of knowledge and sources of HIV information among university students in four countries with different HIV prevalence rates. Methods: A survey was completed by 2,570 randomly selected university students from the USA, Turkey, South Africa and Nigeria. Logistic regression analysis was used to…

  12. Prevalence and knowledge of sexual transmitted infections, drug abuse, and AIDS among male inmates in a Taiwan prison.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Chu; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chang, Pi-Yen; Lu, Po-Liang

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), intravenous drug users (IDUs), and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%), IDUs without HIV (49.3%), and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%). A total of 115 (12.7%) inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community. PMID:23217358

  13. Fear of AIDS and Risk Reduction among Heroin-Addicted Female Street Prostitutes: Personal Interviews with 72 Southern California Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 72 heroin-addicted female street prostitutes and assessed fear of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS risk reduction behavior, and prostitutes' recommendations for AIDS risk reduction programs. Self-reported data showed that, although subjects were afraid of AIDS, irrationality produced by addiction compelled risky…

  14. Urban Community Gardeners' Knowledge and Perceptions of Soil Contaminant Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brent F.; Poulsen, Melissa N.; Margulies, Jared D.; Dix, Katie L.; Palmer, Anne M.; Nachman, Keeve E.

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether. PMID:24516570

  15. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether. PMID:24516570

  16. Effects of two educational method of lecturing and role playing on knowledge and performance of high school students in first aid at emergency scene

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Vasili, Arezu; Zare, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of two educational methods on students' knowledge and performance regarding first aid at emergency scenes. METHODS: In this semi-experimental study, the sample was selected randomly among male and female public high school students of Isfahan. Each group included 60 students. At first the knowledge and performance of students in first aid at emergency scene was assessed using a researcher-made questionnaire. Then necessary education was provided to the students within 10 sessions of two hours by lecturing and role playing. The students' knowledge and performance was as-sessed again and the results were compared. RESULTS: It was no significant relationship between the frequency distribution of students' age, major and knowledge and performance before the educational course in the two groups. The score of knowledge in performing CPR, using proper way to bandage, immobilizing the injured area, and proper ways of carrying injured person after the education was significantly increased in both groups. Moreover, the performance in proper way to bandage, immobilizing injured area and proper ways of carrying injured person after educational course was significantly higher in playing role group compared to lecturing group after education. CONCLUSIONS: Iran is a developing country with a young generation and it is a country with high risk of natural disasters; so, providing necessary education with more effective methods can be effective in reducing mortality and morbidity due to lack of first aid care in crucial moments. Training with playing role is suggested for this purpose. PMID:21589743

  17. Older Americans and AIDS: Transmission Risks and Primary Prevention Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, Joseph A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Growing number of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among older Americans is of increasing concern. In context of primary prevention, reviews findings that bear on modes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (blood transfusions, sexual) among older individuals and knowledge of magnitude of the AIDS problem represented…

  18. HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behavior among students in Semey, Kazakhstan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Marit; Stockfelt, Leo; Urazalin, Marat; Ahlm, Clas; Andersson, Rune

    2008-01-01

    Background Until recently, young people in Kazakhstan have been only moderately affected by the global HIV epidemic. Today, however, the HIV epidemic in Central Asia is one of the most rapidly increasing epidemics in the world. It is mainly concentrated to vulnerable groups such as intravenous drug users, sex workers, the purchasers of sexual services and the financially marginalized. Young, sexually active people may however be the gateway for the epidemic to the general population, and knowledge about their attitudes and behavior is therefore important in planning preventive measures. Methods To gather information about young students and their attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, we collected 600 structured questionnaires and made 23 semi-structured interviews among three groups of students. Response rate was 99%. Results Almost 99% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 89% could identify ways to protect oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. The main routes of transmission, sexual contact without condom and intravenous drug use, were both identified by 97% of the students. Twenty-five percent of the female students and 75% of the male students had had one or more sexual partners. More than 30% of the young men had purchased sex, and homosexuality was widely stigmatized. Conclusion Risks for the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people in Kazakhstan include prostitution as well as stigmatization of the HIV positive and of homosexuals. Protective factors are good knowledge about risks and protection, and opportunities to talk and gather information about sexuality and HIV/AIDS. PMID:19087297

  19. HIV/AIDS prevention: knowledge, attitudes and education practices of secondary school health personnel in 14 cities of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools. PMID:18839862

  20. Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ing-Marie; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Rosèn, Gunnar; Moström Åberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Young male and female workers are over-represented in statistics concerning negative outcomes of poor work environment and risky work. Young workers often have low awareness of risk, a lack of safety training, and inadequate introduction to the work. The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and experiences of pupils of vocational schools concerning potential work environment risks in their future work. Methods The study design was a dual one, and included a questionnaire and focus group interviews. The study group consisted of 239 pupils from 10 upper secondary schools, who were graduating pupils in four vocational programs: the Industrial Technology Programme, the Restaurant Management and Food Programme, the Transport Programme, and the Handicraft Programme (in which students specialize in wood products). The upper secondary schools were located in the central region of Sweden. Results The pupils had limited knowledge that employers must, by law, conduct risk analyses and prevent risks. Many felt that they themselves are mainly responsible for performing their tasks safely. Pupils in all programs mentioned acute risk as the greatest risk at work. The theoretical education about safety at work was provided in the 1st year of the 3-year vocational programs. Conclusion A systematic approach to pupils' training in work environment, which is a basis for a safe and healthy workplace, is lacking. The study findings indicate that pupils are offered knowledge far from that intended by laws and by state-of-the-art occupational health risk research. PMID:25379328

  1. Awareness and perceptions on prevention, first aid and treatment of snakebites among Sri Lankan farmers: a knowledge practice mismatch?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebite is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. In Sri Lanka, snakebite is mainly an occupational health hazard associated with farming. Understanding awareness and perceptions in risk populations on the preventive measures, first aid and treatment for snakebite becomes pivotal in designing snakebite prevention and control programs. Using an investigator assisted self completed questionnaire, we assessed the awareness and perceptions of 176 part-time and full-time, Chena and paddy farmers from three dry zone districts of Sri Lanka where agriculture is the main economic activity. Findings High percentages of the participants were aware of practices that minimize snakebites in houses and outside, available treatments and most of the recommended first aid measures. Western medical treatment was preferred by the vast majority of the farmers over the traditional treatment. Conclusion Some of the protective measures that the farmers were aware of are not practiced generally in Sri Lanka, suggesting a knowledge-practice mismatch. We suggest studies to understand the effects of socioeconomic and cultural determinants on snakebite prevention in Sri Lanka. PMID:24847375

  2. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  3. Designing optimal transportation networks: a knowledge-based computer-aided multicriteria approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the applicability of using knowledge-based expert systems (KBES) approach to solve the single-mode (automobile), fixed-demand, discrete, multicriteria, equilibrium transportation-network-design problem. Previous works on this problem has found that mathematical programming method perform well on small networks with only one objective. Needed is a solution technique that can be used on large networks having multiple, conflicting criteria with different relative importance weights. The KBES approach developed in this dissertation represents a new way to solve network design problems. The development of an expert system involves three major tasks: knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and testing. For knowledge acquisition, a computer aided network design/evaluation model (UFOS) was developed to explore the design space. This study is limited to the problem of designing an optimal transportation network by adding and deleting capacity increments to/from any link in the network. Three weighted criteria were adopted for use in evaluating each design alternative: cost, average V/C ratio, and average travel time.

  4. Using Prior Knowledge to Aid Teaching and Learning: What Do First-Year Psychology Students Know about Old Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2007-01-01

    Students attending a lecture usually have a wide range of prior knowledge about the topic in question. Rather than seeing this as a problem, lecturers can take advantage of such differences. This article shows how students' misconceptions about old age were used to inform a lecture on the topic. Prior knowledge can thus be used to aid teaching and…

  5. Investigating the Impact of Financial Aid on Student Dropout Risks: Racial and Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differences in college student dropout behavior among racial/ethnic groups. We employ event history methods and data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) and National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) surveys to investigate how financial aid may differentially influence dropout risks among these student…

  6. Sunbathing: College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)

  7. Teens' Knowledge of Risk Factors for Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Cynthia W.

    2004-01-01

    Youth participation in sports has increased greatly over the past 20 years. Consequently, there has been a rise in the number of sports injuries. A study was conducted to determine teen's level of physical activity, knowledge about risk factors for sports injuries, use of protective equipment, and parental involvement. Two groups of teens, one of…

  8. Integration of expert knowledge and uncertainty in natural risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and

  9. AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes, Provisional Data from the National Health Interview Survey: United States, August 1987. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics. No. 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Deborah A.; And Others

    This document presents provisional data for all Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) questionnaire items from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for August 1987. It notes that the AIDS questionnaire was designed to provide baseline estimates of public knowledge and attitudes about AIDS transmission, the prevention of AIDS virus…

  10. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

  11. Community knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its relationship with sexual practices in Tabora and Igunga Districts, Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nkya, G M; Sindato, C; Mcharo, J; Kibona, S N

    2006-09-01

    HIV/AIDS represents one of the critical challenges to human development in sub Saharan Africa. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its relationship with sexual practices among communities in Tabora and Igunga Districts in western Tanzania. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods, which included interviews and group discussions. A total of 568 participants (female = 49%; males = 51%) were involved in the study. Two hundred and eighty-four of the respondents were adults (> 25 years) and 284 were youths of 12 - 25 years. The results showed although the knowledge of the disease and its prevention was high (90%) among the community, some gaps regarding the knowledge on modes of transmission were observed. About 17.2% of the respondents reported to have multiple sexual partners and only about half of the respondents reported the use of condoms. The level of education correlated significantly with the individual knowledge on HIV/AIDS (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference between urban and rural communities on their knowledge on HIV/AIDS (P > 0.05). Health education on HIV/AIDS prevention needs to be strengthened and improved to include cognitive behavioural interventions that emphasize attitude changes, negotiation skills and decision-making skills that could be effective in changing and maintaining safe sexual behaviour. PMID:18254510

  12. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior as a result of a community-based AIDS prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, T E; Booraem, C; Flowers, J V; Iversen, A E

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluates the outcome of a California-based AIDS prevention program, "Stop AIDS." Community discussion groups focusing on information, attitudes, and behavior associated with HIV infection and transmission were conducted in one-time, 3 1/2-hour sessions. Participants completed different versions of the AIDS Prevention Test before and after the discussion group. Significant positive shifts in information, attitudes, and behavior were observed as a function of the discussion group participation. Whereas pretest knowledge correlated with pretest behavior and posttest knowledge, only pretest behavior correlated with the crucial variable of posttest intended behavior. When changes from pretest to posttest were analyzed, both information and attitude change correlated to changes in behavior. The intervention and evaluation procedures are proposed as a replicable national model for community-based AIDS prevention programs. PMID:2386650

  13. Knowledge-Aided Multichannel Adaptive SAR/GMTI Processing: Algorithm and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Zhu, Daiyin; Zhu, Zhaoda

    2010-12-01

    The multichannel synthetic aperture radar ground moving target indication (SAR/GMTI) technique is a simplified implementation of space-time adaptive processing (STAP), which has been proved to be feasible in the past decades. However, its detection performance will be degraded in heterogeneous environments due to the rapidly varying clutter characteristics. Knowledge-aided (KA) STAP provides an effective way to deal with the nonstationary problem in real-world clutter environment. Based on the KA STAP methods, this paper proposes a KA algorithm for adaptive SAR/GMTI processing in heterogeneous environments. It reduces sample support by its fast convergence properties and shows robust to non-stationary clutter distribution relative to the traditional adaptive SAR/GMTI scheme. Experimental clutter suppression results are employed to verify the virtue of this algorithm.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in Lebanon concerning HIV/AIDS, 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Kahhaleh, J G; El Nakib, M; Jurjus, A R

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study, aimed at evaluating the impact of HIV prevention interventions in Lebanon since 1996, was performed between January 2004 and July 2004 on 3200 Lebanese aged 15-49 years. Of the sexually active respondents, 13.0% of men and 2.6% of women had regular partners other than the spouse but only 25.0% used a condom in their last sexual intercourse. However, 16.8% had sex with casual partners and 71.7% of those used a condom. Knowledge about preventive practices against HIV/AIDS has regressed since 1996, 85.7% compared to 94.9%. Self reports of symptoms suggestive of sexually transmitted disease were 9.1% compared to 5.6% in 1996. PMID:20187544

  15. Capturing and integrating knowledge for managing risks in tunnel works.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van Tol, Frits A

    2013-01-01

    Risk-related knowledge gained from past construction projects is regarded as potentially extremely useful in risk management. This article describes a proposed approach to capture and integrate risk-related knowledge to support decision making in construction projects. To ameliorate the problem related to the scarcity of risks information often encountered in construction projects, Bayesian Belief Networks are used and expert judgment is elicited to augment available information. Particularly, the article provides an overview of judgment-based biases that can appear in the elicitation of judgments for constructing Bayesian Networks and the provisos that can be made in this respect to minimize these types of bias. The proposed approach is successfully applied to develop six models for top risks in tunnel works. More than 30 tunneling experts in the Netherlands and Germany were involved in the investigation to provide information on identifying relevant scenarios than can lead to failure events associated with tunneling risks. The article has provided an illustration of the applicability of the developed approach for the case of "face instability in soft soils using slurry shields." PMID:22571494

  16. HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk: conspiracies, questions and confusion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Newman, Peter A; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T

    2005-12-01

    HIV vaccines offer the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. We explored HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk for HIV/AIDS. Participants (N=99; median age=33 years; 48% female; 22% African-American; 44% Latino; 28% white; 6% other) were recruited from seven high-risk venues in Los Angeles, California, using purposive, venue-based sampling. Results from nine focus groups revealed: 1) mixed beliefs and conspiracy theories about the existence of HIV vaccines; 2) hopefulness and doubts about future HIV vaccine availability; 3) lack of information about HIV vaccines; and 4) confusion about vaccines and how they work. Tailored HIV vaccine education that addresses the current status of HIV vaccine development and key vaccine concepts is warranted among communities at risk. Ongoing dialogue among researchers, public health practitioners and communities at risk may provide a vital opportunity to dispel misinformation and rumors and to cultivate trust, which may facilitate HIV vaccine trial participation and uptake of future HIV vaccines. PMID:16396058

  17. HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk: conspiracies, questions and confusion.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Newman, Peter A.; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T.

    2005-01-01

    HIV vaccines offer the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. We explored HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk for HIV/AIDS. Participants (N=99; median age=33 years; 48% female; 22% African-American; 44% Latino; 28% white; 6% other) were recruited from seven high-risk venues in Los Angeles, California, using purposive, venue-based sampling. Results from nine focus groups revealed: 1) mixed beliefs and conspiracy theories about the existence of HIV vaccines; 2) hopefulness and doubts about future HIV vaccine availability; 3) lack of information about HIV vaccines; and 4) confusion about vaccines and how they work. Tailored HIV vaccine education that addresses the current status of HIV vaccine development and key vaccine concepts is warranted among communities at risk. Ongoing dialogue among researchers, public health practitioners and communities at risk may provide a vital opportunity to dispel misinformation and rumors and to cultivate trust, which may facilitate HIV vaccine trial participation and uptake of future HIV vaccines. PMID:16396058

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior in managing patients with HIV/AIDS among a group of Indian dental students.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Panat, Sunil R

    2013-09-01

    With increasing numbers of people with HIV/AIDS receiving oral dental care, dentists should have sufficient knowledge of the disease, and their attitude should meet professional expectations. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing appropriate education on these topics. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes amongst the 460 dental students of the Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly (UP), India. A self-administered survey consisting of fifty-three structured questions was conducted with the students. Overall, the response rate was 79.7 percent. The total mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 78.8 percent (excellent) and 77.7 percent (positive). There was no statistically significant difference between the knowledge and attitude scores of males and females. Regarding oral manifestations, Kaposi's sarcoma and candidiasis were the most identified. The results indicated that the students' knowledge on HIV/AIDS generally increased as they progressed through the curriculum, but their utilization of all barrier techniques for infection control and clinical protocol lacked consistency and compliance. Hence, there is a need to address, more clearly, the students' misconceptions and attitudes towards the disease. PMID:24002860

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practices of students about first aid epilepsy seizures management in a Northern Indian City

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sonu; Singh, Navpreet; Lal, Vivek; Singh, Amarjeet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment) and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment) on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Results: Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. Conclusion: We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum. PMID:24339575

  20. AIDS awareness and attitudes among Yemeni young people living in high-risk areas.

    PubMed

    Al-Serouri, A W; Anaam, M; Al-Iryani, B; Al Deram, A; Ramaroson, S

    2010-03-01

    Despite te low rate of infection in Yemen, there are concerns about the possible spread of HIV among high-risk and vulnerable groups. A community-based study was made in 2005 of AIDS awareness and attitudes among 601 young people aged 15-24 years from low-income, high-risk neighbourhoods in Aden. Young people lacked proper information about HIV/AIDS. Although 89% had heard of AIDS, fewer (46%) could name 3 ways of transmission or 3 ways to avoid infection (28%). Misconceptions about modes of transmissions were prevalent and many young people believed that they faced little or no risk. There were intolerant attitudes towards AIDS patients. About half the young people knew that prostitution and homosexuality existed in their area. PMID:20795436

  1. Who profits from visual aids: overcoming challenges in people's understanding of risks [corrected].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2010-04-01

    Many people have difficulties grasping numerical concepts that are prerequisites for understanding treatment risk reduction. Visual aids have been proposed as a promising method for enhancing comprehension. In a survey of probabilistic, nationally representative samples in two different countries (United States and Germany), we compared the effectiveness of adding different types of visual aids (icon arrays and bar graphs representing either affected individuals only or the entire population at risk) to the numerical information in either an absolute or a relative risk reduction format. We also analyzed whether people's numeracy and graphical literacy skills affected the efficacy of the visual aids. Our results showed large improvements in accuracy both when icon arrays and when bar graphs were added to numerical information. Highest increases were achieved when the visual aids depicted the entire population at risk. Importantly, visual aids were most useful for the participants who had low numeracy but relatively high graphical literacy skills. Building on previous research showing that problems with understanding numerical information often do not reside in people's minds, but in the representation of the problem, our results show that visual aids help to modify incorrect expectations about treatment risk reduction. Our results have important implications for medical practice. PMID:20116159

  2. Factual knowledge about AIDS and dating practices among high school students from selected schools.

    PubMed

    Nyachuru-Sihlangu, R H; Ndlovu, J

    1992-06-01

    Following various educational strategies by governmental and non-governmental organisations to educate youths and school teachers about HIV infection and prevention, this KABP survey was one attempt to evaluate the results. The study sample of 478 high school students was drawn from four randomly selected schools in Mashonaland and Matabeleland including high and low density, government and mission co-educational schools. The sample was randomly selected and stratified to represent sex and grade level. The KABP self administered questionnaire was used. The paper analyses the relationship between the knowledge and dating patterns. Generally, respondents demonstrated a 50pc to 80pc accuracy of factual knowledge. Of the 66pc Forms I through IV pupils who dated, 30pc preferred only sexually involved relationships and a small number considered the possibility of HIV/AIDS infection. A theoretically based tripartite coalition involving the school, the family health care services for education, guidance and support to promote responsible behaviour throughout childhood was suggested. PMID:1394403

  3. An architecture for integrating distributed and cooperating knowledge-based Air Force decision aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, Richard O.; Tucker, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    MITRE has been developing a Knowledge-Based Battle Management Testbed for evaluating the viability of integrating independently-developed knowledge-based decision aids in the Air Force tactical domain. The primary goal for the testbed architecture is to permit a new system to be added to a testbed with little change to the system's software. Each system that connects to the testbed network declares that it can provide a number of services to other systems. When a system wants to use another system's service, it does not address the server system by name, but instead transmits a request to the testbed network asking for a particular service to be performed. A key component of the testbed architecture is a common database which uses a relational database management system (RDBMS). The RDBMS provides a database update notification service to requesting systems. Normally, each system is expected to monitor data relations of interest to it. Alternatively, a system may broadcast an announcement message to inform other systems that an event of potential interest has occurred. Current research is aimed at dealing with issues resulting from integration efforts, such as dealing with potential mismatches of each system's assumptions about the common database, decentralizing network control, and coordinating multiple agents.

  4. Perceived Susceptibility to AIDS Predicts Subsequent HIV Risk: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Jail Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Leah M.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Tangney, June P.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of health behavior change suggest that perceived susceptibility to illness precedes health-protective behavior. We used a cross-lagged panel design to explore the relationship between perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and HIV risk behavior pre-incarceration and post-release in a sample of 499 jail inmates, a group at high risk for HIV. We also explored moderators of this relationship. HIV risk was calculated with a Bernoulli mathematical process model. Controlling for pre-incarceration HIV risk, perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicted less post-release HIV risk; the reverse relationship was not supported. Consistent with health behavior change theories, perceived susceptibility seemed to partially guide behavior. However, this relationship was not true for everyone. African-Americans and individuals high in borderline personality features exhibited no relationship between perceived susceptibility and changes in HIV risk. This suggests that targeted interventions are needed to use information about risk level to prevent HIV contraction. PMID:23591920

  5. Perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicts subsequent HIV risk: a longitudinal evaluation of jail inmates.

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Tangney, June P; Kashdan, Todd B

    2014-06-01

    Theories of health behavior change suggest that perceived susceptibility to illness precedes health-protective behavior. We used a cross-lagged panel design to explore the relationship between perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and HIV risk behavior pre-incarceration and post-release in a sample of 499 jail inmates, a group at high risk for HIV. We also explored moderators of this relationship. HIV risk was calculated with a Bernoulli mathematical process model. Controlling for pre-incarceration HIV risk, perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicted less post-release HIV risk; the reverse relationship was not supported. Consistent with health behavior change theories, perceived susceptibility seemed to partially guide behavior. However, this relationship was not true for everyone. African-Americans and individuals high in borderline personality features exhibited no relationship between perceived susceptibility and changes in HIV risk. This suggests that targeted interventions are needed to use information about risk level to prevent HIV contraction. PMID:23591920

  6. Can Knowledge Deficit Explain Societal Perception of Climate Change Risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.; Bondell, H.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change literacy efforts have had a rough journey in the past decade. Although scientists have become increasingly convinced about anthropological climate change, change in public opinion has been underwhelming. The unexplained gap between scientific consensus and public opinion has made this topic an important research area in the realm of public understanding of science. Recent research on climate change risk perception (CCRP) has advanced an intriguing hypothesis, namely, cultural cognition thesis (CCT), which posits that the public has adequate knowledge to understand climate change science but people tend to use this knowledge solely to promote their culturally motivated view-point of climate change. This talk provides evidence to demonstrate that despite culture playing a significant role in influencing CCRP, knowledge deficiency remains a persistent problem in our society and contributes to the aforementioned gap. However, such deficits can remain undiagnosed due to limitations of survey design.

  7. Representation of AIDS in Televised Public Service Announcements: The Discursive Practices of Government in the Constitution of Knowledge about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Roger; And Others

    Using a textualist approach (looking at meaning above and beyond overt message elements), a study examined televised public service announcements (PSAs) about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) produced by the Ad Council and the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Both ads identify young people who should be concerned…

  8. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  9. Perception of HIV/AIDS Risk among Urban, Low-Income Senior-Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Elijah G.; Disch, William B.; Levy, Judith A.; Schensul, Jean J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the rising number of cases of HIV in adults over age 50, older persons rarely are considered to be at risk for HIV/AIDS, and even though they may be involved in risky behavior, such as unprotected penetrative sex, they may not consider themselves vulnerable to becoming infected. Informed awareness of risk is essential to making positive…

  10. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  11. Linking local knowledge with global action: examining the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria through a knowledge system lens.

    PubMed

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole

    2006-08-01

    New global public health institutions are increasingly emphasizing transparency in decision-making, developing-country ownership of projects and programmes, and merit- and performance-based funding. Such principles imply an institutional response to the challenge of bridging the "know-do gap", by basing decisions explicitly on results, evidence and best practice. Using a knowledge systems framework, we examine how the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has affected the ways in which knowledge is used in efforts to combat these three diseases. We outline the formal knowledge system embedded in current rules and practices associated with the Global Fund's application process, and give three examples that illustrate the complexity of the knowledge system in action: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policy in China; successful applications from Haiti; and responses to changing research on malaria. These examples show that the Global Fund has created strong incentives for knowledge to flow to local implementers, but with little encouragement and few structures for the potentially valuable lessons from implementation to flow back to global best practice or research-based knowledge. The Global Fund could play an influential role in fostering much-needed learning from implementation. We suggest that three initial steps are required to start this process: acknowledging shared responsibility for learning across the knowledge system; analysing the Global Fund's existing data (and refining data collection over time); and supporting recipients and technical partners to invest resources in linking implementation with best practice and research. PMID:16917650

  12. Linking local knowledge with global action: examining the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria through a knowledge system lens.

    PubMed Central

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    New global public health institutions are increasingly emphasizing transparency in decision-making, developing-country ownership of projects and programmes, and merit- and performance-based funding. Such principles imply an institutional response to the challenge of bridging the "know-do gap", by basing decisions explicitly on results, evidence and best practice. Using a knowledge systems framework, we examine how the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has affected the ways in which knowledge is used in efforts to combat these three diseases. We outline the formal knowledge system embedded in current rules and practices associated with the Global Fund's application process, and give three examples that illustrate the complexity of the knowledge system in action: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policy in China; successful applications from Haiti; and responses to changing research on malaria. These examples show that the Global Fund has created strong incentives for knowledge to flow to local implementers, but with little encouragement and few structures for the potentially valuable lessons from implementation to flow back to global best practice or research-based knowledge. The Global Fund could play an influential role in fostering much-needed learning from implementation. We suggest that three initial steps are required to start this process: acknowledging shared responsibility for learning across the knowledge system; analysing the Global Fund's existing data (and refining data collection over time); and supporting recipients and technical partners to invest resources in linking implementation with best practice and research. PMID:16917650

  13. Knowledge and Attitude of Faculty Members Working in Dental Institutions towards the Dental Treatment of Patients with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marya, Charumohan; Rekhi, Amit; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dentists have an ethical responsibility to provide treatment to HIV-infected patients, particularly because oral lesions are common among these patients. However, there are no official guidelines as to how to treat people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) or how to screen for potentially infectious people. Materials and Method. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based study which assessed the knowledge and attitude of the faculty members towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS was carried out in the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences, Faridabad, and Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. Results. The willingness to treat patients with HIV was found to be 86.0% among the faculty members in the present study. The majority (79%) of the faculty members thought that treating an HIV-positive patient is ethical responsibility of the dentist. There was a positive attitude (88.0%) among faculty members that routine dental care should be a part of the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. The level of knowledge regarding HIV and AIDS was acceptable in the present study. However, continuing dental education (CDE) programmes should be conducted on a regular basis for updating the knowledge level of the faculty members towards the dental treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:27379262

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to Patient-Provider Communication When Discussing Breast Cancer Risk to Aid in the Development of Decision Support Tools.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham S; Aguirre, Alejandra N; Smalletz, Cindy; Dimond, Jill; Finkelstein, Joseph; Infante, Katherine; Trivedi, Meghna; David, Raven; Vargas, Jennifer; Crew, Katherine D; Kukafka, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to patient-provider communication when discussing breast cancer risk to aid in the development of decision support tools. Four patient focus groups (N=34) and eight provider focus groups (N=10) took place in Northern Manhattan. A qualitative analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti software. The coding yielded 62.3%-94.5% agreement. The results showed that 1) barriers are time constraints, lack of knowledge, low health literacy, and language barriers, and 2) facilitators are information needs, desire for personalization, and autonomy when communicating risk in patient-provider encounters. These results will inform the development of a patient-centered decision aid (RealRisks) and a provider-facing breast cancer risk navigation (BNAV) tool, which are designed to facilitate patient-provider risk communication and shared decision-making about breast cancer prevention strategies, such as chemoprevention. PMID:26958276

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Patient-Provider Communication When Discussing Breast Cancer Risk to Aid in the Development of Decision Support Tools

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham S.; Aguirre, Alejandra N.; Smalletz, Cindy; Dimond, Jill; Finkelstein, Joseph; Infante, Katherine; Trivedi, Meghna; David, Raven; Vargas, Jennifer; Crew, Katherine D.; Kukafka, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to patient-provider communication when discussing breast cancer risk to aid in the development of decision support tools. Four patient focus groups (N=34) and eight provider focus groups (N=10) took place in Northern Manhattan. A qualitative analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti software. The coding yielded 62.3%–94.5% agreement. The results showed that 1) barriers are time constraints, lack of knowledge, low health literacy, and language barriers, and 2) facilitators are information needs, desire for personalization, and autonomy when communicating risk in patient-provider encounters. These results will inform the development of a patient-centered decision aid (RealRisks) and a provider-facing breast cancer risk navigation (BNAV) tool, which are designed to facilitate patient-provider risk communication and shared decision-making about breast cancer prevention strategies, such as chemoprevention. PMID:26958276

  16. The effects of HIV/AIDS intervention groups for high-risk women in urban clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Washington, C D; Wilson, T S; Koob, J J; Davis, D R; Ledezma, G; Davantes, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study reports the results of a behavior change intervention offered to women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection seen in an urban primary health care clinic. METHODS. Participants were 197 women randomly assigned to either an HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction group or a comparison group. Women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group attended five group sessions focusing on risk education; skills training in condom use, sexual assertiveness, problem solving, and risk trigger self-management; and peer support for change efforts. Women in the comparison group attended sessions on health topics unrelated to AIDS. RESULTS. At the 3-month follow-up, women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group had increased in sexual communication and negotiation skills. Unprotected sexual intercourse had declined significantly and condom use had increased from 26% to 56% of all intercourse occasions. Women in the comparison group showed no change. CONCLUSIONS. Socially disadvantaged women can be assisted in reducing their risk of contracting HIV infection. Risk reduction behavior change interventions should be offered routinely in primary health care clinics serving low-income and high-risk patients. PMID:7998630

  17. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  18. HIV in Young Adults: An Exploration of Knowledge and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabato, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Over three decades since its discovery, HIV/AIDS remains a critical public health challenge. An estimated 1.41 million AIDS cases, and approximately 659,000 AIDS-related deaths, were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through 2013 (Stine, 2013). While 53% of documented AIDS cases in the United States have occurred…

  19. Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among pre-clinical medical students in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s medical students are the future physicians of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It is therefore essential that medical students possess the appropriate knowledge and attitudes regarding PLWHA. This study aims to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of pre-clinical Israeli medical students and to assess whether their knowledge and attitudes change throughout their pre-clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pre-clinical medical students from the four medical schools in Israel during the academic year of 2010/2011 (a total of 1,470 students). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire sought student responses pertaining to knowledge of HIV transmission and non-transmission routes, basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS treatment and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Results The study’s response rate was 62.24 percent. Knowledge among pre-clinical medical students was generally high and showed a statistically significant improvement as students progressed through their pre-clinical studies. However, there were some misconceptions, mostly regarding HIV transmission via breastfeeding and knowledge of HIV prevention after exposure to the virus. Students’ attitudes were found to include stigmatizing notions. Furthermore, the majority of medical students correlated HIV with shame and fear. In addition, students’ attitudes toward HIV testing and providing confidential medical information were contradictory to health laws, protocols and guidelines. Overall, no positive changes in students’ attitudes were observed during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Conclusion The knowledge of pre-clinical medical students in Israel is generally high, although there are some knowledge inadequacies that require more emphasis in the curricula of the medical schools. Contrary to HIV-related knowledge, medical students’ attitudes are unaffected by their progression through medical school. Therefore, medical

  20. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    PubMed Central

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  1. THE LANGUAGE OF BLACK GAY MEN’S SEXUAL BEHAVIOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR AIDS RISK REDUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.; Bellinger, George; Smith, Robert G.; Henley, Nancy; Daniels, Marlon; Tibbits, Thomas; Victorianne, Gregory D.; Osei, Olu Kwasi; Birt, Darryl K.

    2011-01-01

    The development of appropriate AIDS risk reduction interventions targeted at African-American gay men could be aided by an awareness of their terminology for specific sexual behaviors and types of sexual encounters. This paper explores similarities and differences between the HIV-related sexual language of Black and White gay men. While much of the vernacular is shared, differences in some terms and greater or lesser emphasis on others are apparent. PMID:25382870

  2. Interrelationships between HIV/AIDS and risk behavior prejudice among medical students in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yang, Yi; Li, Ze-rong; Stoové, Mark A; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2009-11-01

    Stigma within health care settings poses a considerable barrier to the provision of treatment and care for patients with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Southern China is located in a region with one of the world's fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics. Attitudes towards PLWHA amongst health workers are currently under-researched in this region. This paper examines the inter-relationships between prejudicial attitudes among Chinese medical students towards HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards three risk behaviors: injecting drug use (IDU), commercial sex (CS) and commercial blood donation (CBD). Medical students (N = 352) in Guangzhou were presented with two random vignettes; each describing a hypothetical male that was identical, except for the disease diagnosis (AIDS/leukemia) and the co-characteristic (IDU/CS/CBD/blood transfusion/no co-characteristic). After reading each vignette, participants completed a standard prejudicial scale. Univariate and multivariable analyses revealed significant levels of prejudice associated with AIDS, IDU and CS. Regardless of the disease, patients with IDU or CS were judged significantly worse than patients who had received a blood transfusion. No significant interactions were found between AIDS and the stigmatized co-characteristics. The findings suggest that prejudice towards PLWHA needs to be understood within the larger context of the stigma towards risk behaviors. Although non-significant interactions were found between AIDS and the stigmatized risk behaviors, the overlap between the local HIV/AIDS, IDU and CS populations suggests that addressing risk behavior-related prejudices could be critical for improving care and treatment for PLWHA. PMID:19929795

  3. Limiting Cumulative HIV Viremia Copy-Years by Early Treatment Reduces Risk of AIDS and Death

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Suthar, Amitabh B.; Sabin, Caroline; Bucher, Heiner C.; Jarrin, Inma; Moreno, Santiago; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud; Ford, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viremia copy-years (VCY), a time-updated measure of cumulative HIV exposure, predicts AIDS/death; although its utility in deciding when to start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of initiating versus deferring cART on risk of AIDS/death by levels of VCY both independent of and within CD4 cell count strata ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter. Methods: Using Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) data, we created a series of nested “trials” corresponding to consecutive months for individuals ≥16 years at seroconversion after 1995 who were cART-naive and AIDS-free. Pooling across all trials, time to AIDS/death by CD4, and VCY strata was compared in those initiating vs. deferring cART using Cox models adjusted for: country, sex, risk group, seroconversion year, age, time since last HIV-RNA, and current CD4, VCY, HIV-RNA, and mean number of previous CD4/HIV-RNA measurements/year. Results: Of 9353 individuals, 5312 (57%) initiated cART and 486 (5%) acquired AIDS/died. Pooling CD4 strata, risk of AIDS/death associated with initiating vs. deferring cART reduced as VCY increased. In patients with high CD4 cell counts, ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, there was a trend for a greater reduction for those initiating vs. deferring with increasing VCY (P = 0.09), with the largest benefit in the VCY ≥100,000 copy-years/mL group [hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.19 to 0.87)]. Conclusions: For individuals with CD4 ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, limiting the cumulative HIV burden to <100,000 copy-years/mL through cART may reduce the risk of AIDS/death. PMID:27116045

  4. Effects of Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction in Developing Knowledge and Critical Thinking in Blended Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenningsen, Louis; Pear, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an introduction to University…

  5. Three Medical School Responses to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and the Effect on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donna G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 1991 and 1994 graduating medical school students at medical schools (N=175) in Colorado, New Mexico and South Dakota found that differences in prevalence of AIDS/HIV cases in those states did not affect schools' training programs but indirectly affected students' knowledge and attitudes, which were related to the numbers of…

  6. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  7. Major Mental Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, Comorbidity, and HIV-AIDS Risk Behaviors in Juvenile Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives This study determined the prevalence of 20 HIV-AIDS risk behaviors of four groups of juvenile detainees: those with major mental disorders alone, those with substance use disorders alone, those with comorbid mental and substance use disorders, and those without any major mental or substance use disorder. Methods Interviewers administered the AIDS Risk Behavior Assessment to 800 randomly selected juvenile detainees aged ten to 18 years who were initially arrested between 1997 and 1998. Diagnoses were determined with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 2.3. Results The sample included 340 females and 460 males. As with the other groups of detainees, youths with major mental disorders had a high prevalence of most HIV-AIDS risk behaviors, much higher than the rates found among youths in the general population. Comorbid substance use disorders substantially increased risk; 96 percent of youths in this group had been sexually active, 62 percent had had multiple partners within the past three months, and 59 percent had had unprotected vaginal sex in the past month. Among youths with a substance use disorder, either alone or with a comorbid major mental disorder, more than 63 percent had engaged in five or more sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Delinquents with substance use disorders, either with or without comorbid major mental disorders, are at particular risk of HIV-AIDS. The juvenile justice and public health systems must provide HIV-AIDS interventions as well as mental health and substance abuse treatment. Greater coordination between community services and correctional facilities can reduce the prevalence of HIV-AIDS risk behaviors of juvenile delinquents and stem the spread of HIV infection among young people. PMID:16020814

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction among nursing students in southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Farotimi, Adekunbi A; Nwozichi, Chinomso Ugochukwu; Ojediran, Tolulope D

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the reported obstacles to the achievement of universal access to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention, treatment, care, and support programs includes stigma and discrimination from health workers, particularly nurses. Since nursing students would become future practising nurses and are most likely exposed to caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PL WHA) during their training, it is of great importance to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses toward the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used. A total of 150 nursing students were selected using the simple random sampling technique of fish bowl method with replacement. Data were obtained using a self-administered (33-item) validated questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses with regard to HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction strategies. Reliability of the tool was tested using Cronbach alpha (R) yielding a reliability value of 0.72. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Results: Majority (76.0%) of the respondents were females and 82.7% were married. Respondents were found to have high knowledge (94.0%) of strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Also, 64% had moderate discriminatory attitude, 74% engaged in low discriminatory practice, while 26% engaged in high discriminatory practice. Conclusions: Student nurses had adequate knowledge about strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination; negative discriminatory attitude toward PLWHA and some form of discriminatory practices exist in participants’ training schools. It is, therefore, recommended that an educational package on reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination be developed and implemented for the participants. PMID:26793257

  9. Creating an advance-care-planning decision aid for high-risk surgery: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-risk surgery patients may lose decision-making capacity as a result of surgical complications. Advance care planning prior to surgery may be beneficial, but remains controversial and is hindered by a lack of appropriate decision aids. This study sought to examine stakeholders’ views on the appropriateness of using decision aids, in general, to support advance care planning among high-risk surgery populations and the design of such a decision aid. Methods Key informants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone until data collected reached theoretical saturation. Key informants were asked to discuss their thoughts about advance care planning and interventions to support advance care planning, particularly for this population. Researchers took de-identified notes that were analyzed for emerging concordant, discordant, and recurrent themes using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Key informants described the importance of initiating advance care planning preoperatively, despite potential challenges present in surgical settings. In general, decision aids were viewed as an appropriate approach to support advance care planning for this population. A recipe emerged from the data that outlines tools, ingredients, and tips for success that are needed to design an advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgical settings. Conclusions Stakeholders supported incorporating advance care planning in high-risk surgical settings and endorsed the appropriateness of using decision aids to do so. Findings will inform the next stages of developing the first advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgery patients. PMID:25067908

  10. Computer-aided texture analysis combined with experts' knowledge: Improving endoscopic celiac disease diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gadermayr, Michael; Kogler, Hubert; Karla, Maximilian; Merhof, Dorit; Uhl, Andreas; Vécsei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    AIM To further improve the endoscopic detection of intestinal mucosa alterations due to celiac disease (CD). METHODS We assessed a hybrid approach based on the integration of expert knowledge into the computer-based classification pipeline. A total of 2835 endoscopic images from the duodenum were recorded in 290 children using the modified immersion technique (MIT). These children underwent routine upper endoscopy for suspected CD or non-celiac upper abdominal symptoms between August 2008 and December 2014. Blinded to the clinical data and biopsy results, three medical experts visually classified each image as normal mucosa (Marsh-0) or villous atrophy (Marsh-3). The experts’ decisions were further integrated into state-of-the-art texture recognition systems. Using the biopsy results as the reference standard, the classification accuracies of this hybrid approach were compared to the experts’ diagnoses in 27 different settings. RESULTS Compared to the experts’ diagnoses, in 24 of 27 classification settings (consisting of three imaging modalities, three endoscopists and three classification approaches), the best overall classification accuracies were obtained with the new hybrid approach. In 17 of 24 classification settings, the improvements achieved with the hybrid approach were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Using the hybrid approach classification accuracies between 94% and 100% were obtained. Whereas the improvements are only moderate in the case of the most experienced expert, the results of the less experienced expert could be improved significantly in 17 out of 18 classification settings. Furthermore, the lowest classification accuracy, based on the combination of one database and one specific expert, could be improved from 80% to 95% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION The overall classification performance of medical experts, especially less experienced experts, can be boosted significantly by integrating expert knowledge into computer-aided diagnosis

  11. Legal risks and responsibilities of physicians in the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J

    1988-01-01

    Existing law in the United States applicable to physicians' obligations to treat AIDS and HIV-infected patients is summarized and ways are identified to strengthen current law so that these obligations are more sharply defined. Courts have affirmed an obligation to treat both in limited emergency situations and within the consensual physician patient relationship. Also, physicians may assume contractual obligations to entire groups of patients under employment contracts with hospitals and prepaid health plans and by agreements for Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement. Annas describes antidiscimination statutes as limited in scope and suggests ways to strengthen them. He maintains that physicians have special legal obligations because society has granted them special privileges, and he supports delineation and enforcement of ethical obligations by organized medicine, state licensing boards, hospitals, and medical schools. PMID:11650068

  12. HIV/AIDS - Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Practices among Migrant Wives in Rural Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Dai, Xin; Meng, Xiaojun; Wang, Huadong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Yongqing; Tang, Song; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant wives have been increasing in some poor rural regions of China and they may bridge HIV transmission across regions. This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices among this population in rural Anhui Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaire of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices between June 2011 and May 2012. A total of 730 migrant wives and 207 local women were enrolled in this study. Unpaired T-test, Chi-square was utilized to compare the difference of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices between migrant wives and local women. Results Around 80% of the migrant wives were from Yunnan, Guizhou, or Sichuan Provinces. The main sources of HIV/AIDS information were TV/radio, posters, and newspapers/periodicals. HIV/AIDS knowledge level among migrant wives was significantly lower than that among local women (e.g. 47.1% vs 57.0% (p<0.001) answered “Yes” for the question “Can an apparently healthy person be HIV-infected?”), and stigma and prejudice towards HIV/AIDS among migrant wives were more common than those among local women (e.g. 73.2% vs 65.7% (p=0.006) answered “No” for the question “If a shopkeeper or food seller had the HIV, would you buy food from them?”). Compared to local women, migrant wives were more likely to have ever had sex during menstruation (6.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.065) and extramarital sex (17.5% vs 10.1%, p=0.01), and were less likely to consistently use condoms with their husbands (45.8% vs 57.5%, p<0.001) or extramarital sex partners (48.8% vs 58.95, p<0.001). Conclusions Migrant wives in rural China had a low HIV/AIDS knowledge level and high prevalence of stigma and prejudice and risky sexual behaviors. Local HIV/AIDS prevention programs should target this neglected population. PMID:25844269

  13. Effects of an undergraduate HIV/AIDS course on students’ HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Nieri, Tanya; Smith, Scott J.; Salamone, Damien; Booth, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test survey design to examine the effects of a course, called HIV/AIDS: Science, Behavior, and Society, on undergraduate students’ HIV knowledge, attitudes and risky sexual behaviors. With the assistance of social work faculty the course incorporates experiential learning pedagogy and a transdisciplinary perspective. Although the course was not designed as a prevention program, the theory of health behavior suggests the incorporation of experiential learning will impact crucial HIV/AIDS attitudes and behaviors. When regression models were applied, relative to the comparison group (N = 111), the HIV/AIDS class students (N = 79) reported an increase in post-test HIV knowledge, perceived susceptibility to HIV among females, and a reduction of risky sexual attitudes among sexually active students. PMID:24058288

  14. Comparing eLearning and Classroom Instruction on HIV/AIDS Knowledge Uptake and Internalizing among South African and Irish Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…

  15. Risk perception and knowledge about osteoporosis: well informed but not aware? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia; Lavielle, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half percent identified most risk factors adequately, and almost all (97.9 %) had received some sort of information about OP. Sixty-six and a half percent of subjects perceived OP as a serious disease; 51.5 % considered themselves to be personally responsible for acquiring it; 50.2 % were concerned about suffering from it; and 47.1 % considered it likely they would develop it. The most important variables associated with the perception of risk were age (<45 years), gender (female), and family history of OP. Subjects considered it more likely, more serious, and felt more worried and personally responsible about developing a heart condition or cancer than OP; they felt less concerned, less personally responsible, and less likely to contract AIDS or develop Alzheimer's. Individuals know a lot about OP, but they engage in risky behaviors and lack perception of their risk in developing it. Interventions should aim at raising awareness about personal responsibility and about the likelihood of developing this condition. PMID:25096762

  16. Doing Worse but Knowing Better: An Exploration of the Relationship between HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among Adolescents in Flemish Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berten, Hans; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Most studies on sexual behavior have approached the relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior unidirectionally. This paper sets out to examine a reciprocal relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior, in which it is possible that adolescents who enter into sexuality may start to actively seek out information on sex.…

  17. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge of School Teachers regarding First Aid Management in Selected Schools of Bangalore.

    PubMed

    De, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    Safe childhood is the foundation of a good future. Children face different kinds of accidents at school premises while playing. Prevention of these accidents and their management is essential. A study was therefore conducted among school teachers at Anekal Taluk, Bangalore to make them aware about different accidents of children at school premises and their first aid management. The sample consisted of 30 primary and higher primary school teachers selected by convenience sampling technique. The analysis showed that improvement of knowledge occurred after administering structured teaching programme (STP) on first aid management. Nursing professionals can benefit from the study result at the area of community, administration, research and education. PMID:26182823

  18. Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudinal, and Behavioral Change Effects from a Multinational HIV/AIDS Education Program for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Garcia, Fe; Apamo, Peter; Mutheu, Lucy; Ndege, Monica; Bois, Iderle

    2010-01-01

    This project tracked the mid-term evaluation processes, practices, and products of a multinational program to reduce at-risk behaviors for HIV/AIDS among children in Kenya, Tanzania, and Haiti. It focused on participant and community perceptions; program effectiveness in promoting abstinence and monogamy decisions; and factors supporting ongoing…

  19. Competing Risks or Different Pathways? An Event History Analysis of the Relationship between Financial Aid and Educational Outcomes for Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Torres, Vasti

    2010-01-01

    Using a competing risks event history model this study explores the effects of differentiated forms of financial aid on the postsecondary enrollment patterns of Latino college students in Indiana. Much of the prior research on financial aid has employed cross-sectional methods, which assume that the effects of aid do not vary across time. This…

  20. Risks of Recreational Exposure to Waterborne Pathogens Among Persons With HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Lemerman, Hanna B.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Moore, Richard D.; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence of recreational activities in the waterways of Baltimore, MD, and the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium among persons with HIV/AIDS. Methods. We studied patients at the Johns Hopkins Moore Outpatient AIDS Clinic. We conducted oral interviews with a convenience sample of 157 HIV/AIDS patients to ascertain the sites used for recreational water contact within Baltimore waters and assess risk behaviors. Results. Approximately 48% of respondents reported participating in recreational water activities (fishing, crabbing, boating, and swimming). Men and women were almost equally likely to engage in recreational water activities (53.3% versus 51.3%). Approximately 67% (105 of 157) ate their own catch or that of friends or family members, and a majority (61%, or 46 of 75) of respondents who reported recreational water contact reported consumption of their own catch. Conclusions. Baltimoreans with HIV/AIDS are engaging in recreational water activities in urban waters that may expose them to waterborne pathogens and recreational water illnesses. Susceptible persons, such as patients with HIV/AIDS, should be cautioned regarding potential microbial risks from recreational water contact with surface waters. PMID:19372505

  1. Pharmacokinetics and expert systems as aids for risk assessment in reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, D R; Jelovsek, F R

    1987-01-01

    A minimal approach to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology involves four components: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization. In practice, risk assessment in reproductive toxicology has been reduced to arbitrary safety factors or mathematical models of the dose-response relationship. These approaches obscure biological differences across species rather than using this important and frequently accessible information. Two approaches that are formally capable of using biologically relevant information (pharmacokinetics and expert system shells) are explored as aids to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology. PMID:3447888

  2. Pharmacokinetics and expert systems as aids for risk assessment in reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, D.R.; Jelovsek, F.R.

    1987-12-01

    A minimal approach to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology involves four components: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization. In practice, risk assessment in reproductive toxicology has been reduced to arbitrary safety factors or mathematical models of the dose-response relationship. These approaches obscure biological differences across species rather than using this important and frequently accessible information. Two approaches that are formally capable of using biologically relevant information (pharmacokinetics and expert system shells) are explored as aids to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology.

  3. Household displacement and health risk behaviors among AIDS-affected children in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liying

    2011-01-01

    When parents die of or are infected with HIV, children might have to leave their own household and be displaced to other living arrangement and some may even be displaced multiple times. The objective of this study is to examine the association between household displacement and health risk behaviors among AIDS orphans (children who have lost one or both of their parents to HIV/AIDS) and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents) in rural China. The sample consisted of 1015 children (549 AIDS orphans, 466 vulnerable children) in family-based care. The children were assigned to three displacement groups according to the number of household displacement (i.e., none, once, at least twice) after their parents became ill or died of AIDS. Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, violence, public property destruction, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt were used to assess the health risk behaviors of these children. Both bivariate and multivariate tests were used to assess the differences in health risk behaviors among displacement groups. The findings indicated that children who were displaced at least twice were more likely to report a higher frequency of public property destruction and suicide ideation than those who were never displaced or displaced once. Multivariate analysis revealed that public property destruction, suicide ideation and suicide attempt were significantly associated with the household displacement among these children, controlling for gender, age, child status (AIDS orphans vs. vulnerable children) and the duration of household displacement. Results in the current study suggest that a stable living environment was important for both AID orphans and vulnerable children in communities of high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The government, community and other agencies need to make efforts to avoid frequent household displacement among these children after the HIV-related infection or death of their parents. PMID:21400311

  4. Humanizing Pedagogy through HIV and AIDS Prevention: Transforming Teacher Knowledge. Series in Critical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradigm Publishers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the power of educators to serve as HIV and AIDS prevention agents. The definitive text represents the work of a distinguished panel of teacher educators and health scientists who identify core information and skills effective educators of HIV and AIDS prevention should learn as they prepare to attend to the academic and human…

  5. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Activity: An Examination of Racial Differences in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Kilbourne, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The threat of HIV/AIDS to African American's health has become the focus of much concern. This study investigated the potential differences between African Americans' and white college students' current and future sexual behaviors and safer sex behaviors with HIV/AIDS awareness, condom use self-efficacy, and safer sex attitudes. A convenience…

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience regarding HIV/AIDS among Older Adult Inner-City Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Although Latinos, now the largest minority group in the U.S., comprise 13% of the population, they represent 18% of all new HIV and AIDS cases. This disproportionate representation also appears among older adult Latinos. Semi-structured interviews with 45 inner-city Spanish speaking older adult Latinos provide new data regarding HIV/AIDS among…

  7. Globalization, Public Policy, and "Knowledge Gap": Ethiopian Youth and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…

  8. Managing Risk and Experiencing Danger: Tensions between Government AIDS Education Policy and Young Women's Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…

  9. Prospects for Bilateral Aid to Basic Education Put Students at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abetti, Pauline; Beardmore, Sarah; Tapp, Charles, Winthrop, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The future of bilateral aid to basic education is at risk, placing the educational opportunities of many of the world's poorest girls and boys on the line. Some donor governments are reducing overall bilateral assistance, others are phasing out long-standing partnerships with particular developing countries and several are abandoning education as…

  10. Sociocultural Determinants of HIV/AIDS Risk and Service Use among Immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, W. Patrick; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Jolly, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Using a community-based participatory research approach to problem identification, the objective of this study is to explore sociocultural determinants of HIV/AIDS risk and service use among immigrant Latino…

  11. Evaluation of Knowledge and Practice of Hairdressers in Women’s Beauty Salons in Isfahan About Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and AIDS in 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ataei, Behrooz; Shirani, Kiana; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Ataie, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have some common epidemiological characteristics, and have infected millions of people throughout the world. Patients infected by acute hepatitis or HIV infections may not be aware of the disease, and thereby cause transmission to others. During haircut, shave, or pedicure, barbers may accidentally expose to their clients’ blood, transmit their own infection to them, or transmit the infection from one client to another. Thus the beauty salon staff has a potential role in expansion of infections. Objectives As being barbers and barbering are risk factors to some infectious diseases, determining the role of knowledge and awareness of barbers and hairdressers about topics related to AIDS, and hepatitis B and C is important. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in 2010-2011 on 281 women’s beauty salons located in eleven urban districts of Isfahan town. A multistage cluster sampling was performed and knowledge assessment questionnaire accompanied by practice checklist regarding hepatitis B and C, and AIDS were completed by trained interviewers. Knowledge and practice scores were determined in 0-20 and 0-10 scales, respectively. The content validity of questionnaire was confirmed by three expert opinions and the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was determined to be 0.83 in a pilot study on 30 participants. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and one-way ANOVA test by SPSS software, version 18. Results In the study, 281 hairdressers participated. There was a statistically significant relationship between education level and knowledge score of hairdressers (P < 0.001). We found a statistically significant relationship between knowledge level and job history of hairdressers according to the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (P = 0.004). The results did not show any statistically significant

  12. HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention education among offenders under community supervision: a hidden risk group.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Langley, Sandra; Crimmins, Susan; Chaple, Michael

    2004-08-01

    Numerous studies have established that incarcerated populations are at substantial risk for HIV infection. In response, many jails and prisons have increased HIV prevention and related services. However, although twice as many offenders are under community supervision as are incarcerated at any given time, HIV prevention needs have been largely ignored among probationers and parolees, and little is known about their HIV risk behaviors or HIV prevention needs. Compared with inmates, probationers and parolees have substantially greater opportunities to engage in HIV risk behaviors. In the present study, we describe HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention education experiences of probationers and parolees in New York City. We find that probationers and parolees have high rates of unprotected sex, and limited current exposure to effective HIV education and prevention interventions. Probation and parole departments need to improve HIV training for officers and make HIV risk reduction services more available. PMID:15342338

  13. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV / AIDS in the south region of Cameroon: case of the town of Kribi.

    PubMed

    Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed. PMID:25353268

  15. Knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students of health institutes in Sana'a city.

    PubMed

    Al-Rabeei, N A; Dallak, A M; Al-Awadi, F G

    2012-03-01

    Students of health-related subjects have an important role in national strategies on HIV/AIDS prevention. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students at health institutes in Sana'a city, Yemen. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 600 students selected by cluster sampling. Students had a moderate level of HIV/AIDS knowledge (an average of 67.6% were correct on all items). Nevertheless, 82.3% knew that HIV could be transmitted by sexual intercourse without a condom, 87.5% from syringes, 71.8% from infected blood and 80.7% from mother to child. Misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted (e.g. hugging and kissing or sharing food, swimming pools and classrooms) were found among 41.5% of the students. Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS showed that 59.8% of students were accepting and positive. There was a common opinion among respondents that HIV-infected persons needed to be punished (65.5%) and isolated (41.0%); however, 86.8% were willing to care for an HIV-infected person. PMID:22574474

  16. Efficacy of a Food Safety Comic Book on Knowledge and Self-Reported Behavior for Persons Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Educational materials about foodborne enteric infections intended for this immunocompromised population have not been assessed for their efficacy in improving knowledge or encouraging behavior change. Methods/Results AIDS patients in four healthcare facilities in Chicago, New Orleans, and Puerto Rico were recruited using fliers and word of mouth to healthcare providers. Those who contacted research staff were interviewed to determine food safety knowledge gaps and risky behaviors. A food safety educational comic book that targeted knowledge gaps was created, piloted, and provided to these patients who were instructed to read it and return at least 2 weeks later for a follow-up interview. The overall food safety score was determined by the number of the 26 knowledge/belief/behavior questions from the survey answered correctly. Among 150 patients who participated in both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire, the intervention resulted in a substantial increase in the food safety score (baseline 59%, post-intervention 81%, p<0.001). The intervention produced a significant increase in all the food safety knowledge, belief, and behavior items that comprised the food safety score. Many of these increases were from baseline knowledge below 80 percent to well above 90%. Most (85%) of the patients stated they made a change to their behavior since receiving the educational booklet. Conclusion This comic book format intervention to educate persons living with AIDS was highly effective. Future studies should examine to what extent long-term behavioral changes result. PMID:24124447

  17. Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among University Students in Ambo, Central Ethiopia: Implication to Improve Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sahile, Zekariyas; Mekuria, Mulugeta; Yared, Abenezer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia has one of the lowest HIV prevalence rates in East Africa, but there are still more than one million people estimated to be living with HIV in Ethiopia. This study was aimed at assessing the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior among university students. Methodology. A cross-sectional comparative study was done with quantitative and qualitative data collection with a stratified sampling technique. The quantitative data were edited, coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Result. Both comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention method were higher in the intervention group (75.8% and 48.5%) than comparative group (68.6% and 42.5%) which had a significant difference (P < 0.05). Life time sexual intercourse was higher in the intervention group (40.8%) as compared to the comparative group (34.6%). But sexual condom utilization in the past 12 months was higher in the intervention group (73.2%) as compared to the comparative group (56.9%) which had a significant difference (P < 0.05). Similarly, history of sexual transmitted disease report was higher in the comparative group (6.3%) as compared to the intervention (4.6%). Among sexual experience respondents in the last 12 months, 32% of them in the intervention and 35.5% of them in the comparative group have had multiple sexual partners. Conclusion. The intervention group had higher comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and condom utilization. But a higher percentage of students were engaged in risky sexual behavior. Therefore, emphasis should be given on designing different strategy to reduce risky sexual behavior and increase comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. PMID:26316983

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the business community relative to HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G

    1991-01-01

    One of the goals of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) policy on the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is to support business organizations in implementing HIV and AIDS information, education, and prevention activities. However, the response of the American business community to HIV infection and AIDS has been varied. Although company executives consider AIDS to be one of the leading problems in the country, surveys typically indicate that less than one-third of businesses have or are developing some type of AIDS policy. The workplace appears to be a valid site for AIDS information and education programs, given the weight employees attach to information received there. However, workplace education and information programs are undertaken primarily by large companies. Many small companies do not devote much time and effort to these activities, even though extensive, indepth educational programs are likely to have positive impacts on worker attitudes and behavior, whereas short programs or literature distribution may only increase workers' fears. The question of what is an effective workplace program still needs additional research. Very little is known about the magnitude of the costs of HIV infection and AIDS to business. These costs, which are affected by the changing roles of employer-based health insurance, cost shifting, and public programs, will influence how employers react to the epidemic and how they respond to CDC's prevention initiatives. PMID:1956975

  19. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management. PMID:18543023

  20. Bottom-Up Risk Regulation? How Nanotechnology Risk Knowledge Gaps Challenge Federal and State Environmental Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Maria C.; Griffin, Martin P. A.; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the “Next Industrial Revolution.” At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many “end-of-pipe” issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies’ potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  1. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    PubMed Central

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors.

  2. HIV and AIDS in suburban Asian and Pacific Islander communities: factors influencing self-efficacy in HIV risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Lois M; Magalong, Michelle G; Debell, Paula; Fasudhani, Angela

    2006-12-01

    Though AIDS case rates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans (APIs) in the United States remain relatively low, the number has been steadily increasing. Scholars, policy makers, and service providers still know little about how confident APIs are in carrying out different HIV risk reduction strategies. This article addresses this gap by presenting an analysis of a survey of API women and youth in Orange County, California (N = 313), a suburban county in southern California with large concentrations of Asian residents. Multivariate logistic regression models using subsamples of API women and API youth respondents were used. Variations in reported self-efficacy for female respondents were explained by acculturation, comfort in asking medical practitioners about HIV/AIDS, and to a lesser degree, education, household size, whether respondents were currently dating, HIV knowledge, and whether respondents believed that HIV could be identified by physical appearance. For respondents younger than 25 years, variations in self-efficacy were related to gender, age, acculturation, HIV knowledge, taking-over-the-counter medicines for illness, whether respondents were dating, and to a lesser degree, employment, recent serious illness, whether they believe that one could identify HIV by how one looks, and believing that illness was caused by germs. Implications for HIV prevention programs and future research are provided. PMID:17166079

  3. Pesticide knowledge and risk perception among adolescent Latino farmworkers.

    PubMed

    McCauley, L A; Sticker, D; Bryan, C; Lasarev, M R; Scherer, J A

    2002-11-01

    A substantial proportion of the agricultural production in the U.S. is dependent on the labor of Latino farmworkers. While exact figures are not known, it is estimated that adolescents make up 7% of this valuable workforce. These young workers may be at increased risk for the toxic effects of environmental exposures encountered during their work. Furthermore, language barriers and health beliefs may influence the risk perceptions of this population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of migrant adolescent farmworkers in 1998 to investigate their work practices, health beliefs, and pesticide knowledge. The large majority of the adolescents in our sample were from Mexico, and 36.3% spoke primarily indigenous languages. Many of the adolescents (64.7%) were traveling and working in the U.S. independent of their parents. Few of the adolescents reported having received pesticide training; however, 21.6% of the sample reported that their current work involved mixing and/or applying agricultural chemicals. The scores on the pesticide knowledge questionnaire were found to significantly predict self-reported use of protection for adolescent farmworkers. The results of this study point to a need for improved pesticide training in youth agricultural workers and specialized education efforts directed toward minorities who speak indigenous dialects. Special attention is merited toward adolescent farmworkers who report that their work includes mixing or applying agricultural chemicals. As the number of adolescent farmworkers increases in the U.S. and the characteristics of the migrant stream continue to change, culturally and developmentally appropriate instruments are needed to adequately assess the health beliefs and protective practices of this population. PMID:12549244

  4. Decreasing Incidence of Gonorrhea in Homosexually Active Men—Minimal Effect on Risk of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Handsfield, H. Hunter

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of gonorrhea in homosexually active men in Seattle-King County and in Washington State as a whole decreased by 57% from 1982 to 1984, compared with a 20% decrease among heterosexual men and women. This probably reflects behavioral changes of homosexual men in response to the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nevertheless, changes in sexual behavior that greatly reduce the incidence of gonorrhea do not necessarily result in a similar reduction in the risk of exposure to the virus that causes AIDS. PMID:4090477

  5. Special report: federal AIDS prevention funding at risk. Here is how obscenity issue was raised.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Obscenity may be in the eye of the community beholder, but that apparently won't stop the federal government from taking a peek. Federal officials are conducting comprehensive reviews of all CDC-funded HIV/AIDS program activities, and federal funding for HIV/AIDS prevention programs now is at risk if local review panels fear that the materials could be considered obscene by federal officials. The federal reviews also will assess whether these programs are adhering to CDC prevention material requirements. PMID:12206094

  6. Clinical decision aids for chest pain in the emergency department: identifying low-risk patients

    PubMed Central

    Alley, William; Mahler, Simon A

    2015-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common presenting complaints in the emergency department, though only a small minority of patients are subsequently diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, missing the diagnosis has potential for significant morbidity and mortality. ACS presentations can be atypical, and their workups are often prolonged and costly. In order to risk-stratify patients and better direct the workup and care given, many decision aids have been developed. While each may have merit in certain clinical settings, the most useful aid in the emergency department is one that finds all cases of ACS while also identifying a substantial subset of patients at low risk who can be discharged without stress testing or coronary angiography. This review describes several of the chest pain decision aids developed and studied through the recent past, starting with the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) scores, which were developed as prognostic aids for patients already diagnosed with ACS, then subsequently validated in the undifferentiated chest pain population. Asia-Pacific Evaluation of Chest Pain Trial (ASPECT); Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess Patients With Chest Pain Symptoms Using Contemporary Troponins (ADAPT); North American Chest Pain Rule (NACPR); and History, Electrocardiogram, Age, Risk factors, Troponin (HEART) score have been developed exclusively for use in the undifferentiated chest pain population as well, with improved performance compared to their predecessors. This review describes the relative merits and limitations of these decision aids so that providers can determine which tool fits the needs of their clinical practice setting. PMID:27147894

  7. A Field Study of First Aid Knowledge and Attitudes of College Students in Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2006-01-01

    A random sample of 562 students completed a questionnaire including demographic data; 20 questions testing knowledge (right answers scored 1 and wrong answers 0); and 20 exploring attitudes ("yes", "not sure" and "no"). Overall, students scored 0.49 for knowledge and 2.30 (of a maximum 3) for attitude. Knowledge scores were classified into high,…

  8. Poor Initial CD4+ Recovery With Antiretroviral Therapy Prolongs Immune Depletion and Increases Risk for AIDS and Non-AIDS Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jason V.; Peng, Grace; Rapkin, Joshua; Krason, David; Reilly, Cavan; Cavert, Winston P.; Abrams, Donald I.; MacArthur, Rodger D.; Henry, Keith; Neaton, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low CD4+ increases risk for both AIDS- and non–AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of CD4+ recovery early after initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important in the ultimate duration of immune depletion. Methods We examined CD4+ recovery among 850 participants in the Community Program for Clinical Research on AIDS Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies study with virologic suppression (ie, achieved an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL) with 8 months of initial ART and determined subsequent risk for AIDS, non-AIDS diseases (non-AIDS cancers and cardiovascular, end-stage renal, and liver diseases), or death using Cox regression during a median 5-year follow-up. Results Mean pretreatment CD4+ was 221 cells/μL; 18% (n = 149) had a poor CD4+ recovery (<50 cells/μL) after 8 months of effective ART, resulting in lower CD4+ over 5 years. Older age (hazard ratio 1.34/10 yrs, P = 0.003) and lower screening HIV RNA (hazard ratio 0.65 per log10 copies/mL higher, P = 0.001), but not screening CD4+, were associated with a poor CD4+ recovery. After 8 months of effective ART, 30 patients experienced the composite outcome of AIDS, non-AIDS, or death among participants with a poor CD4+ recovery (rate = 5.8/100 person-years) and 74 patients among those with an adequate recovery (≥50 cells/μL; rate = 2.7/100 personyears) (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.24, P < 0.001). The risk of this composite outcome associated with a poor CD4+ recovery declined when ART was initiated at higher CD4+ counts (P < 0.01). Conclusions Impaired immune recovery, despite effective ART, results in longer time spent at low CD4+, thereby increasing risk for a broad category of HIV-related morbidity and mortality conditions. PMID:18645520

  9. Risk factors for HIV infection in male sexual contacts of men with AIDS or an AIDS-related condition.

    PubMed

    Coates, R A; Calzavara, L M; Read, S E; Fanning, M M; Shepherd, F A; Klein, M H; Johnson, J K; Soskolne, C L

    1988-10-01

    A total of 246 healthy male sexual contacts of men with either acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or an AIDS-related condition were recruited into a prospective study in Toronto, Canada between July 1984 and July 1985. At induction, data were collected on the sexual relationship between the contact and his primary case, sexual activities with other men, history of sexually transmitted diseases and other diseases, and use of recreational drugs. At recruitment, 144 sexual contacts had antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 102 of the contacts were seronegative at induction and at three months following recruitment. No association between HIV seropositivity and total number of sexual partners could be demonstrated. In univariate and multivariate analyses, receptive and insertive anal intercourse with the primary cases, and activities which either indicated or potentially caused anorectal mucosal injury (rectal douching, perianal bleeding, receipt of objects in ano, and receptive fisting) were strongly associated with HIV seropositivity. In the final multiple logistic regression model, two significant interaction effects were observed: the interaction between receptive anal intercourse and insertive anal intercourse and that between receptive anal intercourse and the anorectal mucosal injury index. These two interaction terms had negative regression coefficients which suggested that change in one sexual activity would not decrementally reduce risk of HIV infection without a comparable modification in the other activity. No association could be demonstrated between oral-genital and oral-anal sexual contact and odds ratios for these sexual activities declined to levels below 1.0 when adjusted for frequency of receptive anal intercourse. PMID:3421239

  10. Does Using Nonnumerical Terms to Describe Risk Aid Violence Risk Communication? Clinician Agreement and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, N. Zoe; Carter, Angela M.; Harris, Grant T.; Sharpe, Amilynn J. B.

    2008-01-01

    Actuarial risk assessments yield valid numerical information about violence risk, but research suggests that forensic clinicians prefer to communicate risk using nonnumerical information (i.e., verbal terms such as high risk). In an experimental questionnaire study, 60 forensic clinicians disagreed on the interpretation of nonnumerical terms, and…

  11. Age Differences in Understandings of Disease Causality: AIDS, Colds, and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Asked 9, 11, and 13 year olds and college students about risk factors for AIDS, colds, and cancer. Found that knowledge of risk factors became more accurate with age; knowledge of risk factors was largely independent of knowledge of nonrisk factors; and knowledge about 1 disease was largely independent of knowledge about another. (MDM)

  12. Risk and protection for HIV/AIDS in African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Robin; Buck, Raymond; Shattell, Mona M

    2008-07-01

    African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV infection is often acquired during adolescence, a time when risky sexual behaviors are at their peak. This study explored relationships among selected risk factors, protective factors, and risky sexual behaviors among African-American, Hispanic, and White adolescents, from a sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. African-Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have sexual intercourse without the use of birth control than were Whites. African-Americans were more likely to have sexual behavior with multiple sexual partners than either Hispanics or Whites were, and African-Americans had higher self-esteem than did Hispanics and Whites. In order to develop culturally sensitive, effective interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS in adolescents, racial differences in risk and protective factors must be examined. PMID:18807775

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among male high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Thanavanh, Bounbouly; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Methods A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%), from mother to child (88.3%) and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%). Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3%) said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3%) said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3%) students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.1–9.0, P<0.001) and 13.3 (95% CI=6.5–27.4, P<0.001) times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.9–8.8, P=0.069) and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.6–6.2, P=0.284). More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky

  14. A study of knowledge, sexual behaviour and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among long distance truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Sanjeev, K; S K, Garg; S K, Bajpai

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to keep in view the knowledge, sexual behaviour and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among long distance truck drivers interviewed during September to November 2007 on the state highway connecting Punjab to U.P, Bihar and West Bengal.Of 400 study population, majority (78.5%) were found aware of unprotected sex as a mode of spread of HIV/AIDS followed by use of infected needle (48.5%). 32.3% drivers had only single sexual partner and 56.6% were involved in multiple sex partner. 58.6% truck drivers gave history of commercial sex workers (CSW) while 41.4 % drivers had their sexual partners from other sources like extra marital relations & their girl friends etc. The percentage of use of condom among those having multiple sexual partners was 64.3% while 35.7% had either never used a condom or had used it very irregularly. PMID:20469766

  15. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodi, Ben E.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

  16. Risk of HIV/AIDS in China: subpopulations of special importance

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Z; Vermund, S; Wang, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the HIV/AIDS epidemic in mainland China. Methods: We review the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the social characteristics and geographic distribution of at-risk groups in China based on published literature and unpublished official data. Results: Injection drug use has been the dominant route for HIV infection in China, and will continue to be a major risk factor with increasing numbers of new drug users and needle sharing. Commercial plasma donation with unhygienic re-infusion of red blood cells was common in rural communities in the early 1990s. While this is unlikely to constitute a major factor for future HIV spread, those already infected represent a formidable treatment challenge. Huge seasonal work migration facilitates disease spread across regions. Many homosexual men have unprotected sex with men, women, or both, and may contract or spread HIV. Though commercial sex workers have contributed to a small proportion of the reported epidemic thus far, flourishing commercial sex is of growing concern and may have a bridging role in transmitting HIV from core groups to the general population. Conclusion: Increasing numbers of sex workers and drug users, internal migration, high risk behaviours, and low condom use suggest a future upward trend for HIV/AIDS and underscore the urgency of scaling up interventions in China. PMID:16326842

  17. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and use of mandatory premarital HIV testing as a prerequisite for marriages among religious leaders in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Sambo Adamu; Oche, Oche Mansur

    2012-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 1.8 million became infected with the HIV in 2009 and Nigeria currently has about 3.4 million people living with HIV. Measures put in place by religious organizations to combat HIV/AIDS in Nigeria include mandatory premarital HIV testing. The knowledge of HIV/AIDS amongst religious leaders in Nigeria has not been sufficiently explored . In this study, we assessed the knowledge of HIV/AIDS amongst religious leaders in Sokoto and if they routinely demand for mandatory premarital HIV testing for all intending couples. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 158 religious leaders (30 Christians and 128 Muslims) who officiate or assist during marriages. Data was collected using interviewer and self administered questionnaire which sought such information as biodata, knowledge of HIV/AIDS , speaking to congregation about AIDS and using Premarital HIV status as a pre-requisite for contracting marriages. Data was entered into and analysed using Epi-info computer soft ware program. Level of statistical significance was put at P=0.05. Results The ages of the respondents ranged from 35 to 78 years with a mean age of 26.3 ± 20.3years. Forty nine percent of the respondents had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS with more Christian clerics compared to Muslim Clerics having better knowledge of HIV/AIDS (P<0.0001). All the Christian clerics opined that they would insist on mandatory premarital HIV testing for their subjects before joining them in marriages. Conclusion The results of the study have shown that most of the religious leaders lacked adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the use of mandatory premarital HIV testing is yet to be adopted by the Muslim clerics. Awareness campaigns should be intensified for the religious leaders to improve their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22514761

  18. Relationship between Teachers' Motivation Teaching HIV/AIDS Education and Students' Knowledge and Attitude towards Sexual Behaviour in Secondary Schools in Coast Region, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.

    2016-01-01

    Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…

  19. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  20. Risk-taking, responsibility for health, and attitude toward avoiding AIDS.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, B J

    1989-06-01

    A telephone survey was completed with 400 adults to explore a possible relation between health risk-taking and perceived personal responsibility for health. The attitude that AIDS could be avoided by being careful was weakly associated with responses to questions about wearing seat belts and smoking. The pattern held only among those who thought their health was good for people their age. After reviewing related literature, it appears that poor health status and dogmatism may contribute to denial of risk and to risky sexual behavior. Themes for public health educational campaigns are suggested. PMID:2762466

  1. High risk and little knowledge: Overdose experiences and knowledge among young adult nonmedical prescription opioid users

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Bennett, Alex; Wendel, Travis; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid-involved overdoses in the United States have dramatically increased in the last 15 years, largely due to a rise in prescription opioid (PO) use. Yet few studies have examined the overdose knowledge and experience of nonmedical PO users. Methods In depth, semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were conducted with 46 New York City young adults (ages 18–32) who reported using POs nonmedically within the past 30 days. Verbatim interview transcripts were coded for key themes in an analytic process informed by grounded theory. Results Despite significant experience with overdose (including overdose deaths), either personally or within opioid-using networks, participants were relatively uninformed about overdose awareness, avoidance and response strategies, in particular the use of naloxone. Overdose experiences typically occurred when multiple pharmaceuticals were used (often in combination with alcohol) or after participants had transitioned to heroin injection. Participants tended to see themselves as distinct from traditional heroin users, and were often outside of the networks reached by traditional opioid safety/overdose prevention services. Consequently, they were unlikely to utilize harm reduction services, such as syringe exchange programs (SEPs), that address drug users' health and safety. Conclusions These findings suggest that many young adult nonmedical PO users are at high risk of both fatal and non-fatal overdose. There is a pressing need to develop innovative outreach strategies and overdose prevention programs to better reach and serve young PO users and their network contacts. Prevention efforts addressing risk for accidental overdose, including opioid safety/overdose reversal education and naloxone distribution, should be tailored for and targeted to this vulnerable group. PMID:25151334

  2. Behavioural risk factors for HIV/AIDS in a low-HIV prevalence Muslim nation: Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gibney, L; Choudhury, P; Khawaja, Z; Sarker, M; Vermund, S H

    1999-03-01

    A review of published and unpublished data indicates the prevalence of high-risk behaviours for HIV transmission in segments of the Bangladeshi population. These include casual unprotected sex, heterosexual as well as between males, prior to and after marriage. Intravenous drug use (IVDU) exists though illicit drugs are more commonly inhaled. There is a fear, however, that inhalers may turn to injecting drugs, as is common in neighbouring countries. The lack of public awareness of HIV/AIDS, and misconceptions about the disease, may contribute to continued high-risk behaviours by segments of the population and, thus, to the spread of HIV. Bangladesh's proximity to India and Myanmar (countries with high HIV endemicity and a rapidly growing number of cases) increases fears of an epidemic in Bangladesh. This proximity will only be a risk factor, however, if high-risk contacts occur between nationals of these countries. PMID:10340200

  3. Behavioural risk factors for HIV/AIDS in a low-HIV prevalence Muslim nation: Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, L; Choudhury, P; Khawaja, Z; Sarker, M; Vermund, SH

    2008-01-01

    Summary A review of published and unpublished data indicates the prevalence of high-risk behaviours for HIV transmission in segments of the Bangladeshi population. These include casual unprotected sex, heterosexual as well as between males, prior to and after marriage. Intravenous drug use (IVDU) exists though illicit drugs are more commonly inhaled. There is a fear, however, that inhalers may turn to injecting drugs, as is common in neighbouring countries. The lack of public awareness of HIV/AIDS, and misconceptions about the disease, may contribute to continued high-risk behaviours by segments of the population and, thus, to the spread of HIV. Bangladesh’s proximity to India and Myanmar (countries with high HIV endemicity and a rapidly growing number of cases) increases fears of an epidemic in Bangladesh. This proximity will only be a risk factor, however, if high-risk contacts occur between nationals of these countries. PMID:10340200

  4. Self-compassion and risk behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Dawson Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Cuca, Yvette P; Wantland, Dean; Johnson, Mallory O; Brion, John; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Voss, Joachim; Chen, Wei-Ti; Phillips, J Craig; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K; Nokes, Kathleen; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Kirksey, Kenn; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Davila, Nancy; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Hickey, Dorothy; Maryland, Mary; Reid, Paula; Holzemer, William L

    2014-04-01

    Sexual risk behavior and illicit drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) contribute to poor health and onward transmission of HIV. The aim of this collaborative multi-site nursing research study was to explore the association between self-compassion and risk behaviors in PLWHA. As part of a larger project, nurse researchers in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand and the US enrolled 1211 sexually active PLWHA using convenience sampling. The majority of the sample was male, middle-aged, and from the US. Illicit drug use was strongly associated with sexual risk behavior, but participants with higher self-compassion were less likely to report sexual risk behavior, even in the presence of illicit drug use. Self-compassion may be a novel area for behavioral intervention development for PLWHA. PMID:24510757

  5. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  6. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  7. Knowledge of Rural Nurses' Aides About End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Denham, Sharon A.; Meyer, Michael G.; Rathbun, Ann; Toborg, Mary A.; Thornton, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the role of nurses' aides (NAs) in rural long-term care facilities or their impact on the process of death and dying in rural healthcare environments. Focus groups with NAs were held in 6 rural counties located in 5 states to assess attitudes and perceptions about end-of-life care and training needs. Key informants from 8 states and the District of Columbia added to the understandings. Nurses' aides (N = 63) and key informans (N = 21) worked in a variety of rural settings that provide end-of-life care (ie, nursing homes, hospitals, hospices, home healthcare agencies). Five themes about the needs of rural NAs around end-of-life care were identified in the focus groups, and 4 themes emerged from key informant interviews. A prototype computer-based training module on communication about end-of-life issues was developed, tested, and found useful and compelling. PMID:16775473

  8. Are Rural Women Powerless When it Comes to HIV & AIDS Risk? Implications for Adult Education Programmes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Castle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for fresh approaches to HIV & AIDS education for adults and youth in South Africa, particularly for those marginalised by society, such as rural black women. In this article we explore the factors which affect awareness, condom use and HIV & AIDS risk among a group of women who attend classes in a rural Adult Education…

  9. Occupational Risk of HIV, HBV and HSV-2 Infections in Health Care Personnel Caring for AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhls, Thomas L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Female health care workers with exposure to AIDS patients were studied. Two of the 246 workers showed evidence of opportunistic infections. This analysis confirms the low risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection when hospital infection control practices are employed around AIDS patients. (Author/VM)

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Cambodia's monks, nuns fill gap for AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The UN has reported that Cambodia has one of Asia's most serious HIV epidemics, with 100,000-120,000 of the country's 10.5 million people infected with HIV and up to 1 million more people to be potentially infected over the next 10 years. Cambodia has the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The country's resources, however, are inadequate and health facilities have been unable to keep up with the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Poverty, lack of education, widespread prostitution, limited condom use, and a social breakdown after years of war have all contributed to the problem. 50% of adult men regularly have sex with prostitutes, but they see no need to practice safer sex if a woman looks healthy. Furthermore, little professional and family care is available for the infected and sick. While doctors are few and far between in Cambodia, almost every community has a religious institution and many religious leaders are wiling to help people with AIDS. People in the religious community such as Buddhist monks and the Sisters of Charity help people mainly through counseling, encouragement to keep on living, and accommodating those who have no place else to go. PMID:12293293

  11. AIDS and the stigma of sexual promiscuity: Thai nurses' risk perceptions of occupational exposure to HIV.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Yee; Rungpueng, Arattha; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the culturally shaped meanings of AIDS and perceptions of accidental occupational exposure to HIV among a group of twenty nurses in Bangkok, Thailand. The findings are based on data collected as a part of a larger mixed-methods study that examined how perceptions of risk behaviours (including sexual promiscuity) shape health workers' perceptions of patients living with HIV/AIDS. Nurses' narratives revealed that despite acknowledgement of the low probability of occupational exposure to HIV, the fear of HIV infection remained and was largely driven by the enormity of the anticipated social (rather than the health) consequences of being HIV-positive. The perceived certainty of social ostracism was reinforced by participants' observations of the social rejection experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS both within and outside clinical settings. For female nurses, the dominant social perception that women living with HIV/AIDS were violators of gender norms, and thus 'guilty' victims, was an issue central to their self-identities. Ways of improving care for people living with HIV in the light of the nurses' concerns and future research are discussed. PMID:19263260

  12. AIDS and hepatitis B and C high risk behaviors among 15 to 45 years old individuals in Bandar Abbas (Iran) in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Makiani, Mahin Jamshidi; Davoodian, Parivash; Abedi, Farshid; Hossini, Mahtab; Zare, Shahram; Rahimi, Shafea; Jahanshahi, Keramat Allah; Eftekhari, Tasnim Eqbal

    2014-01-01

    Background: AIDS and hepatitis are two of the most important health issues in the world. Adolescents and individuals in their reproductive years are important population for interventions in order to reduce high risk behaviors for transmission of sexually transmitted disease. However the prevalence of AIDS and hepatitis B and C is high in Bandar Abbas, no study is available about high risk behaviors related to these diseases in Bandar Abbas. The aim of the current study was to investigate high risk behaviors related to AIDS and hepatitis B and C among 15- to 45 year old individuals in Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran. Method: In this analytical study, 1938 participants between 15- and 45 years of age in Bandar Abbas in 2012 were selected to participate in this study. For each individual, the following information was sought: shared syringes, phlebotomy, tattoos, prisoning, drug abuse, amphetamine, alcohol, smoking, unsafe sexual contacts, as well as demographic information including age, sex, marital status, and education level. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, United States) using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results: A total of 8.4% reported having had tattoos; 10.3% reported previous phlebotomy. Individuals with prison history included 7.3% of our study population and their mean age was 31.4 years. Unsafe sexual contact was reported in 10.7% of the study sample. High risk behaviors were more common among individuals with a low educational level, and in alcohol users and amphetamine users (P<0.05). Conclusion: High risk behaviors are more common among individuals in their reproductive years. Increasing educational level and knowledge translation are effective in preventing AIDS and hepatitis high risk behaviors. PMID:25763163

  13. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among health students.

    PubMed

    Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Advincula Reis, Alberto Olavo

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare psychosocial and behavioral factors associated to STD/AIDS risk among students enrolled in the first and last years of the Nursing and Medical Undergraduate Programs at State University of Londrina. A convenience sample was selected from 263 enrolled students, and the 183 students who were sexually active (70.4%) had their data assessed. The Aids Risk Reduction Model framework was used to design the questionnaire in which a 5% statistical significance level was considered. Some risk factors were identified such as the perception of invulnerability, multiple sexual partners, consumption of alcoholic beverages before intercourse, and the discontinuous use or no use of condom. The risk factors are common both to the freshman and senior students, with no significant differences related to the passage of time or to the students' higher educational level. Senior students tend to be monogamous which makes them feel safer and decrease the use of condom with their sexual partners. PMID:17546359

  14. Mainstreaming risk reduction in urban planning and housing: a challenge for international aid organisations.

    PubMed

    Wamsler, Christine

    2006-06-01

    The effects of 'natural' disasters in cities can be worse than in other environments, with poor and marginalised urban communities in the developing world being most at risk. To avoid post-disaster destruction and the forced eviction of these communities, proactive and preventive urban planning, including housing, is required. This paper examines current perceptions and practices within international aid organisations regarding the existing and potential roles of urban planning as a tool for reducing disaster risk. It reveals that urban planning confronts many of the generic challenges to mainstreaming risk reduction in development planning. However, it faces additional barriers. The main reasons for the identified lack of integration of urban planning and risk reduction are, first, the marginal position of both fields within international aid organisations, and second, an incompatibility between the respective professional disciplines. To achieve better integration, a conceptual shift from conventional to non-traditional urban planning is proposed. This paper suggests related operative measures and initiatives to achieve this change. PMID:16689916

  15. A risk-based decision-aiding tool for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.F.; Reiser, A.S.; Elcock, C.G.; Nevins, S.

    1997-10-01

    N-CART (the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program Cost Analysis and Risk Tool) is being developed to aid in low-risk, cost-effective, timely management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and can therefore be used in management of mixed waste. N-CART provides evaluation of multiple alternatives and presents the consequences of proposed waste management activities in a clear and concise format. N-CART`s decision-aiding analyses include comparisons and sensitivity analyses of multiple alternatives and allows the user to perform quick turn-around {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} studies to investigate various scenarios. Uncertainties in data (such as cost and schedule of various activities) are represented as distributions. N-CART centralizes documentation of the bases of program alternatives and program decisions, thereby supporting responses to stakeholders concerns. The initial N-CART design considers regulatory requirements, costs, and schedules for alternative courses of action. The final design will include risks (public health, occupational, economic, scheduling), economic benefits, and the impacts of secondary waste generation. An optimization tool is being incorporated that allows the user to specify the relative importance of cost, time risks, and other bases for decisions. The N-CART prototype can be used to compare the costs and schedules of disposal alternatives for mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) and greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) waste, as well as spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and related scrap material.

  16. Individual risk of cutaneous melanoma in New Zealand: developing a clinical prediction aid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New Zealand and Australia have the highest melanoma incidence rates worldwide. In New Zealand, both the incidence and thickness have been increasing. Clinical decisions require accurate risk prediction but a simple list of genetic, phenotypic and behavioural risk factors is inadequate to estimate individual risk as the risk factors for melanoma have complex interactions. In order to offer tailored clinical management strategies, we developed a New Zealand prediction model to estimate individual 5-year absolute risk of melanoma. Methods A population-based case–control study (368 cases and 270 controls) of melanoma risk factors provided estimates of relative risks for fair-skinned New Zealanders aged 20–79 years. Model selection techniques and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the important predictors. The relative risks for predictors were combined with baseline melanoma incidence rates and non-melanoma mortality rates to calculate individual probabilities of developing melanoma within 5 years. Results For women, the best model included skin colour, number of moles > =5 mm on the right arm, having a 1st degree relative with large moles, and a personal history of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). The model correctly classified 68% of participants; the C-statistic was 0.74. For men, the best model included age, place of occupation up to age 18 years, number of moles > =5 mm on the right arm, birthplace, and a history of NMSC. The model correctly classified 67% of cases; the C-statistic was 0.71. Conclusions We have developed the first New Zealand risk prediction model that calculates individual absolute 5-year risk of melanoma. This model will aid physicians to identify individuals at high risk, allowing them to individually target surveillance and other management strategies, and thereby reduce the high melanoma burden in New Zealand. PMID:24884419

  17. How Much Knowledge Can They Gain? Women's Information Behavior on Government Health Websites in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Women in the U.S. and all over the world are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because of both behavioral and contextual factors. HIV/AIDS prevention education on government health websites plays an important role in reducing this health inequality for women. However, contrary to the assumption of Rimal and Real's (2003) Risk Perception Attitude…

  18. Does a Video Improve Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and HIV Testing among a Global Internet Audience?

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Winnie; Guan, Wentao; Clark, Melissa A.; Liu, Tao; Santelices, Claudia; Cortes, Dharma E.; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if a video improved HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge among a global sample of Internet users, to discern if this improvement was the same for English and Spanish speakers, and to ascertain if the video was efficacious for those with lower health literacy. A worldwide sample of English- or Spanish-speaking Internet users was solicited. Participants completed a 25-item questionnaire to assess their HIV/AIDS and HIV testing knowledge before and after watching the video. Mean scores on the questionnaire improved after watching the video for both English speakers (after: 19.6 versus before: 16.4; Δ = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-3.5) and Spanish speakers (20.7 versus 17.3; Δ = 3.4; 95% CI: 3.0-3.8). There was no difference in improvement of scores between English and Spanish speakers (Δ = −0.24; 95% CI: −0.79 to 0.31), and this video was equally efficacious for those with lower and higher health literacy skills. PMID:26518589

  19. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among South African street youth: reflections on power, sexuality and the autonomous self.

    PubMed

    Swart-Kruger, J; Richter, L M

    1997-09-01

    Street children in South Africa are, in the main, between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Rape, prostitution, sexual bartering and exchange, casual sex and romantic sexual relationships all occur in the experiences of young people who live and work on inner-city streets. In this study, the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of 141 street youth, living in seven large cities in South Africa, were elicited in focus group discussions. At the time of the study, 79 boys (56%) were living in shelters run by nongovernmental and welfare organisations, while 62 boys (44%) were sleeping "rough". The results, both qualitative and quantitative, indicated that the AIDS knowledge of South African street children was comparable to levels reported for groups of "hard-to-reach" youth in other parts of the world. Fear of HIV infection did not appear in a list of day-to-day priorities constructed by the children, a list dominated by survival concerns with food, money and clothes. However, more than half of the boys conceded that they engaged in sex for money, goods or protection, several boys indicated that they had been raped, and most reported being sexually active with "girlfriends", who themselves frequently engaged in transactional sex. The findings are interpreted in terms of the relationships between power dynamics surrounding race and age, and how they affect self-initiated controls over sexuality and sexual protection. PMID:9255928

  20. Self-compassion and Risk Behavior among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison; Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Cuca, Yvette P.; Wantland, Dean; Johnson, Mallory O.; Brion, John; Portillo, Carmen J.; Corless, Inge B.; Voss, Joachim; Chen, Wei-Ti; Phillips, J. Craig; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Nokes, Kathleen; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Kirksey, Kenn; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Davila, Nancy; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Hickey, Dorothy; Maryland, Mary; Reid, Paula; Holzemer, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior and illicit drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) contribute to poor health and onward transmission of HIV. The aim of this collaborative multi-site nursing research study was to explore the association between self-compassion and risk behaviors in PLWHA. Nurse researchers in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand and the U.S. enrolled 2,182 PLWHA using convenience sampling. Over half of study participants were sexually active in the past three months. Participants with higher self-compassion were less likely to report sexual risk behavior. However, if a person also used illicit drugs, the relationship with self-compassion was reduced. Self-compassion may be a novel area for behavioral intervention development for PLWHA. PMID:24510757

  1. College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

  2. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  3. Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Exposure to Family Risk Factors: Accuracy and Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Sarah B.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Battistutta, Diana; Oldenburg, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge of children's exposure to family risk factors was examined using the Family Risk Factor Checklist-Teacher. Data collected for 756 children indicated that teachers had accurate knowledge of children's exposure to factors such as adverse life events and family socioeconomic status, which predicted children's mental health…

  4. Demonstration knowledge base to aid building operators in responding to real-time-pricing electricity rates

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.K. |; Englander, S.L.; Wiseley, B.J.

    1998-10-01

    The objective of ASHRAE Research Project 833, the results of which are summarized in this paper, was to develop a knowledge base, tested in demonstration software, that would assist building operators in assessing the benefits of controlling electrical equipment in response to electricity rates that vary hourly. The software combines a knowledge base with computations, both of which are controlled by the user via a graphical interface. Major electrical end uses of commercial buildings are considered. The knowledge base is used to assess the trade-off of service and cost that is implicit in establishing a threshold price, above which lighting is reduced or space temperatures are allowed to deviate from setpoint. The software also evaluates thermal storage systems and on-site generation, in which occupant comfort is not affected and the systems are operated to minimize operating costs. The thermal storage and generator control algorithms have proved to be optimal under limiting cases by comparison with mixed-integer programming.

  5. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  6. Tacit Knowledge Sharing Modes of University Teachers from the Perspectives of Psychological Risk and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Dengke; Zhou, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Tacit knowledge sharing (TKS) is important to improve the teaching skill and researching knowledge of university teachers. In this paper, the tacit knowledge sharing of university teachers is catalogued as four modes from perspectives of the psychological risk and psychological value which are measured by two grades--high and low. The four modes…

  7. Expanding the Reach of Participatory Risk Management: Testing an Online Decision-Aiding Framework for Informing Internally Consistent Choices.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Douglas L; Campbell-Arvai, Victoria; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This article presents research aimed at developing and testing an online, multistakeholder decision-aiding framework for informing multiattribute risk management choices associated with energy development and climate change. The framework was designed to provide necessary background information and facilitate internally consistent choices, or choices that are in line with users' prioritized objectives. In order to test different components of the decision-aiding framework, a six-part, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted, yielding eight treatment scenarios. The three factors included: (1) whether or not users could construct their own alternatives; (2) the level of detail regarding the composition of alternatives users would evaluate; and (3) the way in which a final choice between users' own constructed (or highest-ranked) portfolio and an internally consistent portfolio was presented. Participants' self-reports revealed the framework was easy to use and providing an opportunity to develop one's own risk-management alternatives (Factor 1) led to the highest knowledge gains. Empirical measures showed the internal consistency of users' decisions across all treatments to be lower than expected and confirmed that providing information about alternatives' composition (Factor 2) resulted in the least internally consistent choices. At the same time, those users who did not develop their own alternatives and were not shown detailed information about the composition of alternatives believed their choices to be the most internally consistent. These results raise concerns about how the amount of information provided and the ability to construct alternatives may inversely affect users' real and perceived internal consistency. PMID:26381043

  8. Making Sense of Knowledge Transfer and Social Capital Generation for a Pacific Island Aid Infrastructure Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu, Christopher; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate how lessons learned from a case study of a construction project undertaken in the Pacific Islands relates to the interaction between social capital and knowledge transfer. The paper is reflective in nature focusing upon the experiences of one of the authors, being a Pacific Islander and…

  9. Extramarital sex and HIV risk behavior among US adults: results from the National AIDS Behavioral Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, K H; Catania, J A; Dolcini, M M

    1994-01-01

    Data from the National AIDS Behavioral Survey were used to examine the social distribution of extramarital sex and risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among married individuals in the United States. Of 1686 married respondents living across the United States, 2.2% reported extramarital sex; of 3827 married respondents living in 23 urban areas with large Hispanic or African-American populations, 2.5% reported having sexual partners outside marriage. The data indicate that the correlates of extramarital sex varied by race/ethnicity. Low levels of condom use were found among people reporting extramarital sex (8% to 19% consistent users). PMID:7998648

  10. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  11. Knowledge and perception of risk for HIV and condom use among male injecting drug users in Cebu City, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Amadora-Nolasco, Fiscalina; Alburo, René E; Aguilar, Elmira Judy T; Trevathan, Wenda R

    2002-06-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) represent a small fraction of the HIV and AIDS cases in the Philippines. To determine if these people are engaging in behaviors that put them at risk for HIV, interviews were conducted with 360 male IDUs in Cebu City, Philippines, from 1997 to 1999, as part of a national surveillance system. The interviews assessed knowledge about HIV transmission, sources of information about HIV/AIDS, perceived risks of contracting HIV, needle-sharing practices, condom use, self-reported signs and symptoms of STDs and number of sex partners. Although most of the men were able to recognize behaviors accurately that put them at risk for HIV, more than two-thirds claimed that they shared needles and almost two-thirds of those who were sexually active claimed that they never used condoms. Intervention strategies must be developed for this population if the nation is to avoid the dramatic increase in HIV infection among IDUs that has been witnessed in neighboring Southeast Asian nations such as Malaysia and Vietnam. PMID:12188992

  12. Estimation of the standardized risk difference and ratio in a competing risks framework: application to injection drug use and progression to AIDS after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Lau, Bryan; Eron, Joseph J; Brookhart, M Alan; Kitahata, Mari M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Mathews, William C; Mugavero, Michael J

    2015-02-15

    There are few published examples of absolute risk estimated from epidemiologic data subject to censoring and competing risks with adjustment for multiple confounders. We present an example estimating the effect of injection drug use on 6-year risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy between 1998 and 2012 in an 8-site US cohort study with death before AIDS as a competing risk. We estimate the risk standardized to the total study sample by combining inverse probability weights with the cumulative incidence function; estimates of precision are obtained by bootstrap. In 7,182 patients (83% male, 33% African American, median age of 38 years), we observed 6-year standardized AIDS risks of 16.75% among 1,143 injection drug users and 12.08% among 6,039 nonusers, yielding a standardized risk difference of 4.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.27, 8.08) and a standardized risk ratio of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.72). Results may be sensitive to the assumptions of exposure-version irrelevance, no measurement bias, and no unmeasured confounding. These limitations suggest that results be replicated with refined measurements of injection drug use. Nevertheless, estimating the standardized risk difference and ratio is straightforward, and injection drug use appears to increase the risk of AIDS. PMID:24966220

  13. Management of complex knowledge in planning for sustainable development: The use of multi-criteria decision aids

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, Jaan-Henrik Soederberg, Henriette

    2008-01-15

    The vision of sustainable development entails new and complex planning situations, confronting local policy makers with changing political conditions, different content in decision making and planning and new working methods. Moreover, the call for sustainable development has been a major driving force towards an increasingly multi-stakeholder planning system. This situation requires competence in working in, and managing, groups of actors, including not only experts and project owners but also other categories of stakeholders. Among other qualities, such competence requires a working strategy aimed at integrating various, and sometimes incommensurable, forms of knowledge to construct a relevant and valid knowledge base prior to decision making. Consequently, there lies great potential in methods that facilitate the evaluation of strategies for infrastructural development across multiple knowledge areas, so-called multi-criteria decision aids (MCDAs). In the present article, observations from six case studies are discussed, where the common denominators are infrastructural planning, multi-stakeholder participation and the use of MCDAs as interactive decision support. Three MCDAs are discussed - NAIADE, SCA and STRAD - with an emphasis on how they function in their procedural context. Accordingly, this is not an analysis of MCDA algorithms, of software programming aspects or of MCDAs as context-independent 'decision machines'-the focus is on MCDAs as actor systems, not as expert systems. The analysis is carried out across four main themes: (a) symmetrical management of different forms of knowledge; (b) management of heterogeneity, pluralism and conflict; (c) functionality and ease of use; and (d) transparency and trust. It shows that STRAD, by far, seems to be the most useful MCDA in interactive settings. NAIADE and SCA are roughly equivalent but have their strengths and weaknesses in different areas. Moreover, it was found that some MCDA issues require further

  14. Knowledge-based computer system to aid in the histopathological diagnosis of breast disease.

    PubMed Central

    Heathfield, H; Bose, D; Kirkham, N

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge-based computer system, designed to assist pathologists in the histological diagnosis of breast disease, is described. This system represents knowledge in the form of "disease profiles" and uses a novel inference model based on the mathematical technique of hypergraphs. Its design overcomes many of the limitations of existing expert system technologies when applied to breast disease. In particular, the system can quickly focus on a differential problem and thus reduce the amount of data necessary to reach a conclusion. The system was tested on two sets of samples, consisting of 14 retrospective cases and five hypothetical cases of breast disease. Its recommendations were judged "correct" by the evaluating pathologist in 15 cases. This study shows the feasibility of providing "decision support" in histopathology. PMID:2066430

  15. Knowledge and understanding of AIDS among health-care workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A; Prabhakar, P

    1989-12-01

    Six hundred and fifty questionnaires were sent to Health-care Workers (HCW) in four hospitals to assess the knowledge and understanding on HIV transmission and isolation precautions to be instituted for control and also to ascertain whether any differences in knowledge existed between HCW of teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Five hundred and nine questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 79%. Questions on HIV transmission via blood transfusion and sexual intercourse and proper disposal of sharp instruments received the highest scores (85-100), embracing all groups of teaching and non-teaching hospitals. The greatest area of misconception and misunderstanding was reflected in responses obtained on isolation precautions (less than 30) for both teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Our study emphasizes an urgent need for a comprehensive, continuous education of HCW on prevention and control of HIV infections in Jamaica. PMID:2623847

  16. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997–2017). Methods A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. Results While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government’s priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non

  17. Correlates and geographic patterns of knowledge that physical activity decreases cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A Susana; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Vanderpool, Robin C; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-04-01

    While many lifestyle-related cancer risk factors including tobacco use, poor diet, and sun exposure are well recognized by the general public, the role of physical activity in decreasing cancer risk is less recognized. Studies have demonstrated gender-, race/ethnicity-, and age-based disparities in cancer risk factor knowledge; however, beliefs and geographic factors that may be related to knowledge are under-examined. In this study, we analyzed data from the 2008 Health Information National Trends Survey to determine correlates of knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and reduced cancer risk in the adult US population. We generated geographic information system maps to examine the geographic distribution of this knowledge. Results revealed that there is confusion among US adults about the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk: Respondents who believed that cancer is not preventable had significantly lower odds of knowing that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p < .001) whereas respondents who believed that cancer is caused by one's behavior had almost two times the odds of knowing that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p < .001). Those who were aware of current physical activity guidelines were also significantly more likely to know that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p < .01). Observed geographic variability in knowledge was consistent with geographic trends in obesity and physical inactivity. Correlates of cancer risk factor knowledge point to opportunities for targeted interventions. PMID:23344632

  18. Kindergarten Teachers' and Their Assistants' Knowledge of First Aid in Slovenian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabe, Damjan; Fink, Rok

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Rapid physical and mental development in childhood also brings about a high risk of being injured. Since children spend a large amount of their time in kindergarten, there is a possibility that they would be injured while there. Design: A questionnaire for professionals was sent to a Slovenian kindergarten. Setting: The aim of this…

  19. Risk, Trust and Knowledge Networks in Farmers' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on New Zealand dairy farmers' access to and use of information as mediated through conditions of risk and trust within the context of their interpersonal social networks. We located participants' reports of their information use within their perceived environments of trust and risk, following Giddens's [1990. The consequences of…

  20. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2012-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men’s labor migration affects their non-migrating wives’ perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men’s migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and those married to non-migrants while also distinguishing between economically successful and unsuccessful migration. The analysis finds that the economic success of men’s migration, rather than migration itself, significantly predicts women’s worries about getting infected by their husbands or their own extramarital partners, and their husbands’ stance on condom use. These findings are situated within a broader context of socio-economic, gender, and marital dynamics and vulnerabilities produced or amplified by male labor migration in sub-Saharan and similar developing settings. PMID:22500057

  1. Excess mortality in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: Temporal changes and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Puhan, Milo A.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Palella, Frank J.; Addessi, Adrienne; Meinert, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background Excess mortality has declined among HIV infected patients but without evidence of a decline in patients with AIDS. We assessed temporal changes in excess mortality and elucidated risk factors for excess mortality in patients with AIDS diagnosed in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods We included 1,188 patients of the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS who were between 25-64 years old at enrollment and diagnosed with AIDS after 1995. We calculated excess mortality as the age-, year- and sex-adjusted difference in mortality rates between patients with AIDS and persons in the US general population, between 1999 and 2007, and used a relative survival model to identify risk factors for excess mortality. Results There were an average of 50 excess deaths (95% CI 44-57) per 1,000 person years between 1999 and 2007. Excess mortality almost halved with an annual decline of 8.0% per year (3.0-12.7 p=0.002) but remained high at 36 excess deaths per 1,000 person years in 2007. Viral load >400 vs. ≤400 copies/mL (risk ratio 3.4 [2.3-5.0]), CD4+ count <200 vs. ≥200 cells/μL (2.7 [1.9-3.9]) and cytomegalovirus retinitis (1.6 [1.2-2.1]) were the strongest risk factors for excess mortality. Conclusions Excess mortality among patients with AIDS was nearly halved in the HAART era and most strongly linked to stage of HIV disease. These results reflect the continuing improvements in AIDS management but also highlight that excess mortality remains about five times higher in patients with AIDS than in patients with HIV-infection but no AIDS. PMID:20825306

  2. Understanding the link between trafficking in persons and HIV and AIDS risk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamazima, Switbert R; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Kazaura, Method R; Fimbo, Benett

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of trafficking in persons in Tanzania is unknown. Consequently, available information on health risks of persons trafficked for different forms of exploitation is extremely scanty. We conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania using both qualitative and quantitative methods to generate data on the health conditions of trafficked persons to inform trafficking in persons control measures through HIV and AIDS interventions. Study participants included the national, regional and district community development officers, district medical officers, local government leaders, managers or representatives of non-governmental organizations involved in anti-trafficking in persons activities, members of the community and victims. Findings indicated that common forms of labour into which persons are trafficked include domestic services, agriculture (farming), construction, mining/quarrying, fishing, lumbering and manufacturing. Trafficked persons are reported to be exposed to risks like overcrowding, long working hours, psychological problems, physical injuries, impotence, breathing problems and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. It is concluded that the reported occupational hazards in industries where trafficked persons are forced into are not specific to trafficked persons as they affect all labourers. However, the underground nature of the trafficking in persons process increases health problems and risks, including the vulnerability to HIV infection. More tailored research is needed, especially to find means of how to reach out and provide services to this particular vulnerable population, validate labour forms of exploitation into which persons are trafficked to enable the integration or mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS and trafficking in persons at the policy and programmatic levels. In addition, findings would facilitate the understanding of the link between increased risk of IRV and trafficking in persons. PMID:26591750

  3. HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Intervention for Women who have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rountree, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature highlights the association between women who have experienced intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their heightened risk for HIV/AIDS (human immune deficiency syndrome/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) infection. Finding HIV risk reduction strategies that are contextually relevant for this population is an important public policy priority. This qualitative study researched women who have experienced intimate partner abuse in order to develop a HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention unique to their circumstances. This pilot study explored the critical components of such an intervention among a racially/ethnically stratified (African-American, Mexican-American and Anglo) sample of women (n=43) who have experienced IPA. Focus groups were conducted and transcribed, and a content analysis was used to identify major themes. In all five focus groups, participants viewed the research as interesting, good, beneficial, and/or important based on their perceptions of risk for infection. Respondents felt that they knew of ways to protect themselves from infection in non-abusive relationships; however, acknowledged the difficulties of doing so given the context of their abusive relationships. Examining the racial/ethnic differences across focus groups showed that the language used by women is quite variable. The ways in which survivors define rape, sexual abuse, and their own experiences are all unique; however, their actual experiences have many similarities. Discussed at length are the topics participants shared as critical in informing the design of an intervention and the relevance of the findings to social work clinical practice is explained. PMID:21170178

  4. Effective Communication of Risks to Young Adults: Using Message Framing and Visual Aids to Increase Condom Use and Std Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)--including HIV/AIDS--are among the most common infectious diseases in young adults. How can we effectively promote prevention and detection of STDs in this high risk population? In a two-phase longitudinal experiment we examined the effects of a brief risk awareness intervention (i.e., a sexual health…

  5. Risk and Protective Factors for Bullying Victimization among AIDS-Affected and Vulnerable Children in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. Method: One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, street children, and…

  6. Enhancing awareness to mitigate the risk of HIV/AIDS in older adults.

    PubMed

    Inelmen, Emine Meral; Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Manzato, Enzo

    2014-12-01

    HIV is often assumed to only affect younger people, and many older people do not realize that they might risk acquiring the virus. Given that sexual transmission is by far the most common way to contract HIV around the world, health care professionals do not usually pay enough attention to the possibility of HIV/AIDS in older adults, based on the common conviction that they no longer have any sexual desires and that they are sexually inactive. Nevertheless, the sexual behavior of older people is likely to change over time, as aging baby boomers progress into their 60s and 70s, meeting the criteria for "successful aging", and not conforming to the stereotype of "sexless elderly". Hence the urgent need to awareness is that HIV remains as a major health threat even in advanced age. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are especially crucial in older adults because of their general frailty and high comorbidity levels. This article reviews recent literature concerning HIV/AIDS in older adults, as regard the related epidemiological, clinical and public health issues, with a view to suggesting how the rising rate of HIV transmission in this age group might be mitigated, and shows the main points that HCP should tackle to identify older people at risk of HIV infection. In summary, there is a pressing need to develop effective prevention schemes and to adapt clinical and programmatic approaches to improve the survival of older people with HIV. PMID:24789219

  7. Mental health first aid training for the public: evaluation of effects on knowledge, attitudes and helping behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kitchener, Betty A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2002-01-01

    Background Many members of the public have poor mental health literacy. A Mental Health First Aid training course was developed in order to improve this. This paper describes the training course and reports an evaluation study looking at changes in knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes and help provided to others. Methods Data are reported on the first 210 participants in public courses. Evaluation questionnaires were given at the beginning of courses, at the end and at 6 months follow-up. Data were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Results The course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of health professionals, decreased social distance from people with mental disorders, increased confidence in providing help to someone with a mental disorder, and increased the amount of help provided to others. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training appears to be an effective method of improving mental health literacy which can be widely applied. PMID:12359045

  8. Sharing knowledge, saving time: an online toolbox to aid junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Houston, James; Barker, William; Clarke, Jonathan; Mew, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors are too often frustrated by not being able to quickly find information for how to make referrals, book investigations and contact other professionals at hospital. To make matters worse, much of the knowledge gained by doctors throughout the year is lost during the August rotation. There is an unmet need for retaining such knowledge, in order to facilitate a smoother and safer handover. We set up the "Doctors Directory" at our trust; a website run by junior doctors, providing specific, up-to-date information relevant to other junior doctors within the trust. Whilst providing day-to-day information, it also contains a "survival guide" for each hospital firm. We surveyed junior doctors before and after the implementation of this site. 81% of FY1s surveyed have used the site. Of the doctors that had used the site, 94% found it helpful with a mean self reported time saving of 39 minutes a day. Whilst still in its infancy, the site now has mobile access, and has an average of 60 hits a day. Quality improvement projects such as this are readily scalable to other hospitals and have enabled junior doctors to waste less time finding how to do jobs and more time actually getting them done. PMID:26734232

  9. Sharing knowledge, saving time: an online toolbox to aid junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    Houston, James; Barker, William; Clarke, Jonathan; Mew, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors are too often frustrated by not being able to quickly find information for how to make referrals, book investigations and contact other professionals at hospital. To make matters worse, much of the knowledge gained by doctors throughout the year is lost during the August rotation. There is an unmet need for retaining such knowledge, in order to facilitate a smoother and safer handover. We set up the “Doctors Directory” at our trust; a website run by junior doctors, providing specific, up-to-date information relevant to other junior doctors within the trust. Whilst providing day-to-day information, it also contains a “survival guide” for each hospital firm. We surveyed junior doctors before and after the implementation of this site. 81% of FY1s surveyed have used the site. Of the doctors that had used the site, 94% found it helpful with a mean self reported time saving of 39 minutes a day. Whilst still in its infancy, the site now has mobile access, and has an average of 60 hits a day. Quality improvement projects such as this are readily scalable to other hospitals and have enabled junior doctors to waste less time finding how to do jobs and more time actually getting them done. PMID:26734232

  10. Interventions and Patterns of Risk in Adolescent HIV/AIDS Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Malow, Robert M.; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Donenberg, Geri; Dévieux, Jessy G.

    2007-01-01

    Mid-way through the third decade of experience in preventing HIV/AIDS among adolescents, behavioral interventions and outcomes for high risk subgroups have generated evidence extremely instructive for navigating future priorities in reducing transmission risk behavior. Youth who abuse alcohol or drugs, who are detained or incarcerated, or have mental health co-morbidity such as externalizing disorders, represent the most significant challenge to current and future efforts to control the epidemic among the adolescent population. Although there is no unambiguous, standard intervention approach with adolescents, patterns of risks and outcomes with these subgroups are instructive in the critical priority of creating more sustainable gains with our HIV prevention resources. This article provides a synthesis of the evidence with these subgroups, discusses important limitations and difficulties in the current intervention science and highlights promising directions for the next generation of effort in reducing adolescent HIV-related sexual risk behavior. Because individual-level interventions have had only modest effects, a key current emphasis within the field is to develop multilevel interventions with a more ecological or contextual focus. We review various pragmatic responses that acknowledge this priority and the debt owed to individual-level intervention work with adolescents. PMID:19088859

  11. Towards a Collaborative Knowledge Discovery System for Enriching Semantic Information about Risks of Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grira, J.; Bédard, Y.; Roche, S.; Devillers, R.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is to design and implement a knowledge discovery system that facilitates, using a web 2.0 collaborative approach, the identification of new risks of geospatial data misuse based on a contributed knowledge repository fed by application domain experts. [Context/Motivation] This research is motivated by the irregularity of risk analysis efforts and the poor semantic of the collected information about risks. In the context of risk analysis during geospatial database design, the knowledge about risks of geospatial data misuse is typically held by domain application experts. The collection and record of that knowledge are usually considered as optional activities. It is usually performed through face-to-face risk assessment meetings and reports. Such techniques end up by restricting the scope of risk analysis to a set of obvious risks usually already identified. Besides, little consideration is devoted to the storage of risk information in an appropriate format for automatic reasoning and new risk information discovery. As a consequence, many foreseeable risky aspects inherent to the data remain overlooked leading to ill-defined specification and faulty decisions. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we present a contributed knowledge discovery system that aims at enriching the semantic information about risks of geospatial data misuse in order to identify foreseeable risks. The proposed web-based system relies on a systematic and more active involvement of users in risk analysis. The approach consists of 1) providing an overview of the related work in the domains of risk analysis within the context of geospatial database design, 2) presenting an ontology-based knowledge discovery system that helps experts in risks identification based on an upper-level risk ontology and on a structured representation of the domain-specific knowledge and, 3) presenting the components of the proposed system architecture and how it may be implemented and used

  12. Perceptions of cancer controllability and cancer risk knowledge: the moderating role of race, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A Susana; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Oh, April; Vengoechea, Bryan Leyva; Moser, Richard P; Vanderpool, Robin C; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-06-01

    Literature suggests racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those who are less-acculturated, have stronger fatalistic attitudes toward cancer than do non-Latino Whites. Knowledge of cancer prevention is also lower among racial/ethnic minorities. Moreover, low knowledge about cancer risk factors is often associated with fatalistic beliefs. Our study examined fatalism and cancer knowledge by race/ethnicity and explored whether race/ethnicity moderate the association of fatalism with knowledge of cancer prevention and risk factors. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2008), a national probability survey, to calculate population estimates of the associations among race/ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, and knowledge about cancer from multivariable logistic regression. Racial/ethnic minorities had higher odds of holding fatalistic beliefs and lower odds of having knowledge of cancer risk factors than non-Hispanic Whites, and important differences by acculturation among Latinos were observed. Limited evidence of the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on the relationship between fatalistic beliefs and cancer risk factor knowledge was observed. Knowledge of cancer risk factors is low among all race/ethnicities, while fatalistic beliefs about cancer are higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Implications for cancer education efforts are discussed. PMID:23355279

  13. Addressing HIV knowledge, risk reduction, social support, and patient involvement using SMS: results of a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Lewis, Megan A; Bann, Carla M; Harris, Jennie L; Furberg, Robert D; Coomes, Curtis M; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. Effective antiretroviral therapy has altered the HIV epidemic from being an acute disease to a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV. The pervasiveness, low cost, and convenience of short message service suggests its potential suitability for supporting the treatment of conditions that must be managed over an extended period. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to develop, implement, and test a tailored short message service-based intervention for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The messages focused on reducing risk-taking behaviors and enhancing HIV knowledge, social support, and patient involvement. Participants reported strong receptivity to the messages and the intervention. The authors detected a statistically significant increase in HIV knowledge and social support from baseline to follow-up. Among participants who received sexual risk reduction messages, the authors also detected a statistically significant reduction in reported risk behaviors from baseline to follow-up. Results confirm the feasibility of a tailored, short message service-based intervention designed to provide ongoing behavioral reinforcement for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Future research should include a larger sample, a control group, multiple sites, younger participants, and longer term follow-up. PMID:22548606

  14. Risk of deaths, AIDS-defining and non-AIDS defining events among Ghanaians on long-term combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Sarfo, Maame Anima; Norman, Betty; Phillips, Richard; Bedu-Addo, George; Chadwick, David

    2014-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been widely available in Ghana since 2004. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the incidences of death, AIDS-defining events and non-AIDS defining events and associated risk factors amongst patients initiating cART in a large treatment centre. Clinical and laboratory data were extracted from clinic and hospital case notes for patients initiating cART between 2004 and 2010 and clinical events graded according to recognised definitions for AIDS, non-AIDS events (NADE) and death, with additional events not included in such definitions such as malaria also included. The cumulative incidence of events was calculated using Kaplan Meier analysis, and association of risk factors with events by Cox proportional hazards regression. Data were closed for analysis on 31st December, 2011 after a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 0-90 months). Amongst 4,039 patients starting cART at a median CD4 count of 133 cells/mm3, there were 324 (8%) confirmed deaths, with an event rate of 28.83 (95% CI 25.78-32.15) deaths per 1000-person follow-up years; the commonest established causes were pulmonary TB and gastroenteritis. There were 681 AIDS-defining events (60.60 [56.14-65.33] per 1000 person years) with pulmonary TB and chronic diarrhoea being the most frequent causes. Forty-one NADEs were recorded (3.64 [2.61-4.95] per 1000 person years), of which hepatic and cardiovascular events were most common. Other common events recorded outside these definitions included malaria (746 events) and respiratory tract infections (666 events). Overall 24% of patients were lost-to-follow-up. Alongside expected risk factors, stavudine use was associated with AIDS [adjusted HR of 1.08 (0.90-1.30)] and death (adjusted HR of 1.60 [1.21-2.11]). Whilst frequency of AIDS and deaths in this cohort were similar to those described in other sub-Saharan African cohorts, rates of NADEs were lower and far exceeded by events such as malaria and respiratory

  15. Risk of Deaths, AIDS-Defining and Non-AIDS Defining Events among Ghanaians on Long-Term Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Sarfo, Maame Anima; Norman, Betty; Phillips, Richard; Bedu-Addo, George; Chadwick, David

    2014-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been widely available in Ghana since 2004. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the incidences of death, AIDS-defining events and non-AIDS defining events and associated risk factors amongst patients initiating cART in a large treatment centre. Clinical and laboratory data were extracted from clinic and hospital case notes for patients initiating cART between 2004 and 2010 and clinical events graded according to recognised definitions for AIDS, non-AIDS events (NADE) and death, with additional events not included in such definitions such as malaria also included. The cumulative incidence of events was calculated using Kaplan Meier analysis, and association of risk factors with events by Cox proportional hazards regression. Data were closed for analysis on 31st December, 2011 after a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 0–90 months). Amongst 4,039 patients starting cART at a median CD4 count of 133 cells/mm3, there were 324 (8%) confirmed deaths, with an event rate of 28.83 (95% CI 25.78–32.15) deaths per 1000-person follow-up years; the commonest established causes were pulmonary TB and gastroenteritis. There were 681 AIDS-defining events (60.60 [56.14–65.33] per 1000 person years) with pulmonary TB and chronic diarrhoea being the most frequent causes. Forty-one NADEs were recorded (3.64 [2.61–4.95] per 1000 person years), of which hepatic and cardiovascular events were most common. Other common events recorded outside these definitions included malaria (746 events) and respiratory tract infections (666 events). Overall 24% of patients were lost-to-follow-up. Alongside expected risk factors, stavudine use was associated with AIDS [adjusted HR of 1.08 (0.90–1.30)] and death (adjusted HR of 1.60 [1.21–2.11]). Whilst frequency of AIDS and deaths in this cohort were similar to those described in other sub-Saharan African cohorts, rates of NADEs were lower and far exceeded by events such as malaria and

  16. SKIMMR: facilitating knowledge discovery in life sciences by machine-aided skim reading.

    PubMed

    Nováček, Vít; Burns, Gully A P C

    2014-01-01

    -related entities from a set of documents which a user may explore through our interface. When a particular area of the entity network looks interesting to a user, the tool displays the documents that are the most relevant to those entities of interest currently shown in the network. We present this as a methodology for browsing a collection of research articles. To illustrate the practical applicability of SKIMMR, we present examples of its use in the domains of Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Parkinson's Disease. Finally, we report on the results of experimental evaluation using the two domains and one additional dataset based on the TREC challenge. The results show how the presented method for machine-aided skim reading outperforms tools like PubMed regarding focused browsing and informativeness of the browsing context. PMID:25097821

  17. Knowledge of and Opinions on HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Front-Line Service Providers at Canadian AIDS Service Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Heather; Wilton, James; Sharma, Malika; Fowler, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Oral daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada) is approved in the United States for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) but has generated controversy in the media and within HIV-affected communities. We conducted an online survey about PrEP-related knowledge, experience, opinions, and learning needs, and received 160 responses from service providers at Canadian AIDS Service Organizations. Respondents were cautiously optimistic about PrEP and 48.8% believed that PrEP warranted Health Canada approval. In multivariable logistic regression, support for PrEP approval was associated with more years working in HIV (odds ratio=1.89 per decade, 95% CI=1.10, 3.25), low baseline familiarity with PrEP (OR=3.24, 95% CI=1.01, 14.41), and knowing someone who had used PrEP (OR=4.39, 95% CI=1.28,15.08). Participants major concerns about PrEP were similar to those highlighted in other publications, and some issues specific to certain target populations were raised. Several participants (26.2%) had been asked about PrEP in the past year and 10.6% knew of one or more Canadian who had used PrEP. Despite clients' interest, most participants thought that they (60.6%) or their organization (63.1%) did not have enough current knowledge about PrEP, highlighting the need for further education on this novel HIV prevention strategy. PMID:23731254

  18. Predicting pathogen risks to aid beach management: the real value of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA).

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Schoen, Mary E; Soller, Jeffrey A; Roser, David J

    2010-09-01

    There has been an ongoing dilemma for agencies that set criteria for safe recreational waters in how to provide for a seasonal assessment of a beach site versus guidance for day-to-day management. Typically an overall 'safe' criterion level is derived from epidemiologic studies of sewage-impacted beaches. The decision criterion is based on a percentile value for a single sample or a moving median of a limited number (e.g. five per month) of routine samples, which are reported at least the day after recreator exposure has occurred. The focus of this paper is how to better undertake day-to-day recreational site monitoring and management. Internationally, good examples exist where predictive empirical regression models (based on rainfall, wind speed/direction, etc.) may provide an estimate of the target faecal indicator density for the day of exposure. However, at recreational swimming sites largely impacted by non-sewage sources of faecal indicators, there is concern that the indicator-illness associations derived from studies at sewage-impacted beaches may be inappropriate. Furthermore, some recent epidemiologic evidence supports the relationship to gastrointestinal (GI) illness with qPCR-derived measures of Bacteroidales/Bacteroides spp. as well as more traditional faecal indicators, but we understand less about the environmental fate of these molecular targets and their relationship to bather risk. Modelling pathogens and indicators within a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework is suggested as a way to explore the large diversity of scenarios for faecal contamination and hydrologic events, such as from waterfowl, agricultural animals, resuspended sediments and from the bathers themselves. Examples are provided that suggest that more site-specific targets derived by QMRA could provide insight, directly translatable to management actions. PMID:20638095

  19. Automated knowledge acquisition - an aid to understanding the actions of a skilled operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Rozelle M.

    1990-08-01

    The operator of an accelerator experiment often appears to be a highly skilled magician. The diagnostics used, such as oscilloscope traces, may be only indirectly related to the state of the accelerator. The operator adjusts the knobs so that the experiment runs well, but is not always able to describe in words exactly what is happening. The tool described in this paper, acc-plot-tool, was developed as a supplement to note-taking while attempting to develop an expert system that might function as an apprentice operator. During an experiment, a historical record is made of all operator actions and the resulting changes in the state of the equipment, including digitized records of the oscilloscope traces used to make decisions. These records are transformed into a set of graphical objects in the knowledge engineering environment (KEE). A flexible set of KEE functions has been developed, allowing both graphical and numerical manipulation of the data. The acc-plot-tool is not only useful in helping to understand the operator's actions, but also in discovering correlations between operator actions and system-parameter changes, in detecting equipment failures and in the mathematical modelingof the system. Examples will be given from ion-source operation.

  20. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  1. SKIMMR: facilitating knowledge discovery in life sciences by machine-aided skim reading

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Gully A.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    inter-related entities from a set of documents which a user may explore through our interface. When a particular area of the entity network looks interesting to a user, the tool displays the documents that are the most relevant to those entities of interest currently shown in the network. We present this as a methodology for browsing a collection of research articles. To illustrate the practical applicability of SKIMMR, we present examples of its use in the domains of Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Parkinson’s Disease. Finally, we report on the results of experimental evaluation using the two domains and one additional dataset based on the TREC challenge. The results show how the presented method for machine-aided skim reading outperforms tools like PubMed regarding focused browsing and informativeness of the browsing context. PMID:25097821

  2. Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV/AIDS Patients on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Assob, Jules Clement Nguedia; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Tanue, Elvis Asangbeng; Kibu, Odette Dzemo; Ayima, Charlotte Wenze; Ngowe, Marcelin Ngowe

    2015-01-01

    Background : The introduction and widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 1990’s, has led HIV-infected individuals to experience a dramatic decline in immunodeficiency-related events and death. There is growing concern on metabolic complications associated with HIV and HAART which may increase cardiovascular risk and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular risk profile of HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART and those not receiving HAART at HIV/AIDS treatment centres in the South West Region of Cameroon. Methods : Consenting participants, who had been receiving HAART, were compared with HAART naive participants. A questionnaire was administered; anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were recorded under standard conditions. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of plasma glucose and lipid levels. Results : Two hundred and fifteen participants were recruited, 160 (74.4%) were on HAART and 55 (25.6%) were HAART naive. Among the individual lipid abnormalities, increased total cholesterol was the most prevalent (40.0%). Participants on HAART were significantly about 8 times at risk of developing hypercholesterolemia when compared to the HAART inexperienced group (OR 8.17; 95% CI: 3.31-20.14; p<0.001). Hypertension had a prevalence of 25.6% (95% CI: 15.3%-35.9%) and was about 2 times significantly higher in the HAART treated than the HAART untreated group (p=0.033). The prevalence of low HDL-c was significantly higher in males (24.1%) compared to females (11.2%) (p=0.0196). Many females (27.3%) were obese compared to males (7.4%) (p=0.0043). HAART use and treatment duration of more than five years were significantly associated with higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. Conclusion : HAART treatment was associated with significantly higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, increased LDL-c and hypertension, hence the risk of cardiovascular

  3. Paraffin-related injury in low-income South African communities: knowledge, practice and perceived risk

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Dehran; Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Simpson, Jennifer; Hobe, Phumla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore what individuals at risk of injury from using paraffin (also known as kerosene) know about paraffin safety, what they do to protect themselves and their families from paraffin-related injury, and how they perceive their risk for such injury. Also, to explore interrelations between these factors and age, sex, education and income. Methods A sample of 238 individuals was randomly recruited from low-income housing districts near Cape Town, South Africa in 2007. Trained research assistants interviewed participants to explore their knowledge about paraffin-related safety and their perceived risk of injury from using paraffin. Researchers inspected participants’ homes to evaluate paraffin safety practices. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted. Findings Participants had relatively low levels of knowledge about paraffin-related safety. They had high levels of unsafe practice and their perceived risk of injury was moderate. Knowledge of paraffin safety and safe practices were positively correlated with each other. Greater knowledge showed a negative correlation with the perception of being at risk for injury, but safe practices showed no correlation with perceived risk of injury. Formal education, the number of children in the home and frequency of paraffin use were positively correlated with knowledge but not with safe practices. The only significant correlate to safe practices was greater income, perhaps a reflection of the impact of financial resources on paraffin safety practices. Conclusion To develop successful paraffin safety interventions, it is necessary to understand baseline levels of knowledge, practice and perceived risk of injury among at-risk populations. Our findings could be of value for designing interventions that will increase knowledge, improve safe practices and lead to the accurate perception of the risk of injury from using paraffin. PMID:19784450

  4. Heart Healthy Knowledge, Food Patterns, Fatness, and Cardiac Risk Factors in Children Receiving Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kerry J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Elementary students (n=900) received a nutrition education program focusing on cognitive and behavioral aspects of cardiovascular health. Assessments of their health knowledge and behavior were conducted at baseline and at five follow-up periods. Children increased their knowledge and improved food patterns, but among the cardiac risk factors,…

  5. Hatching Babies and Stork Deliveries: Risk and Regulation in the Construction of Children's Sexual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Cristyn; Robinson, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Children's access to sexual knowledge has always been considered "risky" and controversial due to the fraught relationship between childhood and sexuality. Based on focus groups with children and their parents, the authors explore the relationship between risk and regulation associated with providing children with accurate knowledge about…

  6. Development and Validation of the Survey of Knowledge of Internet Risk and Internet Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert K.; Ludlow, Larry H.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Kite, Stacey L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Survey of Knowledge of Internet Risk and Internet Behavior is described. A total of 1,366 Grades 7 and 8 male and female students from an urban, suburban, and rural school offered agree-disagree responses to 26 statements defining one Knowledge Scale and five behavior dimensions. Literature-based support is presented for…

  7. Willingness to participate in AIDS vaccine trials among high-risk populations in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Celentano, D D; Beyrer, C; Natpratan, C; Eiumtrakul, S; Sussman, L; Renzullo, P O; Khamboonruang, C; Nelson, K E

    1995-09-01

    Thailand has been designated a site for preventive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trials, and Phase I and II trials are currently underway. To assess the feasibility of large-scale Phase III trials involving high-risk individuals, questionnaires were administered to four cohorts of potential participants from North Thailand: 215 female commercial sex workers recruited from sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, 219 male STD clients from the same area, 1453 men conscripted into the Royal Thai Army in 1993, and 293 men discharged from the Army in 1993. Approximately 25% of members of each cohort indicated they would definitely join a prophylactic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) trial. The major barriers to participation were concerns about vaccine safety (61% of military cohorts and 32% of civilians) and fear of acquiring AIDS through vaccination (21%). Also expressed were concerns about social discrimination, immediate side effects, and rejection by sexual partner. Two-thirds of respondents indicated that provision of a five-year family health insurance plan would induce them to participate in a vaccine trial, while another 25% did not require any incentive. Overall, these findings indicate that steps must be taken to alleviate fears and misconceptions associated with HIV vaccines before Phase III is initiated. PMID:8527082

  8. Prospective study of attitudinal and relationship predictors of sexual risk in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, David G; Silverberg, Michael J; Cook, Robert L; Chmiel, Joan S; Johnson, Lisette; Li, Xiuhong; Jacobson, Lisa P

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of attitudes concerning HIV transmission, safe sex, and sexual sensation seeking, as well as negotiated risk reduction with primary partners, on the proportion of unprotected sexual partners (%UASP) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 263 HIV-seropositive and 238 HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1999 and 2003 who completed a 20-item attitude survey twice. Behavioral data were collected concurrently and 6-12 months after each survey. Among seropositives, decreased HIV concern and increased safer sex fatigue were associated with higher %UASP at 6 and 12 months. Among seronegatives, increased %UASP at 12 months was associated with safer sex fatigue. At 6 months and 12 months, risk reduction agreements were associated with increased %UASP among seronegatives in seroconcordant monogamous relationships, reflecting their abandonment of condoms in such partnerships. We conclude that HIV prevention efforts should target modifiable attitudes (reduced concern about HIV and safer sex fatigue) and increases in sexual risk-taking of MSM, particularly among HIV+ men having sex with serodiscordant partners. PMID:17410419

  9. Tuberculosis knowledge, perceived risk and risk behaviors among homeless adults: effect of ethnicity and injection drug use.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Sands, Heather; Pattatucci-Aragón, Angela; Berg, Jill; Leake, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate Tuberculosis (TB) knowledge, perceived risk, and risk behaviors in a sample of homeless persons with latent TB in the Skid Row district of Los Angeles. Particular emphasis was given to comparing these variables among homeless persons of varying ethnic backgrounds and among those who did and did not report a history of injection drug use (IDU). Baseline data were collected from 415 homeless individuals recruited to participate in a Tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis intervention. Areas of interest relative to TB knowledge and perceived risk for infection were behavioral factors surrounding substance use and abuse; personal factors measured in terms of current depression; and sociodemographic and situational factors, such as age, ethnicity, history of incarceration, and duration of homelessness. Findings revealed differences in substance abuse. IDUs were more likely to have histories of daily drug use and alcohol dependency, but were less apt to report recent use of crack cocaine. TB knowledge deficits centered on ignorance with respect to modes of transmission and risk factors for TB infection. IDU was also associated with depression. Latinos and IDUs were most likely to lack TB knowledge. There is a pressing need for accessible, available, culturally acceptable and sustained TB screening and intervention programs designed to address multiple risk factors and knowledge deficits with respect to TB infection in homeless populations. PMID:15587347

  10. [Information, attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic representations of AIDS risk and prevention among poor adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Merchán-Hamann, E

    1995-01-01

    Four hundred and sixteen poor adolescents of both sexes in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed to study both their level of information and symbolic representations concerning AIDS risk and prevention. The most common source of information on HIV/AIDS was the mass media, particularly television broadcasts. There were doubts and lack of trust regarding official government information on HIV/AIDS. Nearly 70% of the adolescents interviewed believe in HIV transmission through mosquito bites and some 40% through casual contact with wounds or scars or sharing of bathroom utensils. Men seemed to show a greater awareness and autonomy vis- -vis taking initiatives in sex encounters. Attitudes of segregation and exclusion of people with AIDS persist. Lack of prevention was attributed to the impossibility of predicting sexual encounters. The study of symbolic aspects concerning causes of HIV/AIDS displayed broad variability: 80% of the interviewees associated AIDS with excesses in sexual behavior and 40% with homosexual practices. Causal images vary from the predominant view of AIDS as unfair punishment to the less frequent stance considering AIDS as fair punishment (due to sinful behavior). An ambiguous attitude towards transgression (taking as its sterotype the figure of Rio's "malandro", or "streetwise dude") may influence perception of risk and prevention. The paper calls attention to the need for implementing clearer and more direct educational programs. This could be useful for the implementation of culturally sensitive control measures through a reshaping of AIDS symbols. The author recommends a better understanding of the social and economic determinants of disease and reinforcement of the kinds of discourse which empower and raise the self-esteem of poor adolescents by endorsing their civil rights. PMID:12973626

  11. An investigation of constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Originally, computer programs for engineering design focused on detailed geometric design. Later, computer programs for algorithmically performing the preliminary design of specific well-defined classes of objects became commonplace. However, due to the need for extreme flexibility, it appears unlikely that conventional programming techniques will prove fruitful in developing computer aids for engineering conceptual design. The use of symbolic processing techniques, such as object-oriented programming and constraint propagation, facilitate such flexibility. Object-oriented programming allows programs to be organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, rather than around fixed sequences of function- and subroutine-calls. Constraint propagation allows declarative statements to be understood as designating multi-directional mathematical relationships among all the variables of an equation, rather than as unidirectional assignments to the variable on the left-hand side of the equation, as in conventional computer programs. The research has concentrated on applying these two techniques to the development of a general-purpose computer aid for engineering conceptual design. Object-oriented programming techniques are utilized to implement a user-extensible database of design components. The mathematical relationships which model both geometry and physics of these components are managed via constraint propagation. In addition, to this component-based hierarchy, special-purpose data structures are provided for describing component interactions and supporting state-dependent parameters. In order to investigate the utility of this approach, a number of sample design problems from the field of aerospace engineering were implemented using the prototype design tool, Rubber Airplane. The additional level of organizational structure obtained by representing design knowledge in terms of components is observed to provide greater convenience to the program user, and to

  12. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors. PMID:25293869

  13. [Factors associated with condom use and knowledge about STD/AIDS among teenagers in public and private schools in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martins, Laura B Motta; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia Helena S; Osis, Maria José D; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Tadini, Valdir

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05) and was associated with male gender and lower socioeconomic status. Female gender, higher schooling, enrollment in private school, Caucasian race, and being single were associated with higher knowledge of STDs. Teenagers from public and private schools have adequate knowledge of STD prevention, however this does not include the adoption of effective prevention. Educational programs and STD/AIDS awareness-raising should be expanded in order to minimize vulnerability. PMID:16501744

  14. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  15. Relationship Between Health Literacy, Knowledge of Health Status, and Beliefs about HIV/AIDS Transmission among Ryan White Clients in Miami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooss, Angela; Brock-Getz, Petra; Ladner, Robert; Fiano, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, knowledge of health status, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission beliefs among recipients of Ryan White care. Design: Quota and convenience sampled, quantitative analysis captured with closed and…

  16. A Controlled-Study of Preventive Effects of Peer Education and Single-Session Lectures on HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among University Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergene, Tuncay; Cok, Figen; Tumer, Aygen; Unal, Serhat

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of peer education and single-session educational lectures on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude change among university students (n = 157 male, n = 230 female; mean age = 20) on the campuses of two metropolitan state universities in Ankara, Turkey. The students were randomly selected to participate in…

  17. Where Do We Start? Using Collage to Explore Very Young Adolescents' Knowledge about HIV and AIDS in Four Senior Primary Classrooms in Kwazulu-Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Greg; Mbokazi, Thembinkosi; Rorke, Francoise; Goba, Sylvia; Mitchell, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses specifically on the needs and concerns of "very young adolescents" who as defined by the Population Council are young people aged between 10 and 14 years. The title of this paper, "Where Do We Start?", acknowledges that attitudes towards and knowledge of HIV and AIDS are best looked at in a situated way. We look at classes of…

  18. Vulnerability and risk perception in the management of HIV/AIDS: Public priorities in a global pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Tsasis, Peter; Nirupama, N.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the way perception of risk is shaped and constructed is crucial in understanding why it has been so difficult to mitigate the spread of HIV/AIDS. This paper uses the Pressure and Release (PAR) model, used to predict the onset of natural disasters as the conceptual framework. It substitutes vulnerability and risk perception as the trigger factors in the model, in making the case that HIV/AIDS can be characterized as a slow onset disaster. The implications are that vulnerability must be managed and reduced by addressing root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions that contribute to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. HIV/AIDS programs must be culturally appropriate and work toward influencing risk perception, while addressing social norms and values that negatively impact vulnerable populations. By impacting cultural and social expectations, individuals will be able to more readily adopt safer sex behaviors. The development of policies and programs addressing the issues in context, as opposed to individual behaviors alone, allows for effective public health intervention. This may have implications for public health measures implemented for combating the spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22312198

  19. Effects of newspaper coverage on public knowledge about modifiable cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Jo Ellen; Moriarty, Cortney M; Jensen, Jakob D

    2008-07-01

    This study explores the relationship between cancer newspaper coverage and public knowledge about cancer prevention, confirming self-reported associations between news exposure and cancer prevention knowledge with descriptions of newspaper coverage of modifiable cancer risks. Content analyses (N = 954) revealed that newspapers pay relatively little attention to cancer prevention. However, there is greater newspaper attention to tobacco and diet than to exercise, sun, and alcohol. Survey analysis (the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey) revealed that after controlling for differences based on gender, race, age, income, and education, attention to health news was significantly associated with knowledge about cancer risks associated with food and smoking but not for knowledge about exercise, sun, or alcohol. These findings conform to the findings of the content analysis data and provide a validation of a self-reported measure of media exposure, as well as evidence suggesting a threshold below which news coverage may not generate public knowledge about cancer prevention. PMID:18702002

  20. The role of contextual risk, impulsivity, and parental knowledge in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anna; Barker, Edward D; Koot, Hans M; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-08-01

    The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597; 51% male) reported on informal social control in their neighborhoods, their family types, and impulsivity at age 12, and on parental monitoring and ASB at ages 13 and 15 years. Neighborhoods were further defined as risk and nonrisk in economic deprivation by census-level data. Main effects of neighborhood risk, single parenthood, and impulsivity on ASB were found for male and female adolescents. For female adolescents, impulsivity interacted with neighborhood economic deprivation and with family type in the prediction of parental knowledge. Impulsivity and contextual risk factors in part increased adolescent ASB through decreasing parental knowledge. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20677842

  1. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I: a knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Peter B; Thomsen, Marianne; Assmuth, Timo; Grieger, Khara D; Baun, Anders

    2010-08-15

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again challenges risk assessors in terms of giving the 'right' relative priority to the multitude of contributing risk factors. A critical issue is therefore to develop procedures that can identify and evaluate worst case risk conditions which may be input to risk level predictions. Therefore, this paper suggests a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification and risk quantification. The model can help optimize risk assessment planning by initial screening level analyses and guiding quantitative assessment in relation to knowledge needs for better decision support concerning environmental and human health protection or risk reduction. The WCD model facilitates the evaluation of fundamental uncertainty using knowledge mapping principles and techniques in a way that can improve a complete uncertainty analysis. Ultimately, the WCD is applicable for describing risk contributing factors in relation to many different types of risk management problems since it transparently and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk

  2. High-risk sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS attending tertiary care hospitals in district of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Mukesh; Agarwal, Monica; Singh, Jai Vir; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Singh, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to diminish the new instances of HIV and the target are those who are engaged in high-risk sexual behavior. Therefore, understanding the risky behaviors of the HIV-infected individual is important. Aims: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and the predictors of high-risk sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy centers of two tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: A total of 322 HIV-positive patients were interviewed about their sexual behaviors during last 3 months using a pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Probability (p) was calculated to test for statistical significance at 5% level of significance. Association between risk factors and high-risk sexual behavior was determined using bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior was 24.5%. Of these patients, multiple sexual partners were reported by 67.3% whereas about 46.9% were engaged in unprotected sex. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with nonsupporting attitude of spouse (odds ratio [OR]: 18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–225.5; P = 0.02) and alcohol consumption (OR: 9.3; 95% CI: 2.4–35.4; P = 0.001). Conclusions: Specific intervention addressing alcohol consumption and encouragement of spouse and family support should be integrated in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment apart from HIV transmission and prevention knowledge. PMID:27190412

  3. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients’ risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current “best practices” in communication of evidence-based numeric outcomes for developers of patient decision aids (PtDAs) and other health communication tools. Method An expert consensus group of fourteen researchers from North America, Europe, and Australasia identified eleven main issues in risk communication. Two experts for each issue wrote a “state of the art” summary of best evidence, drawing on the PtDA, health, psychological, and broader scientific literature. In addition, commonly used terms were defined and a set of guiding principles and key messages derived from the results. Results The eleven key components of risk communication were: 1) Presenting the chance an event will occur; 2) Presenting changes in numeric outcomes; 3) Outcome estimates for test and screening decisions; 4) Numeric estimates in context and with evaluative labels; 5) Conveying uncertainty; 6) Visual formats; 7) Tailoring estimates; 8) Formats for understanding outcomes over time; 9) Narrative methods for conveying the chance of an event; 10) Important skills for understanding numerical estimates; and 11) Interactive web-based formats. Guiding principles from the evidence summaries advise that risk communication formats should reflect the task required of the user, should always define a relevant reference class (i.e., denominator) over time, should aim to use a consistent format throughout documents, should avoid “1 in x” formats and variable denominators, consider the magnitude of numbers used and the possibility of format bias, and should take into account the numeracy and graph literacy of the audience. Conclusion A substantial and

  4. Navigating complexity through knowledge coproduction: Mainstreaming ecosystem services into disaster risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Reyers, Belinda; Nel, Jeanne L.; O’Farrell, Patrick J.; Sitas, Nadia; Nel, Deon C.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the policy and practice shifts needed to secure ecosystem services is hampered by the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their management. Methods for the participatory production and exchange of knowledge offer an avenue to navigate this complexity together with the beneficiaries and managers of ecosystem services. We develop and apply a knowledge coproduction approach based on social–ecological systems research and assess its utility in generating shared knowledge and action for ecosystem services. The approach was piloted in South Africa across four case studies aimed at reducing the risk of disasters associated with floods, wildfires, storm waves, and droughts. Different configurations of stakeholders (knowledge brokers, assessment teams, implementers, and bridging agents) were involved in collaboratively designing each study, generating and exchanging knowledge, and planning for implementation. The approach proved useful in the development of shared knowledge on the sizable contribution of ecosystem services to disaster risk reduction. This knowledge was used by stakeholders to design and implement several actions to enhance ecosystem services, including new investments in ecosystem restoration, institutional changes in the private and public sector, and innovative partnerships of science, practice, and policy. By bringing together multiple disciplines, sectors, and stakeholders to jointly produce the knowledge needed to understand and manage a complex system, knowledge coproduction approaches offer an effective avenue for the improved integration of ecosystem services into decision making. PMID:26082541

  5. Knowledge Management and Safety Compliance in a High-Risk Distributed Organizational System

    PubMed Central

    Gressgård, Leif Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Background In a safety perspective, efficient knowledge management is important for learning purposes and thus to prevent errors from occurring repeatedly. The relationship between knowledge exchange among employees and safety behavior may be of particular importance in distributed organizational systems where similar high-risk activities take place at several locations. This study develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship between knowledge exchange systems usage, knowledge exchange in the organizational system, and safety compliance. Methods The operational context of the study is petroleum drilling and well operations involving distributed high-risk activities. The hypotheses are tested by use of survey data collected from a large petroleum operator company and eight of its main contractors. Results The results show that safety compliance is influenced by use of knowledge exchange systems and degree of knowledge exchange in the organizational system, both within and between units. System usage is the most important predictor, and safety compliance seems to be more strongly related to knowledge exchange within units than knowledge exchange between units. Conclusion Overall, the study shows that knowledge management is central for safety behavior. PMID:25180134

  6. Navigating complexity through knowledge coproduction: Mainstreaming ecosystem services into disaster risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Reyers, Belinda; Nel, Jeanne L; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Sitas, Nadia; Nel, Deon C

    2015-06-16

    Achieving the policy and practice shifts needed to secure ecosystem services is hampered by the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their management. Methods for the participatory production and exchange of knowledge offer an avenue to navigate this complexity together with the beneficiaries and managers of ecosystem services. We develop and apply a knowledge coproduction approach based on social-ecological systems research and assess its utility in generating shared knowledge and action for ecosystem services. The approach was piloted in South Africa across four case studies aimed at reducing the risk of disasters associated with floods, wildfires, storm waves, and droughts. Different configurations of stakeholders (knowledge brokers, assessment teams, implementers, and bridging agents) were involved in collaboratively designing each study, generating and exchanging knowledge, and planning for implementation. The approach proved useful in the development of shared knowledge on the sizable contribution of ecosystem services to disaster risk reduction. This knowledge was used by stakeholders to design and implement several actions to enhance ecosystem services, including new investments in ecosystem restoration, institutional changes in the private and public sector, and innovative partnerships of science, practice, and policy. By bringing together multiple disciplines, sectors, and stakeholders to jointly produce the knowledge needed to understand and manage a complex system, knowledge coproduction approaches offer an effective avenue for the improved integration of ecosystem services into decision making. PMID:26082541

  7. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and its association with socioeconomic status among women: results of Lebanese Survey for Family Health (PAPFAM) 2004.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, Loulou; El Kak, Faysal H; Khawaja, Marwan; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2015-03-01

    This article assesses the association of women's HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission and prevention with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from the 2004 Lebanese PAPFAM (Pan-Arab Project for Family Health) survey were used. The survey was based on a representative household sample (n = 5532 households; n = 3315 women) of ever-married women aged 15 to 55 years. Adjusted analysis revolved around multivariate logistic regression models. 18% of women were knowledgeable of HIV/AIDS transmission methods and 21% of prevention methods. Income and education were significantly related to women's transmission and prevention knowledge. Significant differences were also found by region and media exposure. Women in the richest income quintile were 4 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.43-6.42) more likely to be knowledgeable than those in the poorest. Women with the highest education were 2.57 times more likely (95% CI = 1.98-3.34) to be knowledgeable than those with elementary education or less. These results suggest the need for incorporating contextual regional and population differences for more effective HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns in Lebanon. PMID:22186399

  8. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  9. A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Alicea, Stacey; Bannon, William M; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2008-01-01

    This study tested an economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among AIDS-orphaned adolescents. Adolescents (n = 96) were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for orphans in Uganda. Data obtained at baseline and 12-month follow-up revealed significant differences between the treatment and control groups in HIV prevention attitudes and educational planning. PMID:18155037

  10. Use of Sexual Material Online and At-Risk Sexual Behavior Regarding HIV/AIDS among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Raquel A.; Montero, Carolina Valdez; González, Víctor M.; Rodríguez, Dora Julia Onofre

    2012-01-01

    Use of sexual material online (USMO) by young people has been connected with at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Media Richness and Social Cognitive theories propose that rich media offer more information with interactive and audible visual content, which could have a significant impact on people’s thinking and behavior. The objective was to determine whether USMO presented by rich media has an influence on at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Two hundred young people participated in the study, and it was found that USMO from rich media is connected to at risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS (p<.01). Young people who use rich media for masturbation (F[2,189]=10.169, p<.001), arousal (F[2,189]=4.686, p<.05), stimulation (F[2,189]=8.382, p<.001), and seeking adventures (F[2,189]=6.406, p<.01) were more likely to show at risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. The study also found that young people may experience pleasure from USMO in rich media and feel motivated to model what they observe. PMID:24199040

  11. Sexual Risk Behavior among African American College Women: Understanding Socio-Cultural Factors in the Context of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Maya A.

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at the center of the discussion on health disparities, specifically disparities regarding HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Though there has been substantial research examining sexual risk behavior among low income African American women, little has been done to understand sexual behavior…

  12. Coping Strategies of Patients with Haemophilia as a Risk Group for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Brief Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji, Simon; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…

  13. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  14. HIV and AIDS in Suburban Asian and Pacific Islander Communities: Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in HIV Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Magalong, Michelle G.; DeBell, Paula; Fasudhani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Though AIDS case rates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans (APIs) in the United States remain relatively low, the number has been steadily increasing. Scholars, policy makers, and service providers still know little about how confident APIs are in carrying out different HIV risk reduction strategies. This article addresses this gap by…

  15. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  16. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels

    PubMed Central

    Zimba, Roderick F.; Likando, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18–35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  17. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  18. Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors among a Community Sample in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ammouri, Ali A.; Tailakh, Ayman; Isac, Chandrani; Kamanyire, Joy K.; Muliira, Joshua; Balachandran, Shreedevi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Omani adults regarding conventional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and to identify demographic variables associated with these knowledge levels. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was carried out among a convenience sample of 130 adults attending a health awareness fair held in a local shopping mall in Muscat, Oman, in November 2012. A modified version of the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire in both English and Arabic was used to assess knowledge of CHD risk factors. Scores were calculated by summing the correct answers for each item (range: 0–21). Inadequate knowledge was indicated by a mean score of <70%. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to establish the participants’ knowledge levels and identify associated demographic variables. Results: A total of 114 subjects participated in the study (response rate: 87.7%). Of these, 69 participants (60.5%) had inadequate mean CHD knowledge scores. Knowledge of CHD risk factors was significantly associated with body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 0.739; P = 0.023), marital status (OR = 0.057; P = 0.036) and education level (OR = 9.243; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Low knowledge levels of CHD risk factors were observed among the studied community sample in Oman; this is likely to limit the participants’ ability to engage in preventative practices. These findings support the need for education programmes to enhance awareness of risk factors and prevention of CHD in Oman. PMID:27226910

  19. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  20. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HIV KNOWLEDGE AND RISK BEHAVIOR IN PERSONS WHO INJECT DRUGS IN THAI NGUYEN, VIETNAM

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Travis W.; Davis, Wendy W.; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Le Minh, Nguyen; Latkin, Carl; Zelaya, Carla; Mo, Tran Thi; Go, Vivian F.

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, HIV infection is concentrated in key populations including persons who inject drugs (PWID). The majority of PWID can name specific transmission routes of HIV, yet risk behaviors remain high. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1355 PWID in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam, to and compare their HIV knowledge with their self-reported risk behavior. Broader knowledge of HIV transmission, measured by a higher composite HIV knowledge score, was associated with a 19.5% lower adjusted odds of giving a used needle to another (p=0.011), and 20.4% lower adjusted odds of using a needle that another had used (p=0.001). A higher knowledge score was associated with 13.1% higher adjusted odds of consistent condom use (p=0.083). These results suggest a broader knowledge may reflect characteristics about how individuals obtain knowledge or the way that knowledge is delivered to them, and may be associated with their ability to engage in risk reduction behavior. PMID:26466429

  2. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS. PMID:23874598

  3. Evaluation of a School-Based Train-the-Trainer Intervention Program to Teach First Aid and Risk Reduction among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruth, Ann K.; Pryor, Susan; Cormier, Cathy; Bateman, Aaron; Matzke, Brenda; Gilmore, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Farming is a hazardous occupation posing health risks from agricultural exposures for the farm owner and family members. First Aid for Rural Medical Emergencies (F.A.R.M.E.) was developed to support a train-the-trainer (TTT) program to prepare high school students to teach first aid skills and risk reduction through peer interaction.…

  4. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    George, Grace Mary; Sharma, Kamlesh Kumari; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramaniam; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among Indian school children are limited. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey among 485 school children studying in classes 6, 7 and 8 in two government and one private school in New Delhi using convenience sampling. Cardiovascular risk factors (physical activity, diet and smoking), knowledge about risk factors and family profile were assessed using a structured self report questionnaire. Weight, height and blood pressure measurements were taken. Results The mean age of the studied school children was 12.8 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.5% and 11.5% respectively. The prevalence of prehypertension, stage 1 hypertension and stage 2 hypertension was 12.4%, 6.8% and 1.4% respectively. Of the total, 43.8% were physically active for at least 1 hour per day on all 7 days of the previous week. Daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by 42% and 76% of the school children respectively. Nearly 5% of the school children reported to have used any form of tobacco. One fifth of the school children had a family history of cardiovascular disease. Of the total, 25.4% had adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood. PMID:24973830

  5. Knowledge and Risk Perception Regarding HPV Among Latino Alternative School Students in Houston, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Christine M.; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Addy, Robert C.; Lewis, Holly; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI among youth in the U.S. As alternative school students are at higher risk of acquiring STIs compared to regular high school students, this study examined HPV knowledge and risk perception among Latino youth attending 9 alternative high schools in Houston, Texas. HPV knowledge measures assessed prevalence, health consequences, symptoms, transmission, and risk reduction strategies. Three measures assessed perceived risk. The sample included 414 youth (58.4% female) with a mean age of 16.6 years (SD = 1.86); 63.8% were sexually experienced. Most (76.0%) were U.S.-born to parents from Mexico, Central or South America (70.8% of mothers and 77.8% of fathers, respectively); 61.7% had parents with less than a high school education. Results indicate that youth answered 1 out of 5 HPV knowledge items correctly (mean = 1.3, SD = 1.45); 35.8% identified skin-to-skin contact during sex as the most common mode of HPV transmission, and 72.5% selected condoms as an effective HPV risk reduction strategy followed by avoiding multiple partners (55.8%), abstinence (47.5%), monogamous relationships (26.8%) and HPV vaccination (22.3%). Only twenty-seven youth (6.5%) perceived themselves to be at high risk for contracting HPV. Regression analyses examining the association between demographic variables, sexual behavior, HPV knowledge, and HPV risk perception, showed significant associations for mothers’ place of birth only – youth whose mothers were born outside of the U.S. had significantly lower HPV knowledge than those with American-born mothers (p < 0.007). Findings indicate the need for enhanced educational efforts among Latino alternative school youth regarding the prevalence of HPV and effective risk reduction strategies. PMID:21132052

  6. Cumulative risk and AIDS-orphanhood: interactions of stigma, bullying and poverty on child mental health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Research shows that AIDS-orphaned children are more likely to experience clinical-range psychological problems. Little is known about possible interactions between factors mediating these high distress levels. We assessed how food insecurity, bullying, and AIDS-related stigma interacted with each other and with likelihood of experiencing clinical-range disorder. In South Africa, 1025 adolescents completed standardised measures of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. 52 potential mediators were measured, including AIDS-orphanhood status. Logistic regressions and hierarchical log-linear modelling were used to identify interactions among significant risk factors. Food insecurity, stigma and bullying all independently increased likelihood of disorder. Poverty and stigma were found to interact strongly, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 19% to 83%. Similarly, bullying interacted with AIDS-orphanhood status, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 12% to 76%. Approaches to alleviating psychological distress amongst AIDS-affected children must address cumulative risk effects. PMID:19713022

  7. Which of These Teens Has AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Ellen

    This curriculum focuses on: (1) increasing adolescent students' knowledge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); (2) increasing students' knowledge of prevention of HIV infection; (3) developing students' skills in recognizing risk behaviors; (4) developing students' skills in responsible decision…

  8. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  9. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    PubMed

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level <11years (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 2.4 [CI = 1.28-4.53]), who stayed in joint families (AOR = 1.89 [CI = 1.12-3.12]), who had experienced insult or hurt from the partner (AOR = 1.91 [CI = 1.11-3.27]) and whose partner were alcoholic (AOR = 2.19 [CI = 1.31-3.66]) were significantly more likely to perceive themselves at risk of HIV. Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered

  10. Sexual risk of HIV infection among expatriates posted in AIDS endemic areas.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, R; van Zessen, G; Houweling, H; Ligthelm, R J; van den Akker, R

    1997-07-15

    A survey conducted among 864 Dutch expatriates returning home from assignment in AIDS-endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South and South East Asia revealed a low rate of HIV infection, despite widespread high-risk sexual practices. During an average stay out of the country of 26 months in 1991-96, 41% of the 634 male respondents reported sex with casual or steady local partners and 11% with casual or steady expatriate partners. Among the 230 female expatriates, these rates were 31% and 24%, respectively. 58% of men with casual local partners paid for sex at least once. Among men, consistent condom use was practiced in 69% of encounters with casual local partners and 63% of the time with casual expatriate partners. Among women, these rates were 64% and 48%, respectively. The prevalence of consistent condom use with casual local partners in this study was three times greater than that identified in a study conducted among Dutch expatriates in 1987-89. Condom use with regular local or expatriate partners was substantially lower (16.1-27.8%), however. Inconsistent condom use with casual partners was significantly associated, among men, with being abroad for a longer period of time, failure to bring condoms with them from the Netherlands, posting in an Asian country, and a relatively low estimated HIV prevalence in the local population. Among women, these risk factors were failure to take condoms to their destination and lack of intention at departure to have sex abroad. Only one case of HIV infection was detected in the 847 respondents who underwent serologic testing. Since expatriates function as a bridge between areas with high and low HIV prevalence, educational campaigns that prepare departing workers for differences between the sexual culture at home and abroad and encourage them to take a supply of condoms are recommended. PMID:9233466

  11. Poverty, Gender Inequities, and Women’s Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Dunbar, Megan S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Medlin, Carol A.; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Padian, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    Entrenched economic and gender inequities together are driving a globally expanding, increasingly female, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. To date, significant population-level declines in HIV transmission have not been observed, at least in part because most approaches to prevention have presumed a degree of individual control in decision making that does not speak to the reality of women’s and girls’ circumstances in many parts of the world. Such efforts have paid insufficient attention to critical characteristics of the risk environment, most notably poverty and gender power inequities. Even fewer interventions have addressed specific mechanisms through which these inequities engender risky sexual practices that result in women’s disproportionately increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. This article focuses on identifying those mechanisms, or structural pathways, that stem from the interactions between poverty and entrenched gender inequities and recommending strategies to address and potentially modify those pathways. We highlight four such structural pathways to HIV risk, all of which could be transformed: (1) lack of access to critical information and health services for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, (2) limited access to formal education and skill development, (3) intimate partner violence, and (4) the negative consequences of migration prompted by insufficient economic resources. We argue for interventions that enhance women’s access to education, training, employment, and HIV/STI prevention information and tools; minimize migration; and by working with men and communities, at the same time reduce women’s poverty and promote gender-equitable norms. In conclusion, we identify challenges in developing and evaluating strategies to address these structural pathways. PMID:17954681

  12. Poverty, gender inequities, and women's risk of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Dunbar, Megan S; Minnis, Alexandra M; Medlin, Carol A; Gerdts, Caitlin E; Padian, Nancy S

    2008-01-01

    Entrenched economic and gender inequities together are driving a globally expanding, increasingly female, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. To date, significant population-level declines in HIV transmission have not been observed, at least in part because most approaches to prevention have presumed a degree of individual control in decision making that does not speak to the reality of women's and girls' circumstances in many parts of the world. Such efforts have paid insufficient attention to critical characteristics of the risk environment, most notably poverty and gender power inequities. Even fewer interventions have addressed specific mechanisms through which these inequities engender risky sexual practices that result in women's disproportionately increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. This article focuses on identifying those mechanisms, or structural pathways, that stem from the interactions between poverty and entrenched gender inequities and recommending strategies to address and potentially modify those pathways. We highlight four such structural pathways to HIV risk, all of which could be transformed: (1) lack of access to critical information and health services for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, (2) limited access to formal education and skill development, (3) intimate partner violence, and (4) the negative consequences of migration prompted by insufficient economic resources. We argue for interventions that enhance women's access to education, training, employment, and HIV/STI prevention information and tools; minimize migration; and by working with men and communities, at the same time reduce women's poverty and promote gender-equitable norms. In conclusion, we identify challenges in developing and evaluating strategies to address these structural pathways. PMID:17954681

  13. Dry and tight: sexual practices and potential AIDS risk in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Ayowa, O B; Brown, R C

    1993-10-01

    Both men and women in central Zaire like a 'dry, tight' vagina because it increases pleasure during sexual intercourse. In focus group interviews, they described wiping and washing procedures, as well as 30 different substances, mostly leaves and powders, that women can insert into the vagina to produce the desired effects. Women who use leaves said they crush them, insert them for several hours, then remove them before intercourse. Women who insert powders leave them in place during intercourse. Individual interviews with 99 women (half of them unmarried prostitutes and half married women) showed that over one-third of each group had used intravaginal drying or tightening substances at some time. Vaginal examinations by a physician revealed that several of the substances cause inflammatory lesions of the vagina and cervix. Furthermore, some products cause extreme dryness that could foster epithelial trauma during coitus, both for the woman and for her partner. Breaks in the epithelium may promote the passage of organisms that cause AIDS and other sexually-transmitted diseases. Thus the sexual practices of drying and tightening the vagina may be increasing the risk of infection. PMID:8235746

  14. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis among antiretroviral-treated HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta; Gebru, Rezene Berhe

    2014-10-01

    Summary A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Socio-demographic information was collected and faecal samples were analysed from 384 randomly selected patients on ART. Data on CD4+ T-cell counts and World Health Organization clinical staging were obtained from the medical records at the hospital. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 51% to 61%). No opportunistic intestinal parasites or Schistosoma haematobium eggs were detected. Unavailability of latrine and lack of hand washing with soap were associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.75; 95% CI: 1.77 to 4.27 and AOR, 2.67; 95% CI: 1.60 to 4.44, respectively) and Giardia lamblia (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.99 and AOR, 2.46; 95% CI: 1.06 to 5.75, respectively) infections. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with low CD4 cell count (p = 0.002). In contrast, intestinal parasitic infections were not associated (p > 0.05) with the World Health Organization disease staging. In summary, poor personal hygiene and sanitation practice contributed to the high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis. Routine diagnosis for intestinal parasitic infections should be performed in patients attending ART clinics in this setting. PMID:24554001

  15. Heroin Use and Injection Risk Behaviors in Colombia: Implications for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Harris, Shana; Berbesi, Dedsy; Segura Cardona, Ángela María; Montoya Vélez, Liliana Patricia; Mejía Motta, Inés Elvira; Jessell, Lauren; Guarino, Honoria; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Heroin production in Colombia has increased dramatically in recent decades, and some studies point to an increase in local heroin use since the mid-1990s. Despite this rapid increase, little is known about the effects of these activities on heroin injection within Colombia. One of the biggest concerns surrounding heroin injection is the potential spread of HIV through drug user networks. Objectives This article examines injection risk behaviors among heroin injectors in the Colombian cities of Medellín and Pereira to explore the implications for possible increased HIV transmission within this group. Methods A cross-sectional study used respondent-driving sampling to recruit a sample of 540 people who inject drugs (PWID) over 18 years of age (Medellín: n = 242, Pereira: n = 298). Structured interviews with each participant were conducted using the World Health Organization Drug Injection Study Phase II Survey. An HIV test was also administered. Results Information regarding the socio-demographics, injection drug use, HIV risk and transmission behaviors, injection risk management, and HIV knowledge and prevalence of participants are reported. The study identified many young, newly initiated injectors who engage in risky injection practices. The study also found that HIV prevalence is fairly low among participants (2.7%). Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate a potential risk for the spread of HIV among PWID in Colombia given their widespread sharing practices, high rate of new injector initiation, and unsafe syringe cleaning practices. Colombia has a possibly time-limited opportunity to prevent an HIV epidemic by implementing harm reduction interventions among young, newly initiated PWID. PMID:26800352

  16. Teaching Modules to Build HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Safer Sex Skills among African-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken a tremendous toll on the population of the United States. College students, including African-Americans aged 13-24 years, across the nation are susceptible to contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS as they participate in unsafe sex practices. The purpose of this article is to provide teaching…

  17. Estimated population mixing by country and risk cohort for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Richard

    This paper applies a compartmental epidemic model to estimating the mixing relations that support the transfer of HIV infection between risk populations within the countries of Western Europe. To this end, a space-time epidemic model with compartments representing countries with populations specified to be at high (gay men and intravenous drug injectors ever with AIDS) and low (the remainder who are sexually active) risk is described. This model also allows for contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals by both local and international travel. This system is calibrated to recorded AIDS incidence and the best-fit solution provides estimates of variations in the rates of mixing between the compartments together with a reconstruction of the transmission pathway. This solution indicates that, for all the countries, AIDS incidence among those at low risk is expected to remain extremely small relative to their total number. A sensitivity analysis of the low risk partner acquisition rate, however, suggests this endemic state might be fragile within Europe during this century. The discussion examines the relevance of these mixing relationships for the maintenance of disease control.

  18. Body piercing and tattoos: a survey on young adults' knowledge of the risks and practices in body art

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The practice of tattooing and piercing has expanded in western society. In order to verify young adults' knowledge of the risk and practices related to body art, an investigation was conducted among freshmen of the University of Bari in the region of Apulia, Italy. Methods The study was carried out in the Academic Year 2009-2010 through an anonymous self-administered written questionnaire distributed to 1.656 freshmen enrolled in 17 Degree Courses. Results Of the 1.598 students included in the analysis, 78.3% believe it is risky to undergo piercing/tattoo practices. AIDS was indicated as a possible infection by 60.3% of freshmen, hepatitis C by 38.2%, tetanus by 34.3% and hepatitis B by 33.7% of the sample. 28.1% of freshmen were not aware that there are also non-infectious complications. 29% of the sample had at least one piercing or tattoo (this percentage does not include earlobe piercing in women). Of those with body art, the decision to undergo body art was made autonomously in 57.9% of the participants. 56.3% of freshmen undergoing body art had taken less than a month to decide. With regard to the reasons that led the sample to undergo body art, 28.4% were unable to explain it, 23.8% answered to improve their aesthetic aspect, 18.4% to distinguish themselves from others, 12.3% for fashion; 17.1% for other reasons. 25.4% of the sample declared that they had a piercing (79.8% female vs 20.2% male; ratio M/F 1:4.0). The average age for a first piercing was 15.3 years (range 10-27; SD ± 2.9). 9.6% of the sample declared that they have a tattoo (69.9% female vs 30.1% male; ratio M/F 1:2.3). The average age for a first tattoo was 17.5 years (range 10-26, SD ± 2.4). Conclusions Most of the freshmen knew about AIDS-related risks but not other potential risks. Body art is fairly common among young adults (especially women). The decision is often not shared with the family and is undertaken mostly without a specific reason or for the improvement of

  19. Effectiveness of the Chest Pain Choice decision aid in emergency department patients with low-risk chest pain: study protocol for a multicenter randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chest pain is the second most common reason patients visit emergency departments (EDs) and often results in very low-risk patients being admitted for prolonged observation and advanced cardiac testing. Shared decision-making, including educating patients regarding their 45-day risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and management options, might safely decrease healthcare utilization. Methods/Design This is a protocol for a multicenter practical patient-level randomized trial to compare an intervention group receiving a decision aid, Chest Pain Choice (CPC), to a control group receiving usual care. Adults presenting to five geographically and ethnically diverse EDs who are being considered for admission for observation and advanced cardiac testing will be eligible for enrollment. We will measure the effect of CPC on (1) patient knowledge regarding their 45-day risk for ACS and the available management options (primary outcome); (2) patient engagement in the decision-making process; (3) the degree of conflict patients experience related to feeling uninformed (decisional conflict); (4) patient and clinician satisfaction with the decision made; (5) the rate of major adverse cardiac events at 30 days; (6) the proportion of patients admitted for advanced cardiac testing; and (7) healthcare utilization. To assess these outcomes, we will administer patient and clinician surveys immediately after each clinical encounter, obtain video recordings of the patient-clinician discussion, administer a patient healthcare utilization diary, analyze hospital billing records, review the electronic medical record, and conduct telephone follow-up. Discussion This multicenter trial will robustly assess the effectiveness of a decision aid on patient-centered outcomes, safety, and healthcare utilization in low-risk chest pain patients from a variety of geographically and ethnically diverse EDs. Trial registration NCT01969240. PMID:24884807

  20. The role of Indigenous knowledge in environmental health risk management in Yukon, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Friendship, Katelyn A.; Furgal, Chris M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This project aimed to gain better understandings of northern Indigenous risk perception related to food safety and to identify the role that Indigenous knowledge (IK) plays in risk management processes to support more effective and culturally relevant benefit-risk (B-R) management strategies. Study design The project used an exploratory qualitative case study design to investigate the role and place of IK in the management of environmental contaminants exposure via consumption of traditional foods in Yukon First Nations (YFNs). Methods Forty-one semi-directive interviews with Traditional Food Knowledge Holders and Health and Environment Decision-makers were conducted. A review and analysis of organizational documents related to past risk management events for the issue was conducted. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze transcripts and documents for key themes related to the research question. Results There was a recognized need by all participants for better collaboration between scientists and YFN communities. YFNs have been involved in identifying and defining community concerns about past risk issues, setting a local context, and participating in communications strategies. Interviewees stressed the need to commit adequate time for building relationships, physically being in the community, and facilitating open communication. Conducting community-based projects was identified as critical for collaboration and for cooperative learning and management of these issues. Conclusions The perception of “effective” benefit-risk management is significantly influenced by the efforts made to include local communities in the process. A set of common guiding principles within a process that brings together people and knowledge systems may provide a more effective way forward in cross-cultural, multiple knowledge system contexts for complex benefit-risk issues than a prescriptive rigid framework. PMID:22868192

  1. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857

  2. Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Walker, Mary P; Kisling, Rebecca E; Liu, Ying; Williams, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ≥6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient. PMID:25179920

  3. Resilience and Risk Competence in Schools: Theory/Knowledge and International Application in Project REBOUND

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joel H.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Beck, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Despite a 50-year interdisciplinary and longitudinal research legacy--showing that nearly 80% of young people considered most "at risk" thrive by midlife--only recently have practitioners/researchers engaged in the explicit, prospective facilitation of "resilience" in educational settings. Here, theory/knowledge distinguishing and extending risk…

  4. Coronary Heart Disease Knowledge and Risk Factors among Tri-Ethnic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutoubi, Samer; Huffman, Fatma G.; Ciccazzo, Michele W.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and Europe. This study identified and compared nutritional knowledge associated with CHD risk factors among tri-ethnic college students. Design: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study using questionnaires. Setting: University laboratory.…

  5. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  6. Risk and Protective Factors for HIV/AIDS in Native Americans: Implications for Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Mary Kate

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has steadily increased in Native American and Alaska Native populations, and despite efforts at control many challenges remain. This article examines historical, biological, social, and behavioral cofactors related to the spread of HIV/AIDS within the context of Native American culture. Special attention is given to vulnerable subgroups…

  7. Risk factors for AIDS-defining illnesses among a population of poorly adherent people living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jeremy Y; Alsan, Marcella; Armstrong, Wendy; del Rio, Carlos; Marconi, Vincent C

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve the programmatic goals established in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, virologic suppression remains the most important outcome within the HIV care continuum for individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, clinicians have dedicated substantial resources to improve adherence and clinic retention for individuals on ART; however, these efforts should be focused first on those most at risk of morbidity and mortality related to AIDS. Our study aimed to characterize the factors that are associated with AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are poorly adherent or retained in care in order to identify those at highest risk of poor clinical outcomes. We recruited 99 adult PLHIV with a history of poor adherence to ART, poor clinic attendance, or unsuppressed viral load (VL) from the Infectious Disease Program (IDP) of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia between January and May 2011 to participate in a survey investigating the acceptability of a financial incentive for improving adherence. Clinical outcomes including the number of ADI episodes in the last five years, VLs, and CD4 counts were abstracted from medical records. Associations between survey items and number of ADIs were performed using chi-square analysis. In our study, 36.4% of participants had ≥1 ADI in the last five years. The most common ADIs were Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, recurrent bacterial pneumonia, and esophageal candidiasis. Age <42.5 years (OR 2.52, 95% CI = 1.08-5.86), male gender (OR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.08-11.34), CD4 nadir <200 cells/µL (OR 11.92, 95% CI = 1.51-94.15), unemployment (OR 3.54, 95% CI = 1.20-10.40), and travel time to clinic <30 minutes (OR 2.80, 95% CI = 1.20-6.52) were all significantly associated with a history of ≥1 ADI in the last five years. Awareness of factors associated with ADIs may help clinicians identify which poorly adherent PLHIV are at highest risk of HIV-related morbidity. PMID

  8. Interactive Learning Module Improves Resident Knowledge of Risks of Ionizing Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Alexander Y; Breaud, Alan H; Schneider, Jeffrey I; Kadom, Nadja; Mitchell, Patricia M; Linden, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    Physician awareness of the risks of ionizing radiation exposure related to medical imaging is poor. Effective educational interventions informing physicians of such risk, especially in emergency medicine (EM), are lacking. The SIEVERT (Suboptimal Ionizing Radiation Exposure Education - A Void in Emergency Medicine Residency Training) learning module was designed to improve provider knowledge of the risks of radiation exposure from medical imaging and comfort in communicating these risks to patients. The 1-hour module consists of introductory lecture, interactive discussion, and role-playing scenarios. In this pilot study, we assessed the educational effect using unmatched, anonymous preintervention and postintervention questionnaires that assessed fund of knowledge, participant self-reported imaging ordering practices in several clinical scenarios, and trainee comfort level in discussing radiation risks with patients. All 25 EM resident participants completed the preintervention questionnaire, and 22 completed the postintervention questionnaire within 4 hours after participation. Correct responses on the 14-question learning assessment increased from 6.32 (standard deviation = 2.36) preintervention to 12.23 (standard deviation = 1.85) post-intervention. Overall, 24% of residents were comfortable with discussing the risks of ionizing radiation exposure with patients preintervention, whereas 41% felt comfortable postintervention. Participants ordered fewer computed tomography scans in 2 of the 4 clinical scenarios after attending the educational intervention. There was improvement in EM residents' knowledge regarding the risks of ionizing radiation exposure from medical imaging, and increased participant self-reported comfort levels in the discussion of these risks with patients after the 1-hour SIEVERT learning module. PMID:26657346

  9. Evaluation of knowledge and practice of hairdressers in men's beauty salons in Isfahan about hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and AIDS in 2010 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ataei, Behrooz; Shirani, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have infected millions of people worldwide. During haircut or shaving, barbers may accidentally expose to their clients’ blood, transmit their own infection to them, or transmit the infection from one client to another. So the knowledge of barbers toward topics related to AIDS, hepatitis B, and C are of great importance. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in 2010–2011 in men's beauty salons in Isfahan town. A multistage sampling was performed. The knowledge assessment questionnaire and the checklist of practice regarding hepatitis B, C, and AIDS were completed by trained interviewers. Results: In our study, 240 hairdressers participated. There was a statistically significant relationship between the education level and knowledge score of the hairdressers (P = 0.048). We found a statistically significant relationship between the knowledge level and the working history of hairdressers according to the Pearson's correlation coefficient (P = 0.02). The results show significant relationship between the education level and the practice scores (P = 0.005). Also the working history of hairdressers and their practice score had a significant relationship (P = 0.005). The results did not show significant relationship between the age of the hairdressers and the practice scores (P = 0.12). Conclusions: We obtained promising results about the knowledge and practice levels of the staff of men's beauty shop in Isfahan about AIDS, hepatitis B, and C. However, but because of the important role of barbers in virus transmission, we should provide the best program for control, evaluation, continuous teaching programs. PMID:23326805

  10. Perceptions about sexual abstinence and knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention among in-school adolescents in a western Nigerian city

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females), selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs) which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79%) abstained compared with the females (98%). Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P < 0.05). Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative perception of peers

  11. "Knowledge, attitude, behavior and practice (KABP) regarding HIV/AIDS among pregnant women attending PPTCT programme in New Delhi".

    PubMed

    Rahbar, T; Garg, S; Tripathi, R; Gupta, V K; Singh, M M

    2007-09-01

    In India, several thousand HIV-infected babies are expected to be born every year. Despite effective intervention, the identification of HIV infected pregnant women prior to delivery is a major problem. KABP and acceptance of rapid screening of women for HIV among pregnant women attending ANC clinic and availing Voluntary Counselling and Confidential Testing services was assessed. The study was done among 90 pregnant women. There was no significant difference between one's husbands's job and income with respect to pregnant women's awareness of risk factors except that of tattooing. Education level had significant bearing on awareness level. Attitude about PLWHA indicates that 29% of the participants believed individuals with HIV shouldn't be allowed to get married, while 31% saying that they should not be allowed to have children. Participants supported compulsory HIV testing for pregnant women (39%) and couples before marriage. Almost 96% of participants had unprotected sex, though 41% casually used condom. All denied herself or her husband indulging in extramarital sex. The country is about to embark on its prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme. This study throws some light on the level of knowledge acceptability and adoption of VCT and other PMTCT strategies among potential beneficiaries. PMID:18697582

  12. AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over: characteristics, trends and spatial distribution of the risk1

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; de Sá, Laísa Ribeiro; de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-01-01

    Objective to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic trend and spatial distribution of the risk of AIDS in adults 50 years of age and over. Method population-based, ecological study, that used secondary data from the Notifiable Disease Information System (Sinan/AIDS) of Paraíba state from the period January 2000 to December 2010. Results during the study period, 307 cases of AIDS were reported among people 50 years of age or over. There was a predominance of males (205/66, 8%), mixed race, and low education levels. The municipalities with populations above 100 thousand inhabitants reported 58.5% of the cases. There was a progressive increase in cases among women; an increasing trend in the incidence (positive linear correlation); and an advance in the geographical spread of the disease, with expansion to the coastal region and to the interior of the state, reaching municipalities with populations below 30 thousand inhabitants. In some locations the risk of disease was 100 times greater than the relative risk for the state. Conclusion aging, with the feminization and interiorization of the epidemic in adults 50 years of age and over, confirms the need for the induction of affirmative policies targeted toward this age group. PMID:25029044

  13. The value of haematological screening for AIDS in an at risk population.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, J N; Walker, D; Engelkins, H; Bain, B; Harris, J R

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables measured by automated full blood count in matched homosexual and heterosexual men attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were compared with those of normal controls and patients infected with the human T lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III). Homosexual and heterosexual men were statistically identical for all variables, but both differed noticeably from patients with clinical diagnoses of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related disease. A full blood count as a screening test for AIDS is only interpretable in the context of clinical assessment. PMID:2995238

  14. Linking environmental risk assessment and communication: An experiment in co-evolving scientific and social knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graffy, E.A.; Booth, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  15. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  16. The Effect of HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Israeli Adolescents in Residential Centers: Results at 12-Month Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered

    2001-01-01

    Assessed effect of cognitive-behavioral program to prevent HIV/AIDS among 139 adolescents. Self-report instruments were used to assess participants' knowledge and behavior about HIV/AIDS. Intervention was found to have significant effect on knowledge about HIV/AIDS, attitudes toward prevention, and coping with high-risk situations. Changes were…

  17. A schema for knowledge representation and its implementation in a computer-aided design and manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modularity in the design and implementation of expert systems relies upon cooperation among the expert systems and communication of knowledge between them. A prerequisite for an effective modular approach is some standard for knowledge representation to be used by the developers of the different modules. In this work the author presents a schema for knowledge representation, and apply this schema in the design of a rule-based expert system. He also implements a cooperative expert system using the proposed knowledge representation method. A knowledge representation schema is a formal specification of the internal, conceptual, and external components of a knowledge base, each specified in a separate schema. The internal schema defines the structure of a knowledge base, the conceptual schema defines the concepts, and the external schema formalizes the pragmatics of a knowledge base. The schema is the basis for standardizing knowledge representation systems and it is used in the various phases of design and specification of the knowledge base. A new model of knowledge representation based on a pattern recognition interpretation of implications is developed. This model implements the concept of linguistic variables and can, therefore, emulate human reasoning with linguistic imprecision. The test case for the proposed schema of knowledge representation is a system is a cooperative expert system composed of two expert systems. This system applies a pattern recognition interpretation of a generalized one-variable implication with linguistic variables.

  18. Farmer knowledge and risk analysis: postrelease evaluation of herbicide-tolerant canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Ian J; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2008-04-01

    The global controversy regarding the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has proved to be a challenge for "science-based" risk assessments. Although risk analysis incorporates societal perspectives in decision making over these crops, it is largely predicated on contrasts between "expert" and "lay" perspectives. The overall objective of this study is to explore the role for farmers' knowledge, and their decade-long experience with herbicide-tolerant (HT) canola, in the risk analysis of GM crops. From 2002 to 2003, data were collected using interviews (n= 15) and mail surveys (n= 370) with farmers from Manitoba and across Canada. The main benefits associated with HT canola were management oriented and included easier weed control, herbicide rotation, and better weed control, whereas the main risks were more diverse and included market harm, technology use agreements (TUAs), and increased seed costs. Benefits and risks were inversely related, and the salient factor influencing risk was farmer experiences with HT canola volunteers, followed by small farm size and duration using HT canola. These HT volunteers were reported by 38% of farmers, from both internal (e.g., seedbank, farm machinery, etc.) and external (e.g., wind, seed contamination, etc.) sources, and were found to persist over time. Farmer knowledge is a reliable and rich source of information regarding the efficacy of HT crops, demonstrating that individual experiences are important to risk perception. The socioeconomic nature of most risks combined with the continuing "farm income crisis" in North America demonstrates the need for a more holistic and inclusive approach to risk assessment associated with HT crops and, indeed, with all new agricultural technology. PMID:18419662

  19. A cross-sectional study to assess knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the worker population was amongst the most affected groups. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador. Methods A cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 115 companies (1,732 workers), stratified by three large provinces and working sectors (commerce, manufacturing and real estate) was conducted. A validated instrument developed by Family Health International was used to evaluate HIV prevention knowledge and common local misconceptions about HIV transmission. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed using SAS. Results Incorrect knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission were found in 49.1% (95% CI: 46.6–51.6) of subjects. Incorrect knowledge was higher among males (OR = 1.73 [1.39–2.15]), older subjects (OR = 1.35 [1.02–1.77]), subjects with lower education (OR = 3.72 [2.44–5.65]), manual labor workers (OR = 2.93 [1.82–4.73]) and subjects without previous exposure to HIV intervention programs (OR = 2.26 [1.79–2.86]). Incorrect knowledge about preventive measures was found among 32.9% (95%CI: 30.6–35.2) of respondents. This proportion was higher among subjects with lower education (OR = 2.28 [1.52–3.43]), married subjects (OR = 1.34 [1.07–1.68]), manual labor workers (OR = 1.80 [1.34–2.42]), and subjects not previously exposed to HIV intervention programs (OR = 1.44 [1.14–1.83]). Conclusions HIV intervention programs targeting company workers are urgently needed to improve knowledge and reduce HIV transmission in Ecuador. PMID:23410074

  20. Risk factors for AIDS among Haitians residing in the US: evidence of heterosexual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-06

    In a study of Haitians in Miami and New York, Creole-speaking interviewers questioned 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (45 men and ten women) and 242 control-persons (164 men and 78 women). One male patient was homosexual, and one female patient had received blood within five years. No one admitted to intravenous drug use, hemophilia, or sexual contact with AIDS patients. Male AIDS patients were significantly more likely than control-men to have entered the US after 1977 and to have had gonorrhea, syphilis, and sexual contact with female prostitutes. Female AIDS patients were more likely to have voodoo-priest friends and to have been offered money for sex. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was probably contracted through sexual contact with infected heterosexuals.

  1. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Rashan, Mohammed Abd Ahmed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking. PMID:27134468

  2. A Controlled Pre-Post Evaluation of a Computer-based HIV/AIDS Education on Students' Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Musiimenta, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students' sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers' failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This

  3. Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People Concerning Fertility Risks – Results of a Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Fügener, J.; Matthes, A.; Strauß, B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients “Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten” PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children “Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven” and the short version of the “Big Five Inventory” BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the

  4. Knowledge and Behaviour of Young People Concerning Fertility Risks - Results of a Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Fügener, J; Matthes, A; Strauß, B

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients "Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten" PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children "Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven" and the short version of the "Big Five Inventory" BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the risk factors

  5. Low Literacy Decision Aid Enhances Knowledge and Reduces Decisional Conflict among Diverse Population of Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jennifer L.; Trupin, Laura; Schillinger, Dean; Evans-Young, Gina; Imboden, John; Montori, Victor M.; Yelin, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite innovations in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), adherence is poor and disparities persist. Shared decision making (SDM) promotes patient engagement and enhances adherence, however few tools support SDM in RA. Our objective was to pilot a low literacy medication guide and decision aid to facilitate patient-clinician conversations about RA medications. Methods RA patients were consecutively enrolled into one of three arms: (1) control, patients received existing medication guide prior to clinic visit; (2) adapted guide prior to visit; (3) adapted guide prior plus decision aid during visit. Outcomes were collected immediately post-visit, at 1-week, 3- and 6-month interviews. Eligible adults had to have failed at least one DMARD and fulfill one of the following: age >65, immigrant, non-English speaker, < high school education, limited health literacy, racial/ethnic minority. Primary outcomes were knowledge of RA medications, decisional conflict, and acceptability of interventions. Results Majority of 166 patients were immigrants (66%), non-English speakers (54%), and had limited health literacy (71%). Adequate RA knowledge post visit in arm 3 was higher (78%) than arm 1 (53%, adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1). Among patients with a medication change, there was lower (better) mean decisional conflict in arms 2 and 3 (p=0.03). No significant differences in acceptability. Conclusion A low literacy medication guide and decision aid was acceptable, improved knowledge, and reduced decisional conflict among vulnerable RA patients. Enhancing knowledge and patient engagement with decision support tools may lead to medication choices better aligned with patient values and preferences in RA. PMID:26605752

  6. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  7. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Delayed Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in a Midsized City of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosangela Franco Guedes; Neto, Severino Correia do Prado; Santana, Natalia Colares; Guimarães, Denise Alves; Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Patients treated in the specialized service at a midsized city in Brazil participated in a cross-sectional study that aimed to identify the risk factors for delayed diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. Through interviews and review of medical records, information was collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and diagnoses. The study included 403 patients, of whom 216 (53.6%) were male and 311 (77.1%) had ≤8 years of education. According to the criteria adopted in this study, 162 (40.2%) of the participants had a late diagnosis of AIDS. Only 19 (4.7%) were diagnosed by routine examinations and 45 (11.2%) presented with AIDS-defining disease at the time of diagnosis. After adjustments, the results showed that having more education was protective against a late diagnosis for women. With the advance of the AIDS epidemic to small town and rural Brazil, vulnerable populations now include low-income and less educated women, most of whom have had monogamous relationships throughout their lives. PMID:25294852

  8. Identifying risk factors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Zheng, Yuhuang; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Guoqiang; Chen, Xia; Mamadou, Diallo; He, Yan; Zhou, Huaying; Chen, Zi

    2013-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome typically occurs within days after patients undergo highly active anti-retroviral therapy and is a big hurdle for effective treatment of AIDS patients. In this study, we monitored immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurrence in 238 AIDS patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Among them, immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurred in 47 cases (19.7%). Immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome patients had significantly higher rate of opportunistic infection (p<0.001) and persistently lower CD4(+) cell count (p<0.001) compared to the non-immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome patients. In contrast, no significant differences in HIV RNA loads were observed between the immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome group and non-immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome group. These data suggest that a history of opportunistic infection and CD4(+) cell counts at baseline may function as risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurrence in AIDS patients as well as potential prognostic markers. These findings will improve the management of AIDS with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. PMID:23434049

  9. Women’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior about Maternal Risk Factors in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Rossella; Napolitano, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy. Results Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9%) reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). Conclusion The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women’s levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy. PMID:26714032

  10. The Application of Integrated Knowledge-based Systems for the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Karin C.; Ly, Bebe; Webster, Laurie; Verlander, James; Taylor, Gerald R.; Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris; Holden, Tina; Rudisill, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's goals for long duration space flight is to maintain acceptable levels of crew health, safety, and performance. One way of meeting this goal is through the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN), an integrated network of both human and computer elements. The BRAIN will function as an advisor to flight surgeons by assessing the risk of in-flight biomedical problems and recommending appropriate countermeasures. This paper describes the joint effort among various NASA elements to develop BRAIN and an Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) prototype. The implementation of this effort addresses the technological aspects of the following: (1) knowledge acquisition; (2) integration of IDRA components; (3) use of expert systems to automate the biomedical prediction process; (4) development of a user-friendly interface; and (5) integration of the IDRA prototype and Exercise Countermeasures Intelligent System (ExerCISys). Because the C Language, CLIPS (the C Language Integrated Production System), and the X-Window System were portable and easily integrated, they were chosen as the tools for the initial IDRA prototype. The feasibility was tested by developing an IDRA prototype that predicts the individual risk of influenza. The application of knowledge-based systems to risk assessment is of great market value to the medical technology industry.

  11. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zinat Motlagh, Sayed Fazel; Chaman, Reza; Ghafari, Sayed Rashid; Parisay, Zafar; Golabi, Mohamad Reza; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Babouei, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS). Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style. PMID:26783454

  12. Risk Perception of HIV/AIDS and Low Self-Control Trait: Explaining Preventative Behaviors Among Iranian University Students

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Safooreh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shirzadi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of developed countries there are progressive trend about HIV/AIDS and its’ aspects of transmission in the low socio-economic societies. The aim of this was to explain the youth's behavior in adopting HIV/AIDS related preventive behaviors in a sample of Iranian university students by emphasizing on fear appeals approaches alongside examining the role of self-control trait for explaining adoption on danger or fear control processes based on Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Methods: A sample of 156 randomly selected university students in Jolfa, Iran was recruited in a predictive cross-sectional study by application of a researcher-designed questionnaire through self-report data collection manner. Sexual high risk behaviors, the EPPM variables, self-control trait, and general self-efficacy were measured as theoretical framework. Results: Findings indicated that 31.3% of participants were in the fear control process versus 68.7% in danger control about HIV/AIDS and also the presence of multi-sex partners and amphetamine consumption amongst the participants. Low self-control trait and low perceived susceptibility significantly were related to having a history of multi-sex partners while high level of self-efficacy significantly increased the probability of condom use. Conclusion: Findings of the study were indicative of the protective role of high level of self-control, perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy factors on youth's high-risk behaviors and their preventative skills as well. PMID:26573026

  13. Challenges Faced by People Living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa: Issues for Group Risk Reduction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cloete, Allanise; Strebel, Anna; Simbayi, Leickness; van Wyk, Brian; Henda, Nomvo; Nqeketo, Ayanda

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study to investigate the challenges faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The primary goal of the study was to gather data to inform the adaptation of a group risk reduction intervention to the South African context. Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences of PLWHA. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 83 HIV-positive participants and 14 key informants (KIs) involved in work with PLWHA were interviewed. Findings revealed that AIDS-related stigma was still pervasive in local communities. This was associated with the difficulty of disclosure of their status for fear of rejection. Also notable was the role of risky behaviours such as lack of condom use and that PLWHA considered their HIV/AIDS status as secondary to daily life stressors like poverty, unemployment, and gender-based violence. These findings have implications for the adaptation or development of behavioural risk reduction interventions for PLWHA. PMID:21490904

  14. Public beliefs and knowledge about risk and protective factors for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott; McLaughlin, Sara J.; Connell, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess public beliefs and knowledge about risk and protective factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods A brief survey module was added to the Health and Retirement Study, a longstanding national panel study of the U.S. population over the age of 50. Results Respondents were 1641 adults (mean age = 64.4 years, 53.6% female, 81.7% White). Most (60.1%) indicated interest in learning their AD risk, with 29.4% expressing active worry. Many failed to recognize that medications to prevent AD are not available (39.1%) or that having an affected first-degree relative is associated with increased disease risk (32%). Many respondents believed that various actions (e.g., mental activity, eating a healthy diet) would be effective in reducing AD risk. Conclusion Older and middle-aged adults are interested in their AD risk status and believe that steps can be taken to reduce disease risk. Tailored education efforts are needed to address potential misconceptions about risk and protective factors. PMID:24630852

  15. Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes of Youths in India Regarding HIV/AIDS: A Review of Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Priya; Mattle, Courtney

    2005-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is steadily increasing in severity throughout the developing world. Recently, Southeast Asia has become a rising concern for health care professionals in the field of infectious disease (UNAIDS, 2004). Most of Southeast Asia is experiencing surging prevalence and incidence rates of HIV infection. One particular country of…

  16. Knowledge Aid as Instrument of Regulation: World Bank's Non-Lending Higher Education Support for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    In the context of low-income countries, the role of donors in public policymaking is of great importance. Donors use a combination of lending and non-lending instruments as pathways of influence to shape policy directions in aid-recipient countries. This paper reports some findings from a doctoral study on the role of the World Bank in the recent…

  17. University Students' Perception of People Living with HIV/AIDS: Discomfort, Fear, Knowledge and a Willingness to Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtsonen, Jarmo; Kylmä, Jari; Korhonen, Teija; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are often subject to blame, fear and avoidance, particularly if they are perceived as personally responsible for their infection due to their risky behaviour or life style choices. Some people however, react to PLWHA with sympathy and a willingness to care. This paper explores how university students (n = 282)…

  18. Children Affected by AIDS in Brazil: Estimates of the Number of Children at Risk of Being Orphaned and Displaced by AIDS in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Miguel B.; Hillis, Janette; Wasek, Glenn K.

    1998-01-01

    Estimated the number of Brazilian children under 14 whose mothers are HIV-positive, living with AIDS, or dead due to AIDS. Found that of the 210,150 children, 17,600 were HIV-positive Findings underscore the urgent need for new programs to increase the longevity of persons with AIDS and to decrease the likelihood of child displacement and severe…

  19. Florida Red Tide Knowledge and Risk Perception: Is there a need for tailored messaging?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret M; Studts, Jamie

    2014-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, occur throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Recent research efforts sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and others found that Florida red tide causes both acute and possibly chronic health effects from the toxic aerosols. Florida red tide also demonstrated significant social and economic impacts to both coastal residents and visitors. In conjunction with the research, persistent outreach efforts were conducted over the 11 year period. The goal of this project was to assess potential needs for tailored messaging needed among different red tide information user groups. Survey participants included 303 local residents, both with asthma and without, and 'snowbirds (seasonal residents that reside in the Sarasota area for more than 3 months but less than 6 months/year), also both with asthma and without. The questionnaire assessed Florida red tide knowledge and risk perception regarding Florida red tide using items drawn from two previously published surveys to allow comparison. Our results reveal that overall knowledge of Florida red tide has not changed. We found that knowledge was consistent across our selected groups and also did not vary by age, gender and education level. However, knowledge regarding consumption of seafood during Florida red tide has declined. Risk perception increased significantly for people who have asthma. Individuals responsible for public health communication regarding Florida red tide and human health concerns need to continue to pursue more effective outreach messages and delivery methods. PMID:24563634

  20. Assessing Colorectal Cancer Screening Behaviors and Knowledge among At-Risk Hispanics in Southern New Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Janeth I.; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Beti; Martinez, Vanessa; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates in New Mexico (NM) continue to be higher than national rates. Hispanic CRC mortality rates in NM surpass those of overall Hispanics in the US. This study was designed to characterize and understand factors contributing to low CRC screening rates in this border region. Methods A CRC Knowledge Assessment Survey (KAS) was administered in either English or Spanish to 247 individuals attending community events throughout southern NM. A subset of these individuals completed an online CRC risk assessment survey managed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Data analysis tested for significant differences in knowledge, physician-patient CRC interactions, CRC risk level perception, and screening rates across diverse ethnic and age groups. Results Both CRC knowledge and physician-patient CRC interactions were positively associated with participant screening history. Significant age and ethnic differences for CRC knowledge, physician-patient CRC interactions, and screening history in the NM border sample were also seen. Age-eligible Hispanics (50+) as well as those less than 50 years of age had lower CRC knowledge and were less likely to engage in physician-patient CRC interactions than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). The age-eligible Hispanics also reported lower CRC screening rates than their NHW counterparts. Conclusions Low CRC knowledge and limited physician-patient CRC interactions appear to contribute to low screening rates in this NM population. Expanding education and outreach efforts for this border population are essential to promote early CRC detection and thereby decrease overall CRC mortality rates. PMID:25621179

  1. Eliciting knowledge on soft flood-risk management strategies in the Ukrainian Tisza river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, D.; Kuptsova, S.; Bharwani, S.; Fischer, M. E.; Downing, T. E.

    2009-04-01

    This paper focuses on a participatory knowledge elicitation process (KnETs) to explore decision-making criteria regarding ‘soft' techniques for flood risk management in the Ukrainian Tisza river basin. Communities in this region are faced with frequent floods and limited governmental budgets to cope with flood impacts. To identify the potential for soft flood protection measures as opposed to traditional technical solutions, we explored the decision-making heuristics of village council heads and the conditions under which they do or do not prepare for a flood event. Tacit knowledge, which is often unconscious and therefore difficult to describe, is complex to uncover through conventional interview techniques. To address this issue, a participatory process has been designed to reveal this knowledge without losing its connection to the context in which it is applied. That is, the KnETs process has been designed to understand context-relevant adaptive strategies and the reasons they are chosen in a natural resource management context. The process can be adapted to explore the contextual specificities of many situations ranging from flood and drought risk management to livelihood choices and the adaptation options considered in each set of circumstances. This interdisciplinary approach integrates ethnographic methods from the social sciences domain with classical computer science knowledge engineering techniques to address current bottlenecks (related to time and resource requirements) in both areas of research. This provides a participatory process, from knowledge elicitation to knowledge representation, verification and validation, providing a greater clarity of local data and thus possibly a greater understanding of social vulnerability and adaptive behaviour in flood situations.

  2. Interactive Voice Response Self-Monitoring to Assess Risk Behaviors in Rural Substance Users Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L.; Simpson, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4–10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease. PMID:21311964

  3. Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge gap: a case of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atteraya, Madhu; Kimm, HeeJin; Song, In Han

    2015-05-01

    Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities are major obstacles to achieving health equity. The authors investigated whether there is any association between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge within caste and ethnic populations. They used the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally represented cross-sectional study data set. The study sample consisted of 11,273 women between 15 and 49 years of age. Univariate and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge. The study sample was divided into high Hindu caste (47.9 percent), "untouchable" caste (18.4 percent), and indigenous populations (33.7 percent). Within the study sample, the high-caste population was found to have the greatest knowledge of the means by which HIV is prevented and transmitted. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, untouchables were the least knowledgeable. The odds ratio for incomplete knowledge about transmission among indigenous populations was 1.27 times higher than that for high Hindu castes, but there was no significant difference in knowledge of preventive measures. The findings suggest the existence of a prevailing HIV knowledge gap. This in turn suggests that appropriate steps need to be implemented to convey complete knowledge to underprivileged populations. PMID:26027418

  4. HIV knowledge, risk perception and pre-exposure prophylaxis interest among Thai university students.

    PubMed

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Chunloy, Krongtip; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha

    2015-12-01

    To assess HIV risk perception and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) interest among university students, an anonymous survey was conducted among students from a large public university in Thailand. There were 641 participants; 118 (18%) were categorised into moderate or high-risk group. Of these 118 participants, 111 (94%) perceived themselves as no or low risk. Despite high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission risks, rates of consistent condom use with vaginal, oral and anal sex were all low (43%, 18% and 33%, respectively). The low rates of consistent condom use were significantly associated with false perception of low HIV risk (P < 0.05). Independent factors associated with the false perception were male gender (P < 0.001), living with a domestic partner (P = 0.004), being homosexual or bisexual (P = 0.02) and being students from a non-medicine faculty (P = 0.04). Of the 641 participants, 211 (33%) were not interested in PrEP. Consistent condom use with oral sex (P = 0.004), consistent condom use with vaginal sex (P = 0.04) and being heterosexual (P = 0.02) were independently associated with no PrEP interest. Our study suggests the need for enhanced interventions to improve HIV risk perception and safe sex practices among the university students. PMID:25505047

  5. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  6. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  7. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  8. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Koethe, John R.; Kiage, James N.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Musonda, Patrick; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire N.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 (p < 0.01) for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 (p = 0.005) for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations (p > 0.05) between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin (p < 0.05). Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, p = 0.003) and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk. PMID:26161268

  9. Why Breast Cancer Risk by the Numbers Is Not Enough: Evaluation of a Decision Aid in Multi-Ethnic, Low-Numerate Women

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham; Aguirre, Alejandra; Smalletz, Cindy; David, Raven; Crew, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer risk assessment including genetic testing can be used to classify people into different risk groups with screening and preventive interventions tailored to the needs of each group, yet the implementation of risk-stratified breast cancer prevention in primary care settings is complex. Objective To address barriers to breast cancer risk assessment, risk communication, and prevention strategies in primary care settings, we developed a Web-based decision aid, RealRisks, that aims to improve preference-based decision-making for breast cancer prevention, particularly in low-numerate women. Methods RealRisks incorporates experience-based dynamic interfaces to communicate risk aimed at reducing inaccurate risk perceptions, with modules on breast cancer risk, genetic testing, and chemoprevention that are tailored. To begin, participants learn about risk by interacting with two games of experience-based risk interfaces, demonstrating average 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risk. We conducted four focus groups in English-speaking women (age ≥18 years), a questionnaire completed before and after interacting with the decision aid, and a semistructured group discussion. We employed a mixed-methods approach to assess accuracy of perceived breast cancer risk and acceptability of RealRisks. The qualitative analysis of the semistructured discussions assessed understanding of risk, risk models, and risk appropriate prevention strategies. Results Among 34 participants, mean age was 53.4 years, 62% (21/34) were Hispanic, and 41% (14/34) demonstrated low numeracy. According to the Gail breast cancer risk assessment tool (BCRAT), the mean 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risk were 1.11% (SD 0.77) and 7.46% (SD 2.87), respectively. After interacting with RealRisks, the difference in perceived and estimated breast cancer risk according to BCRAT improved for 5-year risk (P=.008). In the qualitative analysis, we identified potential barriers to adopting risk

  10. Insufficient Knowledge of Breast Cancer Risk Factors Among Malaysian Female University Students

    PubMed Central

    Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Ahmadian, Maryam; Latiff, Latiffah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite continuous argument about the efficacy of breast self-examination; it still could be a life-saving technique through inspiring and empowering women to take better control over their body/breast and health. This study investigated Malaysian female university students’ knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, signs, and symptoms and assessed breast self-examination frequency among students. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 in nine public and private universities in the Klang Valley and Selangor. 842 female students were respondents for the self-administered survey technique. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for data analysis. Results: The uptake of breast self-examination (BSE) was less than 50% among the students. Most of students had insufficient knowledge on several breast cancer risk factors. Conclusion: Actions and efforts should be done to increase knowledge of breast cancer through the development of ethnically and traditionally sensitive educational training on BSE and breast cancer literacy. PMID:26234996

  11. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Arab-American Women Regarding Inherited Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women’s perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community. PMID:23054337

  13. Institutionalisation of knowledge transfer on sexual behaviour in the times of AIDS: a case study from a village community in north-central Namibia.

    PubMed

    Kervinen, Mari

    2014-09-01

    This paper concentrates on the changes in knowledge transfer in northern Namibia with respect to sexual norms, behavioural advice and sexual health information. The research was conducted in a small village community in Ohangwena region, where over 100 semi-structured and structured interviews were held with a sample of 67 community members and 50 professionals dealing with HIV/AIDS issues. The results of the research indicate the change in social roles in family and community dynamics, especially between generations, and thus a change in trust, respect and responsibility attached to information sharing. This further exerts pressure on the classification, choice, adaptation and transmission of information at both the individual and family level. Secondly, and partly as a consequence of this, the levels of indigenous, community level information from elders to youth and the level of institutionalised information sharing leave space for variations in behavioural norms. The research contributes to the discussion on problems in information sharing, knowledge transfer and adaptation of behavioural advice in HIV/ AIDS work. PMID:25388979

  14. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  15. Knowledge, risk perception, and behavioral intention about hepatitis C, among university students

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Seyedeh Shahrbanoo; Bakhtiari, Mona Hafezi; Nasirzadeh, Mostafa; Aligol, Mohammad; Doaei, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major complex public health problem. Different resources have proved that healthcare workers more than the general population are at a risk of infection. Therefore, medical field students, due to the future occupational hazards, are included in the risk group. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge, public and individual risk perception, and behavioral intention about HCV, among medical sciences students of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive–analytical study that was conducted among 457 students of the Medical Sciences in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: The data was collected using a questionnaire. Sampling was done randomly. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed using the SPSS18 software and statistical tests of Pearson, Spearman, T- test, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA); P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Four hundred and fifty-seven students (41.8% male and 58.2% female) in 29 fields of study (six categories) participated in this research. The mean age was 21.55 ± 2.6 years. The mean and standard deviations of the students’ knowledge was 3.71 ± 2.9 (out of 8), and the behavioral intention to accruing information and performance of preventive actions related to HCV was 11.52 ± 3.16 (out of 20). Public risk perception was 20.1 ± 3.5 (out of 30); and personal risk perception was 6.96 ± 1.8 (out of 10). The ANOVA test showed that public perception of the risk among students of different academic fields was different (F = 1.52, P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to the low knowledge of students of Medical Sciences in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences about HCV, it was recommended that the University Policymakers design an educational intervention about it, in order to minimize the chances of being infected. PMID:27462635

  16. Thorough investigation of a canine autoinflammatory disease (AID) confirms one main risk locus and suggests a modifier locus for amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mia; Tintle, Linda; Kierczak, Marcin; Perloski, Michele; Tonomura, Noriko; Lundquist, Andrew; Murén, Eva; Fels, Max; Tengvall, Katarina; Pielberg, Gerli; Dufaure de Citres, Caroline; Dorso, Laetitia; Abadie, Jérôme; Hanson, Jeanette; Thomas, Anne; Leegwater, Peter; Hedhammar, Åke; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Meadows, Jennifer R S

    2013-01-01

    Autoinflammatory disease (AID) manifests from the dysregulation of the innate immune system and is characterised by systemic and persistent inflammation. Clinical heterogeneity leads to patients presenting with one or a spectrum of phenotypic signs, leading to difficult diagnoses in the absence of a clear genetic cause. We used separate genome-wide SNP analyses to investigate five signs of AID (recurrent fever, arthritis, breed specific secondary dermatitis, otitis and systemic reactive amyloidosis) in a canine comparative model, the pure bred Chinese Shar-Pei. Analysis of 255 DNA samples revealed a shared locus on chromosome 13 spanning two peaks of association. A three-marker haplotype based on the most significant SNP (p<2.6×10(-8)) from each analysis showed that one haplotypic pair (H13-11) was present in the majority of AID individuals, implicating this as a shared risk factor for all phenotypes. We also noted that a genetic signature (F ST) distinguishing the phenotypic extremes of the breed specific Chinese Shar-Pei thick and wrinkled skin, flanked the chromosome 13 AID locus; suggesting that breed development and differentiation has played a parallel role in the genetics of breed fitness. Intriguingly, a potential modifier locus for amyloidosis was revealed on chromosome 14, and an investigation of candidate genes from both this and the chromosome 13 regions revealed significant (p<0.05) renal differential expression in four genes previously implicated in kidney or immune health (AOAH, ELMO1, HAS2 and IL6). These results illustrate that phenotypic heterogeneity need not be a reflection of genetic heterogeneity, and that genetic modifiers of disease could be masked if syndromes were not first considered as individual clinical signs and then as a sum of their component parts. PMID:24130694

  17. Integrating diverse scientific and practitioner knowledge in ecological risk analysis: a case study of biodiversity risk assessment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dana, G V; Kapuscinski, A R; Donaldson, J S

    2012-05-15

    Ecological risk analysis (ERA) is a structured evaluation of threats to species, natural communities, and ecosystem processes from pollutants and toxicants and more complicated living stressors such as invasive species, genetically modified organisms, and biological control agents. Such analyses are typically conducted by a narrowly-focused group of scientific experts using technical information. We evaluate whether the inclusion of more diverse experts and practitioners in ERA improved the ecological knowledge base about South African biodiversity and the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops. We conducted two participatory ERA workshops in South Africa, analyzing potential impacts of GM maize on biodiversity. The first workshop involved only four biological scientists, who were joined by 18 diverse scientists and practitioners in the second, and we compared the ERA process and results between the two using descriptive statistics and semi-structured interview responses. The addition of diverse experts and practitioners led to a more comprehensive understanding of biological composition of the agro-ecosystem and a more ecologically relevant set of hazards, but impeded hazard prioritization and the generation of precise risk assessment values. Results suggest that diverse participation can improve the scoping or problem formulation of the ERA, by generating an ecologically robust set of information on which to base the subsequent, more technical risk assessment. The participatory ERA process also increased the transparency of the ERA by exposing the logic and rationale for decisions made at each step. PMID:22266478

  18. Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan: Gender Differences in HIV Knowledge and Sexual Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhussupov, Baurzhan; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-07-01

    This study compares sexual risk behaviors among male and female migrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan. From the Barakholka Market, 209 male and 213 female market vendors were randomly recruited. Self-reported data were collected through standardized face-to-face interviews. Dry blood spot was used as specimen for syphilis testing. Propensity score stratification was used to estimate adjusted prevalence or rate ratios by gender. Compared to male migrant workers, females had lower HIV knowledge and were less likely to have multiple sexual partners. There was no evidence of a gender difference for prevalence of syphilis, condom use with unsteady partners, and safe sex communication between couples. Associations between mobility patterns and engagement in multiple sexual partnerships were stronger among women than men. Efforts should be made to mitigate the gender differential in HIV knowledge among migrants, especially women. Such efforts need to be implemented in both home and host countries. PMID:25294629

  19. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15–49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15–49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07–1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18–1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27019532

  20. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15-49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15-49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27019532

  1. Can preferences in information processing aid in understanding suicide risk among emerging adults?

    PubMed

    Cramer, Robert J; Bryson, Claire N; Gardner, Brett O; Webber, Wesley B

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated emerging adult (n = 192 college students) preferences in information processing (PIP), defined by the need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC), as they may be associated with suicide risk. The following were direct indicators of elevated suicide risk: presence of lifetime exposure to suicide (i.e., lifetime yes/no), elevated depressive symptoms, and greater NFA avoidance. Two different interactions resulted in elevated suicide risk: high depressive symptoms and high NFA avoidance, and high NFC and high NFA. Present results concerning PIP hold the potential to inform suicide risk assessment and prevention efforts among young adults. PMID:27007001

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers in Lesotho regarding the management of patients with oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramphoma, K J; Naidoo, S

    2014-11-01

    Lesotho has the third highest prevalence of HIV in the world with an estimated 23% of the adult population infected. At least 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have presented with oral manifestation of HIV as the first sign of the disease. Oral health workers regularly encounter patients presenting with oral lesions associated with HIV disease and therefore need to have adequate knowledge of these conditions for diagnosis and management. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers (OHCW) of Lesotho regarding the management of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 46 OHCW in 26 public and private care facilities in all ten districts of Lesotho. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information. The response rate was 100%. Nearly all (94.7%) agreed that oral lesions are common in people living with HIV and/or AIDS. The majority (91.3%) named oral candidiasis (OC) as the most common lesion found in PLWHA while Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) (34.7%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (32.6%) were mentioned as the least common oral lesions of HIV. Most correctly identified the images of oral candidiasis (97.8%), angular cheilitis (86.9%) and herpes zoster (80.4%). Only 16.7% felt they had comprehensive knowledge of oral HIV lesions, although 84.8% reported having previously received training. Almost three quarters (71%) reported that there was no need to treat HIV positive patients differently from HIV negative patients. OHCW in Lesotho demonstrated high confidence levels in their competence in managing dental patients with oral lesions associated with HIV, however, they lacked an in-depth knowledge in this regard. Amongst this group there is a need for comprehensive training with regards to diagnosis and management of oral lesions of HIV including the training of other cadres of health care workers together with nurses and community

  3. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Jaspal Singh; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Gupta, Aparna; Singh, Jaswinder; Chahal, Udeybir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab. Materials and Methods: 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean − ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables. Results: Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies

  4. Governing Long-Term Risks in Radioactive Waste Management: Reversibility and Knowledge Transfer Across Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Safe management of the long-lived and high-level radioactive waste originating primarily from nuclear power stations requires isolating and confining the waste for periods up to 100 000 years. Disposal in deep geological formations is currently the solution advocated by international organisations (e.g. the IAEA and the OECD-NEA) and governments, but nowhere in the world is such repository for civilian nuclear waste in operation yet. Concerns about the governance of the involved risks and uncertainties for such long periods lie at the heart of the controversies that have slowed down the identification of a solution. In order to draw lessons potentially relevant for the governance of long-term climate risks, this paper examines the ways in which two interrelated aspects have been addressed in nuclear waste management in France, the US, and the Nordic countries. The first issue concerns "reversibility" - i.e. the possibility on one hand to retrieve the waste once it has been disposed of in a repository, and on the other to return at any point in time along the decision-making process to the previous decision-making phase. Reversibility constitutes today a fundamental, legally binding requirement in French radioactive waste policy. A strategy for managing risk and uncertainty as such, reversibility nevertheless also poses significant safety challenges of its own. The second topic goes beyond the timescales (max. 300 years) in which reversibility is usually considered applicable, addressing the question of intergenerational knowledge transfer, comparing the Nordic and the American approaches to the issue. The key challenge here is ensuring the transfer to the future generations - for periods up to 100 000 years - of sufficient knowledge concerning the siting, characteristics and management of the waste deposited in a repository. Even more fundamentally, instead of knowledge transfer, should we rather aim at "active forgetting", in order to prevent the curious in the

  5. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  6. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  7. The application of integrated knowledge-based systems for the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Karin C.; Ly, Bebe; Webster, Laurie; Verlander, James; Taylor, Gerald R.; Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    One of NASA's goals for long duration space flight is to maintain acceptable levels of crew health, safety, and performance. One way of meeting this goal is through BRAIN, an integrated network of both human and computer elements. BRAIN will function as an advisor to mission managers by assessing the risk of inflight biomedical problems and recommending appropriate countermeasures. Described here is a joint effort among various NASA elements to develop BRAIN and the Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) prototype. The implementation of this effort addresses the technological aspects of knowledge acquisition, integration of IDRA components, the use of expert systems to automate the biomedical prediction process, development of a user friendly interface, and integration of IDRA and ExerCISys systems. Because C language, CLIPS and the X-Window System are portable and easily integrated, they were chosen ss the tools for the initial IDRA prototype.

  8. AIDS Risk Among Students Attending Seventh-day Adventist Schools in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Gary L.; Hopp, Joyce W.; Marshak, Helen P. Hopp; Neish, Christine; Rhoads, Gayle

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of students attending Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) high schools assessed sexual and drug-use behaviors that placed them at risk for contracting or transmitting HIV. Comparison of the results with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that SDA students had lower rates of sexual intercourse and substance use. Parental…

  9. Safety Risk Knowledge Elicitation in Support of Aeronautical R and D Portfolio Management: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Luxhoj, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Aviation is a problem domain characterized by a high level of system complexity and uncertainty. Safety risk analysis in such a domain is especially challenging given the multitude of operations and diverse stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky (Circelli, 2011). This increased system complexity necessitates the application of structured safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The use of expert judgments for probabilistic safety analysis in such a complex domain is necessary especially when evaluating the projected impact of future technologies, capabilities, and procedures for which current operational data may be scarce. Management of an R&D product portfolio in such a dynamic domain needs a systematic process to elicit these expert judgments, process modeling results, perform sensitivity analyses, and efficiently communicate the modeling results to decision makers. In this paper a case study focusing on the application of an R&D portfolio of aeronautical products intended to mitigate aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) accidents is presented. In particular, the knowledge elicitation process with three subject matter experts who contributed to the safety risk model is emphasized. The application and refinement of a verbal-numerical scale for conditional probability elicitation in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is discussed. The preliminary findings from this initial step of a three-part elicitation are important to project management practitioners as they illustrate the vital contribution of systematic knowledge elicitation in complex domains.

  10. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25086143

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, and Estimate of Congenital and AIDS-Related Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG) against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8–7.8) (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9–6.5), and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5–21.7) (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1–19.3), respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked meat, as

  12. Understanding the translation of scientific knowledge about arsenic risk exposure among private well water users in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Chappells, Heather; Campbell, Norma; Drage, John; Fernandez, Conrad V; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic is a class I human carcinogen that has been identified as the second most important global health concern in groundwater supplies after contamination by pathogenic organisms. Hydrogeological assessments have shown naturally occurring arsenic to be widespread in groundwater across the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Knowledge of arsenic risk exposure among private well users in these arsenic endemic areas has not yet been fully explored but research on water quality perceptions indicates a consistent misalignment between public and scientific assessments of environmental risk. This paper evaluates knowledge of arsenic risk exposure among a demographic cross-section of well users residing in 5 areas of Nova Scotia assessed to be at variable risk (high-low) of arsenic occurrence in groundwater based on water sample analysis. An integrated knowledge-to-action (KTA) methodological approach is utilized to comprehensively assess the personal, social and local factors shaping perception of well water contaminant risks and the translation of knowledge into routine water testing behaviors. Analysis of well user survey data (n=420) reveals a high level of confidence in well water quality that is unrelated to the relative risk of arsenic exposure or homeowner adherence to government testing recommendations. Further analysis from the survey and in-depth well user interviews (n=32) finds that well users' assessments of risk are influenced by personal experience, local knowledge, social networks and convenience of infrastructure rather than by formal information channels, which are largely failing to reach their target audiences. Insights from interviews with stakeholders representing government health and environment agencies (n=15) are used to reflect on the institutional barriers that mediate the translation of scientific knowledge into public awareness and stewardship behaviors. The utilization of local knowledge brokers, community-based networks and

  13. The influence of mental health problems on AIDS-related risk behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F; Cunningham, R

    1992-05-01

    This paper explores how symptoms of mental health problems influence acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related risk behaviors, and how changes in those symptoms relate to risk behaviors engaged in by young adults. Repeated interviews with 602 youths since 1984 provide a history of change in behaviors. Mental health symptoms during adolescence (alcohol/drug [r = .28]; conduct disorder [r = .27]; depression [r = .16]; suicide [r = .14]; anxiety [r = .16]; and posttraumatic stress [r = .09]) are associated with higher numbers of risk behaviors (specifically, prostitution, use of intravenous drugs, and choice of a high-risk sex partner) during young adulthood. Changes in mental health symptoms between adolescence and young adulthood are related to the number of risk behaviors engaged in by young adulthood (total number of symptoms [B = .10], alcohol/drug abuse or dependence [B = .34], depression [B = .20], suicidality [B = .35], anxiety [B = .13], and posttraumatic stress [B = .14]). Changes in symptoms of mental health problems are associated specifically with those risk behaviors that are initiated primarily in young adulthood: intravenous drug use, prostitution, and choice of risky partners. The findings show that prevention and treatment of mental health problems are important components of preventive interventions for human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk teens and young adults. PMID:1583474

  14. Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

  15. Does Familiarity Breed Complacency? HIV Knowledge, Personal Contact, and Sexual Risk Behavior of Psychiatrically Referred Latino Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Cheryl; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Moreau, Donna

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the association between sexual risk behaviors of 110 psychiatrically referred Latino girls aged 13-18 and their HIV knowledge. Questionnaires completed by the girls indicated that girls engaging in higher levels of sexual activity had clearly acquired accurate knowledge concerning HIV transmission but had not integrated it into…

  16. Understanding Human Papillomavirus: An Internet Survey of Knowledge, Risk, and Experience among Female and Male College Students in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Cathy C.; Niederhauser, Victoria P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Persistent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiologic agent in the development of cervical cancer. Despite the increasingly high prevalence of HPV, people at risk of exposure lack knowledge about the virus, its relationship to cervical cancer, and a realistic perspective regarding HPV consequences. Purpose: To describe knowledge about…

  17. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of U.S. Healthcare Providers about Benefits and Risks of Consuming Seafood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…

  18. A Bayesian framework with an auxiliary particle filter for GMTI-based ground vehicle tracking aided by domain knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Cunjia; Chen, Wen-hua; Chambers, Jonathon

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we propose a new ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar based ground vehicle tracking method which exploits domain knowledge. Multiple state models are considered and a Monte-Carlo sampling based algorithm is preferred due to the manoeuvring of the ground vehicle and the non-linearity of the GMTI measurement model. Unlike the commonly used algorithms such as the interacting multiple model particle filter (IMMPF) and bootstrap multiple model particle filter (BS-MMPF), we propose a new algorithm integrating the more efficient auxiliary particle filter (APF) into a Bayesian framework. Moreover, since the movement of the ground vehicle is likely to be constrained by the road, this information is taken as the domain knowledge and applied together with the tracking algorithm for improving the tracking performance. Simulations are presented to show the advantages of both the new algorithm and incorporation of the road information by evaluating the root mean square error (RMSE).

  19. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia) described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia. PMID:20576137

  20. The Effect of Knowledge of Online Security Risks on Consumer Decision Making in B2C e-Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping An

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation research studied how different degrees of knowledge of online security risks affect B2C (business-to-consumer) e-commerce consumer decision making. Online information security risks, such as identity theft, have increasingly become a major factor inhibiting the potential growth of e-commerce. On the other hand, e-commerce…

  1. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Cardiovascular Risk and Disease Management Knowledge Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Rosneck, James S; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John; Josephson, Richard; Noe, Donald A; Waechter, Donna

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This paper describes the systematic construction and psychometric analysis of a knowledge assessment instrument for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients measuring risk modification disease management knowledge and behavioral outcomes derived from national standards relevant to secondary prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. METHODS First, using adult curriculum based on disease specific learning outcomes and competencies, a systematic test item development process was completed by clinical staff. Second, a panel of educational and clinical experts used an iterative process to identify test content domain and arrive at consensus in selecting items meeting criteria. Third, the resulting 31 question instrument the Cardiac Knowledge Assessment Tool (CKAT) was piloted in CR patients to insure utility of application. Validity and reliability analysis were performed on 3,638 adult pre test administrations with additional focused analyses on 1,999 individuals completing both pre and post treatment administrations within 6 months. RESULTS Evidence of CKAT content validity was substantiated with 85% agreement among content experts. Evidence of construct validity was demonstrated via factor analysis identifying key underlying factors. Estimates of internal consistency, e.g. Cronbach’s Alpha = .852 and a Spearman-Brown split-half reliability = .817 on pre testing, supports test reliability. Item analysis, using point biserial correlation, measured relationships between performance on single items and total score (p<.01). Analyses utilizing item difficulty and item discrimination indices further verified item stability and validity of the CKAT. CONCLUSIONS A knowledge instrument specifically designed for an adult CR population was systematically developed and tested in a large representative patient population, satisfying psychometric parameters including validity and reliability. PMID:23612037

  2. Natural hazards knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roder, Giulia; Ruljigaljig, Tjuku; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the natural hazard knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community, located in Fazhi Village in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. Taiwan has encountered many different types of natural hazards (e.g. landslides and debris flows) that have increased sharply in the last century. Because of that, they are one of the most critical issues for the government and for the people living in mountainous areas. These areas are mainly populated by indigenous people that have experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonizing periods causing a progressive loss of their original cultural identity. The motivation of selecting the case study of Wujie community is because (i) it has suffered, more than others, generations of devastating colonial oppression by foreign governments; (ii) the consequences of hydroelectric projects that moved a lot of water and sediment to the valley and modified the path of the river through the years; (iii) the documented landslides and debris flows occurred in the region during the last decades. Two questions appear spontaneously: How indigenous people are nowadays living with natural hazards? Have land use change or any other human footprint affected their knowledge and perception on natural hazards? This research, the first carried out in Taiwan involving an indigenous community, can offer a unique opportunity to answer these questions. The investigation utilized a variety of participatory methods conducted at the household and community level by the use of 65 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that residents felt a higher worry about landslide and flood risks, and a slight preparedness to face them. This discrepancy may derive from an unsatisfactory level of communication and information, and the most considerable differences were found between the evaluations of individual subjects as opposed to overall communities. Results revealed also the complexity

  3. Evidence and AIDS activism: HIV scale-up and the contemporary politics of knowledge in global public health

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is widely recognised as having prompted one of the most remarkable intersections ever of illness, science and activism. The production, circulation, use and evaluation of empirical scientific ‘evidence’ played a central part in activists’ engagement with AIDS science. Previous activist engagement with evidence focused on the social and biomedical responses to HIV in the global North as well as challenges around ensuring antiretroviral treatment (ART) was available in the global South. More recently, however, with the roll-out and scale-up of large public-sector ART programmes and new multi-dimensional prevention efforts, the relationships between evidence and activism have been changing. Scale-up of these large-scale treatment and prevention programmes represents an exciting new opportunity while bringing with it a host of new challenges. This paper examines what new forms of evidence and activism will be required to address the challenges of the scaling-up era of HIV treatment and prevention. It reviews some recent controversies around evidence and HIV scale-up and describes the different forms of evidence and activist strategies that will be necessary for a robust response to these new challenges. PMID:24498918

  4. Defining Established and Emerging Microbial Risks in the Aquatic Environment: Current Knowledge, Implications, and Outlooks

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    This timely review primarily addresses important but presently undefined microbial risks to public health and to the natural environment. It specifically focuses on current knowledge, future outlooks and offers some potential alleviation strategies that may reduce or eliminate the risk of problematic microbes in their viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the aquatic environment. As emphasis is placed on water quality, particularly surrounding efficacy of decontamination at the wastewater treatment plant level, this review also touches upon other related emerging issues, namely, the fate and potential ecotoxicological impact of untreated antibiotics and other pharmaceutically active compounds in water. Deciphering best published data has elucidated gaps between science and policy that will help stakeholders work towards the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), which provides an ambitious legislative framework for water quality improvements within its region and seeks to restore all water bodies to “good ecological status” by 2015. Future effective risk-based assessment and management, post definition of the plethora of dynamic inter-related factors governing the occurrence, persistence and/or control of these presently undefined hazards in water will also demand exploiting and harnessing tangential advances in allied disciplines such as mathematical and computer modeling that will permit efficient data generation and transparent reporting to be undertaken by well-balanced consortia of stakeholders. PMID:20976256

  5. Resilience and risk competence in schools: theory/knowledge and international application in project rebound.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joel H; Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Beck, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Despite a 50-year interdisciplinary and longitudinal research legacy--showing that nearly 80% of young people considered most "at risk" thrive by midlife-only recently have practitioners/researchers engaged in the explicit, prospective facilitation of "resilience" in educational settings. Here, theory/knowledge distinguishing and extending risk and resilience from its risk-based social history to resilience's normative occurrence leads to the first known international and prospective application of resilience in school-based drug education, Project REBOUND [resilience-bound]. It will be implemented as a controlled pilot study, first in Germany, then expand to the United States, as well as other parts of Europe. With evaluation occurring throughout, the goal is to enhance the quality of drug decisions among young people, as well as support their overall competence-based learning and development throughout school. With limitations and underlying psychological mechanisms discussed, it is concluded Project REBOUND offers promising potential for supporting positive drug decisions as well as youth learning and development. PMID:21381462

  6. The pros and cons of funnel plots as an aid to risk communication and patient decision making.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tim; Wright, Rebecca J; Spiegelhalter, David J; Bull, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Funnel plots, which simultaneously display a sample statistic and the corresponding sample size for multiple cases, have a range of applications. In medicine, they are used to display treatment outcome rates and caseload volume by institution, which can inform strategic decisions about health care delivery. We investigated lay people's understanding of such plots and explored their suitability as an aid to individual treatment decisions. In two studies, 172 participants answered objective questions about funnel plots representing the surgical outcomes (survival or mortality rates) of institutions varying in caseload, and indicated their preferred institutions. Accuracy for extracting objective information was high, unless question phrasing was inconsistent with the plot's survival/mortality framing, or participants had low numeracy levels. Participants integrated caseload-volume and outcome-rate data when forming preferences, but were influenced by reference lines on the plot to make inappropriate discriminations between institutions with similar outcome rates. With careful choice of accompanying language, funnel plots can be readily understood and are therefore a useful tool for communicating risk. However, they are less effective as a decision aid for individual patient's treatment decisions, and we recommend refinements to the standard presentation of the plots if they are to be used for that purpose. PMID:25123852

  7. Help-seeking for AIDS high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual African-American men.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J L; Coates, T J; Catania, J A; Hilliard, B; Middleton, L; Hearst, N

    1995-02-01

    Help-seeking for AIDS high-risk sexual behavior and its association with HIV status were examined among 318 gay and bisexual men in the San Francisco Bay Area who participated in the African American Men's Health Project, a longitudinal survey of gay and bisexual African-American men. A third (36%) of the sample reported seeking help regarding their concerns about HIV high-risk sexual behavior. Peers and professionals were the most widely sought sources of help and the sources perceived to be the most helpful. Men (39%) who had received the HIV antibody test and who were HIV seropositive were more likely to seek help than men who were HIV seronegative or did not know their HIV status (25%). Furthermore, gay men who were HIV seropositive or who knew their serostatus were more likely to seek help from professionals and peers. Explanations for the differences in help-seeking by HIV-seropositive men are discussed with implications for the development of social support for HIV risk reduction among gay and bisexual African-American men. PMID:7772452

  8. Screening prospective blood donors for AIDS risk factors: will sufficient donors be found?

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, D I; Linden, J V

    1988-01-01

    Using data from various sources--we estimate that 14 to 19 per cent of American males 17-75 have personal histories that place them at high risk of transmitting the HIV infection while an additional 2 per cent of adult females may be similarly affected. Because roughly one fourth of either group may already be unsuited to give blood, we estimate that 10-14 per cent of adult males, and 1 per cent of females would be specifically deferred from giving blood because of personal histories of high-risk behavior. Local adjustments in the assumptions underlying these estimates are needed to apply them to given communities. PMID:3177722

  9. DCS: A Case Study of Identification of Knowledge and Disposition Gaps Using Principles of Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2011-01-01

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is formulated around the program architecture of Evidence-Risk-Gap-Task-Deliverable. Review of accumulated evidence forms the basis for identification of high priority risks to human health and performance in space exploration. Gaps in knowledge or disposition are identified for each risk, and a portfolio of research tasks is developed to fill them. Deliverables from the tasks inform the evidence base with the ultimate goal of defining the level of risk and reducing it to an acceptable level. A comprehensive framework for gap identification, focus, and metrics has been developed based on principles of continuous risk management and clinical care. Research towards knowledge gaps improves understanding of the likelihood, consequence or timeframe of the risk. Disposition gaps include development of standards or requirements for risk acceptance, development of countermeasures or technology to mitigate the risk, and yearly technology assessment related to watching developments related to the risk. Standard concepts from clinical care: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and surveillance, can be used to focus gaps dealing with risk mitigation. The research plan for the new HRP Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) used the framework to identify one disposition gap related to establishment of a DCS standard for acceptable risk, two knowledge gaps related to DCS phenomenon and mission attributes, and three mitigation gaps focused on prediction, prevention, and new technology watch. These gaps were organized in this manner primarily based on target for closure and ease of organizing interim metrics so that gap status could be quantified. Additional considerations for the knowledge gaps were that one was highly design reference mission specific and the other gap was focused on DCS phenomenon.

  10. CLIPS: A tool for corn disease diagnostic system and an aid to neural network for automated knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Cathy; Taylor, Pam; Whitson, George; Smith, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the building of a corn disease diagnostic expert system using CLIPS, and the development of a neural expert system using the fact representation method of CLIPS for automated knowledge acquisition. The CLIPS corn expert system diagnoses 21 diseases from 52 symptoms and signs with certainty factors. CLIPS has several unique features. It allows the facts in rules to be broken down to object-attribute-value (OAV) triples, allows rule-grouping, and fires rules based on pattern-matching. These features combined with the chained inference engine result to a natural user query system and speedy execution. In order to develop a method for automated knowledge acquisition, an Artificial Neural Expert System (ANES) is developed by a direct mapping from the CLIPS system. The ANES corn expert system uses the same OAV triples in the CLIPS system for its facts. The LHS and RHS facts of the CLIPS rules are mapped into the input and output layers of the ANES, respectively; and the inference engine of the rules is imbedded in the hidden layer. The fact representation by OAC triples gives a natural grouping of the rules. These features allow the ANES system to automate rule-generation, and make it efficient to execute and easy to expand for a large and complex domain.

  11. A model HIV/AIDS risk reduction programme in the Philippines: a comprehensive community-based approach through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Morisky, Donald E; Ang, Alfonso; Coly, Astou; Tiglao, Teodora V

    2004-03-01

    A 3-year, longitudinal, quasi-experimental study using participatory action research (PAR) was conducted to determine the feasibility and efficiency of an expanded sexually transmitted infection (STI) HIV/AIDS prevention program among diverse high-risk male heterosexual populations in the southern Philippines. A total of 3389 participants ( approximately 200 males from each of 18 study groups) were recruited, and 221 were trained as peer counselors to develop educational materials and reinforce safe sexual practices among their peers. Condom usage (36.10% to 38.70% to 46.31%), attitudes towards condoms (21.67% to 24.55% to 25.15%) and knowledge about HIV/STI transmission (41.87% to 42.19% to 33.31%) increased significantly from baseline to post-test and 6-month follow up, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the reported STI incidence decreased significantly (7.4% to 4.6% to 2.4%, respectively). Changes differed significantly between the intervention and control group at post-test and follow up (p < 0.01). These findings illustrate the appropriateness of using PAR methodology in promoting and sustaining positive behavior change. PMID:14976174

  12. The Effect of Transition Clinics on Knowledge of Diagnosis and Perception of Risk in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganju, Rohit G.; Nanda, Ronica H.; Esiashvili, Natia; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Marchak, Jordan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improved treatment for pediatric cancers has ensured an evergrowing population of patients surviving into adulthood. The current study evaluated the impact of previous engagement in survivor care on patient knowledge and awareness of health risks as young adults. Procedure Young adult survivors of childhood cancers (N = 93, M age = 23.63 y) were recruited during their annual survivor clinic visit. Participants completed self-reported measures of demographics, treatment knowledge, perception of future health risks, participation in previous survivor care, and neurocognitive functioning. Results In total, 82% of patients (N = 76/93) reported previously participating in survivorship care. These patients were more likely to have knowledge of their radiation treatment (P = 0.034) and more likely to recognize risk for future health effects from their treatment (P = 0.019). Income between $10,000 and $24,999 (odds ratio = 0.168; 95% confidence interval, 0.046–0.616; P = 0.031) was associated with decreased patient knowledge regarding diagnosis. Male sex (odds ratio = 0.324; 95% confidence interval, 0.135–0.777; P = 0.012) was associated with less knowledge of future health risks. Patients with self-reported difficulties on the CCSS-NCQ were more likely to regard their cancer treatment as a future health risk. Conclusion Participation in survivor care plays an important role in imparting information to young adult survivors of pediatric cancer regarding their disease history and risk for future health problems. PMID:26925717

  13. Impact of a primary care based intervention on breast cancer knowledge, risk perception and concern: A randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah S.; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Gregorich, Steven; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Pasick, Rena J.; Chen, Alice; Quinn, Jessica; Kaplan, Celia P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the effects of a tablet-based, breast cancer risk education intervention for use in primary care settings (BreastCARE) on patients' breast cancer knowledge, risk perception and concern. Methods From June 2011–August 2012, we enrolled women from two clinics, aged 40–74 years with no personal breast cancer history, and randomized them to the BreastCARE intervention group or to the control group. All patients completed a baseline telephone survey and risk assessment (via telephone for controls, via tablet computer in clinic waiting room prior to visit for intervention). All women were categorized as high or average risk based on the Referral Screening Tool, the Gail model or the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium model. Intervention patients and their physicians received an individualized risk report to discuss during the visit. All women completed a follow-up telephone survey 1–2 weeks after risk assessment. Post-test comparisons estimated differences at follow-up in breast cancer knowledge, risk perception and concern. Results 580 intervention and 655 control women completed follow-up interviews. Mean age was 56 years (SD = 9). At follow-up, 73% of controls and 71% of intervention women correctly perceived their breast cancer risk and 22% of controls and 24% of intervention women were very concerned about breast cancer. Intervention patients had greater knowledge (≥75% correct answers) of breast cancer risk factors at follow-up (24% vs. 16%; p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, there were no differences in correct risk perception or concern, but intervention patients had greater knowledge ([OR] = 1.62; 95% [CI] = 1.19–2.23). Conclusions A simple, practical intervention involving physicians at the point of care can improve knowledge of breast cancer without increasing concern. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01830933. PMID:26476466

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for different measures of low back pain among female nursing aides in Taiwanese nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chao-Kang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang

    2007-01-01

    Background Although low back pain (LBP) among nursing staff, especially in nursing aides (NAs), has been a major health problem around the world, there is limited information on its prevalence in Taiwan. In addition, various measurements have been used to determine LBP; understanding the risk factors for each measurement of LBP is essential for prevention. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for different measures of LBP among NAs in Taiwan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 female NAs from 31 nursing homes in central Taiwan. A self-administered questionnaire, including the Nordic questionnaire and the Karasek's job content questionnaire, was used to collect data regarding five different measures of LBP and about demographic, physical and psychosocial factors. Also, on-site observation at the workplace was conducted to measure the frequency of five high risk patient-handling tasks. Results Based on the subjects' reports on the previous twelve months, the prevalence rates for pain lasting for at least one day, seeking of medical care, intense pain, sick leave, and chronic pain were 66.0%, 43.9%, 38.1%, 10.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. While multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the risk factors varied with different measures of LBP, at least one high risk patient-handling task and one psychosocial factor were observed to be associated each LBP related measure. Three risk factors, including manual transfer of patients between bed/wheelchair and bath cart, perceived physical exertion, and psychological demands, were consistently associated with different measures of LBP. Besides, age was found to be associated with an increased risk of only chronic pain. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP among NAs in Taiwan is high and should be actively addressed. Certain manual patient-transfer tasks and psychological demands seemed to play more important roles in severe LBP (such as care seeking, intense pain, and sick

  15. Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education: Survey Results, 1991. Bulletin No. 93253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara

    This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…

  16. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  17. GAPHAZ: improving knowledge management of glacier and permafrost hazards and risks in mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Burn, Chris; Clague, John J.; Hewitt, Ken; Kääb, Andreas; Krautblatter, Michael; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Reynolds, John; Sokratov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    High-mountain environments worldwide are undergoing changes at an historically unprecedented pace due to the sensitivity of the high-mountain cryosphere to climate change. Humans have settled in many mountain regions hundreds, even thousands of years ago, but recent intensive socio-economic developments have increased exposure and vulnerability of people and infrastructure to a large range of natural hazards related to high-mountain processes. Resulting risks are therefore increasing and highly dynamic. GAPHAZ, the Standing Group on Glacier and Permafrost Hazards in Mountains of the International Association of Cryospheric Sciences (IACS) and International Permafrost Association (IPA), is positioned in this context. The objectives of GAPHAZ are to: • improve the international scientific communication on glacier and permafrost hazards; • stimulating and strengthen research collaborations in the field of glacier and permafrost hazards; • compile a state of knowledge related to glacier and permafrost hazards in high mountains; • work towards a greater transfer of information and improved communication between the scientific and governmental/policy communities; • signpost sources of advice to international and national agencies, responsible authorities, and private companies; and • act as a focal point for information for international media during relevant crises. GAPHAZ has initiated a variety of activities over the past years to meet these objectives. One of the important issues is the development of standards of (1) how to make and portray technical assessments of glacier and permafrost related hazards and risks; and (2) how to communicate these to the public and a range of actors including those who implement measures. Thereby, difficulties of and need for better translation between techno-scientific understanding, and the situations and concerns of people most at risk in cold regions need to be recognized. Knowledge-transfer from the few well

  18. Predictive spatial risk model of poliovirus to aid prioritization and hasten eradication in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the challenges facing the Global Polio Eradication Initiative is efficiently directing limited resources, such as specially trained personnel, community outreach activities, and satellite vaccinator tracking, to the most at-risk areas to maximize the impact of interventions. A validated predictive model of wild poliovirus circulation would greatly inform prioritization efforts by accurately forecasting areas at greatest risk, thus enabling the greatest effect of program interventions. Methods Using Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data from 2004-2013, we developed a spatial hierarchical Poisson hurdle model fitted within a Bayesian framework to study historical polio caseload patterns and forecast future circulation of type 1 and 3 wild poliovirus within districts in Nigeria. A Bayesian temporal smoothing model was applied to address data sparsity underlying estimates of covariates at the district level. Results We find that calculated vaccine-derived population immunity is significantly negatively associated with the probability and number of wild poliovirus case(s) within a district. Recent case information is significantly positively associated with probability of a case, but not the number of cases. We used lagged indicators and coefficients from the fitted models to forecast reported cases in the subsequent six-month periods. Over the past three years, the average predictive ability is 86 ± 2% and 85 ± 4% for wild poliovirus type 1 and 3, respectively. Interestingly, the predictive accuracy of historical transmission patterns alone is equivalent (86 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% for type 1 and 3, respectively). We calculate uncertainty in risk ranking to inform assessments of changes in rank between time periods. Conclusions The model developed in this study successfully predicts districts at risk for future wild poliovirus cases in Nigeria. The highest predicted district risk was 12.8 WPV1 cases in 2006, while the lowest district risk

  19. Genetic Vulnerability as a Distal Risk Factor for Suicidal Behaviour: Historical Perspective and Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    ANDRIESSEN, Karl; VIDETIC-PASKA, Alja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Suicide is a multidimensional problem. Observations of family history of suicide suggest the existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Aim Starting with a historical perspective, the article reviews current knowledge of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour, distinct from the genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, focused on clinical and population-based studies, and findings from recent molecular genetics association studies. Method The review includes peer-reviewed research articles and review papers from the professional literature in English language, retrieved from PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO. Results The research literature confirms a existence of a genetic vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Even though the results of individual studies are difficult to compare, genetic influences could explain up to half of the variance of the occurrence of suicide. Conclusion Genetic vulnerability could be a distal risk factor for suicide, which helps us to understand the occurrence of suicide among vulnerable people. Ethical implications of such vulnerability are highlighted.

  20. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    SciTech Connect

    Ríos-González, Adriana; Jansen, Kees; Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on

  1. Development of a personalized decision aid for breast cancer risk reduction and management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer risk reduction has the potential to decrease the incidence of the disease, yet remains underused. We report on the development a web-based tool that provides automated risk assessment and personalized decision support designed for collaborative use between patients and clinicians. Methods Under Institutional Review Board approval, we evaluated the decision tool through a patient focus group, usability testing, and provider interviews (including breast specialists, primary care physicians, genetic counselors). This included demonstrations and data collection at two scientific conferences (2009 International Shared Decision Making Conference, 2009 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium). Results Overall, the evaluations were favorable. The patient focus group evaluations and usability testing (N = 34) provided qualitative feedback about format and design; 88% of these participants found the tool useful and 94% found it easy to use. 91% of the providers (N = 23) indicated that they would use the tool in their clinical setting. Conclusion BreastHealthDecisions.org represents a new approach to breast cancer prevention care and a framework for high quality preventive healthcare. The ability to integrate risk assessment and decision support in real time will allow for informed, value-driven, and patient-centered breast cancer prevention decisions. The tool is being further evaluated in the clinical setting. PMID:24422989

  2. Storm-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: An Investigation of Target Audience Knowledge and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Damon, Scott A.; Poehlman, Jon A.; Rupert, Douglas J.; Williams, Peyton N.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the United States consistently occur when residents improperly use portable gasoline-powered generators and other tools following severe storms and power outages. However, protective behaviors—such as installing CO alarms and placing generators more than 20 feet away from indoor structures—can prevent these poisonings. This study identified knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviors for storm-related CO poisoning and post-storm generator use. Four focus groups (32 participants in total) were conducted with generator owners in winter and summer storm-prone areas to explore home safety, portable generator use, CO poisoning knowledge, and generator safety messages. Discussions were transcribed, and findings analyzed using an ordered meta-matrix approach. Although most generator owners were aware of CO poisoning, many were unsure what constitutes a safe location for generator operation and incorrectly stated that enclosed areas outside the home—such as attached garages, sheds, and covered porches—were safe. Convenience and access to appliances often dictated generator placement. Participants were receptive to installing CO alarms in their homes but were unsure where to place them. These findings suggest a deficit in understanding how to operate portable generators safely and a need to correct misconceptions around safe placement. In terms of behavioral price, the simple installation and maintenance of inexpensive CO alarms may be the most important strategy for ultimately protecting homes from both storm-related and other CO exposures. PMID:26345640

  3. Predictors of student outcomes on perceived knowledge and competence of genetic family history risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Cathleen A; Stiles, Anne S

    2011-01-01

    The publication of the human genome project has launched a number of discoveries set to change the landscape of healthcare. Unfortunately, nursing faculty across the United States report they are unprepared to teach students who will be practicing in the genomic era. The purpose of this study, utilizing Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovation theory as a framework, was to determine the degree to which nursing school characteristics predict graduating undergraduate nursing students' perceived knowledge and competence of genetic family history risk assessment. School characteristics included school size, proximity to a large city, faculty's perceived barriers to diffusion of genomics into nursing practice, faculty innovativeness, faculty who have attended a genetics program for nursing faculty, and the integration of genomics into the curriculum. Faculty and students from 103 nursing schools across the United States participated in the study by completing online surveys. Hierarchical multiple regression was employed to determine how well the independent variables predicted student perceived knowledge and student perceived competence. No combination of the independent variables in this study predicted student knowledge or competence to the degree expected. This could be attributed to a lack of diffusion of genomics content across nursing curricula, based on Rogers' (2003) theory. Other findings included faculty continue to believe they are not competent to teach genomics, and the curriculum is too dense to include more content. However, contrary to prior research, faculty did believe genomics was valuable. The findings of this study give direction for further research into student outcomes and curriculum evaluation after 2011, when a consensus panel working to diffuse genomics into nursing curriculum and practice will have implemented their strategic plan for this diffusion. PMID:21420042

  4. GIS and local knowledge in disaster management: a case study of flood risk mapping in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong; Shaw, Rajib; Chantry, Guillaume; Norton, John

    2009-03-01

    Linking community knowledge with modern techniques to record and analyse risk related data is one way of engaging and mobilising community capacity. This paper discusses the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) at the local level and the need for integrating modern technology and indigenous knowledge into disaster management. It suggests a way to mobilise available human and technical resources in order to strengthen a good partnership between local communities and local and national institutions. The paper also analyses the current vulnerability of two communes by correlating hazard risk and loss/damage caused by disasters and the contribution that domestic risk maps in the community can make to reduce this risk. The disadvantages, advantages and lessons learned from the GIS flood risk mapping project are presented through the case study of the Quang Tho Commune in Thua Thien Hue province, central Viet Nam. PMID:18513310

  5. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    PubMed

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services. PMID:27240842

  6. Clinical and subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania: risk, intervention and knowledge transfer.

    PubMed

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Bell, C E; Swai, E S; Kambarage, D M; Ogden, N H; Bryant, M J; French, N P

    2006-04-17

    In a cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga and Iringa regions of Tanzania, 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=11.6-17.3) of cows had developed clinical mastitis during the previous year. The point prevalence of subclinical mastitis, defined as a quarter positive by the California Mastitis Test (CMT) or by bacteriological culture, was 46.2% (95% CI=43.6-48.8) and 24.3% (95% CI=22.2-26.6), respectively. In a longitudinal disease study in Iringa, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 31.7 cases per 100 cow-years. A randomised intervention trial indicated that intramammary antibiotics significantly reduced the proportion of bacteriologically positive quarters in the short-term (14 days post-infusion) but teat dipping had no detectable effect on bacteriological infection and CMT positive quarters. Other risk and protective factors were identified from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal included animals with Boran breeding (odds ratio (OR)=3.40, 95% CI=1.00-11.57, P<0.05 for clinical mastitis, and OR=3.51, 95% CI=1.29-9.55, P<0.01 for a CMT positive quarter), while the practice of residual calf suckling was protective for a bacteriologically positive quarter (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.48-0.81, Pknowledge gained and use of different methods of dissemination were assessed over time. In a subsequent randomised controlled trial, there were strong associations between knowledge gained and both the individual question asked and the combination of dissemination methods (village meeting, video and handout) used. This study demonstrated that both clinical and subclinical mastitis is common in smallholder dairying in Tanzania, and that some of the risk and protective factors for mastitis can be addressed by practical management of dairy cows following effective knowledge

  7. HIV knowledge and risks among Vietnamese men who have sex with men travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Hoang Quan; Colby, Donn Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Rapid economic and social development in Vietnam has resulted in increased opportunities for travel and new potential routes of HIV transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining demographics, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviour amongst 100 Vietnamese men who have sex with men who traveled abroad in the previous 12 months. Men who have sex with men surveyed were mostly university-educated, single, and under 30. Most travel (73%) was within Southeast Asia and was undertaken for tourism (51%) or for work (29%). Casual sex with a foreign partner occurred on 39% of trips. Only four were reported to have involved in unsafe sex with a casual partner. Four reported illicit drug use. Alcohol was widely consumed. Multivariate analysis showed that two variables, travelling alone (OR = 5.26,p < 0.001) and a university education (OR = 4.05,p = 0.004), were significantly associated with casual sex abroad. More HIV prevention education on the risks of sex while travelling abroad is needed for men who have sex with men in Vietnam. PMID:24352118

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Skin Cancer: An Assessment of Patient Risk Factors, Knowledge, and Skin Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Jessica N.; Taft, Tiffany H.; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk from skin cancer. Aims include assessing IBD patients' risk factors and knowledge of skin cancer and current skin protection practices to identify gaps in patient education regarding skin cancer prevention in IBD. Methods. IBD patients ≥ 18 years were recruited to complete an online survey. Results. 164 patients (mean age 43.5 years, 63% female) with IBD (67% Crohn's disease, 31% ulcerative colitis, and 2% indeterminate colitis) were included. 12% (n = 19) of patients had a personal history and 34% (n = 55) had a family history of skin cancer. Females scored better on skin protection (16.94/32 versus 14.53/32, P ≤ 0.03) and awareness (35.16/40 versus 32.98/40, P ≤ 0.03). Patients over 40 years old scored better on prevention (17.45/28 versus 15.35/28, P = 0.03). Patients with skin cancer scored better on prevention (20.56/28 versus 15.75/28, P ≤ 0.001) and skin protection (21.47/32 versus 15.33/32, P ≤ 0.001). 61% of patients recognized the link between skin cancer and IBD. Conclusions. The majority of IBD patients are aware of the link between skin cancer and IBD; however, skin protection practices are suboptimal. This emphasizes the role of healthcare professionals in providing further education for skin cancer prevention in the IBD population. PMID:27034838

  9. Knowledge assessment of women living in the Wielkopolska region concerning risk factors for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gawdzik, Dorota; Jurczyk, Mieczysława U.; Sporny, Stanisław; Opala, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is a malignant tumor which for many years has been a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. This issue is important because CC is the second most common type of malignant tumor, after breast cancer, and the second most common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of women living in the Wielkopolska region (Gniezno district) of risk factors for cervical cancer. Material and methods The study used the diagnostic poll method, based on a previously developed survey questionnaire. The study was carried out between March and April 2013. The study group consisted of 100 women, involving schoolgirls from the secondary school in Gniezno (Group I), workers (doctors, nurses and midwives) of two outpatient clinics in the Gniezno district (Group II) and patients of the same clinics (Group III). Results According to the respondents, the main cause of CC is human papillomavirus (Group II – 36%) and genetic predisposition (Group III – 35%). It is alarming that 26% of women did not know the risk factors for CC. Conclusions It is necessary to improve health education, especially concerning the main factors affecting the development of CC, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates related to this cancer. PMID:26327882

  10. Attitudes and beliefs regarding depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals’ attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purpose of this study was to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semi-structured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e. loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403

  11. Attitudes and beliefs regarding depression, HIV/AIDS, and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M

    2012-12-01

    Individuals' attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purposes of this study were to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS, and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semistructured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e., loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403

  12. Mechanistic insights aid the search for CFC substitutes: risk assessment of HCFC-123 as an example.

    PubMed

    Jarabek, A M; Fisher, J W; Rubenstein, R; Lipscomb, J C; Williams, R J; Vinegar, A; McDougal, J N

    1994-06-01

    An international consensus on the need to reduce the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting gases such as the halons led to the adoptions of the 1987 Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, "Protecting Stratospheric Ozone." These agreements included major provisions for reducing and eventually phasing out production and use of CFCs and halons as well as advancing the development of replacement chemicals. Because of the ubiquitous use and benefits of CFCs and halons, an expeditious search for safe replacements to meet the legislative deadlines is of critical importance. Toxicity testing and health risk assessment programs were established to evaluate the health and environmental impact of these replacement chemicals. Development and implementation of these programs as well as the structural-activity relationships significant for the development of the replacement chemicals are described below. A dose-response evaluation for the health risk assessment of the replacement chemical HCFC-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) is also presented to show an innovative use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. This is based on a parallelogram approach using data on the anesthetic gas halothane, a structural analog to HCFC-123. Halothane and HCFC-123 both form the same metabolite, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), indicative of the same metabolic oxidative pathway attributed to hepatotoxicity. The parallelogram approach demonstrates the application of template model structures and shows how PBPK modeling, together with judicious experimental design, can be used to improve the accuracy of health risk assessment and to decrease the need for extensive laboratory animal testing. PMID:8029495

  13. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  14. Love, lifestyles and the risk of AIDS: the moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Helle

    2006-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a profound impact on people's everyday life in most African societies. A large proportion of all new HIV infections involves young people between 15 and 25 years. The objective of this paper is to explore local moral worlds of young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and discuss how the HIVS epidemic affects their reflections on their everyday life and their perceptions of sexual relationships. Based on anthropological fieldwork, including focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews and participant observation, a total of 57 young people between 15 and 25 years were followed over a 3-month period. Using the notion of 'lifestyle', the paper shows how structural factors of unemployment and poverty paired with global discourse on AIDS present the young people with frustrations and quandaries in relation to their hopes and images of love, faithfulness and modern living. The data shows that the HIV epidemic contributes to and accelerates their feeling of living in a risk society and of being at risk. In order to cope with these uncertainties and contingencies, local discourses of trust and fidelity become extremely important and to most young people HIV prevention is synonymous with finding a faithful partner and/or using condoms. PMID:16801223

  15. AICPA standard aids in detecting risk factors for fraud. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, A; Dery, R J

    1999-10-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts. PMID:11066667

  16. Barriers to condom use among women at risk of HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The growing trend of women infected with HIV through sexual transmission is alarming. Factors influencing condom use have not yet been fully identified, especially in countries with conservative cultures and backgrounds. The present study aimed to explore the barriers of condom use in Iranian women at risk of HIV. Methods Using the grounded theory methodology, participants’ experiences and their perceptions regarding condom were collected during semi structured in depth interviews. Participants were 22 women, aged 21–49 years, considered to be at risk for HIV, due to their own or their partner’s sexual behaviors. Qualitative analysis of the data was conducted manually and was guided by constant comparative analysis. Results Two main barriers, personal and socio-environmental emerged from data analysis. Lack of perceived threat, absence of protective motivation, inadequate knowledge, perceived lack of control, negative attitudes towards condom and misperception were the major personal barriers, while unsupportive environments and cultural norms were the common socio-environmental barriers to condom use among these at risk women. Conclusions These critical barriers have to be addressed for implementing effective prevention programs against HIV among populations at risk for HIV. PMID:22624530

  17. Reaching and retaining high-risk HIV/AIDS clients through the Internet.

    PubMed

    Feldacker, Caryl; Torrone, Elizabeth; Triplette, Matthew; Smith, Justin C; Leone, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    The Internet is a popular way for people to meet casual sex partners. However, online outreach remains largely unexplored to promote voluntary counseling and testing for HIV. The Student Health Action Coalition's HIV testing program (SHAC-HIV) targets high-risk clients through tailored Internet outreach via chat rooms, social networking sites, and online forums. The SHAC-HIV model also demonstrates that nontraditional testing sites can provide low-cost, client-centered, high-quality services to support increased demand for HIV-testing services. Within the clinic, SHAC-HIV's testing model includes four major components: (a) reliance on a team of well-trained health sciences student volunteers; (b) rapid oral-fluid HIV tests; (c) universal, consent-based testing with client-centered health education and counseling; and (d) coordinated referrals for follow-up testing, treatment, and care. This approach reaches high-risk clients as well as undiagnosed infections. In 2007, there were nine confirmed positive results out of 389 tests, yielding a 2.3% positivity rate. This positivity percentage is higher than any other nontraditional testing site in North Carolina. This article describes the SHAC-HIV outreach and voluntary counseling and testing program with the aim of encouraging adoption of the model by other nontraditional testing sites. PMID:20160022

  18. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among pregnant couples in South Africa: the PartnerPlus project.

    PubMed

    Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Cook, Ryan; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Peltzer, Karl; Weiss, Stephen M; Shikwane, Molatelo Elisa; Jones, Deborah L

    2013-02-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, 60 % of people living with HIV are women and most are of childbearing age. Alarmingly, seroconversion rates during pregnancy are high and increase as pregnancy progresses, highlighting the importance of increasing HIV-knowledge among pregnant women and their partners. This study compared sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge and condom use pre- to post-partum among South African couples (n = 239 couples) randomly assigned to an intervention or an enhanced standard of care with the PMTCT protocol at rural community health antenatal clinics. Consistent condom use and HIV-related knowledge increased baseline to post-intervention and was maintained at long term follow up post-partum among participants in the intervention condition. HIV knowledge mediated the relationship between the intervention and consistent condom use. Results from this pilot study provide support for the integration of HIV risk reduction interventions for both women and men into existing PMTCT services during and following pregnancy. PMID:23161209

  19. [Test your knowledge: contraceptives].

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    A brief self-administered quiz on contraceptive knowledge is presented. The 7 questions ask the reader to explain the mechanism of action of combined oral contraceptives, and why estrogens are used with progestins, and to indicate the main secondary effects of Depo-Provera and implants and the dosage of the "morning-after pill." A multiple-choice question concerns absolute contraindications to combined OC use. One clinical case involves selection of OCs for a woman with a family history of breast cancer and the other requires development of a strategy for reducing high-risk pregnancies and risk of AIDS. PMID:12321847

  20. AIDS, conflict and the media in Africa: risks in reporting bad data badly

    PubMed Central

    Lowicki-Zucca, Massimo; Spiegel, Paul; Ciantia, Filippo

    2005-01-01

    Background Conflict, poverty and HIV disproportionately affect people in sub-Saharan Africa. The manner in which governments, national and international organisations and the media report on the HIV epidemic in situations of conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction can have unintended and negative consequences for those affected populations. The media in particular has a huge influence on how the world observes and reacts to the HIV epidemic among conflict-affected and displaced populations. Discussion Three case studies focused on Sudan, Uganda and Guinea describe what the media reported and why the reports were incomplete, misleading or incorrect. The exploration of possible ways to ensure that the media do not unwittingly inflame delicate and complicated situations of HIV among conflict-affected and displaced populations is then undertaken using epidemiological and journalistic principles. The discussion is divided into four sections: 1) Avoid stigmatising statements and ensure a balanced view; 2) Avoid accurate but misleading statements; 3) Avoid inaccurate statements by clearly stating sources and verifying their credibility; and 4) Do not repeat data and conclusions from other news sources without checking their accuracy. The aim of this manuscript is to stimulate awareness and debate among persons and organisations working on HIV/AIDS as well as the media in order to improve dialogue and ultimately to reduce stigma and discrimination amongst an already vulnerable group – conflict-affected and displaced persons. Summary The media and humanitarian organisations have published misleading and inaccurate HIV data and statements on conflict-affected and displaced populations in Sudan, Uganda and Guinea. Given the unique characteristics of the HIV epidemic and conflict-affected and displaced populations, the media have a special obligation to report in a balanced and non-discriminatory manner that may go beyond the accepted standards of journalism. The media