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Sample records for aids study group

  1. [AIDS Study Group/Spanish AIDS Consensus Plan Document on sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major public health problem. Considering their high morbidity and potential short and long term after effects, physicians must have enough knowledge on the management of these infections for a correct prevention, diagnosis and treatment. HIV infection is associated with STI, not only because they share route of transmission, but also because they lead to an increased risk of HIV transmission. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines, for the evaluation, management and prevention of STI in HIV-infected patients, from a panel of experts in HIV, dermatologists, proctologic surgeons, and microbiologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan (PNS).

  2. [Musculoskeletal disorders in HIV-infected patients.National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA)].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal disorders, their diagnosis and treatment to the scientific community and the professionals in charge of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These recommendations have been agreed by a panel of experts from the National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA). The group have reviewed the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort studies and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented at conferences. Three levels of evidence have been defined according to the sources of data: level A, randomized controlled trials; level B, cohort or case-control; and level C, descriptive studies and expert opinion. Based on this evidence, the authors have decided to recommend, consider or not recommend for each situation. The decrease in bone mineral density is common in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, especially during the first year (from 2 to 4%), with a subsequent partial recovery. A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is recommended in patients over 50 years old with HIV infection, history of bone fractures and/or risk factors. Treatment with bisphosphonates has been shown to be effective. Osteoarticular infections are more frequent than in the non-infected population. The level of immunosuppression, risk practice, and antiretroviral treatment should be considered for a proper diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Laboratory and imaging procedures recommended for the study of musculoskeletal processes in HIV infected subjects are the same as in the general population. Osteonecrosis and decreased bone mineral density are the most frequent alterations in children. An early diagnosis of bone disorders is needed. The influence of modifiable risk factors must be avoided and initiate treatment when necessary. Bisphosphonates have been effective in osteoporosis.

  3. [AIDS among the Japanese-Brazilian residents of the Sao Paulo municipality: size and profile of the studied group].

    PubMed

    Shima, H; Afuso, D S; Nichiata, L Y

    1998-12-01

    The study aimed to know the spread of AIDS epidemic among Japanese and their descendents, living on São Paulo Municipality. The authors dimension the total number of cases, since the beginning of the epidemic till july, 1994 and characterized the profile of the group in terms of sex, age, school degree, civil status, sexual option, occupation, exposed category and mean survival.

  4. PHENOME-WIDE INTERACTION STUDY (PheWIS) IN AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP DATA (ACTG)

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shefali S.; Frase, Alex T.; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Mahony, Shaun; Haas, David W.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Association studies have shown and continue to show a substantial amount of success in identifying links between multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes. These studies are also believed to provide insights toward identification of new drug targets and therapies. Albeit of all the success, challenges still remain for applying and prioritizing these associations based on available biological knowledge. Along with single variant association analysis, genetic interactions also play an important role in uncovering the etiology and progression of complex traits. For gene-gene interaction analysis, selection of the variants to test for associations still poses a challenge in identifying epistatic interactions among the large list of variants available in high-throughput, genome-wide datasets. Therefore in this study, we propose a pipeline to identify interactions among genetic variants that are associated with multiple phenotypes by prioritizing previously published results from main effect association analysis (genome-wide and phenome-wide association analysis) based on a-priori biological knowledge in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) data. We approached the prioritization and filtration of variants by using the results of a previously published single variant PheWAS and then utilizing biological information from the Roadmap Epigenome project. We removed variants in low functional activity regions based on chromatin states annotation and then conducted an exhaustive pairwise interaction search using linear regression analysis. We performed this analysis in two independent pre-treatment clinical trial datasets from ACTG to allow for both discovery and replication. Using a regression framework, we observed 50,798 associations that replicate at p-value 0.01 for 26 phenotypes, among which 2,176 associations for 212 unique SNPs for fasting blood glucose phenotype reach Bonferroni significance and an additional 9,970 interactions for high

  5. Efficacy and safety of Stealth liposomal doxorubicin in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The International SL-DOX Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, F. D.; Goldstein, D.; Goos, M.; Jablonowski, H.; Stewart, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The utility of current chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) is often compromised by both limited efficacy and substantial toxicity. Pegylated (Stealth) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (SL-DOX) has been demonstrated specifically to deliver high concentrations of doxorubicin to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions. This phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SL-DOX in the treatment of moderate to severe AIDS-KS. Patients were treated biweekly with 10, 20, or 40 mg m-2 SL-DOX. Tumour response was assessed according to AIDS Clinical Trials Groups (ACTG) criteria before each cycle. Best response was determined for 238 patients and was achieved after a mean of 2.3 cycles (range 1-20). Fifteen patients (6.3%) had a complete response to SL-DOX, 177 (74.4%) had a partial response, 44 (18.5%) had stable disease and two (0.8%) had disease progression. SL-DOX was well tolerated: ten patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events, in four cases because of neutropenia. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred after 281 of 2023 cycles (13.9%) but involved 137 of 240 patients (57.1%) for whom data were available. SL-DOX has substantial activity in AIDS-KS. Best response is typically seen after fewer than three cycles of chemotherapy and in some cases may be prolonged. The most important adverse event is neutropenia, which occurs after a minority of cycles but which may occur in over half of all patients. PMID:8611437

  6. [Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of renal diseases in HIV infected patients. Recommendations of the Spanish AIDS Study Group/National AIDS Plan].

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of opportunistic infections and tumours in HIV-infected patients has sharply declined in the HAART era. At the same time there has been a growing increase of other diseases not directly linked to immunodeficiency. Renal diseases are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. In the general population, chronic renal failure has considerable multiorgan repercussions that have particular implications in patients with HIV infection. The detection of occult or subclinical chronic kidney disease is crucial since effective measures for delaying progression exist. Furthermore, the deterioration in glomerular filtration should prompt clinicians to adjust doses of some antiretroviral agents and other drugs used for treating associated comorbidities. Suppression of viral replication, strict control of blood pressure, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs in certain patients are fundamental components of programs aimed to prevent renal damage and delaying progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with HIV. Renal transplantation and dialysis have also special implications in HIV-infected patients. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation, management and prevention of renal diseases in HIV-infected patients from a panel of experts in HIV and nephrologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan.

  7. Facebook Groups as an Academic Teaching Aid: Case Study and Recommendations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Eli; Ravid, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    The move from a walled garden type Learning Management Systems (LMS) to open environments (like Facebook) forces us to adapt new teaching ways. This article offers a brief review of the use of Facebook groups in learning, describes the experience of using Facebook groups in an academic institute, explains the considerations for choosing the type…

  8. An Interactive Computer Aiding System for Group Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    In addition, system evaluation studies will continue. The specific items of work for the next period include: (1) Operational testing of the color...Aid with other DDF decision aids; and (3) continuation of full scale experimental studies of the Group Decision Aid. The following specific tasks were...experimental studies are in progress at Perceptronics’ California office. The previously completed experimental hypotheses and the CACI-developed scenario

  9. Sex differences in atazanavir pharmacokinetics and associations with time to clinical events: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5202

    PubMed Central

    Venuto, Charles S.; Mollan, Katie; Ma, Qing; Daar, Eric S.; Sax, Paul E.; Fischl, Margaret; Collier, Ann C.; Smith, Kimberly Y.; Tierney, Camlin; Morse, Gene D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is uncertain whether HIV-1 antiretroviral exposure and clinical response varies between males and females or different race/ethnic groups. We describe ritonavir-enhanced atazanavir pharmacokinetics in relation to virological failure, safety and tolerability in treatment-naive individuals to investigate potential differences. Methods Plasma samples were collected from participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5202 for measurement of antiretroviral concentrations. Individual estimates of apparent oral clearance of atazanavir (L/h) were calculated from a one-compartment model and divided into tertiles as slow (<7), middle (7 to <9; reference group) and fast (≥9). Associations between atazanavir clearance and clinical outcomes were estimated with a hazard ratio (HR) from Cox proportional hazards models. Interactions between atazanavir clearance and sex, race/ethnicity and NRTIs were investigated for each of the outcomes. Results Among 786 participants, average atazanavir clearance was slower in females (n = 131) than males (n = 655). Atazanavir clearance was associated with time to virological failure (P = 0.053) and this relationship differed significantly by sex (P = 0.003). Females in the fast atazanavir clearance group had shorter time to virological failure (HR 3.49; 95% CI 1.24–9.84) compared with the middle (reference) atazanavir clearance group. Among males, the slow atazanavir clearance group had a higher risk of virological failure (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.16–3.77). Conclusions Atazanavir clearance differed by sex. Females with fast clearance and males with slow clearance had increased risk of virological failure. PMID:25159623

  10. [A work group reviews the AIDS testing of selected groups].

    PubMed

    Albinus, S

    1988-02-01

    A working group of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) advisory group to the health administration of Denmark has been studying the advantages and disadvantages of routine tests of certain groups. One advantage of offering routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests to all pregnant women is that it makes it possible to follow the course of the epidemic. Secondly, it makes it possible for an individual woman to get an abortion if she is HIV-positive. On the other hand, routine HIV tests may keep female drug addicts who do not wish to be tested out of the pregnancy health care system. A specific problem is the greater number of false positives among pregnant women that among other groups. Normally tests are repeated immediately and again several months later if a new test is ambiguous but this possibility does not apply to pregnant women since the time limit for having an abortion will be exceeded. Still another advantage of offering routine HIV tests to pregnant women is that it will contribute to making HIV tests more routine, which will generally be an advantage to the AIDS campaign. A tentative conclusion is that it will be more productive to have routine HIV tests in venereal disease clinics where there is a higher percentage of population at risk.

  11. Multiphenotype association study of patients randomized to initiate antiretroviral regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5202

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anurag; Bradford, Yuki; Verma, Shefali S.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Daar, Eric S.; Venuto, Charles; Morse, Gene D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Background High-throughput approaches are increasingly being used to identify genetic associations across multiple phenotypes simultaneously. Here, we describe a pilot analysis that considered multiple on-treatment laboratory phenotypes from antiretroviral therapy-naive patients who were randomized to initiate antiretroviral regimens in a prospective clinical trial, AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5202. Participants and methods From among 5 9545 294 polymorphisms imputed genome-wide, we analyzed 2544, including 2124 annotated in the PharmGKB, and 420 previously associated with traits in the GWAS Catalog. We derived 774 phenotypes on the basis of context from six variables: plasma atazanavir (ATV) pharmacokinetics, plasma efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics, change in the CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA suppression, fasting low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides. Permutation testing assessed the likelihood of associations being by chance alone. Pleiotropy was assessed for polymorphisms with the lowest P-values. Results This analysis included 1181 patients. At P less than 1.5×10−4, most associations were not by chance alone. Polymorphisms with the lowest P-values for EFV pharmacokinetics (CYPB26 rs3745274), low-density lipoprotein -cholesterol (APOE rs7412), and triglyceride (APOA5 rs651821) phenotypes had been associated previously with those traits in previous studies. The association between triglycerides and rs651821 was present with ATV-containing regimens, but not with EFV-containing regimens. Polymorphisms with the lowest P-values for ATV pharmacokinetics, CD4 T-cell count, and HIV-1 RNA phenotypes had not been reported previously to be associated with that trait. Conclusion Using data from a prospective HIV clinical trial, we identified expected genetic associations, potentially novel associations, and at least one context-dependent association. This study supports high-throughput strategies that simultaneously explore multiple

  12. Determining Survey Satisficing of Online Longitudinal Survey Data in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di, Junrui; Li, Ying; Friedman, M Reuel; Reddy, Susheel; Surkan, Pamela J; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Background Survey satisficing occurs when participants respond to survey questions rapidly without carefully reading or comprehending them. Studies have demonstrated the occurrence of survey satisficing, which can degrade survey quality, particularly in longitudinal studies. Objective The aim of this study is to use a group-based trajectory analysis method to identify satisficers when similar survey questions were asked periodically in a long-standing cohort, and to examine factors associated with satisficing in the surveys having sensitive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related behavioral questions. Methods Behavioral data were collected semiannually online at all four sites of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) from October 2008 through March 2013. Based on the start and end times, and the word counts per variable, response speed (word counts per second) for each participant visit was calculated. Two-step group-based trajectory analyses of the response speed across 9 study visits were performed to identify potential survey satisficing. Generalized linear models with repeated measures were used to investigate the factors associated with satisficing on HIV-related behavioral surveys. Results Among the total 2138 male participants, the median baseline age was 51 years (interquartile range, 45-58); most of the participants were non-Hispanic white (62.72%, 1341/2138) and college graduates (46.59%, 996/2138), and half were HIV seropositive (50.00%, 1069/2138). A total of 543 men (25.40%, 543/2138) were considered potential satisficers with respect to their increased trajectory tendency of response speed. In the multivariate analysis, being 10 years older at the baseline visit increased the odds of satisficing by 44% (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.27-1.62, P<.001). Compared with the non-Hispanic white participants, non-Hispanic black participants were 122% more likely to satisfice the HIV-related behavioral survey (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.69-2.91, P<.001), and 99% more likely

  13. Federal Student Aid: Highlights of a Study Group on Simplifying the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Federal student aid is intended to play an integral part in fulfilling the promise of greater academic access and success for less affluent students. However, many experts have expressed concern about the length and complexity of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and the statutory need analysis formula used to determine aid…

  14. Genome-wide Association Study of Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics and Creatinine Clearance in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5202

    PubMed Central

    Wanga, Valentine; Venuto, Charles; Morse, Gene D.; Acosta, Edward P.; Daar, Eric S.; Haas, David W.; Li, Chun; Shepherd, Bryan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) causes kidney toxicity in some patients. We performed genome-wide analyses to identify associations with plasma tenofovir clearance and change in creatinine clearance (CrCl) during the first 6 months after initiating therapy among subjects randomized to TDF/emtricitabine-containing regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5202. Methods Pharmacokinetic analyses involved 501 subjects randomized to the tenofovir arm. The CrCl analyses involved 1096 subjects, including 548 control subjects randomized to abacavir-containing regimens. All had been randomized to also receive atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz. Multivariable linear regression and generalized least squares models tested for associations between polymorphisms and tenofovir clearance and CrCl change, with Bonferroni correction. Planned sub-analyses considered candidate genes and polymorphisms. Results Median CrCl at baseline was 116 ml/min (interquartile range [IQR] 99.8 to 135.5). Median change in CrCl after 6 months was −0.5 ml/min (−10.7 to +10.8) and 2.2 (IQR −9.9 to +13.2) in tenofovir and abacavir arms, respectively. In genome-wide analyses SLC17A1 rs12662869 was associated with an increase in tenofovir clearance (P = 7.1x10−9). In candidate gene analysis for tenofovir clearance, most polymorphisms evaluated were in ABCC4. In the ABCC4 region, the lowest p-value was for CLDN10 rs12866697 (P=1.4x10−3). Among African Americans, SLC22A2 rs3127573 was associated with a greater 6-month CrCl increase in the tenofovir arm after correcting for multiple comparisons (P = 3.3x10−5). Conclusions Among subjects randomized to receive TDF/emtricitabine in A5202, there were no genome-wide significant associations with change in CrCl. This study did not replicate polymorphisms previously implicated in tenofovir-associated renal injury. PMID:26148204

  15. Genome-wide Association Study of Atazanavir Pharmacokinetics and Hyperbilirubinemia in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5202

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel H.; Venuto, Charles; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Morse, Gene D.; Daar, Eric S.; McLaren, Paul J.; Haas, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia can cause premature discontinuation of atazanavir and avoidance of its initial prescribing. We used genome-wide genotyping and clinical data to characterize determinants of atazanavir pharmacokinetics and hyperbilirubinemia in AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5202. Methods Plasma atazanavir pharmacokinetics and indirect bilirubin concentrations were characterized in HIV-1-infected subjects randomized to atazanavir/ritonavir-containing regimens. A subset had genome-wide genotype data available. Results Genome-wide assay data were available from 542 subjects, of who 475 also had estimated atazanavir clearance and relevant covariate data available. Peak bilirubin concentration and relevant covariates were available for 443 participants. By multivariate analysis, higher peak on-treatment bilirubin was associated with UGT1A1 rs887829 T allele (P=6.4×10−12), higher baseline hemoglobin (P=4.9×10−13), higher baseline bilirubin (P=6.7×10−12), and slower plasma atazanavir clearance (P=8.6×10−11). For peak bilirubin >3.0 mg/dL, the positive predictive value of baseline bilirubin ≥0.5 mg/dL with hemoglobin ≥14g/dL was 0.51, which increased to 0.85 with rs887829 TT homozygosity. For peak bilirubin ≤3.0 mg/dL, the positive predictive value of baseline bilirubin <0.5 mg/dL with hemoglobin <14 g/dL was 0.91, which increased to 0.96 with rs887829 CC homozygosity. No polymorphism predicted atazanavir pharmacokinetics at genome-wide significance. Conclusions Atazanavir-associated hyperbilirubinemia is best predicted by considering UGT1A1 genotype, baseline bilirubin, and baseline hemoglobin values in combination. Use of ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic enhancer may have abrogated genetic associations with atazanavir pharmacokinetics. PMID:24557078

  16. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874.3320 Section 874.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874.3320 Section 874.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874.3320 Section 874.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory...

  19. Undergraduates with Employer-Sponsored Aid: Comparing Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Dagney G.; Wang, Zhenlei

    2014-01-01

    Tuition assistance offered by employers is an understudied area of financial aid research. The purpose of this study is to compare the demographic, socioeconomic, academic and financial aid characteristics of college students who receive employer-sponsored financial aid with students who receive traditional financial aid (institutional, state, or…

  20. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  1. Development of Computer-Aided Cognitive Training Program for Elderly and Its Effectiveness through a 6 Months Group Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tsunehiro; Tanemura, Rumi; Noda, Kazue; Nagao, Toru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Luo, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Since the increasing population of aging, cognitive training is focused as one of the non-pharmacological preventive approach of cognitive decline. Although the accumulation of the knowledge, they hardly reflect to the programs for clinical use. We developed a task set named "Atama-no-dojo," designed to activate multiple cognitive functions and enhance motivational incentives. The objective of our study is to confirm the effect of our program through a 6 months group intervention program. The intervention program conducted in a day service center for 6 months in the duration of 45 minutes per day, 4 days per month for a total of 25 sessions. Participants worked to the tasks on the screen all together with filling in the answering sheet. Neuropsychological tests, SF36 and GDS were assessed at pre-/post-intervention periods. Participants filled in a questionnaire about impression to the program at the last training session. Fourteen women (82.2 ± 2.9 years old) were analyzed and significant changes were found in the improvement of memory, attention, inhibition, GDS and some items of SF36. All participants recognized the program as fun and wanted to continue. Some of the participants' positive impressions to the program correlated to cognitive improvement. The improved cognitive functions by 6 months intervention of "Atama-no-dojo" were mainly related to prefrontal cortex and the motivational incentives seemed supported the effect of task contents. We recognized the importance of task difficulty setting and motivational incentives to reduce frustration from working on difficult tasks and enhance the effects of improvement from activating brain function.

  2. Meaningful involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda through linkages between network groups and health facilities: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mi; Kalibala, Samuel; Neema, Stella; Lukwago, John; Weiss, Deborah C

    2012-01-01

    While community-based groups are able to provide vital support to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), their organizational and technical capacities are limited, and they frequently operate in isolation from PLHIV groups. We evaluated a three-year project implemented by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Uganda to increase the involvement of PLHIV in the HIV/AIDS response and to improve access to and utilization of prevention, treatment, care, and support services for households affected by HIV/AIDS. Information sources included project monitoring data, interviews with 113 key informants, and 17 focus group discussions in 11 districts. The evaluation found that PLHIV groups reached large numbers of people with education and awareness activities and made a growing number of referrals to health facilities and community-based services. The project trained individuals living openly with HIV as service providers in the community and at designated health facilities. Their presence helped to reduce the stigma that previously deterred PLHIV from seeking care and encouraged individuals to disclose their HIV status to spouses and family members. The project has put into practice the widely endorsed principles of greater and meaningful involvement of PLHIV in a systematic manner and on a large scale. A wide audience--ranging from grassroots PLHIV networks and AIDS service organizations to national-level non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and international organizations--can benefit from the lessons learned.

  3. Physicians Mutual Aid Group: A Response to AIDS-Related Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Describes origins and functioning of physician's mutual aid group for physicians providing primary care to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were helpful in facilitating participants' ability…

  4. AIDS groups challenge Federal Internet censorship law.

    PubMed

    1996-05-03

    The Communications Decency Act (CDA), a section of the 1996 telecommunications reform law, bans indecent and patently offensive expression from all online systems available to those under the age of 18. AIDS organizations and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed suit in U.S. District Court in Philadelphia, PA,to challenge the law. The ACLU contends that the CDA law is unconstitutional because it criminalizes expression that is protected by the First Amendment, and violates constitutional rights to privacy. The CDA also would impede dissemination of HIV prevention information, according to AIDS online services. Operators of these electronic information systems state that providing explicit language about safe sexual practices is essential if teenagers are to understand how to prevent HIV infection. Additionally, content providers argue that it is almost impossible to know what text or images must be censored in order to avoid government prosecution. Expert witnesses testifying for the U.S. Government stated that there are means available to purge Internet sites of materials that might be regarded as indecent. The ACLU recommends utilizing a software package that would enable parents to control their children's Internet access without requiring broad censorship.

  5. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 and ≥10 years), and age (<35 and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the 6-month follow-up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p < 0.0001). There was variation between the age, gender, and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance, and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the necessary neurocognitive normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers.

  6. Impact of Randomized Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Glucose Metabolism: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    ERLANDSON, Kristine Mace; KITCH, Douglas; TIERNEY, Camlin; SAX, Paul E.; DAAR, Eric S.; MELBOURNE, Kathleen M.; HA, Belinda; MCCOMSEY, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have found that early HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) contribute to glucose dysregulation. Few randomized trials have evaluated glucose indices in antiretroviral-naïve subjects on newer antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). Analyses used 2-sample t-tests, Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 non-diabetic subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, baseline median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL and CD4 233 cells/μL. Overall, significant 96-week increases occurred in fasting glucose, insulin, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), p≤0.004. Assignment to EFV (vs ATV/r) resulted in significantly greater glucose increase (mean difference 4.4; 95% CI 1.3, 7.5 mg/dL; p=0.006) but not insulin or HOMA-IR (p≥0.72). Glucose indices were not significantly different between ABC/3TC or TDF/FTC arms, p≥0.18. Significant correlations were detected between changes in glucose indices and changes in body mass index; all r≥0.23, p≤0.001. In multivariable analyses, in addition to the EFV effect, higher baseline HIV-1 RNA, and greater BMI change were significant independent factors associated with greater glucose increase. Conclusions Changes in glucose metabolism were not significantly different between TDF/FTC- and ABC/3TC-based regimens. A small but significantly greater increase in glucose was observed in those assigned to EFV. As glucose dysregulation may increase with time on ART, longer term studies will be needed to further clarify the clinical significance of these findings. PMID:24637543

  7. Utilizing Mutual Aid in Reducing Adolescent Substance Use and Developing Group Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Letendre, Joan; Toi, Hiroki; Bryan, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of mutual aid groups for high school students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was applied to 242 adolescents, where every other adolescent was assigned to the intervention or the control condition. The study evaluated the influence of implementing mutual aid groups in decreasing perceived risk…

  8. Survival after diagnosis of AIDS: a prospective observational study of 2625 patients. Royal Free/Chelsea and Westminster Hospitals Collaborative Group.

    PubMed Central

    Mocroft, A.; Youle, M.; Morcinek, J.; Sabin, C. A.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, M. A.; Phillips, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate median survival and changes in survival in patients diagnosed as having AIDS. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Clinics in two large London hospitals. SUBJECTS: 2625 patients with AIDS seen between 1982 and July 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival, estimated using lifetable analyses, and factors associated with survival, identified from Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Median survival (20 months) was longer than previous estimates. The CD4 lymphocyte count at or before initial AIDS defining illness decreased significantly over time from 90 x 10(6)/1 during 1987 or earlier to 40 x 10(6)/1 during 1994 and 1995 (P < 0.0001). In the first three months after diagnosis, patients in whom AIDS was diagnosed after 1987 had a much lower risk of death (relative risk 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.86; P = 0.017) than patients diagnosed before 1987. When the diagnosis was based on oesophageal candidiasis or Kaposi's sarcoma, patients had a lower risk of death than when the diagnosis was based on Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (0.21 (0.07 to 0.59). P = 0.0030 and 0.37 (0.16 to 0.83), P = 0.016). Three months after AIDS diagnosis, the risk of death was similar in patients whose diagnosis was made after and before 1987 (1.02 (0.79 to 1.31), P = 0.91). There were no differences in survival between patients diagnosed during 1988-90, 1991-3, or 1994-5. CONCLUSIONS: In later years, patients were much more likely to survive their initial illness, but long term survival has remained poor. The decrease in CD4 lymphocyte count at AIDS diagnosis indicates that patients are being diagnosed as having AIDS at ever more advanced stages of immunodeficiency. PMID:9040386

  9. Facilitating Support Groups for Professionals Working with People with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Silverstein, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Describes support groups for health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and who are experiencing burnout from excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Discusses group administration, effective intervention techniques, and issues of health…

  10. Response by High Risk Groups to HIV/AIDS Educational Outreach: A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Nina Feldman

    Twelve focus groups were conducted to determine how various at-risk groups would respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) educational outreach approaches presented via print (posters and comic book), television, and radio media. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV and AIDS were also…

  11. Modesto Junior College, A Study of the Financial Aid Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angove, Gerald; And Others

    A study was conducted to learn more about the operation of the financial aid program and the students who participate in it at Modesto Junior College. Three sample groups were used: (1) all students who received financial aid in fall 1971; (2) all first-semester freshmen who received direct aid in fall 1971; and (3) third semester continuing…

  12. Anti-class II antibodies in AIDS patients and AIDS-risk groups.

    PubMed Central

    de la Barrera, S; Fainboim, L; Lugo, S; Picchio, G R; Muchinik, G R; de Bracco, M M

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was evaluated in AIDS patients and in individuals at risk of AIDS [R-AIDS: male homosexuals (Ho) and haemophiliacs (He)]. Antibodies capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against non-T cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (P3HR-1K and Raji) were detected in AIDS patients and in R-AIDS with positive or negative human immune deficiency virus (HIV) serology. Anti-class II antigen specificity was revealed by experiments in which class II antigens on target cells were blocked with monoclonal anti-class II antibody (DA6,231) and the cytotoxic reaction induced by patient's sera was abolished. In contrast, ADCC was not impaired by preincubating the target cells with anti-class I monoclonal antibody (W6/32). Prevalence of antibodies to non-T cells was confirmed by standard C-mediated microlymphocytotoxicity. However, with this technique anti-T lymphocyte cytotoxicity was also observed in three AIDS patients with haemophilia. R-AIDS peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also cytotoxic against autologous non-T cells, and lysis was slightly increased by sensitization of the target cells with autologous serum. In addition to ADCC and C-mediated cytotoxicity, the specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies was assayed by their ability to interfere the binding of fluorescein-labelled anti-class II (HLA-DR) and anti-class I (W6/32) monoclonal antibodies to PBMC, non-T cells, P3HR-1K and Raji. Anti-class II specificity was confirmed, and antibody titres tended to be higher in Ho than in He R-AIDS, using non-T cells and Raji as targets. Higher titres of anti-class II antibodies in the Ho group could play a role in the different susceptibility of HIV-infected Ho when compared to HIV (+) He to develop AIDS. PMID:3501399

  13. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Study sample: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. Design: LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. Results: The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R2 = 0.40). Conclusions: All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment. PMID:27589015

  14. Decision aids for familial breast cancer: exploring women's views using focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Rapport, Frances; Iredale, Rachel; Jones, Wendy; Sivell, Stephanie; Edwards, Adrian; Gray, Jonathon; Elwyn, Glyn

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background  There is increasing need for accessible information about familial breast cancer for those facing complex decisions around genetic testing, screening and treatment. Information currently includes leaflets and computerized decision aids, offering interactive interfaces to clarify complex choices. Objective  Exploration of users’ views and reactions to three decision aids for genetic testing for breast cancer using focus groups. Setting  A regional cancer genetics service in the UK. Participants  Women over 18 years of age who had been referred to Cancer Genetics Service for Wales (CGSW) and had received a risk assessment for familial breast cancer. Methods  Qualitative study involving one pilot and six extended focus groups with 39 women at high, moderate and population risk. Two CD‐ROMs and one paper‐based aid evaluated for: clarity of presentation, ease of handling, emotive response, increased knowledge and greater informed choice. Results  Women reported variable preferences for different types of decision aids and mixed emotions, indicating the sensitivity of raising issues in decision support tools, lack of consensus over the most appropriate aid and no systematic differences between risk groups. Women remarked that aids increased their knowledge, particularly about breast cancer genes and risk and wanted a decision aid designed within the context of the NHS, in both paper‐based and CD‐ROM formats from an authoritative source. Mixed views about presentation styles suggest decision aids would be most effective with a user‐selected range of formats. Conclusions  Decision aid development should be informed by users and should meet the needs of those concerned about their risk of breast cancer in the UK. Without such aids, patients will continue to search for information from a variety of sources of varying quality. PMID:16911137

  15. AIDS deaths shift from hospital to home. AIDS Mortality Project Group.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J J; Chu, S Y; Buehler, J W

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study monitors trends in place of death among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as a measure of health care usage patterns and terminal health care among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS. Sixteen health departments collected death certificates for 55,186 persons with AIDS whose deaths occurred through 1991. Place of death was categorized as hospital, residence, hospice or nursing home, and other. RESULTS. The percentage of AIDS deaths at hospital facilities decreased from 92% in 1983 to 57% in 1991. In 1988, 23% of deaths occurred at home or in hospices and nursing homes. This trend was more evident among men, Whites, and men who had sex with men; less so among persons with other modes of exposure; and not at all among injecting drug users and children with perinatally acquired AIDS. Place of death varied by geographic location, with the greatest percentage of hospital deaths in the Northeast (91%) and the greatest percentage of at-home deaths in the West (27%). CONCLUSIONS. The percentage of AIDS deaths at home or in hospices and nursing homes has increased since 1983. These trends may reflect changes in hospital use for end-stage HIV infection. Decreasing hospitalization and increasing outpatient services and home care will decrease costs and may allow HIV-infected persons improved social support. PMID:8214234

  16. The effects of HIV/AIDS intervention groups for high-risk women in urban clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Washington, C D; Wilson, T S; Koob, J J; Davis, D R; Ledezma, G; Davantes, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study reports the results of a behavior change intervention offered to women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection seen in an urban primary health care clinic. METHODS. Participants were 197 women randomly assigned to either an HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction group or a comparison group. Women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group attended five group sessions focusing on risk education; skills training in condom use, sexual assertiveness, problem solving, and risk trigger self-management; and peer support for change efforts. Women in the comparison group attended sessions on health topics unrelated to AIDS. RESULTS. At the 3-month follow-up, women in the HIV/AIDS intervention group had increased in sexual communication and negotiation skills. Unprotected sexual intercourse had declined significantly and condom use had increased from 26% to 56% of all intercourse occasions. Women in the comparison group showed no change. CONCLUSIONS. Socially disadvantaged women can be assisted in reducing their risk of contracting HIV infection. Risk reduction behavior change interventions should be offered routinely in primary health care clinics serving low-income and high-risk patients. PMID:7998630

  17. Identifying Strategies to Cope with HIV-Related Stigma in a Group of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Norton, Rachel; Thorley, Eryka; Giguere, Rebecca; Sheinfil, Alan; Rios, Javier López

    2016-12-20

    Internalized HIV-related stigma negatively impacts the mental and physical health of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA). Yet, some women can successfully confront stigma. The present work uses qualitative methods to investigate the successful stigma coping strategies displayed by 19 WLWHA who reported the least internalized stigma possible on the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale out of a larger pool of 233 WLWHA in San Felipe de Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. Such strategies included, HIV disclosure control; preemptive disclosure of HIV-status; educating oneself/others about HIV; viewing HIV as a manageable condition; and looking to family, friends and partners for support. Our findings add to current knowledge about how WLWHA successfully manage internalized stigma, particularly in the context of the Dominican Republic. Clinicians should work closely with WLWHA to counsel them about the stigma coping strategies that best fit their life context.

  18. Over-the-counter hearing aids: electroacoustic characteristics and possible target client groups.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C M; McPherson, B

    2000-01-01

    Over-the-counter hearing aids (OTCs) are those directly purchased from retail outlets, without the benefit of prior professional hearing health care. They are particularly common in developing countries. This study examined the amplification characteristics of a selected sample of OTCs to determine if any target client group or groups were suitable for the OTCs. The electroacoustical performance of 10 OTCs was measured. The measurements included saturated sound pressure level curve, high-frequency average full-on gain, frequency response, total harmonic distortion, equivalent input noise level, and input-output curve. The full-on gain curve of each hearing aid was used to estimate the hypothetical hearing loss of target clients for each aid as it would be calculated by four hearing aid prescription formulae. Real-ear probe tube measurements were also performed on 10 adult subjects to determine the amplification that could be achieved by the OTCs before audible feedback occurred. The OTC hearing aids were not able to meet the prescription gain requirements of the majority of elderly clients who usually purchased them.

  19. Executive summary of the consensus statement on assistance to women with HIV infection in the health care sector. National AIDS Plan (PNS) and AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA).

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a consensus on clinical recommendations for health care assistance for women with HIV infection. To this end, a panel of experts, appointed by the Secretariat of the National AIDS Plan and GeSIDA was assembled, that included internal medicine physicians with expertise in the field of HIV infection, gynecologists, pediatricians and psychologists, with two members of the panel acting as coordinators. Scientific information was reviewed in publications and conference reports up to October 2012. In keeping with the criteria of the Infectious Disease Society of America, two levels of evidence were applied to support the proposed recommendations: the strength of the recommendation according to expert opinion (A, B, C) and the level of empirical evidence (I, II, III), already used in previous documents from SPNS/GESIDA. Multiple recommendations are provided for the clinical management of women with HIV infection, considering both the diagnostic and possible therapeutic strategies. This document presents recommendations for the treatment of women with HIV infection. This must be multidisciplinary, taking into account the differences that can be found in the diagnosis, development of disease and treatment between men and women.

  20. A Structured Group for Gay Men Newly Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Kristin A.

    2004-01-01

    The author presents a structured group model designed to help gay men newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. A facilitator's manual is included to outline the group's progression through eight sessions and to address the psychosocial concerns often ignited by an HIV or AIDS diagnosis. Suggestions for future group work are also provided.

  1. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  2. Communicating Social Support: Identifying Supportive Episodes in an HIV/AIDS Support Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawyer, Carol Stringer; Smith-Dupre, Athena

    1995-01-01

    Describes supportive episodes in an HIV/AIDS support group and the role of social support for group members. Finds that members used communication as a healing agent, as a preparatory mechanism for living with AIDS, as an outlet for expressing emotions, and as a means for changing society. Identifies feedback and self-disclosure as essential…

  3. Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p≥0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

  4. Iowa College Student Aid Commission Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…

  5. Adaptive Computer Aiding in Dynamic Decision Processes: An Experimental Study of Aiding Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    and a larger subject group. 1-2 Adaptive Decision Aiding 1-2 The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior...maximum expected utility (OEVMAXEU) during the course of the test session was the primary measure of decision performance. As a group, the aided...in Chapter 3. The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior but to provide a basis for decision aiding. Once

  6. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  7. Social support and support groups among people with HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Wu, Liyun; Lewis, Marilyn W

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS, a chronic burden in Ghana, poses social and health outcome concerns to those infected. Examining the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) instrument among 300 Ghanaians from a cross-sectional design, Principal Component Analysis yielded four factors (positive interaction, trust building, information giving, and essential support), which accounted for 85.73% of the total variance in the MOS-SSS. A logistic regression analysis showed that essential support was the strongest predictor of the length of time an individual stayed in the support group, whereas positive interaction indicated negative association. The study's implications for policy, research, and practice were discussed.

  8. Lazarus and Group Psychotherapy: AIDS in the Era of Protease Inhibitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Brazaitis, Sarah J.

    2003-01-01

    A new class of medications, protease inhibitors, has dramatically improved the health of many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This development has had a major impact on the lives of those affected by HIV/AIDS. This article considers how a group is affected by the larger systems of…

  9. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  10. Has Group Work Education Lost Its Social Group Work Essence? A Content Analysis of MSW Course Syllabi in Search of Mutual Aid and Group Conflict Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweifach, Jay Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of MSW group work course syllabi in an effort to better understand the extent to which mutual aid and group conflict, two important dimensions of social group work, are included and featured as prominent elements in MSW-level group work instruction.

  11. Computer-Guided-Teaching: An Effective Aid for Group Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1984-01-01

    Describes a special application of the microcomputer for small and large group instruction called Computer-Guided-Teaching (CGT). Effective teaching strategies incorporated in CGT lessons are discussed, and a description of a formal geometry course illustrates their use in CGT lessons. (MBR)

  12. Mini-marathon groups: psychological "first aid" following disasters.

    PubMed

    Terr, L C

    1992-01-01

    Large group counseling sessions for soldiers following battle have been commonly used since World War II. The author conceptualizes and demonstrates how these mini-marathon sessions can be adapted to support all ages and types of civilians involved in disasters. Mini-marathons take about 3 hours and are divided into three sections: story sharing, symptom sharing, and suggestions for self-help, including sharing tales of heroism and survival. After an initial mini-marathon session, a second session may be held emphasizing creativity. The author also describes how mini-marathons can be adapted for therapists who will lead their own sessions.

  13. The social sharing of emotions in HIV/AIDS: a comparative study of HIV/AIDS, diabetic and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cantisano, Nicole; Rimé, Bernard; Muñoz-Sastre, María T

    2013-10-01

    Studies have shown that chronic illness patients encounter difficulties in the social sharing of emotions. Do HIV/AIDS patients present distinguishing traits in the inhibition of illness and non-illness-related emotions? The differences in the social sharing of emotion between 35 HIV/AIDS, 35 diabetic and 34 cancer outpatients were studied. A questionnaire assessed illness-related emotions, social sharing of emotion and emotional inhibition. The HIV/AIDS group significantly presented superior scoring in shame, guilt and non-sharing of illness-related emotions, lower frequencies of social sharing of emotion and less sharing partners. These findings could lead to future research examining the emotional expression of guilt and shame in HIV/AIDS.

  14. Themes of a Long-Term AIDS Support Group for Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Greig M.; Gregory, Barry C.

    1996-01-01

    Support groups are established psychosocial treatment modalities where clients address particular problems or diagnoses. Discusses a long-term (five year) AIDS support group and examines the following issues: (1) marginality; (2) making choices; (3) coping with emotions; (4) premature confrontation of life issues; (5) chronic illness versus…

  15. Social capital and HIV Competent Communities: The role of community groups in managing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement is increasingly identified as a “critical enabler” of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of “strengthening local responses” as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit

  16. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  17. Burnout in the Helping Professions: Mutual Aid Groups as Self-Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicuzza, Frank J.; De Voe, Marianne W.

    1982-01-01

    Offers some insight and understanding of the stress-producing components of counseling practice. Discusses some of the physical symptoms of burnout and examines why the syndrome is prevalent in the human services. Proposes the development of mutual aid groups as one solution to prevent or minimize burnout. (Author/RC)

  18. 77 FR 20277 - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of March 30, 2012 Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS... Executive Departments and Agencies Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS has had a devastating... HIV/AIDS, including more than 290,000 women. Women and girls now account for 24 percent of...

  19. Community-based family-style group homes for children orphaned by AIDS in rural China: an ethnographic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    As the number of children orphaned by AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) has reached 17.3 million, most living in resource-poor settings, interest has grown in identifying and evaluating appropriate care arrangements for them. In this study, we describe the community-based family-style group homes (‘group homes’) in rural China. Guided by an ecological framework of children’s wellbeing, we conducted a series of ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions in the rural areas of Henan Province, which has been severely impacted by the AIDS endemic through commercial blood collection. Based on our observations and discussions, group homes appear to provide stable and safe living environments for children orphaned by AIDS. Adequate financial support from non-government organizations (NGOs) as well as the central and provincial governments has ensured a low child–caregiver ratio and attention to the basic needs of the children at group homes. The foster parents were selected from the local community and appear to have adequate qualifications and dedication. They receive a monthly stipend, periodical evaluation and parenting consultation from supporting NGOs. The foster parents and children in the group homes have formed strong bonds. Both children and foster parents reported positively on health and education. Characteristics of community-based group homes can be replicated in other care arrangements for AIDS orphans in resource-poor settings for the optimal health outcomes of those vulnerable children. We also call for capacity building for caregivers and communities to provide sustainable and supportive living environment for these children. PMID:25124083

  20. When a Group Presentation Isn't Enough: Financial Aid Advising for Low-Income Urban College-Bound Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venegas, Kristan M.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Group presentations are an easy way to reach large groups of students and parents at one time. When group presentations are well done, they increase students' and families' knowledge of the financial aid process by providing information and building students' and their families' confidence as they navigate the financial aid process. Unfortunately,…

  1. Rural Indian tribal communities: an emerging high-risk group for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Naik, Eknath; Karpur, Arun; Taylor, Richard; Ramaswami, Balasubramaniam; Ramachandra, Seetharam; Balasubramaniam, Bindu; Galwankar, Sagar; Sinnott, John; Nabukera, Sarah; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2005-02-21

    BACKGROUND: Rural Indian tribes are anthropologically distinct with unique cultures, traditions and practices. Over the years, displacement and rapid acculturation of this population has led to dramatic changes in their socio-cultural and value systems. Due to a poor health infrastructure, high levels of poverty and ignorance, these communities are highly vulnerable to various health problems, especially, communicable diseases including HIV/AIDS. Our study sought to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality, and the risk factors associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS and STDs among these communities. METHODS: A nested cross sectional study was undertaken as part of the on going Reproductive and Child Health Survey. A total of 5,690 participants age 18-44 were recruited for this study. Data were obtained through home interviews, and focused on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality, HIV/AIDS and other STDs. RESULTS: The study revealed that only 22% of adults had even heard of AIDS, and 18 % knew how it is transmitted. In addition, only 5% knew that STDs and AIDS were related to each other. AIDS awareness among women was lower compared to men (14% vs.30 %). Regarding sexual practices, 35% of the respondents reported having had extramarital sexual encounters, with more males than females reporting extramarital affairs. CONCLUSION: Lack of awareness, permissiveness of tribal societies for premarital or extra-marital sexual relationships, and sexual mixing patterns predispose these communities to HIV/AIDS and STD infections. There is a dire need for targeted interventions in order to curtail the increasing threat of HIV and other STDs among these vulnerable populations.

  2. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3320 Group... having hearing impairment. The device is used with an associated transmitter microphone. It may be either... type of device includes three types of applications: hardwire systems, inductance loop systems,...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3320 Group... having hearing impairment. The device is used with an associated transmitter microphone. It may be either... type of device includes three types of applications: hardwire systems, inductance loop systems,...

  4. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  5. The Energy Crisis -- Aids to Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Margaret, Comp.

    Over one-hundred citations, the majority of which are current works dating from the seventies, are provided in this annotated bibliography focusing on energy. Entries include books, pamphlets, reports, magazine articles, bibliographies, newsletters, and curriculum materials, such as audiovisual aids, guides and units, and simulations which will be…

  6. Research Findings from the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelavin Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report consists of a series of papers analyzing survey data from the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) concerning the characteristics of both aided and nonaided students, as well as the manner in which students financed their postsecondary education. The following papers are presented: (1) "Paying for College: The…

  7. Candidacy for Bilateral Hearing Aids: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boymans, Monique; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to find factors for refining candidacy criteria for bilateral hearing aid fittings. Clinical files of 1,000 consecutive hearing aid fittings were analyzed. Method: Case history, audiometric, and rehabilitation data were collected from clinical files, and an extensive questionnaire on long-term outcome measures…

  8. The Effect of Financial Aid on Students' College Choice: Differences by Racial Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbin

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of specific types of financial aid on students' college choice, with particular focus on racial differences. For overall student populations, the receipt of grants or a combination of grants with loans had a positive impact on attending first choice institutions. In contrast, having loans only had no significant…

  9. Foreign Aid Reform: Studies and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-28

    coherence to U.S. foreign assistance policy, provide budget transparency, and allow for monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of foreign... monitoring and evaluation , human resources, procurement, and emergency response. Improve Policy and Agency Coordination A majority of the...the U.S. government evaluation of the effectiveness of foreign aid programs to be inadequate. Eight of the reports call for better monitoring and evaluation of

  10. Suicide prevention by online support groups: an action theory-based model of emotional first aid.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Itzhak; Shahar, Golan

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, online support groups have become a valuable source of help for individuals in suicidal crisis. Their attractiveness is attributed to features that enhance help-seeking and self-disclosure such as availability, anonymity, and use of written communication. However, online support groups also suffer from limitations and potential risks as agents of suicide prevention. The Israeli Association for Emotional First Aid (ERAN) has developed a practical model that seeks to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of online suicide prevention. The model applies the Action Theory concepts whereby individuals shape their own environment. The present paper presents the model, which is based on an online support group combined with personal chat and a telephonic help line. The online support group is moderated by paraprofessionals who function as both process regulators and support providers. The principles and practice of the model are described, the theoretical rationale is presented, and directions for future research are suggested.

  11. Factors Associated with Lack of Viral Suppression at Delivery among HAART-Naïve HIV-Positive Women in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IMPAACT) P1025 Study

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ingrid T.; Leister, Erin; Kacanek, Deborah; Hughes, Michael D.; Bardeguez, Arlene; Livingston, Elizabeth; Stek, Alice; Shapiro, David E.; Tuomala, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background High delivery maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA level (viral load, VL) is a risk factor for mother to child transmission and poor maternal health. Objective To identify factors associated with detectable VL at delivery despite initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. Design Multicenter observational study. Setting 67 US AIDS clinical research sites. Patients HIV-1-positive pregnant women who initiated HAART during pregnancy. Measurements Descriptive summaries and associations between socio-demographic, HIV disease, treatment and pregnancy-related risk factors and detectable VL (>400copies/mL) at delivery. Results Between October 2002 and December 2011, 671 women met inclusion criteria and 13% had detectable VL at delivery. Factors associated with detectable VL included multiparity (16.4% vs 8% nulliparous, p=0.002), black non-Hispanic ethnicity (17.6% vs 6.6% Hispanic and 6.6% white/non-Hispanic, p<0.001), 11th grade or less education (17.6% vs.12.1% high school graduate and 6.7% some college or higher, p=0.013), and initiation of HAART in third trimester (23.9% vs 12.3% second and 8.6% first, p=0.002), timing of HIV diagnosis prior to current pregnancy (16.1% vs 11% during current pregnancy, p=0.051), and timing of first prenatal visit in 3rd trimester (33.3% vs 14.3% second and 10.5% first, p=0.002). Women who experienced treatment interruptions or reported poor medication adherence during pregnancy were more likely to have detectable VL at delivery than women with no interruptions or who reported better adherence. Limitations Women entered the study at varying times during pregnancy and for this and other reasons there was incomplete data on many covariates. Conclusions In this large U.S.-based cohort of HIV-1 positive women, 13% of women who initiated HAART during pregnancy had detectable VL at delivery. The timing of HAART initiation and prenatal care along with medication adherence during pregnancy appear to be

  12. Student Aid for the Eighties: Report of the Study of Financial Aid to Maritime Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission, Fredericton (New Brunswick).

    A research report on financial aid to maritime student (those in the Maritime Provinces) enrolled in postsecondary education in Canada is presented in English and French versions. The study was designed to: (1) prepare a historical perspective of and rationale for programs of financial assistance to students; (2) review and compare existing…

  13. NASA Aircraft Aids Earth-Mars Cave Detection Study

    NASA Video Gallery

    The most likely location for discovering potential primitive life forms on Mars to be in caves. A recent NASA-funded airborne and ground study designed to aid in detection of caves on the Earth, th...

  14. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  15. The Iraq Study Group Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Capitol Hill meeting hosted by U.S. Senator John Warner and attended by congressional leaders from both sides of the aisle. To support the Study...advisor to the Study Group; John Williams, Policy Assistant to Mr. Baker; and Ben Rhodes, Special Assistant to Mr. Hamilton. Richard H. Solomon...M. Abshire, President Center for the Study of the Presidency John J. Hamre, President Center for Strategic and International Studies 65 Iraq

  16. Zimbabwe’s national AIDS levy: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund (‘AIDS Levy’) as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Methods Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. Findings The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a ‘homegrown’ solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. Conclusions The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow. PMID:26781215

  17. ‘Spirituality’ and ‘cultural adaptation’ in a Latino mutual aid group for substance misuse and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian T.; Garcia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A previously unknown Spanish-language mutual aid resource for substance use and mental health concerns is available in Latino communities across the USA and much of Latin America. This kind of ‘4th and 5th step’ group is a ‘culturally adapted’ version of the 12-step programme and provides empirical grounds on which to re-theorise the importance of spirituality and culture in mutual aid recovery groups. This article presents ethnographic data on this organisation. PMID:26755953

  18. What is AIDS in Guadeloupe? A descriptive and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elenga, Narcisse; Georger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Messiaen, Thierry; Lamaury, Isabelle; Favre, Isabelle; Nacher, Mathieu; Beaucaire, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Since the pathogen ecology differs between Caribbean regions, specific differences in the most frequent clinical presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be expected. We therefore conducted the present retrospective cohort study in order to describe the main AIDS-defining events in Guadeloupe and to compare them with those observed in Metropolitan France and in French Guiana. We discuss the local pathogen ecology, the diagnostic limitations of hospitals in overseas territories and the drivers of the epidemic.

  19. Sero surveillance of HIV infection in high risk groups and in suspected AIDS cases in a New Delhi hospital.

    PubMed

    Ray, K; Mahajan, M; Misra, R S

    1997-09-01

    A total of 17,824 sera were screened for the presence of HIV 1 + 2 antibodies by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) to determine (i) seroprevalence of HIV infection in hospital high risk groups (ii) time trend of HIV seroprevalence in STD clinic attendees (both STD patients and non STD patients), over a period of six years, (iii) relationship of the STD's with HIV seropositivity (iv) clinical profile and epidemiological characteristics of the AIDS cases. A progressive increase in the HIV seropositive STD patients showing a five fold rise over six years was seen. Most gave history of multipartner sex especially with female CSW's. The most common STD associated with HIV seropositivity was Syphilis followed by Chancroid and Gonorrhoea. All had HIV-1 infection. The AIDS cases (20) presented mainly with tuberculosis, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The mode of infection, both in the HIV seropositive and AIDS cases, was mainly heterosexual relationship followed by blood transfusion. In a few cases, infection was perinatally transmitted. In the limited number of HIV positive contacts studied, seven were confirmed as Western Blot positive. HIV infection, although a later introduction in Delhi compared to the coastal cities, has shown a clear increasing trend in the STD patients.

  20. Finding health and AIDS information in the mass media: an exploratory study among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Walsh-Childers, K; Treise, D; Swain, K A; Dai, S

    1997-12-01

    Western health officials believe the incidence of HIV infection in the People's Republic of China is much higher than has been reported, but knowledge about the disease remains low. This paper describes a preliminary study of Chinese college students' AIDS knowledge and beliefs and of the acceptability of mass media for AIDS education. Focus group interviews of 73 Xiamen University students showed that the students used radio more consistently than any other media and viewed magazines as the best media source of health information. However, they expressed a general distrust of the health information media offer. They possessed quite a bit of accurate information about AIDS but also harbored many inaccurate beliefs. Most felt that their personal risk from AIDS was very low because they felt distanced--either geographically or morally--from those at risk. Disturbing numbers felt that fate, not individual behavior, determines whether or not a person contracts HIV. The paper discusses the study's implications for future research.

  1. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  2. Allocating funds for HIV/AIDS: a descriptive study of KwaDukuza, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Objective Through a descriptive study, we determined the factors that influence the decision-making process for allocating funds to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes, and the extent to which formal decision tools are used in the municipality of KwaDukuza, South Africa. Methods We conducted 35 key informant interviews in KwaDukuza. The interview questions addressed specific resource allocation issues while allowing respondents to speak openly about the complexities of the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Results Donors have a large influence on the decision-making process for HIV/AIDS resource allocation. However, advocacy groups, governmental bodies and local communities also play an important role. Political power, culture and ethics are among a set of intangible factors that have a strong influence on HIV/AIDS resource allocation. Formal methods, including needs assessment, best practice approaches, epidemiologic modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis are sometimes used to support the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Historical spending patterns are an important consideration in future HIV/AIDS allocation strategies. Conclusions Several factors and groups influence resource allocation in KwaDukuza. Although formal economic and epidemiologic information is sometimes used, in most cases other factors are more important for resource allocation decision-making. These other factors should be considered in any attempts to improve the resource allocation processes. PMID:20551138

  3. Delphi Study: HIV/AIDS and the Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Whitehill, William R.; Wright, Kenneth E.

    1994-01-01

    Recent announcements in the news of HIV/AIDS contraction by famous sports figures have focused world attention on the fact that athletes are not immune to this deadly virus. In view of this, we reviewed the literature to examine what studies have been directed specifically at the athletic population and HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, because of the relatively new nature of this problem, little data exists for examination. A panel of experts was assembled to participate in a Delphi methodology project. This educational study was designed to examine three issues surrounding the athletic community and HIV/AIDS. The three questions examined in this study were: 1) should medical testing be undertaken within the athletic community to determine exposure to the virus; 2) if testing is undertaken, what privacy/confidentiality measures should be incorporated to protect the individual and the results of the test; and 3) what educational interventions should be developed and implemented to help the athlete understand the disease and prevent the spread. The responses from the Delphi participants indicate that the HIV/AIDS dilemma is a societal issue and should not single out a segment of the population—in this case the athletic community. The panel also indicated that privacy and confidentiality are crucial in protecting the individual athlete and test results. The development and implementation of educational interventions is the most important component in the entire issue of HIV/AIDS and the athletic community. PMID:16558273

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  5. Psychological distress among gay men supporting a lover or partner with AIDS: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Irving, G; Bor, R; Catalan, J

    1995-01-01

    To date, there has been little research to examine how much psychological distress is caused to people providing care and support to a lover or partner with AIDS. This study aimed to determine the level of psychological distress experienced by a sample of gay men providing care and support to a lover or partner with AIDS. It was conducted as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. A control group was not enlisted, thus the study was descriptive in nature. The experimental hypothesis proposed that providing care and support would result in a high level of psychological distress. Thirty-eight gay men, some of whom themselves were infected with HIV, who were the primary carer of a lover or partner with an AIDS diagnosis were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was used as a measure of global psychological distress. In addition, Martin's (1988) Traumatic Stress Response Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress arising specifically from AIDS. The sample reported high levels of global and AIDS-specific psychological distress. The levels of distress reported were of such a degree to indicate that the majority of the sample were probably suffering from significant psychiatric problems. The results strongly suggest that providing care and support to a lover or partner with AIDS may have an adverse affect on the carer's own psychological health: however, because of the design of the study it is impossible to state this conclusively.

  6. Curriculum Aid to Indian Studies. Thornlea Secondary School, Thornhill, Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornlea Secondary School, Thornhill (Ontario).

    The product of an Indian Studies program developed at Thornlea Secondary School in 1969 for grades 10-13, this curriculum aid includes the following: (1) Native Studies educational objectives (9 objectives including such specifics as "to demonstrate that Indians are not the 'cowboy and Indian' stereotype as perpetuated by many Hollywood…

  7. STUDIES ON THE HEMOPHILUS GROUP OF ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, H.; Granick, S.

    1947-01-01

    The porphin requirements of the Hemophilus organisms have been studied. Organisms of the parainfluenzae group show quantitative differences in their ability to synthesize heme. The ability of the parainfluenzae organisms to grow appears to depend on the rate with which they synthesize heme and in part at least on the properties of the medium to protect the heme from peroxidative breakdown. Quantitative studies of the growth of H. influenzae Turner on various iron porphins have been made. Iron protoporphin gives greatest growth when supplied in excess, although iron mesoporphin appears more efficient at lower concentrations. Iron deutero- and iron hematoporphin are much less effective. This suggests that although the vinyl groups are not essential for growth of the Turner organism they may be required for some particular enzymes which aid in attaining maximum growth. A number of substances potentiate the growth-promoting properties of iron porphins. These substances include reducing agents and agents which destroy H2O2. E. influenzae Turner appears to require heme for anaerobic as well as aerobic growth. The possibility of an essential heme enzyme functioning under anaerobic conditions must therefore be considered. PMID:18896933

  8. Exploring the communication of social support within virtual communities: a content analysis of messages posted to an online HIV/AIDS support group.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Coulson, Neil S

    2008-06-01

    The present study examined the nature of social support exchanged within an online HIV/AIDS support group. Content analysis was conducted with reference to five types of social support (information support, tangible assistance, esteem support, network support, and emotional support) on 85 threads (1,138 messages). Our analysis revealed that many of the messages offered informational and emotional support, followed by esteem support and network support, with tangible assistance the least frequently offered. Results suggest that this online support group is a popular forum through which individuals living with HIV/AIDS can offer social support. Our findings have implications for health care professionals who support individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

  9. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: Student Financial Aid Estimates for 1999-2000. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) is a comprehensive survey that examines how students and their families pay for postsecondary education. The study included nationally representative samples of students, including those who do and do not receive financial aid. This report has been prepared to provide some key estimates as…

  10. Autonomous Spacecraft Maintenance Study Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    ADOAIOO 318 JETOPROPULSION LAB PASADENA CA F/G 9/2 AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT MAINTENANCE STUDY GROUP(U) FEB 81 M H MARSHALL, G D LOW NAS7-100...for pUblio release AW AIR 1912a(T) D1etribution 13 Umlalt~ d , (7b). A. D . BLOSE -7 The research described in this pubi’cation was carried out by the Jet...Rettriek (Jill I Academic Assessment Committee iKDAMac (~jf.IIht~i~srtt D I I I I1. ), ’I ,lil I. I 1 i i t: c; Jill I h-0 K IfItt,1 fIIlkc I IV

  11. Exploring Your Sense of Smell. Science Study Aid No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeschen, John; And Others

    This Science Study Aid (SSA), structured for grade levels 7-9, is based on work of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) conducted at the Western Regional Research Center in Berkeley, California. It is concerned with food aroma, its intensity and character, and olfactory threshold determinations. The SSA provides…

  12. Torque meter aids study of hysteresis motor rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M.

    1967-01-01

    Torque meter, simulating hysteresis motor operation, allows rotor ring performance characteristics to be analyzed. The meter determines hysteresis motor torque and actual stresses of the ring due to its mechanical situation and rotation, aids in the study of asymmetries or defects in motor rings, and measures rotational hysteresis.

  13. Cold Weather Protection for Seed. Science Study Aid No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valieant, Joan A.

    This science study aid, published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and intended as a supplement to the regular science program, lists activities and experiments relating seed germination to various temperature changes and exposure to adverse temperature conditions for varying lengths of time. (CP)

  14. Visual Aids and Language Learning: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, John S.

    This study explores the effect of visual stimuli on second language vocabulary development. An experiment performed at Georgetown University postulates the hypothesis that concrete target words learned through translation and visual aids should offer better learning than the same words learned through translation alone. Findings are determined…

  15. Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

  16. A group intervention to improve body image satisfaction and dietary habits in gay and bisexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Matthew B; Torino, Jenny A; Swift, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A healthy diet is essential to maintaining a strong immune system for people living with HIV and AIDS. Prior studies have shown that HIV-positive gay and bisexual men are more susceptible to poor body image, which can negatively impact dietary habits. Interventions that simultaneously address body image and nutrition are therefore critical for this population. This paper describes the curriculum for a 14-week group designed to improve body image satisfaction and dietary habits in gay and bisexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Enhancing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeted to unique population groups in Thailand: lessons learned from applying concepts of diffusion of innovation and social marketing.

    PubMed

    Svenkerud, P J; Singhal, A

    1998-01-01

    Diffusion of innovations theory and social marketing theory have been criticized for their limited applicability in influencing unique population groups (e.g., female commercial sex workers (CSWs) working in low-class brothels). This study investigated the applicability of these two theoretical frameworks in outreach efforts directed to unique populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand. Further, this study examined Thai cultural characteristics that influence communication about HIV/AIDS prevention. The results suggest that certain concepts and strategies drawn from the two frameworks were used more or less by effective outreach programs, providing several policy-relevant lessons. Cultural constraints, such as the lack of visibility of the disease and traditional sexual practices, influenced communication about HIV/AIDS prevention.

  18. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  19. Private Assistance in Outdoor Recreation. A Directory of Organizations Providing Aid to Individuals and Public Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In an effort to aid private recreation area developers and operators, and other individuals interested in outdoor recreation, this Bureau of Outdoor Recreation publication lists a number of professional societies and national organizations providing low-cost publications and other aids to planning, development, and operation of outdoor recreation…

  20. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was analyzed under three perspectives of the framework: individual, social, and structural perspectives. In this village, there were 2335 residents, 484 (20.3%) were former donors, 107 (4.6%) were PLWHA, and 96.3% of PLWHA were infected through commercial blood donation. Individually, low education and plasma donation were the risky factors of HIV/AIDS infection. Socially, the epidemic was geography-, kinship-, and conformity-related. Structurally, the related macrostructure factor was policy endorsement of national blood products. The microstructure factors were poverty and value belief on male child in passing down generations. It is concluded that commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS epidemic in the village are symbiotically related. The epidemic is temporary and socially determined.

  1. Sources of evidence in HIV/AIDS care: pilot study comparing family physicians and AIDS service organization staff

    PubMed Central

    Stefanski, Kasia E; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross EG

    2004-01-01

    Background The improvement of the quality of the evidence used in treatment decision-making is especially important in the case of patients with complicated disease processes such as HIV/AIDS for which multiple treatment strategies exist with conflicting reports of efficacy. Little is known about the perceptions of distinct groups of health care workers regarding various sources of evidence and how these influence the clinical decision-making process. Our objective was to investigate how two groups of treatment information providers for people living with HIV/AIDS perceive the importance of various sources of treatment information. Methods Surveys were distributed to staff at two local AIDS service organizations and to family physicians at three community health centres treating people living with HIV/AIDS. Participants were asked to rate the importance of 10 different sources of evidence for HIV/AIDS treatment information on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Mean rating scores and relative rankings were compared. Results Findings suggest that a discordance exists between the two health information provider groups in terms of their perceptions of the various sources of evidence. Furthermore, AIDS service organization staff ranked health care professionals as the most important source of information whereas physicians deemed AIDS service organizations to be relatively unimportant. The two groups appear to share a common mistrust for information from pharmaceutical industries. Conclusions Discordance exists between medical "experts" from different backgrounds relating to their perceptions of evidence. Further investigation is warranted in order to reveal any effects on the quality of treatment information and implications in the decision-making process. Possible effects on collaboration and working relationships also warrant further exploration. PMID:15245578

  2. Can Addiction-Related Self-Help/Mutual Aid Groups Lower Demand for Professional Substance Abuse Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential of self-help/mutual-aid groups as a way to reduce the demand for professional substance-abuse treatment and proposes a model that combines the two approaches for cost-effective and therapeutically effective networks of services. (SLD)

  3. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  4. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  5. Rural perspectives on HIV/AIDS prevention: a comparative study of Thailand and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Gbesemete, Kwame Prosper

    2005-04-01

    The paper compares rural perspectives in Thailand and Ghana on the level of condom acceptance in sexual relations, willingness to test oneself for HIV before and in marriage and sources of information on HIV/AIDS. We also compared the policy approaches to combating HIV/AIDS in both countries. The results indicates that in the villages studied in Thailand, all single men and the majority of the single women were in favour of using condoms in sexual relations. This group also showed a positive attitude to HIV/AIDS test before and in marriage. However, married men in rural Thailand disapproved of the use of condoms with their wives but married women in the sample population were open to the possibility of using condoms. Both married men and women were strongly against HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In contrast to Thailand, most single men in the communities studied in Ghana showed a disapproval to the use of condoms in sexual relations. However, they condoned HIV test before marriage. Married men and women in rural Ghana were against the use of condoms in sexual relations as well as HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In order to mitigate mother-to-child transmission, the Thais applied anti-retroviral drug care for HIV positive pregnant women during pregnancy and after delivery. In Ghana on the other hand, pregnant women were subject to HIV test and counselling. The mode of information acquisition on HIV/AIDS in both countries were through the media, campaigns and village volunteers. Finally, we observed that fighting poverty is a sine qua non for the success of any HIV/AIDS eradication programme.

  6. An exploratory study of constructions of masculinity, sexuality and HIV/AIDS in Namibia, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jill; Sorrell, James; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to explore notions of masculinity and their linkages to HIV/AIDS among Owambo men and women in Namibia, where an estimated one-fifth of 15-49 year-olds have acquired HIV. Thirteen open-ended interviews and three focus groups were conducted with 50 male and female participants aged 19-50 in rural and urban Namibia. Qualitative analysis revealed six central themes: the evolving meanings of masculinity, power dynamics between men and women, women as active agents, the tension between formal and informal education and HIV transmission, alcohol and masculinity, and the blending of masculinity and explanations of HIV and AIDS. The findings suggest both direct and indirect linkages between notions of masculinity and AIDS, and highlight the need for prevention efforts that focus on providing alternative avenues for attaining culturally recognized markers of masculinity.

  7. [Ideology and gender relations: a reception study about AIDS prevention campaigns].

    PubMed

    Roso, A

    2000-01-01

    This article refers to a reception research of seven television prevention campaigns, done in South Brazil - Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, with 38 women, ages 18-51 years old, from low-income class. The sample was divided in two groups: women that don't participate in groups that fight against AIDS/HIV and women that participates in groups that fight against AIDS/HIV. Based in a qualitative framework, the Depth Hermeneutic and the Feminist Theory were employed in order to study the ideology and gender relations underneath the campaigns' messages. The results indicate that for both groups of women television is an important source of AIDS related information, although they believe the campaigns do not stimulate the use of condom. While the first group of women agrees and identifies themselves with the majority of messages and images within the campaigns, the second group perceives that behind the messages the voice of the ideology operates, throughout a variety of strategies, to create and to establish relations of domination.

  8. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  9. Paradoxes and Prospects: Moving beyond the Study of Foreign Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Steve Klees tells two stories about foreign aid. The first is that foreign aid does not "work" to alleviate world poverty, no matter whether one takes a neo-Marxist or liberal approach to understanding it. Aid is more about self-interest and geopolitics than anything else--at best it is a form of…

  10. Innate health threat among a visibly hidden immigrant group: a formative field data analysis for HIV/AIDS prevention among Zimbabwean workers in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyun; Chikombero, Mandi; Modie-Moroka, Tirelo

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the collapse of the national economy and political instability, Zimbabwe has experienced a diaspora in recent years. Although Zimbabweans are now the largest immigrant group in most sub-Saharan countries, Zimbabwean immigrants are a mostly illegal and socioeconomically marginalized population. This study explores the lives of Zimbabwean workers in Botswana from a health communication perspective and provides suggestions for accelerating the diffusion of HIV/AIDS prevention information and practices among the target population. In particular, this ethnographic report portrays how the Zimbabwean workers in Botswana make sense of their surroundings and perceive information on HIV/AIDS prevention and other public health risks. Field data analysis highlights several communication features among the immigrants, including reliance on interpersonal communication, high rate of mobile phone adoption, inaccurate public awareness on HIV/AIDS and prevention messages, and stagnated communication with health care services. By connecting Dervin's sensemaking theory to Roger's diffusion of innovations theory, the suggestions from this study can be applied to design HIV/AIDS prevention interventions for the immigrants and socioeconomically marginalized groups.

  11. Mentoring First Year Study Groups--Benefits from the Mentors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrberg, Nadia Rahbek; Michelsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The "study group concept" at the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) was implemented to aid first year students' transitional challenges. A mentor (an older student) is affiliated each study group to facilitate productive group work, bring awareness to study habits, and share his/her own experiences with life as a student. The study…

  12. AIDS and prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in high risk groups in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Traisupa, A; Wongba, C; Taylor, D N

    1987-04-01

    Since September 1984, six cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 11 cases of AIDS related complex (ARC) have been reported in Thailand. All people with AIDS were homosexual or bisexual men; two were Thai and the rest were European or American. Nine of the 11 people with ARC were homosexual or bisexual men, one was the female sexual partner of a man with AIDS, and one was a Thai man who had lived in the United States of America for several years, but denied having had any homosexual contact. Nine of the 11 people with ARC were Thai. In a survey in April 1985 at a resort area near Bangkok, antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (confirmed by western blot) were detected in 2.4% of 127 homosexual men and none of 77 female prostitutes. In a more extensive survey in October 1985, antibodies were detected in 0.8% of 720 homosexual men, but none of 2880 female prostitutes or 309 sexually active heterosexual men. HIV has been introduced into Thailand primarily by homosexual transmission. The public health policy of Thailand concerning AIDS is discussed.

  13. Do Thai parents discuss sex and AIDS with young adolescents? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meechamnan, Chutima; Fongkaew, Warunee; Chotibang, Jutamas; McGrath, Barbara Burns

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' and young adolescents' perceptions of communication related to sex and HIV/AIDS. Focus group discussions and group discussion were conducted among 67 adolescents and 30 parents. For the adolescents, group discussion using participatory activities was conducted, followed by five focus group discussions. Group discussions using participatory activities were conducted among parents. Thematic analysis indicated that the adolescents received inadequate information about sex and AIDS from their parents, whom they feared as providing negative judgment, and this represented a key barrier to such discussions. Their parents, on the other hand, reported that they believed their children were still too young to learn about and engage in sexual activities. The parents perceived barriers to communication included a lack of confidence and feelings of embarrassment. Nevertheless, they also recognized their important role in their child's sexual education. Collectively, these results draw attention to the need for a culturally appropriate program to strengthen parent-child communication skills for the topics of sex and HIV/AIDS.

  14. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOPMS MOS NCO SME TOW TRADOC USARIEM LIST OF ACRONYMS Armored Knight...Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine v AKV APOBS BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOP MS MOS NCO...the Carrier Ammunition Track ( CAT ) task. Soldiers in the senior enlisted’ 138 focus group reported the most frequently performed tasks in training

  15. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff…

  16. Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Silvestre, Renata; Mottecy, Carla Meller; Kozlowski, Lorena; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Optimization of the selection, adaptation, and benefit of hearing aids is necessary to characterize and manage hearing loss, user expectations, otolaryngologic symptoms, and systemic comorbidities. Objective To compare the occurrence of otologic complaints, systemic diseases, and effective use of hearing aids in men and women with deafness. Methods Patients from a Unified Health System–accredited hearing health service, who reported problems in adapting to their hearing aids, were evaluated by a physician and audiologist. An anamnesis, ENT evaluation, and audiological evaluation were performed. Results During the data collection period, 278 subjects came in for follow-up visits; of these, 61 (21%) reported otologic or operational problems with their equipment. The most prevalent type of hearing loss was basocochlear, a characteristic of presbycusis, in both men and women; the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (more significant in women) and hypertension (more significant in men). Fourteen subjects reported using their device discontinuously, with no significant difference between genders; the reasons for discontinuation of use were itching and ringing, with more complaints from women. Conclusion The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting. PMID:26157495

  17. Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories.

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, H. W.; Turner, J. F.; Moolchan, E. T.; Cadet, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities. PMID:10063784

  18. Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2014-01-01

    A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

  19. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  20. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BLOOD GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carlos; Lundblad, Arne; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1971-01-01

    The immunochemical properties of purified A1 and A2 glycoproteins have been compared to ascertain whether their antigenic determinants differ. Quantitative precipitin and complement-fixation studies using several anti-A sera as well as purified γG anti-A antibodies clearly showed a specificity difference. This was also supported by absorption studies: A2 substance specifically removed antibodies reacting with A2 substance leaving anti-A1 activity. A1 substance was more effective than A2 substance in dissolving an A1 anti-A1-specific precipitate. Purified γM anti-A hemolyzed A1 cells more readily than A2 cells. Inhibition studies using mono- and difucosyl type 2 A-active oligosaccharides showed that type 2 difucosyl receptors are present in A2 substance. The structural basis for the specificity difference between A1 and A2 would appear to be that A2 substances lack type 1 A determinants; this would account for the observed higher H and Leb activity in A2 substances. PMID:4104425

  1. Common Group Problems: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  2. Focus groups with deaf and hearing youths in Brazil: improving a questionnaire on sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Alquati Bisol, Cláudia; Sperb, Tania Mara; Moreno-Black, Geraldine

    2008-04-01

    The authors' aim is to describe the analysis of focus group discussions with deaf and hearing adolescents. They conducted focus groups to improve a questionnaire that will be computerized to assess the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sexual behavior and attitudes of deaf and hearing youths in the south of Brazil. They developed four groups each with three participants aged 18 to 20 years, grouped by gender and hearing status. The analysis emphasizes discourse units formed by a portion of consecutive or nonconsecutive statements by several speakers and that developed around a topic of discussion. The main aspects improved in the questionnaire, adding confidence and reliability to the research, were choice of words or expressions, contextual differences between the target population and the researchers due to age and cultural and educational backgrounds, and the appropriateness of content in questions and answers.

  3. Comparative study viruses with computer-aided phase microscope AIRYSCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.

    1996-12-01

    Traditionally viruses are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after complicated procedure of sample preparation without the possibility to study it under natural conditions. We obtained images of viruses (Vaccinia virus, Rotavirus) and rickettsias (Rickettsia provazekii, Coxiella burnetti) in native state with computer-aided phase microscope airyscan -- the interference microscope of Linnik layout with phase modulation of the reference wave with dissector image tube as coordinate-sensitive photodetector and computer processing of phase image. A light source was the He-Ne laser. The main result is coincidence of dimensions and shape of phase images with available information concerning their morphology obtained with SEM and other methods. The fine structure of surface and nuclei is observed. This method may be applied for virus recognition and express identification, investigation of virus structure and the analysis of cell-virus interaction.

  4. A study of mercuric oxide and zinc-air battery life in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, C; Lacey, N K

    1997-09-01

    The requirement to phase out mercuric oxide (mercury) batteries on environmental grounds has led to the widespread introduction of zinc-air technology. The possibility arises that high drain hearing aids may not be adequately catered for by zinc-air cells, leading to poor performance. This study investigated the hearing aid user's ability to perceive differences between zinc-air and mercury cells in normal everyday usage. The data was collected for 100 experienced hearing aid users in field trials. Users report 50 per cent greater life for zinc-air cells in high power aids and 28 per cent in low power aids. The average life of the zinc-air cells range from 15 days in high power to 34 days in low power aids. Users are able to perceive a difference in sound quality in favour of zinc-air cells for low and medium power aids. The hearing aid population is not disadvantaged by phasing out mercury cells.

  5. Computer-Aided Group Problem Solving for Unified Life Cycle Engineering (ULCE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    relatively restricted technical or poilsy Issues. They communicate th results of qxsal analyses Interim reports or phases ot a task, ad boe or quic ...specialist in group dynamics, assists the group in formulating the problem and selecting a model framework. The analyst provides the group with computer... modeling support. The correspondent documents the group discussion. A unique feature of Decision Conferencing is the interactive development of a

  6. A Place Called HOPE: Group Psychotherapy for Adolescents of Parents with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Marianne; Crandles, Sheila; Williams, Gillian; Swain, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes Project HOPE (New York), a psycho-social support program for noninfected children of HIV-positive parents, including the challenges of starting and implementing the program's psychotherapy group for grieving adolescents and clinical examples of group process and effective interventions in group leadership. Explicates the four stages in…

  7. Evaluation of Speech-Perception Training for Hearing Aid Users: A Multisite Study in Progress

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James D.; Watson, Charles S.; Dubno, Judy R.; Leek, Marjorie R.

    2015-01-01

    Following an overview of theoretical issues in speech-perception training and of previous efforts to enhance hearing aid use through training, a multisite study, designed to evaluate the efficacy of two types of computerized speech-perception training for adults who use hearing aids, is described. One training method focuses on the identification of 109 syllable constituents (45 onsets, 28 nuclei, and 36 codas) in quiet and in noise, and on the perception of words in sentences presented in various levels of noise. In a second type of training, participants listen to 6- to 7-minute narratives in noise and are asked several questions about each narrative. Two groups of listeners are trained, each using one of these types of training, performed in a laboratory setting. The training for both groups is preceded and followed by a series of speech-perception tests. Subjects listen in a sound field while wearing their hearing aids at their usual settings. The training continues over 15 to 20 visits, with subjects completing at least 30 hours of focused training with one of the two methods. The two types of training are described in detail, together with a summary of other perceptual and cognitive measures obtained from all participants. PMID:27587914

  8. Evaluation of Speech-Perception Training for Hearing Aid Users: A Multisite Study in Progress.

    PubMed

    Miller, James D; Watson, Charles S; Dubno, Judy R; Leek, Marjorie R

    2015-11-01

    Following an overview of theoretical issues in speech-perception training and of previous efforts to enhance hearing aid use through training, a multisite study, designed to evaluate the efficacy of two types of computerized speech-perception training for adults who use hearing aids, is described. One training method focuses on the identification of 109 syllable constituents (45 onsets, 28 nuclei, and 36 codas) in quiet and in noise, and on the perception of words in sentences presented in various levels of noise. In a second type of training, participants listen to 6- to 7-minute narratives in noise and are asked several questions about each narrative. Two groups of listeners are trained, each using one of these types of training, performed in a laboratory setting. The training for both groups is preceded and followed by a series of speech-perception tests. Subjects listen in a sound field while wearing their hearing aids at their usual settings. The training continues over 15 to 20 visits, with subjects completing at least 30 hours of focused training with one of the two methods. The two types of training are described in detail, together with a summary of other perceptual and cognitive measures obtained from all participants.

  9. AIDS Awareness of High School Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.; Calvin, Richmond E.

    The Surgeon General's information material on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which was mailed to every household in the United States, was used to develop an AIDS Awareness Inventory. The inventory was designed for administration to 182 high school students enrolled in schools in three districts, which have adopted an AIDS…

  10. Pathogenic and protective correlates of T cell proliferation in AIDS. HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center.

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, R D; Wiley, C A; Spina, C; McCutchan, J A; Grant, I

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the association of antigen specific CD4 T cell activation with HIV disease progression and AIDS-related central nervous system damage, T cell proliferation responses to HIV, CMV, and HSV were evaluated in infected individuals. CD4 T cell loss and neurocognitive impairment were assessed at 6-mo intervals. Individuals with known times of seroconversion who responded to more HIV peptides were at greater risk of progressing to < 200 CD4 T cells (P = 0.04) and dying (P = 0.03) than those with responses to fewer peptides. A positive correlation (0.52) was seen between the breadth of the HIV proliferation response and HIV plasma RNA levels. Higher proliferation responses to CMV and HSV were also associated with more rapid CD4 loss (P = 0.05). HLA phenotyped individuals (n = 150) with two HLA-DR alleles associated with response to more HIV peptides and CMV (DR-2,5,w6,10) were less likely to develop neurocognitive (P = 0.002) and neurologic impairment (P = 0.04), but were not protected from CD4 loss and death. Thus, the ability to generate a greater T cell proliferation response to HIV and opportunistic herpes viruses may lead to resistance to central nervous system damage, but also risk of more rapid HIV disease progression. PMID:8698865

  11. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

  12. Game-Playing as an Aid to the Creative Process of Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulenko, Paul; Kryder, Suzanne

    1990-01-01

    To increase group creativity and understanding of the creative process, a 3-hour session of nonthreatening game playing was undertaken with 10 graduate students. Games included comfort-establishing, trust-building, and challenge activities. Observers were unaware of any individual asserting dominance, and participants formed relationships that…

  13. 75 FR 70921 - Simon Property Group, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ..., a publicly traded real estate investment trust, is based in Indianapolis, Indiana. Simon is engaged in the business of developing and managing real estate. In particular, Simon develops and operates... Lichtenstein and the Lightstone Group, a real estate investment company. Headquartered in Baltimore, MD,...

  14. First Aid and Transportation Course Contents Based on Experience gained in the Iran-Iraq War: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarhangi, Forogh; Gholami, Hamid Reza; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Najafi Mehri, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective first aid and transportation influences injury-induced mortality. But few qualitative studies have been conducted so far in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the content of the first aid and patient transportation course based on experience gained from the Iran-Iraq war. Patients and Methods: This was a conventional qualitative content analysis study; a purposeful sample of 14 first aid and transportation experts who had worked during the Iran-Iraq war was recruited. We collected and analyzed the study data by using the semi-structured interview method and the conventional content analysis approach respectively. Each interview transcript was reviewed several times. Words, sentences, and paragraphs were labeled with codes. Codes were compared with each other and categorized according to their similarities. Similar sub-categories and categories were also grouped together and formed themes. Results: Study participants’ experiences of wartime first aid and transportation (FAT) education fell into two main themes including ‘the congruence of education and educational needs’ and ‘managers’ engagement in FAT education. The four main categories of these two themes were use of appropriate educational facilities, adopting effective teaching strategies, universal FAT education and specialized training skills. Conclusions: The two key requirements of the first aid and transportation courses are practicality and managerial engagement. We developed and provided specific guidance of FAT curriculum by using the study findings. This curriculum is recommended for educating FAT staffs, paramedics, emergency technicians, and military nurses. PMID:25825700

  15. Genetic restriction of HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS by a deletion allele of the CKR5 structural gene. Hemophilia Growth and Development Study, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study, San Francisco City Cohort, ALIVE Study.

    PubMed

    Dean, M; Carrington, M; Winkler, C; Huttley, G A; Smith, M W; Allikmets, R; Goedert, J J; Buchbinder, S P; Vittinghoff, E; Gomperts, E; Donfield, S; Vlahov, D; Kaslow, R; Saah, A; Rinaldo, C; Detels, R; O'Brien, S J

    1996-09-27

    The chemokine receptor 5 (CKR5) protein serves as a secondary receptor on CD4(+) T lymphocytes for certain strains of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). The CKR5 structural gene was mapped to human chromosome 3p21, and a 32-base pair deletion allele (CKR5Delta32) was identified that is present at a frequency of approximately0.10 in the Caucasian population of the United States. An examination of 1955 patients included among six well-characterized acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cohort studies revealed that 17 deletion homozygotes occurred exclusively among 612 exposed HIV-1 antibody-negative individuals (2.8 percent) and not at all in 1343 HIV-1-infected individuals. The frequency of CKR5 deletion heterozygotes was significantly elevated in groups of individuals that had survived HIV-1 infection for more than 10 years, and, in some risk groups, twice as frequent as their occurrence in rapid progressors to AIDS. Survival analysis clearly shows that disease progression is slower in CKR5 deletion heterozygotes than in individuals homozygous for the normal CKR5 gene. The CKR5Delta32 deletion may act as a recessive restriction gene against HIV-1 infection and may exert a dominant phenotype of delaying progression to AIDS among infected individuals.

  16. Study of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among junior high-school students in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Shi, R; Li, S; Xu, G; Huang, H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among junior high-school students in Shanghai, China, and the factors influencing this knowledge. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 middle schools of two districts by a cluster-stratified selection procedure in Shanghai, China. The 2432 sampled students, aged from 11.1 to 16.7 years, completed a self-administered questionnaire of HIV/AIDS prevention. The results showed that the overall correct rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 62%. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that the main factors influencing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among junior high school students were the type of school (odds ratio [OR] = 1.641), age (OR = 1.727), whether the student was a single child in the family (OR = 1.389), whether the student had previous HIV/AIDS-related education experience (OR = 2.003) and whether the student had ever discussed HIV/AIDS with their parents (OR = 1.282). The results indicate that HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Shanghai junior high school students is not high enough, and more attention needs to be paid to enhance HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, especially among younger students from common type schools without HIV/AIDS-related education experience. We encourage Chinese parents to get involved in their children's HIV/AIDS prevention education.

  17. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  18. GEMS: A Study Group to Update Dietitians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobberdiel, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses study group technique to update dietitians. Includes objectives (such as providing opportunities for sharing of information among area hospitals' dietetic departments and creating greater exposure to nutritional care philosophies/methods), subgroup responsibilities, and journals used. (JN)

  19. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  20. Final Recommendations of the Community College Financing Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cade, John A.; Heller, Henry B.

    This report presents findings and recommendations from a study conducted by the Maryland General Assembly examining options for increasing state formula aid and changing the distribution of aid to the state's 18 community colleges. Following a letter of transmittal providing background information on community college financing, the report…

  1. 3 CFR - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities Presidential... Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS...

  2. Incomplete Reconstitution of T Cell Subsets on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 384

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Gregory K.; Spritzler, John G.; Chan, Ellen S.; Asmuth, David M.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Rodriguez, Benigno A.; Skowron, Gail; Skolnik, Paul R.; Shafer, Robert W.; Pollard, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in higher total CD4 cell counts, a surrogate for immune reconstitution. Whether the baseline CD4 cell count affects reconstitution of immune cell subsets has not been well characterized. Methods Using data from 978 patients (621 with comprehensive immunological assessments) from the AIDS [Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome] Clinical Trials Group protocol 384, a randomized trial of initial ART, we compared reconstitution of CD4+, CD4+ naive and memory, CD4+ activation, CD8+, CD8+ activation, B, and natural killer cells among patients in different baseline CD4+ strata. Reference ranges for T cell populations in control patients negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were calculated using data from AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5113. Results Patients in the lower baseline CD4+ strata did not achieve total CD4+ cell counts similar to those of patients in the higher strata during 144 weeks of ART, although CD4+ cell count increases were similar. Ratios of CD4+ naive-memory cell counts and CD4+:CD8+ cell counts remained significantly reduced in patients with lower baseline CD4+ cell counts (≤350 cells/mm3). These immune imbalances were most notable for those initiating ART with a baseline CD4+ cell count ≤200 cells/mm3, even after adjustment for baseline plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusions After nearly 3 years of ART, T cell subsets in patients with baseline CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/mm3 achieved or approached the reference range those of control individuals without HIV infection. In contrast, patients who began ART with ≤350 CD4+ cells/mm3 generally did not regain normal CD4+ naive-memory cell ratios. These results support current guidelines to start ART at a threshold of 350 cells/mm3 and suggest that there may be immunological benefits associated with initiating therapy at even higher CD4+ cell counts. PMID:19123865

  3. Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

  4. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  5. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  6. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  7. Theoretical Studies Of Group IVA And Group IVB Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-20

    reaction paths. The R(-7) dispersion terms was also derived and coded. While most workers ignore the odd power dispersion terms, these terms can be...second order perturbation theory (MP2) to help explain the experimental results of the Fayer group on phenol migration dynamics. An exhaustive...2013) 3. L. Kocia, S. Young, Y. Kholod, M. Gordon, M. Fayer, and A. Rappe, “Theoretical Examination of Picosecond Phenol Migration Dynamics in

  8. In-School HIV & AIDS Counselling Services in Botswana: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefhedi, Sheila; Montsi, Mercy; Mpofu, Elias

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study describes the provision of HIV & AIDS counselling services in Botswana junior secondary schools as perceived by teachers. A total of 45 teachers (age range = 20-55; teaching experience range = 0-21 years) from three schools participated. The participants completed a questionnaire on the types of HIV & AIDS-related…

  9. A Study on the Level of the First Aid Knowledge of Educators Working in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Caglayan; Atakurt, Yildir; Simsek, Isil

    This questionnaire study examined the level of knowledge of first aid of 138 educators in private and state preschools in Turkey. Questionnaires were completed by educators between May and July 1997. The findings indicated that about 17 percent of the educators thought that they had sufficient first aid knowledge, with 62 percent indicating that…

  10. Health Aide Education and Utilization: A Task Identification Study. Final Report. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Thomas J.; Sherman, V. Clayton

    A study of the Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), Nurse Aide (NA), and Homemaker-Home Health Aide (H-HHA) occupations was conducted during 1972-73 in Metropolitan Washington, D.C. Questionnaires were administered to 600 LPNs, NAs, and H-HHAs in 30 health facilities who rated the frequency and importance of 346 tasks. Usable questionnaires numbered…

  11. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  12. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community college…

  13. A qualitative study on a decision aid for breast cancer screening: Views from women and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Chávarri, A; Rué, M; Codern-Bové, N; Carles-Lavila, M; Perestelo-Pérez, L; Pérez-Lacasta, M J; Feijoo-Cid, M

    2017-02-01

    This qualitative study evaluates a decision aid that includes the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening and analyses women's perception of the information received and healthcare professionals' perceptions of the convenience of providing it. Seven focus groups of women aged 40-69 years (n = 39) and two groups of healthcare professionals (n = 23) were conducted in Catalonia and the Canary Islands. The focus groups consisted of guided discussions regarding decision-making about breast cancer screening, and acceptability and feasibility of the decision aid. A content analysis was performed. Women positively value receiving information regarding the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. Several women had difficulties understanding some concepts, especially those regarding overdiagnosis. Women preferred to share the decisions on screening with healthcare professionals. The professionals noted the lack of inclusion of some harms and benefits in the decision aid, and proposed improving the clarity of the statistical information. The information on overdiagnosis generates confusion among women and controversy among professionals. Faced with the new information presented by the decision aid, the majority of women prefer shared decision-making; however, its feasibility might be limited by a lack of knowledge and attitudes of rejection from healthcare professionals.

  14. Development and feasibility study of a sensory-enhanced robot-aided motor training in stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Mukherjee, M; Tsaur, Y; Kim, S H; Liu, H; Natarajan, P; Agah, A

    2009-01-01

    Functional impairment of the upper limb is a major challenge faced by many stroke survivors. The present study aimed at developing a novel sensory-enhanced robot-aided motor training program and testing its feasibility in stroke rehabilitation. A specially designed robot handle was developed as an attachment to the Inmotion2 robotic system. This handle provided sensory stimulation through pins connected to small servo motors inside the handle. Vibration of the pins was activated during motor training once pressure on the handle reached a certain threshold indicating an active motion of the study subject. Nine chronic stroke survivors were randomly assigned to either a sensory-enhanced robot-aided motor training group (SERMT) or robot-aided motor training only group (RMT). All participants underwent a 6-week motor training program, performing target reaching movements with the specialized handle with or without vibration stimulation during training. Motor Status (MS) scores were measured for functional outcome prior to and after training. The results showed significant improvement in the total MS scores after training in both experimental groups. However, MS sub-scores for the shoulder/elbow and the wrist/hand increased significantly only in the SERMT group (p<0.05). Future studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  15. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  16. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  17. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with faith healers in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Tshilidzi; Peltzer, Karl; Maluleke, Thelma X; Sodi, Tholene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith healers affiliated with the United African Apostolic Church (UAAC) in the Thulamela and Musina municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 103 faith healers were included in this study, 58 were systematically assigned to an intervention and 45 to a control group. The intervention group received training for 2 days. At follow-up after 2 months, intervention effects were significant for HIV knowledge and to a lesser extent TB knowledge. No significant improvement was found in HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) management strategies such as HIV/STI risk behaviour counselling, referral of clients for HIV testing, keeping condoms at stock in church, and church community HIV/AIDS/STI education. It is important to note that faith healers address some of the major known behavioural risk and protective factors such as partner reduction and condom use. Therefore, faith healers could be more widely utilized in HIV prevention programmes as risk reduction counsellors, in particular on matters of community-level education.

  18. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12): Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2011-12. First Look. NCES 2013-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radwin, David; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter; Bryan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This brief report presents selected findings about student financial aid during the 2011-12 academic year. These findings are based on data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), a nationally representative sample survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled any time between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012,…

  19. Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    LoCicero, J

    1993-09-01

    Both patients and the medical profession are quick to embrace new technology, particularly when it may replace an existing surgical procedure. Unfortunately, the rapidity of acceptance is rarely associated with careful evaluation. Laparoscopy is a recent example of such widely embraced technology. Studies of laparoscopy that yielded good comparative data to more traditional methods were slow to accrue. This led to the exposure of its shortcomings through governmental reports and the lay press. To prevent this from happening in thoracoscopy, two types of studies are required so that valid conclusions about the new technology can be drawn. The first is an accounting of the new technology as procedures evolve around it. The data collected in such a study should contain basic information, including the indications for the procedure, how it was performed, procedure length, associated complications, and patient outcome. Such information provides a broad profile of the technology, emphasizing from the outset its potential strengths and weaknesses. The second type of study involves a more detailed concurrent comparison of the specific procedures utilizing this technology to the established traditional methods. Such randomized studies help to firmly establish through scientific process the place of the new technology. The Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group was organized in early 1992 to address these concerns. From an initial four surgeons the group has grown to include more than 41 institutions. Currently the group is collecting data in a registry and has established three clinical trials to evaluate video-assisted thoracic surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Theoretical Studies of Group IVA and Group IVB Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-13

    perturbation theory reveals that the B+ interaction with H2 is much more repulsive than it is for the other cations. Several studies of excited state ...Approach”, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 111, 3280 (2011). 27. T. Kudo, T. Taketsugu, and M.S. Gordon, “ Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study of H2 Formation...important to the Air Force. The theory/code deveopments include advances in ab initio quantum chemistry and dynamics, in the development of the

  1. Children's conceptions of AIDS, HIV and condoms: a study from Botswana.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring how young children in Botswana conceptualise AIDS, HIV and condoms. Data were collected from a sample of 75 children aged four to seven years who were asked to draw a picture about AIDS and tell a story about the drawing; this was followed by three questions in which participants were asked to explain what AIDS, HIV and a condom is. Narratives and responses were categorised and coded to enable statistical analysis. Most children had conceptions of AIDS (80.0%) and condoms (78.7%), but only 45.3% of HIV; the rationality attached to them varied widely at all ages. The results suggest that four- to seven-year-old children construct their own individual and unique meaning about AIDS, HIV and condoms and they also illustrate how children utilise their own experiences to arrive at their conclusions. Even when children narrated some correct HIV and AIDS information, their understanding of it contradicted its correct meaning. Children's interpretations of AIDS-related knowledge carried a potential for emotional distress. Many children had a negative conception of condoms associated with fear and the belief that a condom would cause illness and AIDS. The findings are of significance for parent education, HIV prevention education and for health care professionals providing antiretroviral treatment to children.

  2. Experiences of adolescents seropositive for HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Galano, Eliana; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Delmas, Philippe; Côté, José; Gouvea, Aida de Fátima Thomé Barbosa; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Explore the meanings attributed by young individuals about "living as an adolescent with HIV" in a group of patients that acquired the infection at birth and the elements involved with the adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Methods: Qualitative study, involving 20 subjects (aged 13-20 years), followed at services specialized in the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were carried out of which script consisted of questions about their personal histories, experiences and difficulties they must face while living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Being "normal" and "different" were central issues voiced by the participants. However, a normal life situation is guaranteed by being responsible with one's health, the condition that the diagnosis be kept secret and concerns about HIV transmission and dissemination to a sexual partner. The answers about treatment show that adherence is a dynamic process and involves moments of greater or lesser interest in relation to care for one's health. The adolescents have plans and projects and although HIV is considered a stressor, positive perspectives for the future prevailed. Conclusions: To live as an adolescent with HIV involves subtle dimensions that need to be recognized and legitimized by professionals who follow the trajectory of these young individuals. It is necessary to allow a space in which the adolescents can reflect and find support regarding issues related to the construction of their sexuality and care of one's own body. PMID:26611887

  3. Psychological, Social, and Familial Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dejman, Masoumeh; Ardakani, Hossein Malekafzali; Malekafzali, Bahareh; Moradi, Ghobad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Alinaghi, Seyed Ahmad Seyed; Mohraz, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities of Kermanshah and Tehran. Each group of PLWHA, their families, physicians, and consultants participated in two focus group discussions (FGDs), and a total of eight FGDs were conducted. Six interviews were held with all key people, individually. Results: Based on the views and opinions of various groups involved in the study, the main problems of PLWHA were: Ostracism, depression, anxiety, a tendency to get revenge and lack of fear to infect others, frustration, social isolation, relationship problems, and fear due to the social stigma. Their psychological problems included: Marriage problems, family conflict, lack of family support, economic hardships inhibiting marriage, and social rejection of patient's families. Their family problems were: Unemployment, the need for housing, basic needs, homelessness, and lack of social support associations. Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS. PMID:26900440

  4. [Digestive manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): study in 26 patients].

    PubMed

    René, E; Marche, C; Régnier, B; Saimot, A G; Vittecoq, B; Matheron, S; Le Port, C; Bricaire, F; Bure, A; Brun-Vezinet, C

    1985-04-01

    We studied the gastrointestinal manifestations in 26 cases of AIDS. The patients belonged to two different epidemiological groups: the first group included thirteen french homosexual men, the second group included 6 Haitians, 6 Africans and a Pakistanian, none of them admit homosexual activity. The clinical manifestations were: chronic watery diarrhea in 17 cases, bloody diarrhea in 2 cases; loss of weight in the 26 cases; dysphagia in five cases; jaundice in one patient (due to Kaposi sarcoma of the ampulla of Vater). The digestive lesions found, alone or associated, were necrotizing enteritis (2), ulcerative colitis (1), pseudomembranous colitis (1), Candida esophagitis (10), erythematous duodenitis (6), proctitis (4), Kaposi sarcoma (3), diffuse (2) or localized (1). Thirteen patients out of the 26 presented opportunistic digestive infections due to one or several germs. These were 10 cases of esophageal infection (due to Candida albicans) and 8 cases of enterocolonic infection due to Cytomegalovirus (3 cases), Cryptosporidium (3 cases), Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (1 case), Cryptococcus neoformans (1 case). The other digestive infections cases were due to non-opportunistic pathogens: Entamoeba histolytica (3 cases); Giardia lamblia (3 cases); Strongyloides stercoralis (2 cases); Salmonella typhi (2 cases); Shigella (1 case); Herpes simplex virus (1 case). No difference was noticed between the homosexual and the heterosexual groups with respect to the nature and the frequency of the digestive infections.

  5. Rapamycin with Antiretroviral Therapy in AIDS-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: An AIDS Malignancy Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Krown, Susan E.; Roy, Debasmita; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Dezube, Bruce J.; Reid, Erin G.; Venkataramanan, Raman; Han, Kelong; Cesarman, Ethel; Dittmer, Dirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is activated in Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and its inhibitor, rapamycin, has induced KS regression in transplant-associated KS. This study aimed to evaluate rapamycin's safety and toxicity in HIV-infected individuals with KS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), investigate rapamycin interactions with both protease inhibitor (PI)-containing and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing ART regimens, and assess clinical and biological endpoints including KS response and mTOR-dependent signaling. Methods Seven participants, 4 on PI-based and 3 on NNRTI-based ART, had rapamycin titrated to achieve trough concentrations of 5-10 ng/mL. Patients were monitored for safety and KS response. KS biopsies were evaluated for changes in phospho-Ribosomal S6 protein (pRPS6), and phospho-Akt expression. Interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels, HIV and KS-associated herpesvirus viral loads, and CD4 counts were monitored. Results Despite pharmacokinetic interactions resulting in >200-fold differences in cumulative weekly rapamycin doses between participants on PI-containing and NNRTI-containing regimens, treatment was well tolerated. There were no significant changes in viral loads or cytokine levels; modest initial decreases in CD4 counts occurred in some patients. Three participants, all on PI-containing regimens and with higher rapamycin exposure, showed partial KS responses. Three of four subjects whose biopsies were studied at ≥day 50 showed decreased pRPS6 staining. Conclusions Rapamycin appears safe in HIV-infected individuals with KS and can, in some cases, induce tumor regression and affect its molecular targets. Significant pharmacokinetic interactions require careful titration to achieve target drug trough concentrations, but may be exploited to achieve therapeutic benefit. PMID:22067664

  6. Globalization and its methodological discontents: Contextualizing globalization through the study of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There remains considerable discontent between globalization scholars about how to conceptualize its meaning and in regards to epistemological and methodological questions concerning how we can come to understand how these processes ultimately operate, intersect and transform our lives. This article argues that to better understand what globalization is and how it affects issues such as global health, we must take a differentiating approach, which focuses on how the multiple processes of globalization are encountered and informed by different social groups and with how these encounters are experienced within particular contexts. The article examines the heuristic properties of qualitative field research as a means to help better understand how the intersections of globalization are manifested within particular locations. To do so, the article focuses on three recent case studies conducted on globalization and HIV/AIDS and explores how these cases can help us to understand the contextual permutations involved within the processes of globalization. PMID:21861895

  7. Globalization and its methodological discontents: Contextualizing globalization through the study of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett W; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-08-23

    There remains considerable discontent between globalization scholars about how to conceptualize its meaning and in regards to epistemological and methodological questions concerning how we can come to understand how these processes ultimately operate, intersect and transform our lives. This article argues that to better understand what globalization is and how it affects issues such as global health, we must take a differentiating approach, which focuses on how the multiple processes of globalization are encountered and informed by different social groups and with how these encounters are experienced within particular contexts. The article examines the heuristic properties of qualitative field research as a means to help better understand how the intersections of globalization are manifested within particular locations. To do so, the article focuses on three recent case studies conducted on globalization and HIV/AIDS and explores how these cases can help us to understand the contextual permutations involved within the processes of globalization.

  8. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, especially the use of condoms.

  9. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: Ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction, and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, and especially the use of condoms. PMID:21834733

  10. Study of bacterial flora in children's with hearing aid earmoulds in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehdinejad, M; Khosravi, A D; Mahmoudabadi, A Z

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence and nature of bacterial flora on hearing aids earmoulds in a children's population. The study population consisted of 119 children referred to Imam Ali and Rudaky Schools in Ahvaz, Iran. Three samples were taken from surface of hearing aids earmoulds; canal in hearing aid wearers and ear without hearing aids earmoulds. The samples were cultured directly onto blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. According to preliminary examination, necessary standard biochemical tests were performed on grown bacteria and the organisms were identified as per standard identification criteria. Totally, 66 samples (61.1%) from hearing aids earmoulds and 124 samples (52.1%) from both ear canal without hearing aids earmoulds were culture positive, which 73 (58.9%) and 51 (41.1%) were from right and left ears, respectively. The majority of isolated bacteria from earmoulds were Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS) 40 (60.6%) and Polybacterial flora 14 (21.2%) and the least isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, although the majority of isolated bacteria were common normal flora of the ear, however a few pathogens were isolated as well. So, it is very important to educate the people with hearing aids earmoulds about proper cleaning and disinfection procedure to prevent any serious ear canal infection.

  11. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness.

  12. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  13. Community-Based Participatory Research Studies on HIV/AIDS Prevention, 2005–2014

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to preventing HIV infection in diverse communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for a new study. Published HIV prevention studies that employed CBPR methods were identified for the period January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2014 using PubMed databases and MeSH term and keyword searches. A total of 44 studies on CBPR and HIV or AIDS prevention were identified, of which 3 focused on adolescents, 33 on adults, and 8 on both adolescents and adults. A variety of at-risk populations were the focus of the studies including men who have sex with men, African American or Hispanic men, and African American or Hispanic women. Few studies focused on Asian/Pacific Islander or American Indian populations in the U.S. Six studies employed CBPR methods to address HIV prevention in church settings. Many of the studies were limited to formative research (ethnographic research, in-depth interviews of key informants, or focus groups). Other studies had a pre-/post-test design, quasi-experimental, or randomized design. Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed with adequate sample sizes and rigorous study designs to address lack of knowledge of HIV and inadequate screening in diverse communities to address health disparities. PMID:28066841

  14. Student Financial Aid Reaches $20.5-Billion, but Fails to Keep Pace with Rising College Costs, Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1987-01-01

    A College Board study found that over seven years, college charges rose 56 percent to 80 percent, while institutional, state, and federal aid rose only 20 percent and dramatic shifts in the composition of federal aid occurred. (MSE)

  15. 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04) Full-Scale Methodology Report. Technical Report. NCES 2006-180

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Siegel, Peter; Dudley, Kristin; Roe, David; Gilligan, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04). NPSAS:04 is a comprehensive study of financial aid among postsecondary education students in the United States and Puerto Rico that provides information on trends in financial aid and on the ways in which families pay for…

  16. Associations of Inflammatory Markers with AIDS and non-AIDS Clinical Events after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG A5202

    PubMed Central

    McComsey, Grace A; Kitch, Douglas; Sax, Paul E; Tierney, Camlin; Jahed, Nasreen C; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Brown, Todd T; Bloom, Anthony; Fedarko, Neal; Daar, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of inflammatory biomarkers with clinical events after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is unclear. Methods A5202 randomized 1857 treatment-naive subjects to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavir. Substudy A5224s measured inflammatory biomarkers on subjects with available plasma from baseline and weeks 24 or 96. An exploratory analysis of the association of hsCRP, IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1 with times to AIDS and to non-AIDS events used Cox proportional hazards models. Results Analysis included 244 subjects; 85% male, 48% white non-Hispanic, with median age 39 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 240 cells/μL. Overall, 13 AIDS events (9 opportunistic infections; 3 AIDS-cancers, 1 recurrent bacterial pneumonia) and 18 non-AIDS events (6 diabetes, 4 cancers, 3 cardiovascular, 5 pneumonias) occurred. Higher baseline IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and sICAM-1 were significantly associated with increased risk of AIDS-defining events. Adjustment for baseline HIV-1 RNA did not change results, while adjusting for baseline CD4 count left only sTNF-RI and sICAM-1 significantly associated with increased risk. Time-updated values of IL-6, sTNFR-I and II, and sICAM-1 were also associated with an increased risk. For non-AIDS events, only higher baseline hsCRP was significantly associated with increased risk, while higher IL-6 was marginally associated with higher risk. Analyses of time-updated biomarker values showed TNF-α to be significantly associated with increased risk, even after adjustment for ART, and CD4 count or HIV-1 RNA. Conclusion Higher levels of several inflammatory biomarkers were independently associated with increased risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. PMID:24121755

  17. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety.

  18. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  19. The perspectives of iranian physicians and patients towards patient decision aids: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792

  20. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the daily use, residual activity limitations, satisfaction, impact on others, quality of life between middle ear implant and hearing aid (p > 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p < 0.05). Although the scores for quality of life assessment was similar between VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  1. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  2. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  3. AIDS and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Morales Suárez-Valera, M M; Llopis González, A; Ballester Calabuig, M L

    1993-03-01

    Between 1985-1989 were diagnosed 376 cases of TBC in "La Fe" hospital in Valencia. 36 of this cases also had AIDS. We have carried out a compared study among the 340 cases of TBC and the 36 cases of AIDS+TBC. In this way we have described the social and work conditions of both groups, the hospitalization, the associated pathologies, the different risk factors, the different characteristics of the disease in each group of TBC, the diagnoses methods and the treatment of each case.

  4. Bayesian Model Selection for Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Penny, Will D.; Daunizeau, Jean; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    approaches in the presence of outliers. We expect that this new random effects method will prove useful for a wide range of group studies, not only in the context of DCM, but also for other modelling endeavours, e.g. comparing different source reconstruction methods for EEG/MEG or selecting among competing computational models of learning and decision-making. PMID:19306932

  5. Cohort Profile: Recruitment cohorts in the neuropsychological substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Levine, Andrew J; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A

    2015-01-01

    The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological deficits among individuals with HIV disease, and track the natural history of the neurological complications over time. There were three distinct MACS recruitment stages that focused on different groups of HIV-infected men, or men at risk for infection. Initially, a subcohort was evaluated semi-annually with NP tests but, beginning in 2005, the entire group of MACS participants have had NP examinations biannually, unless closer follow-up was warranted. The participants complete a battery of NP tests, and are classified as either normal, mildly or severely impaired using the Antinori criteria for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Additional behavioural data, including mood state and psychoactive substance use, are recorded as part of the main MACS data collection. The MACS public data set (PDS) has been available since 1994 and includes baseline and 6-monthly follow-up data. Beginning in October 1995, the PDS has been released annually with new releases superseding previous versions. PMID:24771276

  6. UnderstAID, an ICT Platform to Help Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten; Mojs, Ewa; Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) could support ambient assisted living (AAL) based interventions to provide support to informal caregivers of people with dementia, especially when they need to cope with their feelings of overburden or isolation. An e-learning platform (understAID application) was tested by informal caregivers from Denmark, Poland, and Spain to explore the technical and the pedagogical specifications, as well as evaluating the impact of its use on the psychological status of the participants. 61 informal caregivers completed the study taking part in the experimental (n = 30) or control (n = 31) groups. 33.3% of the caregivers were satisfied with the application and around 50% of the participants assessed it as technically and pedagogically acceptable. After using understAID the caregivers in the experimental group significantly decreased their depressive symptomatology according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, but a possible benefit on their feelings of competence and satisfaction with the caring experience was also observed. The low scores obtained for satisfaction were highlighting issues that need to be modified to meet the informal caregivers' needs in national, social, and cultural context. Some possible biases are also considered and discussed to be taken into account in future improvements of understAID application.

  7. UnderstAID, an ICT Platform to Help Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) could support ambient assisted living (AAL) based interventions to provide support to informal caregivers of people with dementia, especially when they need to cope with their feelings of overburden or isolation. An e-learning platform (understAID application) was tested by informal caregivers from Denmark, Poland, and Spain to explore the technical and the pedagogical specifications, as well as evaluating the impact of its use on the psychological status of the participants. 61 informal caregivers completed the study taking part in the experimental (n = 30) or control (n = 31) groups. 33.3% of the caregivers were satisfied with the application and around 50% of the participants assessed it as technically and pedagogically acceptable. After using understAID the caregivers in the experimental group significantly decreased their depressive symptomatology according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, but a possible benefit on their feelings of competence and satisfaction with the caring experience was also observed. The low scores obtained for satisfaction were highlighting issues that need to be modified to meet the informal caregivers' needs in national, social, and cultural context. Some possible biases are also considered and discussed to be taken into account in future improvements of understAID application. PMID:28116300

  8. Comparative study of levamisole-selenium supplementation effect on CD4 increase in HlV / AIDS patients

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Feizollah; Janbakhsh, Alireza; Vaziri, Siavash; Sayad, Babak; Afsharian, Mandana; Hosseinpor, Farzaneh; Mahdavian, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Given to the abundant incidence of malnutrition in HIV+ patients and its effect on progress of AIDS disease, several studies have recommended supplementation therapy (such as Selenium, Levamisole, Zinc). Methods: This clinical trial was prefunded on patient's with HIV + in Behavior Diseases Consulting Center, Kermanshah, Iran 2006-2007. One hundred-seventy eight out of all patients with CD4 1ess than 350 cell/mm3 who did not receive antiretroviral drugs were in this study. They were divided into four groups: the first group received 200 micg selenium per day, the second group received levamisole 50 mg every other day, and third group received both two drugs. The fourth group was the control group. All four groups were studied for six months. Patients' baseline CD4 and other data were recorded in a form. CD4 was rechecked after six months and collected values were compared with basic values. CD4 changes were compared among all groups, either. Results: One hundred-seventy eight patients initiated treatment and 108 cooperated in the 6-month follow up assessment. Niuety-two (85%) were males and 15% were female. CD4 decreased in control group and Levamisole group during the study which was significant, but 13 units increase was seen in Selenium-Levamisole group. CD4 count decreased 36 units in Selenium group. Comparing CD4 count change among 4 study groups showed that only CD4 change between Selenium-Levamisole group and control group was significant. Conclusion: Regarding to collected results, Selenium-Levamisole supplementation can be used as a supplementation therapy besides antiretroviral therapies. PMID:24024019

  9. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Egrot, Marc; Simon, Emmanuelle; Micollier, Evelyne; Kyakuwa, Margaret

    2008-07-10

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1) identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2) explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3) reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4) define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia) that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not) with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels.

  10. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Egrot, Marc; Simon, Emmanuelle; Micollier, Evelyne; Kyakuwa, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1) identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2) explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3) reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4) define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia) that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not) with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels. PMID:18616794

  11. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  12. The changing donor landscape of health sector aid to Vietnam: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Khuat, Thi Hai Oanh; Le, Quang Duong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to identify how donors and government agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid between 1995 and 2012. Interviews were conducted with key informants from donor agencies, central government, and civil society in Hanoi in 2012 (n = 34 interviews), identified through OECD Creditor Reporting System data, internet research, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were coded for key themes using the constant comparative method. Documentary materials were used in triangulation and validation of key informant accounts. The study identified a timeline of key events and key themes. The number of donors providing health sector aid to Vietnam increased sharply during the late 1990s and early 2000s, then leveled off and declined between 2008 and 2012. Reasons for donor entry included Vietnam's health needs, perceptions of health as less politically sensitive, and donor interests in facilitating market access. Reasons for donor withdrawal included Vietnam's achievement of middle-income status, the global financial crisis, and donors' shifting global priorities. Key themes included high competition among donors, strategic actions by government to increase its control over aid, and the multiplicity of government units involved with health sector aid. The study concludes that central government and donor agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid by endorsing aid effectiveness policies but implementing these policies inconsistently in practice. Whereas previous literature has emphasized donor proliferation's transaction costs, this study finds that the benefits of a large number of less coordinated donors may outweigh the increased administrative costs under certain conditions. In Vietnam, these conditions included relatively high capacity within government, low government dependence on aid, and government interest in receiving diverse donor recommendations. Vietnam's experience of donor

  13. Teaching AIDS.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  14. A comparative study of two communication models in HIV/AIDS coverage in selected Nigerian newspapers.

    PubMed

    Okidu, Onjefu

    2013-01-30

    The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries' mass media.

  15. A comparative study of two communication models in HIV/AIDS coverage in selected Nigerian newspapers.

    PubMed

    Okidu, Onjefu

    2013-01-01

    The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries' mass media.

  16. Coping Strategies of Patients with Haemophilia as a Risk Group for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Brief Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji, Simon; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…

  17. Trends in the incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers in people living with AIDS: a population-based study from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Luana F; Latorre, Maria do Rosário DO; Gutierrez, Eliana B; Heumann, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Froeschl, Guenter

    2017-01-01

    People living with AIDS are at increased risk of developing certain cancers. Since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) has decreased in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to analyse trends in ADCs and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in HIV-positive people with a diagnosis of AIDS, in comparison to the general population, in São Paulo, Brazil. A probabilistic record linkage between the 'Population-based Cancer Registry of São Paulo' and the AIDS notification database (SINAN) was conducted. Cancer trends were assessed by annual per cent change (APC). In people with AIDS, 2074 cancers were diagnosed. Among men with AIDS, the most frequent cancer was Kaposi's sarcoma (469; 31.1%), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 304; 20.1%). A decline was seen for ADCs (APC = -14.1%). All NADCs have increased (APC = 7.4%/year) significantly since the mid-2000s driven by the significant upward trends of anal (APC = 24.6%/year) and lung cancers (APC = 15.9%/year). In contrast, in men from the general population, decreasing trends were observed for these cancers. For women with AIDS, the most frequent cancer was cervical (114; 20.2%), followed by NHL (96; 17.0%). Significant declining trends were seen for both ADCs (APC = -15.6%/year) and all NADCs (APC = -15.8%/year), a comparable pattern to that found for the general female population. Trends in cancers among people with AIDS in São Paulo showed similar patterns to those found in developed countries. Although ADCs have significantly decreased, probably due to the introduction of HAART, NADCs in men have shown an opposite upward trend.

  18. Curriculum as environment: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernadette; Purnell, Marguerite J

    2011-01-01

    Curricula development is critical for the advancement and evolution of holistic nursing education. Although the American Holistic Nurses Association offers advanced practice board certification for graduate nurses, there is a scarcity of available graduate holistic nursing courses and curricula. The researchers developed a curriculum for an advanced holistic nursing program at a university college of nursing in South Florida. The curriculum and process of development were presented at a workshop during a national holistic nursing conference. A portion of the workshop included an opportunity for attendees to voluntarily participate in a focus group research study. The specific aim of the research was to determine the best approaches for the development of curricula for the promotion of graduate holistic nurse education based on the insights of holistic nurses, nurse educators, nurse practitioners, and scholars. A content analysis identified 3 themes that addressed holistic nursing curriculum: (1) consider curriculum as an evolving blueprint for personal and professional growth; (2) embrace the uniqueness of students; and (3) encourage faculty to co-create the learning environment.

  19. Qualitative to quantitative: linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on HIV/AIDS in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ajay; Hutter, Inge

    2008-10-01

    With 3.1 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in India and 39.5 million people globally, the epidemic has posed academics the challenge of identifying behaviours and their underlying beliefs in the effort to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is frequently used to identify risk behaviours and adherence behaviour in the field of HIV/AIDS. Risk behaviour studies that apply HBM have been largely quantitative and use of qualitative methodology is rare. The marriage of qualitative and quantitative methods has never been easy. The challenge is in triangulating the methods. Method triangulation has been largely used to combine insights from the qualitative and quantitative methods but not to link both the methods. In this paper we suggest a linked trajectory of method triangulation (LTMT). The linked trajectory aims to first gather individual level information through in-depth interviews and then to present the information as vignettes in focus group discussions. We thus validate information obtained from in-depth interviews and gather emic concepts that arise from the interaction. We thus capture both the interpretation and the interaction angles of the qualitative method. Further, using the qualitative information gained, a survey is designed. In doing so, the survey questions are grounded and contextualized. We employed this linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on the risk assessment of HIV/AIDS among migrant and mobile men. Fieldwork was carried out in Goa, India. Data come from two waves of studies, first an explorative qualitative study (2003), second a larger study (2004-2005), including in-depth interviews (25), focus group discussions (21) and a survey (n=1259). By employing the qualitative to quantitative LTMT we can not only contextualize the existing concepts of the HBM, but also validate new concepts and identify new risk groups.

  20. New Groups Study Science's Effect on Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the chief aims of the Council for Science and Society in London and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna. Indicates that both groups are planning to function as a multinational interdisciplinary organization. (CC)

  1. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 5: Current system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, costs, organization and other characteristics of both the manual system and AIDS 2 were used to establish a baseline case. The results of the evaluation are to be used to determine the feasibility of the AIDS 3 System, as well as provide a basis for ranking alternative systems during the second phase of the JPL study. The results of the study were tabulated by subject, scope and methods, providing a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the current operating systems employed by the FBI Identification Division.

  2. Quality of Responses in the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. Technical Report. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byce, Chuck; Schmitt, Carl

    An analysis was done of the quality of the data supplied by respondents to the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1987 (NPSAS:87). The NPSAS:87 was a large-scale survey that obtained extensive data on the educational, demographic, and financial aspects of postsecondary students and their parents. The study compared the responses to similar…

  3. Hearing Aids: Expectations and Satisfaction of People with an Intellectual Disability, a Descriptive Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A.; Verschuure, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In spite of an increased risk of hearing impairment in persons with an intellectual disability (ID), rehabilitation with hearing aids often fails. We performed a descriptive pilot study with the following study questions: (1) Do comparable elements as in the general population contribute to expectations of and satisfaction with hearing…

  4. Echo-sounding method aids earthquake hazard studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Dramatic examples of catastrophic damage from an earthquake occurred in 1989, when the M 7.1 Lorna Prieta rocked the San Francisco Bay area, and in 1994, when the M 6.6 Northridge earthquake jolted southern California. The surprising amount and distribution of damage to private property and infrastructure emphasizes the importance of seismic-hazard research in urbanized areas, where the potential for damage and loss of life is greatest. During April 1995, a group of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Tennessee, using an echo-sounding method described below, is collecting data in San Antonio Park, California, to examine the Monte Vista fault which runs through this park. The Monte Vista fault in this vicinity shows evidence of movement within the last 10,000 years or so. The data will give them a "picture" of the subsurface rock deformation near this fault. The data will also be used to help locate a trench that will be dug across the fault by scientists from William Lettis & Associates.

  5. High Accuracy of Common HIV-Related Oral Disease Diagnoses by Non-Oral Health Specialists in the AIDS Clinical Trial Group

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Chen, Huichao; Secours, Rode; Lee, Anthony; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Evans, Scott; Bernard, Daphné; Reznik, David; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Hosey, Lara; Sévère, Patrice; Aberg, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many studies include oral HIV-related endpoints that may be diagnosed by non-oral-health specialists (non-OHS) like nurses or physicians. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of clinical diagnoses of HIV-related oral lesions made by non-OHS compared to diagnoses made by OHS. Methods A5254, a cross-sectional study conducted by the Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance within the AIDS Clinical Trial Group, enrolled HIV-1-infected adults participants from six clinical trial units (CTU) in the US (San Francisco, New York, Chapel Hill, Cleveland, Atlanta) and Haiti. CTU examiners (non-OHS) received standardized training on how to perform an oral examination and make clinical diagnoses of specific oral disease endpoints. Diagnoses by calibrated non-OHS were compared to those made by calibrated OHS, and sensitivity and specificity computed. Results Among 324 participants, the majority were black (73%), men (66%), and the median CD4+ cell count 138 cells/mm3. The overall frequency of oral mucosal disease diagnosed by OHS was 43% in US sites, and 90% in Haiti. Oral candidiasis (OC) was detected in 153 (47%) by OHS, with erythematous candidiasis (EC) the most common type (39%) followed by pseudomembranous candidiasis (PC; 26%). The highest prevalence of OC (79%) was among participants in Haiti, and among those with CD4+ cell count ≤ 200 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA > 1000 copies/mL (71%). The sensitivity and specificity of OC diagnoses by non-OHS were 90% and 92% (for EC: 81% and 94%; PC: 82% and 95%). Sensitivity and specificity were also high for KS (87% and 94%, respectively), but sensitivity was < 60% for HL and oral warts in all sites combined. The Candida culture confirmation of OC clinical diagnoses (as defined by ≥ 1 colony forming unit per mL of oral/throat rinse) was ≥ 93% for both PC and EC. Conclusion Trained non-OHS showed high accuracy of clinical diagnoses of OC in comparison with OHS, suggesting their usefulness in studies in resource-poor settings

  6. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 3: Operational feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is presented which is defined as the adequacy of system design with known functional and performance requirements. The proposed Rockwell International AIDS 3 card, document and data flow are presented to summarize the concepts involved and the relationships between functions. The analysis and evaluation includes a study of system capability, processing rates, search requirements and response accuracy as well as a consideration of operational components and hardware integration. Results indicate that the AIDS 3 System concept is operationally feasible if production capacity is slightly enhanced but that operational complexity, hardware integration and a lack of conceptual data pertinent to some of the functions are areas of concern.

  7. Research station to aid multidisciplinary study of Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakato, Tatsuaki

    IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering (formerly Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research) of the University of Iowa's College of Engineering is establishing a Mississippi Riverside Environmental Research Station (MRERS) to provide opportunities for researchers and educators around the world to study river ecosystems in a multidisciplinary setting. MRERS will provide state-of-the-art facilities to study diverse facets of the upper Mississippi River to better understand river ecosystems and their response to natural events and human activities. It will also provide students at all levels with hands-on experience as well as opportunities for public education. In light of recent flooding in the region last spring, establishment of MRERS is timely MRERS will bring a truly multidisciplinary approach to understanding and planning for one of the country's most important natural resources: the mighty Mississippi.

  8. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  9. Phytolith aided paleoenvironmental studies from the Dutch Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaits, Gergő; Gulyás, Sándor; Náfrádi, Katalin; Sümegi, Pál; Szalontai, Csaba

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing evidence for crop cultivation at sites of the Neolithic Swifterbant culture from ca. 4300 B.C. onwards. Presence of cereal fields at the Swifterbant S2, S3 and S4 sites has been corroborated from micro morphological studies of soil samples. Swifterbant sites with evidence for cultivated plants are still scarce though and only emerging, and have produced very low numbers of charred cereals only. The major aim of our work was to elucidate the environmental background of the Dutch Neolithic site Swifterbant S4 based on the investigation of phytolith remains retrieved from soil samples. In addition to find evidence for crop cultivation independently from other studies. Samples were taken at 1 cm intervals vertically from the soil section at the central profile of site S4. Additional samples were taken from pocket-like structures and adjacent horizons above and below. Pig coprolites yielded an astonishing phytolith assemblage which was compared to that of the soil samples. A pig tooth also yielded evaluable material via detailed investigation using SEM. The evaluation of phytolith assemblages retrieved from the soil horizons plus those ending up in the droppings of pigs feasting in the area enabled to draw a relatively reliable environmental picture of the area. All these refer to the presence of a Neolithic horticulture (cereal cultivation) under balanced micro-climatic conditions as a result of the vicinity of the nearby floodplain. These findings corroborate those of previous soil micro-morphological studies.

  10. Study to assess the prevalence, nature and extent of cognitive impairment in people living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Muniyandi, Karthigaipriya; Venkatesan, J.; Arutselvi, T.; Jayaseelan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV directly affects the brain and produces varied psychiatric manifestations. 10-30% of patients with AIDS were found to have cognitive impairment and the virus is isolated in the CSF in 70% of AIDS patients. Aim: The present study is aimed at finding out the prevalence, nature, and extent of cognitive changes in AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: The consecutive sample of 33 patients with AIDS attending the ART center of our college were clinically interviewed and administered MMSE, BGT, Wechsler Memory Scale, and International HIV Dementia Scale. Results: In clinical assessment, only 1/33 (3%) patients could be diagnosed as dementia in HIV disease (ICD10-F02.4). This confirms the current Indian reports which indicate a lower prevalence of HIV dementia in our population. 2/33 (6%) patients were recognized to have mild cognitive disorder due to HIV disease (ICD10-F06.7). Asymptomatic cognitive impairment is very common in AIDS patients and it was noted in 69% of our study population. In the tests, MMSE was positive in only 3 of the 33 patients (9%) and it was not helpful to recognize cognitive deficits in our patients. The Wechsler Memory Scale was abnormal in 18 of the 33 patients (55%). BGT was abnormal in 48.5% of patients. The International HIV Dementia Scale was the most sensitive instrument and 63.6% the patients had abnormal scores in this scale. Conclusion: Tests which assess cognitive and motor speed may be more helpful than clinical psychiatric interview to spot the AIDS patients who have cognitive impairment. PMID:22988322

  11. OCT-aided anastomosis platform study in the rodent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-02-01

    Anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed procedure in the clinical environment that involves tubular structures, such as blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, seminal duct and ureter. Suture based anastomosis is still the foundation for most basic surgical training and clinical operation, although alternate techniques have been developed and under development. For those tubular-structure-anastomosis, immediate real-time post-operative evaluation of the surgical outcome is critical to the success of surgery. Previously evaluation is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is high-speed, high-resolution noninvasive 3D imaging modality that has been widely used in the biomedical research and clinical study. In this study we used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography as an evaluation tool for anastomosis of lymphatic vessels, ureter and seminal duct in rodent model. Immediate post-operative and long term surgical site data were collected and analyzed. Critical clinical parameters such as lumen patency, anastomosed site narrowing and suture error detection are provided to surgeons.

  12. New approach for implantable hearing aids: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sichel, Jean-Yves; Freeman, Sharon; Fleishman, Zvi; Eliashar, Ron; Sohmer, Haim

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a new kind of implantable hearing device based on a cerebrospinal fluid hydroacoustic pathway by which sound waves are conducted from the dura mater to the inner ear by cerebrospinal fluid. In this prospective animal study, a piezoelectric bimorph was implanted into 2 guinea pigs and 1 dog between the skull bone and the dura at the parietal area. The bimorph was connected transdermally by wires to a click generator. The auditory brain stem response was recorded after stimulation of the piezoelectric device by the click generator. In the 3 animals, the auditory brain stem response could be recorded in response to a stimulus intensity of 135 dB peak equivalent (pe) sound pressure level (SPL; instrument setting), corresponding to 3.8 V activating the device. The auditory brain stem response disappeared during white noise masking, proving that the origin of the response was in the inner ear. The threshold was 125 and 115 dB pe SPL in the 2 guinea pigs and 135 dB pe SPL in the dog (instrument setting). We conclude that transmission of sound waves by a cerebrospinal fluid hydroacoustic pathway to the inner ear is possible. Such a device would have advantages over more traditional implantable hearing devices: it would not be necessary to couple it to the ossicular chain, and it could be used in patients with infected middle ears.

  13. Aid to Families with Dependent Children 1975 Recipient Characteristics Study: Part 4. Social Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberheu, Howard D.

    This report on social services to families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in May 1975 is Part IV of a broad study of AFDC recipient characteristics. The background of the AFDC social service program as mandated by Title XX of the Social Security Act is delineated briefly and a one-page prose summary of the statistics…

  14. A Multimedia Approach for Providing Financial Aid Information in Higher Education: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Millions of current and prospective college students fail to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) annually for a number of reasons. One common obstacle students face is the complexity of the FAFSA which prevents students from completing the federal application. This study examined whether or not a multimedia tutorial can…

  15. What's the Impact with Congressional Aides? A Study of Communication Attitudes and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Kristina M.; Tucker, Mark; McClaskey, Jackie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study looked at the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Science and Education Impact Fact Sheet program. Less than half of the eight congressional aides surveyed reported having seen or used the fact sheets prior to the survey. They were unaware of land-grant universities as sources of nontraditional information. (Contains 16…

  16. Financing Undergraduate Education: 1990. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byce, Chuck; Schmitt, Carl

    This report describes how undergraduates finance their postsecondary education by presenting data from the 1990 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. The report discusses the characteristics of undergraduate students and where they attend school, as well as the costs of attendance, and the characteristics of the students who receive federal…

  17. Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in a Gross Anatomy Course: A Six-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John A.; Sonntag, Beth; Sinacore, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Web-based computer-aided instruction (CAI) has become increasingly important to medical curricula. This multi-year study investigated the effectiveness of CAI and the factors affecting level of individual use. Three CAI were tested that differed in specificity of applicability to the curriculum and in the level of student interaction with the CAI.…

  18. Feasibility of Producing Synchronized Video Tapes as Instructional Aids in the Study of Music; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skapski, George J.

    As an innovative aid to the study of music, recordings were made of musical performances and later synchronized with musical notations. To make the structures of the music more readily visible, and after experimenting with the use of staff notation, the author-developed "Nota-Graph" notation system was used. In this notation, there are…

  19. In the Midst of a Hurricane: A Case Study of a Couple Living with AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buki, Lydia P.; Kogan, Lofi; Keen, Bethanne; Uman, Patti

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a case study based on the daily activities, challenges, coping strategies, and relationship dynamics of a heterosexual, HIV-serodiscordant (mixed HIV status) couple in which the male partner has AIDS and the female partner is his primary caregiver. Rather than looking for specific determinants of behavior, the…

  20. Telecommunications. Training for Day Care Teachers, Aides, and Administrators: A Comparative Study. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Tanya M.; And Others

    This study compared the effectiveness of three types of telecommunications technology and a traditional face-to-face approach in training day care teachers, aides, and administrators. The technologies were audio telecommunications with (1) audiotapes and slides, (2) videotapes, and (3) slowscan television. Data were collected through observations…

  1. Implications for HIV/AIDS of laws affecting men who have sex with men in Romania. ACCEPT (The Bucharest Acceptance Group).

    PubMed

    Macovei, M; Coman, A

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the predicament, in Romanian society, of one group that is especially vulnerable to HIV infection and AIDS: men who have sex with men. Such men are driven to secrecy, and discouraged from disclosing themselves even to obtain the help and information they need, because Romanian law prohibits homosexual overtures, denies legal recognition to gay and lesbian organisations, often imposes strong disincentives in the way of those seeking diagnostic tests for HIV or for venereal disease, and still penalizes same sex relations themselves in many circumstances. Social and administrative circumstances in Romania have also aggravated such men's vulnerability. Drawing especially on the United Nations' International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, the authors offer several recommendations for reform.

  2. Attitudinal Changes Using Peer Education Training in the Prevention of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study of Youths in North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Saeed, Muhammad Buhari; Abu-Saeed, Kamaldeen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: HIV/AIDS is a major public health issue. Studies have shown that young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years accounts for more than 40% of new HIV infections. However, new infections could be prevented if the desired impact is made on young people through interventions such as effective peer education program to improve their knowledge, attitude and practice. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the impact of peer education vis-a-vis attitudinal changes and practices on issues relating to HIV/AIDS among youths in North central Nigeria. Methods: This classical experimental study was carried out in three stages, that is: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention stages among students of Government High School, Ilorin between the ages of 15 and 24 years. The sample size was 80 students each for study and control groups. Proportional gender distribution was ensured in the selection and the sampling technique was multistage sampling technique. Data collection was through semi structured self administered pre and post evaluation questionnaire. Peer education training and forth night mentoring sessions was conducted for the study group. Impact of the intervention was assessed after eight weeks. Results: Analysis of the result shows that out of the sixteen questions asked on respondents’ attitude, only four showed statistical significance between the study and control group before the intervention which shot up to eleven after intervention. Also, the frequency of those having bad practices regarding prevention of HIV/AIDS also reduced after intervention. This reduction was much more in many instances when compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study has revealed that peer education training among youth can go a long way in educating them on issues relating to HIV/AIDS prevention. It can also bring about attitudinal changes and better practices that may help in reducing incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in our society. PMID

  3. Watching MOOCs Together: Investigating Co-Located MOOC Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nan; Verma, Himanshu; Skevi, Afroditi; Zufferey, Guillaume; Blom, Jan; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that massive open online course (MOOC) students prefer to study in groups, and that social facilitation within the study groups may render the learning of difficult concepts a pleasing experience. We report on a longitudinal study that investigates how co-located study groups watch and study MOOC videos together. The study was…

  4. "Contagious Love": A Qualitative Study of the Couple Relationships of Ten AIDS Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Hadas; Teichner, Noa; Grey, Adi; Goldstein, Yehudit

    2008-01-01

    The qualitative study in this article portrays the couple relationship among AIDS carriers, based on Sternberg's triangular love theory (involving domains of intimacy, passion and commitment). The central study hypothesis is that certain components of the Sternberg model will be more significant than others among the AIDS carrier population. The study was conducted on ten AIDS carriers aged 21-37 who had experienced a couple relationship. Six men and four women participated; most of them were in a romantic couple relationship of homosexual orientation. The interviewees answered a questionnaire that included the three domains-- intimacy, passion and commitment--in the personal interview technique. The interview focused on interviewee's attitude towards his/her relationship with a partner, as he/she understood it. The findings of the study focus on relevant content that was gathered from the interviews and these portray a limited view of couple patterns in the world of AIDS carriers. The study reveals two major findings regarding the carrier's desires: On the one hand, the carrier describes a powerful need for a stable, permanent relationship--from the diagnosis of AIDS and throughout the subsequent years. On the other hand, the carrier also expresses powerful sexual desires that are not necessarily limited to a permanent partner. Thus passion is the dominant among the three domains. The intimacy domain is mainly affected by disclosure of the disease and the joint coping that follows. The findings are discussed in the context of the romantic internalized model theory and Sternberg's triangular love theory. PMID:18923698

  5. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in black males caused distrust by blacks of the public health system that has implications for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) studies. AIDS prevention among blacks may require openness about the Tuskegee study to allay fears of repetition. (SLD)

  6. An Exploratory Study Identifying a Possible Response Shift Phenomena of the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Jonathan; Watts, Tessa; Davies, Ruth; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Slater, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A then-test technique was used to investigate the possibility of a response shift in the Glasgow hearing aid benefit profile (GHABP). Following completion of part 1 of the GHABP, 16 adults were invited for hearing-aid follow up appointments. In accordance with then-test technique, participants were asked to think back to before they had their hearing-aids fitted and the GHABP part 1 was completed again to re-establish the disability and handicap scores. These scores were then compared with the initial GHABP part I scores. Paired T testing and Wilcoxon Rank tests were carried out to investigate the statistical significance of the response shift effect. Statistically significant differences were seen between initial and retrospective GHABP (disability) scores using t test. No significant differences could be seen between the initial and retrospective handicap scores. Results suggest participants may have demonstrated a possible response shift phenomenon with the disability construct of the GHABP questionnaire, related to a possible re-calibration effect or a denial of disability effect. This exploratory study suggests that the GHABP questionnaire may be subject to a response shift phenomena. We suggest that further more robust studies are completed to verify this and recommend that this could have psychological impact on participants when explaining the results of the outcome measure and may affect hearing aid use. There is also potential for this phenomenon to affect global GHABP scores specifically when demonstrating to stakeholders the overall success of an audiology service. PMID:27942371

  7. Risk for AIDS in multiethnic neighborhoods in San Francisco, California. The population-based AMEN Study.

    PubMed Central

    Fullilove, M T; Wiley, J; Fullilove, R E; Golden, E; Catania, J; Peterson, J; Garrett, K; Siegel, D; Marin, B; Kegeles, S

    1992-01-01

    To examine the actual and potential spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epicenter to surrounding neighborhoods, we studied the prevalence of the viral infection and AIDS risk behaviors from 1988 to 1989 in a representative sample of unmarried whites, African Americans, and Hispanics living in San Francisco. We surveyed 1,770 single men and women aged 20 to 44 years (a 64% response rate) in a random household sample drawn from 3 neighborhoods of varying geographic and cultural proximity to the Castro District where the San Francisco epidemic began. Of 1,369 with blood tests, 69 (5%) had HIV antibodies; all but 5 of these reported either homosexual activity (32% HIV-positive; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 23%, 41%), injection drug use (5% HIV-positive; CI = 1%, 14%), or both (59% HIV-positive; CI 42%, 74%). Homosexual activity was more common among white men than among African-American or Hispanic men, but the proportion of those infected was similar in the 3 races. Both the prevalence of homosexually active men and the proportion infected were much lower in the 2 more outlying neighborhoods. Risk behaviors in the past year for acquiring HIV heterosexually--sex with an HIV-infected person or homosexually active man or injection drug user, unprotected sexual intercourse with more than 4 partners, and (as a proxy) having a sexually transmitted disease--were assessed in 1,573 neighborhood residents who were themselves neither homosexually active men nor injection drug users. The prevalence of reporting at least 1 of these risk behaviors was 12% overall, and race-gender estimates ranged from 5% among Hispanic women to 21% among white women. We conclude that in San Francisco, infection with HIV is rare among people who are neither homosexually active nor injection drug users, but the potential for the use spread of infection is substantial, as 12% of this group reported important risk behaviors for acquiring the

  8. The IWG (Interagency Working Group) model for the heterosexual spread of HIV and the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, E.A. ); Seitz, S.T. ); Way, P.O.; Johnson, P.D. ); Curry, T.F. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the State Department's Interagency Working Group (IWG) model for the spread of HIV. The model is fully operational for Pattern 2 (heterosexual blood transmission) and Pattern 3 (heterosexual, homosexual, and IV drug transmission) countries. This model was developed for various uses, including technical research, policy analysis, and support for decision making. Research uses include studying patterns of HIV spread, assessing the relative effect of different processes on the spread of HIV, examining the demographic impact of HIV infections, and comparing the potential impact of behavioral versus medical intervention strategies. The model will be used in workshops where policy makers and health officials can do hands-on scenario analyses, gain qualitative insights into the possible long-term-epidemiological and demographic impact of HIV, gauge the uncertainties in predictions for the future, and study the impact of HIV, gauge the uncertainties in predictions for the future, and study the impact that intervention strategies are likely to have. The computational model uses a deterministic system of differential equations and runs on a 286- or a 386-based IBM-compatible machine under Microsoft Windows. The program requires an input ASCII (text) file to run; all parameters used by the model are input through this file and, therefore, are user-accessible. The software is user-friendly, mouse-driven, and allows for interactive manipulation of input data and visualization and processing of model outputs. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. AIDS in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R

    1989-01-01

    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  10. Financial Needs and Access to Aid among Chinese Vocational High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed 586 students from nine vocational high schools in three provinces in China. It found a substantial gap between the demand for and the supply of government financial aid. Moreover, correct student aid information and aid application was not equally distributed among various student groups. A financial aid application made a…

  11. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  12. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  13. Widowhood in the era of HIV/AIDS: a case study of Slaya District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ambasa-Shisanya, C R

    2007-08-01

    Luo women are believed to acquire contagious cultural impurity after the death of their husbands that is perceived as dangerous to other people. To neutralise this impure state, a sexual cleansing rite is observed. In the indigenous setting, the ritual was observed by a brother-in-law or cousin of the deceased husband through a guardianship institution. However, with the emergence of HIV/AIDS, many educated brothers-in-law refrain from the practice and instead hire professional cleansers as substitutes. If the deceased spouses were HIV positive, the ritual places professional cleansers at risk of infection. Thereafter, they could act as a bridge for HIV/AIDS transmission to other widows and to the general population. This paper provides insights into reasons for continuity of widowhood rites in Siaya District. Twelve focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted. The cultural violence against Luo widows could spread HIV/AIDS, but Christianity and condoms act as coping mechanisms.

  14. Mongolism, Ciba Foundation Study Group Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolstenholme, G. E. W., Ed.; Porter, Ruth, Ed.

    Resulting from a 1-day conference on mongolism, the book contains research studies and discussion summaries. Papers include "Parental Age, Live-Birth Order, and Pregnancy-Free Interval in Down's Syndrome in Japan" by E. Matsunaga, "Consanguineous Marriages and Mongolism" by H. Foressman and H. O. Akesson, "Correlation of Dermal Patterns on…

  15. Shift in HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Southeastern China: A Longitudinal Study from 1987 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yansheng; Wu, Shouli; Chen, Liang; Yan, Pingping; Qiu, Yuefeng; Xie, Meirong; Wang, Zhenghua; Lin, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the shift in the epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS during the last three decades in Fujian Province, southeastern China, so as to provide evidence for the development of novel HIV/AIDS control strategies. Methods: Data pertaining to the conventional surveillance, sentinel surveillance and epidemiological survey in Fujian Province during the period from 1987 to 2015 were collected. The epidemiological trends were described, and the subtypes of HIV strain were genotyped. In addition, the response to antiretroviral therapy was evaluated, and HIV genotypic resistance was assayed. Results: There was an increasing trend observed in the reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Fujian Province. From 1987 to the end of 2015, a total of 8651 HIV/AIDS cases were reported across the province, with totally 1557 deaths found. Among the total cases, the ratio of male/female cases was 3.7:1, which appeared to be an increasing trend; 77.1% cases were detected in young and middle-aged populations aged 19 to 50 years, however, the new HIV infections recently tended to occur in young people aged 15 to 18 years and in populations aged 50 years and older. Among all infected individuals, 49.3% were married, however, the percentage of unmarried cases increased from 6.67% before 1994 to 40.1% in 2015; 64.8% had junior high school education or lower, however, the proportion of HIV/AIDS cases with junior college education or above gradually increased from 6.5% in 2009 to 21.4% in 2015. The reported HIV/AIDS cases were predominantly found in coastal regions; however, a rapidly increasing trend was seen in the number of HIV/AIDS cases in inland regions, and the geographical variation of the cases gradually reduced. There were multiple routes of HIV transmission found in Fujian Province, and 94.2% infections were sexually transmitted, with a large increase in the percentage of male homosexual transmission. A variety of HIV-1 subtypes were genotyped in

  16. The Women in the Army Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    areas and in some cases inferior commanders. Conditions were considered bad enough that the War Department initiated an investigation of morale, health ...includes lectures and study in military law, 2-I-3 customs, history and organization, general service knowledge, health and hygiene, physical education...in Section 1I of this report,, the TRADOC and Health Services Command (HSC) are developing critical task lists based on individual training plans for

  17. A Qualitative Study of Underutilization of the AIDS Drug Assistance Program

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristin M.; Godwin, Noah C.; Wilkins, Sara Anne; Mugavero, Michael J.; Moneyham, Linda D.; Slater, Larry Z.; Raper, James L.

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated underutilization of the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) at an HIV clinic in Alabama. In order to understand barriers and facilitators to utilization of ADAP, we conducted focus groups of ADAP enrollees. Focus groups were stratified by sex, race, and historical medication possession ratio as a measure of program utilization. We grouped factors according to the social-ecological model. We found that multiple levels of influence, including patient and clinic-related factors, influenced utilization of antiretroviral medications. Patients introduced issues that illustrated high-priority needs for ADAP policy and implementation, suggesting that in order to improve ADAP utilization, the following issues must be addressed: patient transportation, ADAP medication refill schedules and procedures, mailing of medications, and the ADAP recertification process. These findings can inform a strategy of approaches to improve ADAP utilization, which may have widespread implications for ADAP programs across the United States. PMID:24503498

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  19. Disability Management in the Workplace: Report from the Study Group. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (16th, Savannah, Georgia, October 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooser, Jack Van; Rice, B. Douglas

    This guide is intended to aid rehabilitation agencies to plan, develop, and implement disability management programs. The study group which developed the guide looked at the impact of such programs on employers as well as on employees who become disabled. Chapter 1 provides a historical overview of disability management including motivating…

  20. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  1. Risk for cancer among people living with AIDS, 1997-2012: the São Paulo AIDS-cancer linkage study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Luana F; Latorre, Maria R D O; Gutierrez, Eliana B; Curado, Maria P; Froeschl, Guenter; Heumann, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-04

    Previous studies have reported an increased risk for certain types of cancer in the HIV-infected population. The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cancer in people with AIDS (PWA) in comparison with the general population in São Paulo (Brazil), between 1997 and 2012. A population-based registry linkage study was carried out to assess the risk for cancer, using a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) approach. A total of 480 102 person-years, of which 337 941 (70.4%) person-years were men, were included in the analysis. Around 2074 cancer cases were diagnosed among PWA, of which 51.0% were non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC). The risk for AIDS-defining cancers and NADC in the male population with AIDS was significantly higher than that in the general population (SIR=27.74 and 1.87, respectively), as it was in the female population with AIDS compared with the general population (SIR=8.71 and 1.44, respectively). Most virus-related NADC occurred at elevated rates among PWA: anal cancer (SIR=33.02 in men and 11.21 in women), liver (SIR=4.35 in men and 4.84 in women), vulva and vagina (SIR=6.78 in women) and Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR=5.84 in men and 2.71 in women). Lung (SIR=2.24 in men and 2.60 in women) and central nervous system (SIR=1.92 in men and 3.48 in women) cancers also occurred at increased rates. Cancer burden among PWA in São Paulo was similar to that described in high-income countries such as the USA and Italy following the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy. As coinfection with oncogenic viruses disproportionally affects this population, virus-related cancers accounted for a great share of excessive cases.

  2. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis) to evaluate the CES-D's validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22–77 years) completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D's rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF), and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D's substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups. PMID:27042347

  3. [Sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS and prostitution: a case study in Guinea-Conakry].

    PubMed

    Mantoura, P; Fournier, P; Campeau, D

    2003-06-01

    In Africa, many public health interventions related to the fight against HIV/AIDS are aimed at women commercial sex workers. The practices of sexual labour and prostitution are not universal, and considering them within their specific cultural context is vital to understanding these women's needs and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. An exploratory qualitative study inspired by well-rooted theory was conducted with 14 women working within formally renowned prostitution sites in Guinea-Conakry. It aimed at identifying the context and general preoccupations of these women, within which are embedded sanitary concerns. The study showed that their sexual behaviours are mostly influenced by collective, relational and economic aspects which are in turn evaluated by the women within the framework of their continuous and changing life cycle.

  4. A Study of the Attitudes of Nursing Students toward Caring for AIDS Patients. Law, Politics, and Economics of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Suzanne E.

    This study examined the attitudes of undergraduate and graduate nursing students (N=282) towards caring for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. A 57-item Likert type AIDS attitude questionnaire focused on the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in the comfort level of juniors, seniors, or graduate students caring for…

  5. Fostering Supportive Environments: A Case Study of Public Pedagogy in a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the significance of public pedagogy for how community-based organizations that provide prevention, support, and educational services to people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS operate. The article reports on a case study analysis of a local AIDS service organization (ASO) in a small town in Ontario, Canada. The…

  6. Prospective study of attitudinal and relationship predictors of sexual risk in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, David G; Silverberg, Michael J; Cook, Robert L; Chmiel, Joan S; Johnson, Lisette; Li, Xiuhong; Jacobson, Lisa P

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of attitudes concerning HIV transmission, safe sex, and sexual sensation seeking, as well as negotiated risk reduction with primary partners, on the proportion of unprotected sexual partners (%UASP) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 263 HIV-seropositive and 238 HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1999 and 2003 who completed a 20-item attitude survey twice. Behavioral data were collected concurrently and 6-12 months after each survey. Among seropositives, decreased HIV concern and increased safer sex fatigue were associated with higher %UASP at 6 and 12 months. Among seronegatives, increased %UASP at 12 months was associated with safer sex fatigue. At 6 months and 12 months, risk reduction agreements were associated with increased %UASP among seronegatives in seroconcordant monogamous relationships, reflecting their abandonment of condoms in such partnerships. We conclude that HIV prevention efforts should target modifiable attitudes (reduced concern about HIV and safer sex fatigue) and increases in sexual risk-taking of MSM, particularly among HIV+ men having sex with serodiscordant partners.

  7. Women Together Again: A Phenomenological Study of Leaderless Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Nathalie L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents results of a study of eight leaderless groups. Findings included a serendipitous forming process, minimal norming, a support system extending beyond the group, a spontaneous and flexible group process, and unresolved issues. Focus and purpose of the groups were found to be the factors that have changed over time. Discusses results in…

  8. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

  9. Gender and Children as the Moderators of the Relationship between Social Support and Quality of Life: An Empirical Study of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn; Okundaye, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Although gender differences persist in the receipt of social support and the report of quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, the knowledge base on this topic is scant. For those living with HIV/AIDS, women tend to participate more than men in support group activities, but their gender predisposes them to lower quality of life. Therefore, this study seeks to determine what demographic factors moderate the relationship between social support and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members who have experience participating in research studies and was obtained for use via cross-sectional design survey in September and October 2013. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey, and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Gender (male) F(3, 296) = 66.04, t = 2.26, p = .024) and having children (have children) (F(5, 294) = 40.34, t = 2.50, p = .013) moderated the relationship between social support and quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world were discussed.

  10. Chinese College Student Aid Policy: A Case Study of "H" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    The research findings have made it clear that Chinese college student aid policy has several characteristics. Generally speaking, student financial aid is increasing up to some extent. The government financial aids focus mostly on improving equality of educational opportunity in higher education. However, aids from the government are inadequate,…

  11. Why companies should intervene: a case study of the costs of HIV / AIDS to employers. Economic impact: Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Greener, R

    1998-04-01

    5 member companies of the Botswana Business Coalition on AIDS (BBCA) in the manufacturing, transport, distribution, and finance sectors participated in a pilot study of the impact of HIV/AIDS upon companies in Botswana. The study was conducted on behalf of the Botswana National Task Force on AIDS in the Workplace, and involved both management and employee teams from the participating companies. While HIV is usually not spread in the course of work, company characteristics such as having a mobile, well-paid work force, poor housing, or a high community HIV prevalence may increase employees' susceptibility to contracting and transmitting HIV. Companies' susceptibility to the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was assessed through interviews with management and employees. The transport sector was at highest risk, while the finance sector was at lowest risk. Assessing the HIV/AIDS impact, lost labor time due to sick leave, the costs of other benefits, future HIV/AIDS cases and health costs, and regional comparisons of the HIV/AIDS impact are considered. The most significant HIV/AIDS-related cost to the businesses in this study is the cost of lost work time due to employee illness.

  12. Immunologic studies in asymptomatic hemophilia patients. Relationship to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Landay, A; Poon, M C; Abo, T; Stagno, S; Lurie, A; Cooper, M D

    1983-05-01

    Asymptomatic hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate were found to have normal natural killer (NK) cells and B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to an increase in cells of T suppressor phenotype. In contrast, a hemophilia patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) exhibited nonfunctional NK cells, low B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to very low numbers of T helper cells. Hemophilia patients on cryoprecipitate therapy exhibited normal immune parameters. A high percentage of hemophilia patients on both treatments had antibody to hepatitis B virus. The isolated finding of elevated levels of T suppressor cells in hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate has not been recognized as an early indicator of impending AIDS, and longitudinal studies will be required to determine its clinical significance.

  13. Experimentation with e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid: a cross-sectional study in 28 European Union member states

    PubMed Central

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe patterns of experimentation with electronic cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, their self-reported impact on smoking cessation and to identify factors associated with self-reported successful quit attempts within the European Union (EU). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 28 European Union member states. Methods We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Special Eurobarometer survey, collected in December 2014 from all 28 EU member states. The total sample size was n=27 801 individuals aged ≥15 years; however, our analyses were conducted in different subgroups with sample sizes ranging from n=470 to n=9363. Data on e-cigarette experimentation and its self-reported impact on smoking cessation were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with experimentation of e-cigarettes as cessation aids and with successful quitting. Logistic regression was also used to assess changes in the use of e-cigarettes as cessation aids between 2012 (using data from wave 77.1 of the Eurobarometer) and 2014 in each member state. Results E-cigarettes were often experimented with as a cessation aid, especially among younger smokers (OR=5.29) and those who reported financial difficulties (OR=1.33). In total, 10.6% of those who had ever attempted to quit smoking and 27.4% of those who did so using a cessation aid had experimented with e-cigarettes as a cessation aid. Among those who had used e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, those with higher education were more likely to have been successful in quitting (OR=2.23). There was great variation in trends of use of e-cigarette as a cessation aid between member states. Conclusions Experimentation with e-cigarettes as a potential cessation aid at a population level has increased throughout the EU in recent years, and certain population groups are more likely to experiment with them as cessation aids. Research on the potential population impact of these trends is imperatively

  14. Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid: An AWIN Topical Study. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The aviation community is faced with reducing the fatal aircraft accident rate by 80 percent within 10 years. This must be achieved even with ever increasing, traffic and a changing National Airspace System. This is not just an altruistic goal, but a real necessity, if our growing level of commerce is to continue. Honeywell Technology Center's topical study, "Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid", addresses these pressing needs. The goal of this program is to use route optimization and user interface technologies to develop a prototype decision aid for dispatchers and pilots. This decision aid will suggest possible diversions through single or multiple weather hazards and present weather information with a human-centered design. At the conclusion of the program, we will have a laptop prototype decision aid that will be used to demonstrate concepts to industry for integration into commercialized products for dispatchers and/or pilots. With weather a factor in 30% of aircraft accidents, our program will prevent accidents by strategically avoiding weather hazards in flight. By supplying more relevant weather information in a human-centered format along with the tools to generate flight plans around weather, aircraft exposure to weather hazards can be reduced. Our program directly addresses the NASA's five year investment areas of Strategic Weather Information and Weather Operations (simulation/hazard characterization and crew/dispatch/ATChazard monitoring, display, and decision support) (NASA Aeronautics Safety Investment Strategy: Weather Investment Recommendations, April 15, 1997). This program is comprised of two phases, Phase I concluded December 31, 1998. This first phase defined weather data requirements, lateral routing algorithms, an conceptual displays for a user-centered design. Phase II runs from January 1999 through September 1999. The second phase integrates vertical routing into the lateral optimizer and combines the user

  15. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  16. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  17. Professional Development within Collaborative Teacher Study Groups: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Teacher study groups are often thought to be effective professional development structures. Such teacher communities may foster teacher learning through a collaborative culture and the codification of group members' collective knowledge. However, not all study groups are effective professional development. This article is a discussion of factors…

  18. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.

  19. Voting in Group Support Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Results from an Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kung-E

    2009-01-01

    Group decision making is essential in organizations. Group Support Systems (GSS) can aide groups in making decisions by providing tools and process support. GSS is especially useful for geographically or temporally distributed groups. Researchers of GSS have pointed out that convergence processes are hard to accomplish in GSS. Voting tools in GSS…

  20. Predictors of progression to AIDS and mortality post-HIV infection: a long-term retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Molaeipoor, Leila; Mohraz, Minoo; Mahjub, Hossein; Ardekani, Maryam Taghizadeh; Mirzapour, Pegah; Golchehregan, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the prognostic factors influencing the disease progression and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a high-middle-income country. This registry-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Tehran from April 2004 to March 2014. We enrolled 2473 HIV-infected patients who had a medical record in Behavioral Diseases Counseling Centers. The outcomes of interest were the estimation of time: (1) from HIV diagnosis to AIDS progression and (2) from AIDS to AIDS-related death. The 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year probability of disease progression from HIV diagnosis to AIDS was 45.0%, 69.9%, and 90.4%, and that of AIDS-related death was 17.2%, 30.3%, and 39.2%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that AIDS progression was significantly associated with male sex (P = 0.022), an increase in age (P = 0.001), low educational levels (P = 0.001), and a decreased level of CD4 cell count (P = 0.001). Furthermore, the AIDS-related mortality was significantly associated with male sex (P = 0.010), tuberculosis coinfection (P = 0.001), and antiretroviral therapy (P = 0.001). The results of this study indicated that progression to AIDS and AIDS-related death is affected by several modifiable and non-modifiable predictors. We indicated that a substantial proportion of the HIV-positive people were unaware of their status and were diagnosed very late. This hidden source of HIV infection had the opportunity to transmit the infection to other people.

  1. Changes in physicians' attitudes toward AIDS during residency training: a longitudinal study of medical school graduates.

    PubMed

    Yedidia, M J; Berry, C A; Barr, J K

    1996-06-01

    Understanding the impact of training on the development of physicians' attitudes toward AIDS is important to furthering our knowledge of the mechanisms through which socialization affects professional outlook, as well as promoting an adequate supply of providers to treat people with AIDS (PWAs). This prospective panel study collected data on 383 physicians at two critical stages: as fourth-year medical students and as third-year residents. Aspects of residency training (e.g., residents' morale and positive faculty role models) were the most powerful predictors of increase in willingness to treat PWAs. Decline in willingness was primarily a product of negative social attitudes-homophobia and IVDU-phobia (aversion to intravenous drug users). Cynicism toward patient care acted as a trigger, activating the negative effects of IVDU-phobia; having an acquaintance who is HIV positive mediated the negative impact of homophobia. Notably, cynicism was associated with basic aspects of training (specific characteristics of the faculty and of the educational milieu). The findings support a view of socialization as a pervasive process implicating intrinsic aspects of training and having an impact on a broad spectrum of outlooks. Accordingly, interventions must address structural characteristics that transcend AIDS-specific concerns.

  2. AIDS-related illness trajectories in Mexico: findings from a qualitative study in two marginalized communities.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Orozco, E; Eroza, E; Manca, M C; Hernández, J J; Aggleton, P

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes findings from a recent study examining how people affected directly and indirectly by the HIV/AIDS epidemic cope with HIV-related illness in Mexico. One-hundred-and-thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in two contrasting communities: Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl (an economically marginalized community) and the gay community in Mexico City (a sexually marginalized community). This paper describes the AIDS-related wellness/illness careers or trajectories followed by individuals in both communities, and identifies critical points for material and emotional intervention. This career comprises four stages: (1) life before infection; (2) life surrounding the discovery of seropositivity; (3) living as an HIV-positive person; and (4) facing death. Comparisons are drawn between the processes of adjustment and coping found in both communities. In Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl, wellness/illness careers are closely linked to prevailing poverty and oppression, as well as the sense of urgency in which local people live their lives. In the case of the gay community, wellness/illness careers are associated with the intolerance and social repression faced by homosexual men. The paper concludes by suggesting possible interventions to improve the lives of people with HIV/AIDS in Mexico today.

  3. Adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy among drug users: A qualitative study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Zahra; Eftkhar, Hasan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ebadi, Abbas; Abbasian, Ladan; Zamani, Fereshte; Aghamollaei, Teamur; Shojaeizade, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy has caused a remarkable decrease in the occurrence of diseases and mortality among HIV-positive patients, while this success has not been achieved among injection addicts due to a low adherence to antiretroviral medicine. This study aims at clarifying the important factors affecting adherence to treatment in addicts suffering from HIV. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and field notes, and were interpreted through content analysis in the form of constant comparison. The participants were 16 drug addicts living with HIV/AIDS. Most of them had records of imprisonment and were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug treatments in the AIDS center of Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sampling was started in a purposive method and was continued until data were saturated. Results: Four main categories including psychological reactions, contradictory beliefs, perceived support, and individual and environmental barriers were extracted from the data, each having some sub-categories. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that adherence to the treatment of HIV is not constant and mono-dimensional, but is a function of different factors. Hence, an individual having feeble adherence in a specific time and under specific circumstances may show desirable adherence under a different circumstance. Thus, treatment of addicts living with HIV/AIDS requires physical, psychological, and social attention along with drug treatments. PMID:26985220

  4. A Group Approach in a Community Empowerment: A Case Study of Waste Recycling Group in Jakarta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadiyanti, Puji

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews a group approach in empowering the community through waste recycling activities related to the development of human resources in Jakarta. The specific objectives to be achieved are the wish to understand and find: (1) Conditions of waste recycling empowerment in Jakarta, (2) Mechanisms of a group approach in empowering…

  5. Stereoselective synthesis of UDP-2-(2-ketopropyl)galactose aided by di-tert-butylsilylene protecting group.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yasuharu; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yukishige

    2015-10-01

    UDP-2-(2-ketopropyl)galactose (1) has been utilized as a valuable probe for profiling proteins modified by O-GlcNAc. In this work, we developed a protocol for efficient synthesis of 1. Thus, 2-methallylgalactose derivative 11, a synthetic intermediate for the compound 1, was prepared by stereoselective iodination and methallylation at C-2 position, through exploitation of 4,6-O-di-tert-butylsilylene protecting group.

  6. HIV/AIDS Patients’ Medical and Psychosocial Needs in the Era of HAART: A Cross-sectional Study among HIV/AIDS Patients Receiving HAART in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Shi, Yun; Jiang, Chengqin; Detels, Roger; Wu, Di

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the launch of China’s Free Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Program in 2002, more than 100,000 HIV/AIDS patients have been treated with highly actively antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, the current evaluation system for this program mainly focused on its medical outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the medical and psychosocial needs of HIV/AIDS patients after initiating HAART. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 499 HIV/AIDS patients who were currently being treated with HAART in three designated hospitals in Luxi City, Yunnan Province. A questionnaire was used to collect information about participants’ demographic characteristics, perceived HIV-related stigma, physician-patient relationship, quality of life, family functioning, etc. Patients’ medical records in the National HIV Information System were linked with their questionnaire by their ART identification number. Results Patients on HAART who were infected with HIV through injection drug use and were current smokers typically had poorer physical health than other participants on HAART. Better financial status and better physician-patient relationship were associated with both physical and psychological well-being. Family awareness of the patient’s HIV status was negatively associated with the patient’s psychological well-being. Higher levels of perceived HIV-related stigma were associated with poorer psychological health and poorer family functioning. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of assuring a caring environment in China’s AIDS treatment program and re-enforces the need to combat the stigma encountered with health providers and the public. PMID:23061980

  7. Long-Term Cigarette Smoking Trajectories Among HIV-Seropositive and Seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Akhtar-Khaleel, Wajiha Z; Cook, Robert L; Shoptaw, Steve; Surkan, Pamela J; Teplin, Linda A; Stall, Ronald; Beyth, Rebecca J; Manini, Todd M; Plankey, Michael

    2016-08-01

    To examine the association between demographic characteristics and long-term smoking trajectory group membership among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). A cohort of 6552 MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were asked detailed information about their smoking history since their last follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine smoking behavior and identify trajectory group membership. Because participants enrolled after 2001 were more likely to be younger, HIV-seronegative, non-Hispanic black, and have a high school diploma or less, we also assessed time of enrollment in our analysis. Participants were grouped into 4 distinct smoking trajectory groups: persistent nonsmoker (n = 3737 [55.9 %]), persistent light smoker (n = 663 [11.0 %]), heavy smoker to nonsmoker (n = 531 [10.0 %]), and persistent heavy smoker (n = 1604 [23.1 %]). Compared with persistent nonsmokers, persistent heavy smokers were associated with being enrolled in 2001 and later (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.35; 95 % CI 2.12-2.58), having a high school diploma or less (aOR 3.22; 95 % CI 3.05-3.39), and being HIV-seropositive (aOR 1.17; 95 % CI 1.01-1.34). These associations were statistically significant across all trajectory groups for time of enrollment and education but not for HIV serostatus. The overall decrease of smoking as shown by our trajectory groups is consistent with the national trend. Characteristics associated with smoking group trajectory membership should be considered in the development of targeted smoking cessation interventions among MSM and people living with HIV.

  8. Long-Term Cigarette Smoking Trajectories Among HIV-Seropositive and Seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar-Khaleel, Wajiha Z; Cook, Robert L.; Shoptaw, Steve; Surkan, Pamela J.; Teplin, Linda A; Stall, Ronald; Beyth, Rebecca J.; Manini, Todd; Plankey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between demographic characteristics and long-term smoking trajectory group membership among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods A cohort of 6,552 MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) were asked detailed information about their smoking history since their last follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine smoking behavior and identify trajectory group membership. Because participants enrolled after 2001 were more likely to be younger, HIV-seronegative, non-Hispanic black, and have a high school diploma or less, we also assessed time of enrollment in our analysis. Results Participants were grouped into 4 distinct smoking trajectory groups: persistent nonsmoker (n=3,737 [55.9%]), persistent light smoker (n=663 [11.0%]), heavy smoker to nonsmoker (n=531 [10.0%]), and persistent heavy smoker (n=1,604 [23.1%]). Compared with persistent nonsmokers, persistent heavy smokers were associated with being enrolled in 2001 and later (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.35; 95% CI, 2.12-2.58), having a high school diploma or less (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 3.05-3.39), and being HIV-seropositive (aOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34). These associations were statistically significant across all trajectory groups for time of enrollment and education but not for HIV serostatus. Conclusions The overall decrease of smoking as shown by our trajectory groups is consistent with the national trend. Characteristics associated with smoking group trajectory membership should be considered in the development of targeted smoking cessation interventions among MSM and people living with HIV. PMID:26922718

  9. Mini-Sosie high-resolution seismic method aids hazards studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.; Shedlock, K.M.; Pratt, T.L.; Williams, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Mini-Sosie high-resolution seismic method has been effective in imaging shallow-structure and stratigraphic features that aid in seismic-hazard and neotectonic studies. The method is not an alternative to Vibroseis acquisition for large-scale studies. However, it has two major advantages over Vibroseis as it is being used by the USGS in its seismic-hazards program. First, the sources are extremely portable and can be used in both rural and urban environments. Second, the shifting-and-summation process during acquisition improves the signal-to-noise ratio and cancels out seismic noise sources such as cars and pedestrians. -from Authors

  10. A review and assessment of non-governmental organization-based STD/AIDS education and prevention projects for marginalized groups.

    PubMed

    Crane, S F; Carswell, J W

    1992-06-01

    A review of projects run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in primarily developing countries, which have aimed to provide STD/AIDS education and prevention skills to various marginalized groups, reveals that past quantitative and formative research has failed to identify key programmatic factors which lead to more successful project implementation and sustainability. In observations, interviews with field staff, visits to program sites and information drawn from the literature, a variety of methods to reach a wide range of groups such as men who have sex with men, prostitutes, clients of prostitutes, prisoners, street children, migrant workers and refugees are explored. Factors found to facilitate project success include the following: at least one full-time committed staff member; respectful treatment and appropriate motivation of the target group; suitable and sufficient equipment and supplies (particularly condoms); planning ahead for the participation of HIV-positive individuals and ways to meet their needs; focusing on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation; planning in advance beyond a 9 or 12 month 'model'. Despite some evidence that marginalized groups can be successfully motivated to practise safer sex through prevention education, long-term behaviour change still presents major challenges--even when specific conditions are met.

  11. Improving Group Processes in Transdisciplinary Case Studies for Sustainability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Ralf; Crott, Helmut W.; Mieg, Harald A.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Deficient group processes such as conformity pressure can lead to inadequate group decisions with negative social, economic, or environmental consequences. The study aims to investigate how a group technique (called INFO) improves students' handling of conformity pressure and their collective judgments in the context of a…

  12. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  13. English Curriculum Redesign through an EFL Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-chin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a teacher study group collectively examined problems in their current English curriculum and redesigned the curriculum into theme-based lessons for various grades. Comprised of seven elementary school teachers and a teacher educator, the teacher study group met bi-weekly for three hours for a total of eight meetings.…

  14. A randomized double-blind study of the effect of distant healing in a population with advanced AIDS. Report of a small scale study.

    PubMed Central

    Sicher, F; Targ, E; Moore, D; Smith, H S

    1998-01-01

    Various forms of distant healing (DH), including prayer and "psychic healing," are widely practiced, but insufficient formal research has been done to indicate whether such efforts actually affect health. We report on a double-blind randomized trial of DH in 40 patients with advanced AIDS. Subjects were pair-matched for age, CD4+ count, and number of AIDS-defining illnesses and randomly selected to either 10 weeks of DH treatment or a control group. DH treatment was performed by self-identified healers representing many different healing and spiritual traditions. Healers were located throughout the United States during the study, and subjects and healers never met. Subjects were assessed by psychometric testing and blood draw at enrollment and followed for 6 months. At 6 months, a blind medical chart review found that treatment subjects acquired significantly fewer new AIDS-defining illnesses (0.1 versus 0.6 per patient, P = 0.04), had lower illness severity (severity score 0.8 versus 2.65, P = 0.03), and required significantly fewer doctor visits (9.2 versus 13.0, P = 0.01), fewer hospitalizations (0.15 versus 0.6, P = 0.04), and fewer days of hospitalization (0.5 versus 3.4, P = 0.04). Treated subjects also showed significantly improved mood compared with controls (Profile of Mood States score -26 versus 14, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in CD4+ counts. These data support the possibility of a DH effect in AIDS and suggest the value of further research. PMID:9866433

  15. A randomized double-blind study of the effect of distant healing in a population with advanced AIDS. Report of a small scale study.

    PubMed

    Sicher, F; Targ, E; Moore, D; Smith, H S

    1998-12-01

    Various forms of distant healing (DH), including prayer and "psychic healing," are widely practiced, but insufficient formal research has been done to indicate whether such efforts actually affect health. We report on a double-blind randomized trial of DH in 40 patients with advanced AIDS. Subjects were pair-matched for age, CD4+ count, and number of AIDS-defining illnesses and randomly selected to either 10 weeks of DH treatment or a control group. DH treatment was performed by self-identified healers representing many different healing and spiritual traditions. Healers were located throughout the United States during the study, and subjects and healers never met. Subjects were assessed by psychometric testing and blood draw at enrollment and followed for 6 months. At 6 months, a blind medical chart review found that treatment subjects acquired significantly fewer new AIDS-defining illnesses (0.1 versus 0.6 per patient, P = 0.04), had lower illness severity (severity score 0.8 versus 2.65, P = 0.03), and required significantly fewer doctor visits (9.2 versus 13.0, P = 0.01), fewer hospitalizations (0.15 versus 0.6, P = 0.04), and fewer days of hospitalization (0.5 versus 3.4, P = 0.04). Treated subjects also showed significantly improved mood compared with controls (Profile of Mood States score -26 versus 14, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in CD4+ counts. These data support the possibility of a DH effect in AIDS and suggest the value of further research.

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...

  17. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...

  18. Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID).

    PubMed

    Lipman, Grant S; Kanaan, Nicholas C; Phillips, Caleb; Pomeranz, Dave; Cain, Patrick; Fontes, Kristin; Higbee, Becky; Meyer, Carolyn; Shaheen, Michael; Wentworth, Sean; Walsh, Diane

    2015-06-01

    Lipman, Grant S., Nicholas C. Kanaan, Caleb Phillips, Dave Pomeranz, Patrick Cain, Kristin Fontes, Becky Higbee, Carolyn Meyer, Michael Shaheen, Sean Wentworth, and Diane Walsh. Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID). High Alt Med Biol 16:154-161, 2015.--Acute mountain sickness (AMS) affects 25%-70% of the tens of millions of high altitude travelers annually, with hypoxia and nocturnal desaturations as major contributing factors. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled trial to assess expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) for AMS prevention and nocturnal hypoxic events. Healthy adult participants trekking in the Khumbu region of the Himalayas were randomized to a single-use EPAP nasal strip, or a visually identical sham device (placebo) prior to first night sleeping between 4371-4530 m (14,340-14,800 ft). The primary outcome was AMS incidence, measured by Lake Louise Questionnaire (LLQ), with secondary outcomes of AMS severity (by LLQ) and physiologic sleep indices measured by continuous sleep monitor. Intent-to-treat analysis included 219 participants with comparable demographic characteristics, of which 115 received EPAP and 104 placebo. There was no decrease in AMS with EPAP intervention (14% EPAP vs. 17% placebo; p=0.65; risk difference (-)3.15%, 95% CI (-)12.85%-6.56%). While overall AMS severity was not different between groups, EPAP reported decreased incidence of headache (64% vs. 76%; p<0.05, OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.95) and dizziness (81% vs. 98%; p<0.03, OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.78). During sleep, EPAP resulted in significant improvements in average peripheral oxygenation (Spo(2)) (80% versus 78%; p<0.01, mean difference=2, 95% CI 0.58-3.63) and a reduced percentage of time below 80% Spo(2) (31% vs. 46%; p<0.03, median difference=16, 95% CI 2.22-28.18). This lightweight and inexpensive EPAP device did not prevent acute mountain sickness, but did reduce the subgroup incidence of

  19. The Use of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching: A Study in the Saudi Girls Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal A.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of faculty in girls colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, investigated teaching experience, academic rank, importance of audiovisual aids, teacher training, availability of audiovisual centers, and reasons for not using audiovisual aids. Proposes changes to increase use of audiovisual aids: more training courses, more teacher release time,…

  20. Discourse and adoption of innovations: a study of HIV/AIDS treatments.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Steve

    2002-01-01

    This article, based on a longitudinal case study, investigates the development, testing, and adoption of innovations in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Findings indicate that distinguishing between "evidence production" and "adoption" can be difficult because the adoption of innovations is a negotiated outcome and the nature and role of evidence are not given, stable and exogenous to the adoption process. This means that changes to the distribution of discursive legitimacy and credibility in an adopting system can change evidence production and evaluation, and hence patterns of adoption of innovations.

  1. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality.

  2. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  3. Investigating Science Collaboratively: A Case Study of Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinicola, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of one urban middle school group of students who were investigating scientific phenomena were analyzed; this study was conducted to discern if and how peer interaction contributes to learning. Through a social constructivist lens, case study methodology, we examined conceptual change among group members. Data about science talk was…

  4. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women.

  5. WWC Review of the Report "Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase FAFSA Renewal and College Persistence." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 study, Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase FAFSA Renewal and College Persistence, measured the impact of sending text message reminders regarding annual Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) renewal to first-year college students who were already receiving financial aid. The study sample included 808…

  6. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  7. The Bali STD/AIDS study: association between vaginal hygiene practices and STDs among sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Reed, B.; Ford, K.; Wirawan, D.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between genital cleansing practices and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and of sexual health knowledge among female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. Methods: Low priced commercial sex workers (CSWs) participated in the Bali STD/AIDS Study, a 3 year educational project evaluating the effect of education on the subsequent use of condoms and the prevalence of STDs and AIDS. Structured interviews, genital evaluation, laboratory evaluation for STDs, and treatment were performed. Vaginal cleansing characteristics including frequency, type, and reasons for use, were evaluated. Associations between these characteristics and the presence of bacterial and viral genital infections were assessed. Results: Of 625 female sex workers evaluated between May and July 1998, 99.1% used substances, such as soap and toothpaste, to clean the vagina at least daily, with 69.3% performing this after each intercourse. The women using such cleansers after each client did not differ from those using them once or less daily in education, AIDS and condom use knowledge, time working as a CSW, or number of clients in the previous day. However, they were younger than those using vaginal cleansers daily or less, and reported lower condom usage in the past week. Several genital symptoms, such as discoloured discharge and odour, were reported less by women with the highest frequency of vaginal cleanser use. Prevalence of genital infections in this population of women was substantial, with bacterial infections more prevalent than viral infections. Infections were not associated with the type of cleanser used, using a genital cleanser on the day of examination, or using a cleanser after each client versus daily or less, except for candida colonisation, which was more prevalent in women cleansing after each client (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.21, 2.90). However, symptomatic candida vulvovaginitis (positive culture plus presence of symptoms) was not associated

  8. Laboratory and Field Study of the Potential Benefits of Pinna Cue-Preserving Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Tobias; Laugesen, Søren; Johannesson, René Burmand; Kragelund, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The potential benefits of preserving high-frequency spectral cues created by the pinna in hearing-aid fittings were investigated in a combined laboratory and field test. In a single-blind crossover design, two settings of an experimental hearing aid were compared. One setting was characterized by a pinna cue-preserving microphone position, whereas the other was characterized by a microphone position not preserving pinna cues. Participants were allowed 1 month of acclimatization to each setting before measurements of localization and spatial release from speech-on-speech masking were completed in the laboratory. Real-world experience with the two settings was assessed by means of questionnaires. Seventeen participants with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing impairments completed the study. An inconsistent pinna cue benefit pattern was observed across the outcome measures. In the localization test, the pinna cue-preserving setting provided a significant mean reduction of 22° in the root mean square (RMS) error in the front–back dimension, with 13 of the 17 participants showing a reduction of at least 15°. No significant mean difference in RMS error between settings was observed in the left–right dimension. No significant differences between settings were observed in the spatial-unmasking test conditions. The questionnaire data indicated a small, but nonsignificant, benefit of the pinna cue-preserving setting in certain real-life situations, which corresponded with a general preference for that setting. No significant real-life localization benefit was observed. The results suggest that preserving pinna cues can offer benefit in some conditions for individual hearing-aid users with mild to moderate hearing loss and is unlikely to harm performances for the rest. PMID:24216771

  9. Clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients with HIV/AIDS: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alexandra; Montero, Alberto J; Hurley, Judith

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe what is the presentation of breast cancer in women with HIV, their tolerance to therapy, the most common complications of treatment and their outcomes. Retrospective chart review of patients with HIV diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2013 at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital (UM/JMH) 47 females and 1 male were included in the analysis. The median age of diagnosis was 46 years (IQR 41-52) and 64% of the women were premenopausal. Median CD4(+) count was 330 cells/µL (IQR 131-589 cells/µL). 41% had AIDS at time of diagnosis. 94% of patients presented with locoregional disease and 6% with late stage breast cancer. 52% had ER(+) tumors. 6% had HER-2/neu tumor expression and 21 % had triple negative disease. The 5 year PFS was 50% (95% CI 34-64%), the 5 year OS was 44% (95% CI 29-58%), and the Breast cancer-specific survival was 57% (95% CI 40-70%). Death was attributed to breast cancer in 22 patients, AIDS progression in 6 patients, other medical condition in 1, and for 4, the cause was unknown. Serious adverse events were documented in 46% of patients treated with chemotherapy. Targeted therapy was well tolerated. Patients with HIV/AIDS and breast cancer pose a major challenge for oncologists. Surgery, radiation, and endocrine therapy are well tolerated. Standard dose chemotherapy can have life-threatening side effects which can be managed with growth factor support and antimicrobial prophylaxis. All cancer therapy can be given while continuing with antiviral therapy at full dose.

  10. Multivariate-$t$ nonlinear mixed models with application to censored multi-outcome AIDS studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-I; Wang, Wan-Lun

    2017-03-20

    In multivariate longitudinal HIV/AIDS studies, multi-outcome repeated measures on each patient over time may contain outliers, and the viral loads are often subject to a upper or lower limit of detection depending on the quantification assays. In this article, we consider an extension of the multivariate nonlinear mixed-effects model by adopting a joint multivariate-$t$ distribution for random effects and within-subject errors and taking the censoring information of multiple responses into account. The proposed model is called the multivariate-$t$ nonlinear mixed-effects model with censored responses (MtNLMMC), allowing for analyzing multi-outcome longitudinal data exhibiting nonlinear growth patterns with censorship and fat-tailed behavior. Utilizing the Taylor-series linearization method, a pseudo-data version of expectation conditional maximization either (ECME) algorithm is developed for iteratively carrying out maximum likelihood estimation. We illustrate our techniques with two data examples from HIV/AIDS studies. Experimental results signify that the MtNLMMC performs favorably compared to its Gaussian analogue and some existing approaches.

  11. Competing for ideal bodies: a study of exergames used as teaching aids in schools

    PubMed Central

    Öhman, Marie; Almqvist, Jonas; Meckbach, Jane; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of the welfare state, the Swedish school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) has been regarded as an important site for public health work, and still assumes a central role in promoting the health of the coming generation. A specific type of health intervention, promoted by researchers in recent years, is the use of so-called exergames. In some countries, these fitness games are used as teaching aids in physical education classes and can be seen as examples of how public health issues and popular culture are shaping HPE in schools. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to examine which messages about health and body are offered, and how these are expressed in some of the fitness games used as teaching aids in school. The results of the study highlight the dangers of using exergames in the teaching of HPE in schools. The messages communicated by the games have a number of potentially harmful consequences, particularly with regard to the creation of specific health and bodily norms based on a measurable ideal. The use of this tool in education is thus far from value free, and the problems that might be solved when using the games are not necessarily the ones that education should privilege. PMID:26740738

  12. Study on the removal of acid dyes using chitosan as a natural coagulant/coagulant aid.

    PubMed

    Zonoozi, M H; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan was selected as a natural coagulating agent for the removal of acid dyes (Acid Blue 292; AB292, and Acid Red 398; AR398) from dye-containing solutions. The study was organised in two phases. In phase 1, chitosan was used alone as a natural coagulant for the removal of the dyes. For this purpose, the effect of different parameters including pH, chitosan dosage and initial dye concentration on the dye removal efficiency was examined. In phase 2 of the study, the application of chitosan as a natural coagulant aid in conjunction with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was assessed. According to the results of phase 1, the best removal efficiencies occurred in an acidic pH range (less than 6) for both of the dyes. Also, excellent dye removal results (about 90%) were achieved with relatively low dosages of chitosan (30-35 mg L(-1) for AB292 and 50-60 mg L(-1) for AR398). However, the initial concentration of the dyes severely influenced the coagulation performance of chitosan, which can constrain the performance of chitosan as a natural coagulant. On the basis of the results of phase 2, chitosan, as a natural coagulant aid, noticeably enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC, especially in the case of AB292. Small amounts of chitosan (3 or 5 mg L(-1)) enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC up to 2.5 times for AB292.

  13. HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sources of information, and reported need for further education among dental students in Sudan- a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Elwalid Fadul; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; David, Jamil; Ali, Rouf Wahab

    2008-01-01

    Background Information on the HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS, and for attracting the attention of dental school educators towards the subject. Purposes Focusing on a census of dental students attending their 3rd, 4th and 5th study year at publicly – and privately funded dental faculties in Khartoum, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of dental students' knowledge, sources of information and reported need for further education related to HIV and AIDS. Methods At the time of the survey (March–May 2007), the total number of dental students registered was 782 of which 642 (response rate 82%, mean age 21.7 year, 72% girls) completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in supervised class room settings. Results A total of 49% and 86% had correct sum scores with respect to knowledge of transmission through contamination and through shaking hands and eating, respectively. About half the dental students recognized a need for further education across HIV related issues, varying from 75% (basic HIV/AIDS related issues) to 84% (patient management). Only 38% of the students had correct sum scores regarding various occupational groups at risk for contacting HIV and AIDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to privately funded dental school students, publicly funded dental school students were less likely to have correct knowledge about modes of HIV transmission (OR = 0.6) and occupational risk groups (OR = 0.6) and to have received information from lectures/health care workers (OR = 0.5). Conclusion Students attending privately funded schools were more knowledgeable about various HIV related issues than students from publicly funded schools. About half of the students investigated had received HIV/AIDS information from various sources and reported need for further education

  14. Evaluation of a quality assurance program for quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group virology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Yen-Lieberman, B; Brambilla, D; Jackson, B; Bremer, J; Coombs, R; Cronin, M; Herman, S; Katzenstein, D; Leung, S; Lin, H J; Palumbo, P; Rasheed, S; Todd, J; Vahey, M; Reichelderfer, P

    1996-11-01

    A number of quantitative assays have been developed by using amplification techniques to measure human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in the plasma of infected individuals. The Virology Committee of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group in the Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has established a quality assurance program (QAP) for quantitative assays of HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma. The primary objective of the QAP was to ascertain that a laboratory could maintain the precision required to have a 90% power to detect a fivefold difference in RNA copy number between two samples in the same batch. To achieve this goal, the QAP required an intra-assay standard deviation of no greater than 0.15 log10 RNA copies per ml. Panels for proficiency testing consisted of coded replicate samples and a common set of standards. To date, 41 laboratories have participated in the program and have used both commercial and in-house assays. We demonstrated that 65% of the laboratories were capable of attaining the necessary level of intra-assay precision. The fitted regressions indicated that the differences among laboratories that used the same kit were generally greater than the differences among population-average regressions for the kits themselves. The use of an external QAP and a common set of standards reduced differences both among laboratories that used the same kit and among laboratories that used different kits. Thus, use of a common set of standards across clinical trial protocols would allow for cross-protocol comparisons.

  15. Role of oral candidiasis in TB and HIV co-infection: AIDS Clinical Trial Group Protocol A5253

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, C. H.; Chen, H.; Ghannoum, M. A.; Komarow, L.; Evans, S.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Isham, N.; Katzenstein, D.; Asmelash, A.; Omozoarhe, A. E.; Gengiah, S.; Allen, R.; Tripathy, S.; Swindells, S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between oral candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, and to investigate oral candidiasis as a potential tool for TB case finding. METHODS Protocol A5253 was a cross-sectional study designed to improve the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in HIV-infected adults in high TB prevalence countries. Participants received an oral examination to detect oral candidiasis. We estimated the association between TB disease and oral candidiasis using logistic regression, and sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. RESULTS Of 454 participants with TB culture results enrolled in African sites, the median age was 33 years, 71% were female and the median CD4 count was 257 cells/mm3. Fifty-four (12%) had TB disease; the prevalence of oral candidiasis was significantly higher among TB cases (35%) than among non-TB cases (16%, P < 0.001). The odds of having TB was 2.4 times higher among those with oral candidiasis when controlling for CD4 count and antifungals (95%CI 1.2–4.7, P = 0.01). The sensitivity of oral candidiasis as a predictor of TB was 35% (95%CI 22–48) and the specificity 85% (95%CI 81–88). CONCLUSION We found a strong association between oral candidiasis and TB disease, independent of CD4 count, suggesting that in resource-limited settings, oral candidiasis may provide clinical evidence for increased risk of TB and contribute to TB case finding. PMID:24903939

  16. [I-THOU Eternal relationship in the life of caregivers of children with AIDS: study based on Martin Buber philosophy].

    PubMed

    Schaurich, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study aimed at understanding, in the light of Martin Buber's philosophy, what is to be a caregiver of children with AIDS. The phenomenological interview guided the meeting with seven caregivers of children with AIDS, selected in a teaching hospital of Porto Alegre-RS, southern of Brazil. The data were interpreted in the light of hermeneutics, emerging the unit of meaning Dialogues 'between' the familiar I and the Eternal THOU. The dialogues take place in the search for answers that allow the understanding of the significance of the impact and challenges they face while living with AIDS. As well, they reveal hope in changes, in the cure and in a vaccine development. We believe that knowing the importance of dialogue in the context of HIV/AIDS epidemic provide the development of a nursing care that brings together the technical-scientific and humanistic aspects.

  17. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-07-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice.

  18. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice. PMID:21731343

  19. Content-Related Interactions in Self-initiated Study Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Karen; Talanquer, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    The central goal of the present exploratory study was to investigate the nature of the content-related interactions in study groups independently organized by college organic chemistry students. We were particularly interested in the identification of the different factors that affected the emergence of opportunities for students to co-construct understanding and engage in higher levels of cognitive processing. Our results are based on the analysis of in situ observations of 34 self-initiated study sessions involving over a 100 students in three academic semesters. The investigation revealed three major types of social regulation processes, teaching, tutoring, and co-construction in the observed study sessions. However, the extent to which students engaged in each of them varied widely from one session to another. This variability was mostly determined by the specific composition of the study groups and the nature of the study tasks in which they were engaged. Decisions about how to organize the study session, the relative content knowledge and conceptual understanding expressed by the participants, as well as the cognitive level of the problems that guided group work had a strong impact on the nature of student interactions. Nevertheless, group talk in the observed study groups was mostly focused on low-level cognitive processes. The results of our work provide insights on how to better support students' productive engagement in study groups.

  20. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out.

  1. Network stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers: An egocentric network study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; He, Xin; Guida, Jennifer; Xu, Yongfang; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-10-01

    HIV stigma occurs among peers in social networks. However, the features of social networks that drive HIV stigma are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate anticipated HIV stigma within the social networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (N = 147) and the social networks of PLWHA's caregivers (N = 148). The egocentric social network data were collected in Guangxi, China. More than half of PLWHA (58%) and their caregivers (53%) anticipated HIV stigma from their network peers. Both PLWHA and their caregivers anticipated that spouses or other family members were less likely to stigmatise them, compared to friend peers or other relationships. Married network peers were believed to stigmatise caregivers more than unmarried peers. The association between frequent contacts and anticipated stigma was negative among caregivers. Being in a close relationship with PLWHA or caregivers (e.g., a spouse or other family member) was associated with less anticipated stigma. Lower network density was associated with higher anticipated stigma among PLWHA's alters, but not among caregivers' alters. Findings may shed light on innovative stigma reduction interventions at the social network level and therefore improve HIV/AIDS treatment utilisation.

  2. Directional filter aided sub-basalt interpretation: A case study from the Faroe-Shetland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Pouyan; Jaiswal, Priyank

    2017-02-01

    In complex geological settings, post-stack image processing aids geological interpretation. This case study shows how directional filtering, which is a spatial convolution that focuses energy along a pre-determined direction, can be used for post-stack processing. Application of coherency filtering can improve the mappability of both horizon and fault when applied in the following manner. One or more Region of Interest (ROI) are identified in the stack image and isolated for processing. Within a ROI, the directional filter is applied along the dominant horizon dip. For each ROI the coherency attribute, which provides an image of the discontinuities (e.g. faults), is also generated. The directional filtering is applied to the coherency image along the dominant dip of the faults/fractures. Finally, for each ROI, the filtered coherency image and the filtered stack are co-rendered. The co-rendered image can be merged with the unprocessed stack for a more complete interpretation of the geology. This simple yet intuitive workflow can greatly aid geological interpretation. Here, direction filtering is demonstrated on sub-basalt stratigraphy using a 2D profile from the Faroe-Shetland Basin but the methodology is applicable to any setting.

  3. The acute care physical therapy HIV/AIDS patient population: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kinirons, Stacy A; Do, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    This study was based on an analysis of an existing database compiled from 475 medical records of people living with HIV/AIDS admitted to an acute-care hospital in New York City in 2004. The characteristics of patients with HIV infection that received physical therapy were determined. Differences between patients with HIV infection that did and did not receive physical therapy, as well as predictors of receipt of physical therapy, were identified. The physical therapy subgroup (n = 69) had a mean age of 48.3 years, consisted of more men than women, and was predominately black, with public health insurance. Admissions were commonly due to non-AIDS-defining illness as the primary diagnoses, accompanied by several comorbidities. Admissions often presented with functional deficits, incurred a prolonged length of stay, and required assistance at discharge. Differences existed between the physical therapy subgroup and the non-physical therapy subgroup (n = 406). Predictors of receipt of physical therapy were functional status on admission and length of stay.

  4. Advisory Groups to Encourage Collaboration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lisa A.; Glynn, Graham; Lavallee, David; Moreau, Joseph; Orzech, Mary Jo; Pence, Harry E.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of how the provost and senior executive leadership of one large university system capitalized on a long-standing advisory group as a tool to support communication and collaboration across a broad constituency. These advisory efforts help guide both future directions and investment. It is the story of how this group has…

  5. Learning How to Improve Vocabulary Instruction through Teacher Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimino, Joseph; Taylor, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Professional development with proven positive effects on vocabulary instruction and student achievement: that's what reading teachers are looking for, and that's what the Teacher Study Group (TSG) model delivers. With the nine complete TSG sessions in this book, K-8 teachers will form dynamic in-school learning groups with their fellow educators…

  6. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  7. Educator Study Groups: A Professional Development Tool to Enhance Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner-Patnode, Leah

    2009-01-01

    Professional development can take many forms. The most effective development includes individual educators in the formation and planning process. Educator study groups are one form of professional development that allows major stakeholders in the education process the autonomy to develop individual and group goals. This often translates into an…

  8. Combining propensity score matching and group-based trajectory analysis in an observational study.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S; Rosenbaum, Paul R

    2007-09-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups between which treatment effects may vary. These and related methods are illustrated using data from a Montreal-based study. The effects on subsequent violence of gang joining at age 14 are studied while controlling for measured characteristics of boys prior to age 14. The boys are divided into trajectory groups based on violence from ages 11 to 13. Within trajectory group, joiners are optimally matched to a variable number of controls using propensity scores, Mahalanobis distances, and a combinatorial optimization algorithm. Use of variable ratio matching results in greater efficiency than pair matching and also greater bias reduction than matching at a fixed ratio. The possible impact of failing to adjust for an important but unmeasured covariate is examined using sensitivity analysis.

  9. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents.

  10. HIV/AIDS stigma and refusal of HIV testing among pregnant women in rural Kenya: results from the MAMAS Study.

    PubMed

    Turan, Janet M; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Onono, Maricianah; Holzemer, William L; Miller, Suellen; Cohen, Craig R

    2011-08-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma is a common thread in the narratives of pregnant women affected by HIV/AIDS globally and may be associated with refusal of HIV testing. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending antenatal clinics in Kenya (N = 1525). Women completed an interview with measures of HIV/AIDS stigma and subsequently information on their acceptance of HIV testing was obtained from medical records. Associations of stigma measures with HIV testing refusal were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Rates of anticipated HIV/AIDS stigma were high-32% anticipated break-up of their relationship, and 45% anticipated losing their friends. Women who anticipated male partner stigma were more than twice as likely to refuse HIV testing, after adjusting for other individual-level predictors (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.15-3.85). This study demonstrated quantitatively that anticipations of HIV/AIDS stigma can be barriers to acceptance of HIV testing by pregnant women and highlights the need to develop interventions that address pregnant women's fears of HIV/AIDS stigma and violence from male partners.

  11. Peer Study Groups as Catalyst for Vocational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.; Hane, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary peer assisted learning programs often cite improving academic achievement for students. This qualitative study investigated the potential effect of serving as student facilitators of a peer study group on their future vocation. This was a replication of previous studies of personal and professional outcomes for study group…

  12. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... and reduce the burden of disease due to HIV infection and its complications, including tuberculosis and viral hepatitis. Read the Latest ACTG Spotlight Article Investigator Supports Underrepresented and Marginalized People Living with ...

  13. National poverty reduction strategies and HIV/AIDS governance in Malawi: a preliminary study of shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Wachira, Catherine; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-06-01

    The public health and development communities understand clearly the need to integrate anti-poverty efforts with HIV/AIDS programs. This article reports findings about the impact of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process on Malawi's National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF). In this article we ask, how does the PRSP process support NSF accountability, participation, access to information, funding, resource planning and allocation, monitoring, and evaluation? In 2007, we developed and conducted a survey of Malawian government ministries, United Nations agencies, members of the Country Coordination Mechanism, the Malawi National AIDS Commission (NAC), and NAC grantees (N = 125, 90% response rate), seeking survey respondents' retrospective perceptions of NSF resource levels, participation, inclusion, and governance before, during, and after Malawi's PRSP process (2000-2004). We also assessed principle health sector and economic indicators and budget allocations for HIV/AIDS. These indicators are part of a new conceptual framework called shared health governance (SHG), which seeks congruence among the values and goals of different groups and actors to reflect a common purpose. Under this framework, global health policy should encompass: (i) consensus among global, national, and sub-national actors on goals and measurable outcomes; (ii) mutual collective accountability; and (iii) enhancement of individual and group health agency. Indicators to assess these elements included: (i) goal alignment; (ii) adequate resource levels; (iii) agreement on key outcomes and indicators for evaluating those outcomes; (iv) meaningful inclusion and participation of groups and institutions; (v) special efforts to ensure participation of vulnerable groups; and (vi) effectiveness and efficiency measures. Results suggest that the PRSP process supported accountability for NSF resources. However, the process may have marginalized key stakeholders, potentially undercutting the

  14. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  15. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997–2017). Methods A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. Results While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government’s priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non

  16. Bion's thinking about groups: a study of influence and originality.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2015-04-01

    One of Bion's least-acknowledged contributions to psychoanalytic theory is his study of the relationship between the mind of the individual (the ability to think), the mentalities of groups of which the individual is a member, and the individual's bodily states. Bion's early work on group therapy evolved into a study of the interplay between mind and bodily instincts associated with being a member of a group, and became the impetus for his theory of thinking. On the foundation of Bion's ideas concerning this interaction among the thinking of the individual, group mentality, and the psyche-soma, the author presents his thoughts on the ways in which group mentality is recognizable in the analysis of individuals.

  17. THE AIDS MYTH

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Karl Horst

    1996-01-01

    AIDS is now said to threaten humanity as a modern-day scourge. However, there is a group of scientists which maintains that this scare is unwarranted. Some arguments in favour of the re-evaluation of the AIDS hypothesis are presented in this article. PMID:22556763

  18. Psychological Distress, Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout among International Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred

    2012-01-01

    Background International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. Results Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80%) post-deployment; and 154 (73%) within 3–6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8%) participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8%) at post-deployment (p = 0·0027); 22 (10.4%) reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5%) at post-deployment (p = 0·0117) and 31 (20.1%) at follow-up (p = .00083). History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·45–12·50) contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17–1.83). Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1·1; 95% CI 1·02–1.20) comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.19). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0·9; 95% CI 0·84–0·95), psychological distress (AOR = 0.9; [CI] 0.85–0.97), burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0·95; 95% CI 0·91–0·98), and greater life satisfaction (p = 0.0213). Conclusions When recruiting and preparing aid workers

  19. A qualitative study of breast cancer self-help groups.

    PubMed

    Gray, R; Fitch, M; Davis, C; Phillips, C

    1997-12-01

    This study reports on the experience of women in four community breast cancer self-help groups in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women, asking them about benefits and limitations of their group involvement, and about their perspectives on group processes and structures. Overall, participants reported their group involvement to be extremely helpful for navigating the short and long-term impact of breast cancer. Emotional support benefits included connecting with other breast cancer survivors, feeling understood and sharing experiences, providing hope, and sharing healing laughter. Informational and practical support benefits included sharing of important information and learning how to get what you want. Even where there were concerns about limitations or tensions of group experience, these occurred against a backdrop of appreciation and commitment. From the discussion of group processes and structures, a number of issues were identified as problematic. Most notable were how to deal with deaths of group members and how to balance the group's primary purpose of providing mutual support with secondary goals of dealing with group business and engaging in meaningful advocacy.

  20. Novice Teachers Learning through Participation in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambson, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Using Lave and Wenger's framework of legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, this case study explores the experiences of three novice teachers engaged with more experienced teachers in a teacher study group during their first year of teaching. The study illustrates how, over time, the novices moved from more peripheral to…

  1. Childbearing Decision Making: A Qualitative Study of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sofolahan, Y. A.; Airhihenbuwa, C. O.

    2012-01-01

    Using the PEN-3 model, the purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the factors responsible for the childbearing decisions of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) in Lagos, Nigeria. Sixty WLHA who sought care at a teaching hospital in Lagos were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews. The average age of the participants was 30 years, and 48 participants were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Healthcare and spiritual practices, healthcare provider-patient communication about childbearing, and husband/partner support emerged as factors that contribute to the childbearing decisions of WLHA. The findings reveal the importance of discussing sexual reproductive health and childbearing issues with WLHA in the healthcare context prior to pregnancy. PMID:23320152

  2. Spiritual support for people living with HIV/AIDS: a Brazilian explorative, descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Camila Roberto da Costa Borges; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Pedro, Iara Cristina da Silva; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo

    2012-12-01

    In this exploratory and descriptive research, we identified the meaning of religion and spirituality in the experience of patients at a public health service for treatment of HIV/AIDS in a Brazilian upcountry town. Eight participants were selected through theoretical sampling. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The emerging themes were religion: a path to support, and God is everything. Religion, as a path that leads patients to different sources of support, included exploration of different churches, acknowledgment of guilt, and finding strength to cope with the disease, rationalization of the disease process, meeting other churchgoers, and finding God and faith. God, an important source of support, was present in prayers, in the belief in healing through faith, and in the feeling of comfort and relief. Because spirituality and religion were seen as important sources of support, in this study we that health professionals include these aspects in care planning.

  3. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  4. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 6: Environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the external environment of the FBI Fingerprint Identification Division are presented. Possible trends in the future environment of the Division that may have an effect on the work load were projected to determine if future work load will lie within the capability range of the proposed new system, AIDS 3. Two working models of the environment were developed, the internal and external model, and from these scenarios the projection of possible future work load volume and mixture was developed. Possible drivers of work load change were identified and assessed for upper and lower bounds of effects. Data used for the study were derived from historical information, analysis of the current situation and from interviews with various agencies who are users of or stakeholders in the present system.

  5. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  6. Mixed Membership Trajectory Models of Cognitive Impairment in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Molsberry, Samantha A.; Lecci, Fabrizio; Kingsley, Lawrence; Junker, Brian; Reynolds, Sandra; Goodkin, Karl; Levine, Andrew J.; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Becker, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The longitudinal trajectories that individuals may take from a state of normal cognition to HIV-associated dementia are unknown. We applied a novel statistical methodology to identify trajectories to cognitive impairment, and factors that affected the “closeness” of an individual to one of the canonical trajectories. Design The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV Disease among gay and bisexual men. Methods Using data from 3,892 men (both HIV-infected and uninfected) enrolled in the neuropsychology substudy of the MACS, a Mixed Membership Trajectory Model (MMTM) was applied to capture the pathways from normal cognitive function to mild impairment to severe impairment. MMTMs allow the data to identify canonical pathways and to model the effects of risk factors on an individual’s “closeness” to these trajectories. Results We identified three distinct trajectories to cognitive impairment – one “normal aging” (low probability of mild impairment until age 60), one “premature aging” (mild impairment starting at age 45–50), and one “unhealthy” (mild impairment in 20s and 30s) profile. Second, clinically defined AIDS and not simply HIV Disease, was associated with closeness to the premature aging trajectory. And, third, Hepatitis-C infection, Depression, Race, Recruitment Cohort and Confounding Conditions all affected individual’s closeness to these trajectories. Conclusions These results provide new insight into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction in HIV disease and provide evidence for a potential difference in the pathophysiology of the development of cognitive impairment based on trajectories to impairment. PMID:25565498

  7. AidC, a novel N-acylhomoserine lactonase from the potato root-associated cytophaga-flavobacteria-bacteroides (CFB) group bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. strain StRB126.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Zhao; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Someya, Nobutaka; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2012-11-01

    N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are used as quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules by many gram-negative bacteria. We have reported that Chryseobacterium sp. strain StRB126, which was isolated from the root surface of potato, has AHL-degrading activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized the aidC gene from the genomic library of StRB126. AidC has AHL-degrading activity and shows homology to several metallo-β-lactamase proteins from Bacteroidetes, although not to any known AHL-degrading enzymes. Purified AidC, as a maltose-binding fusion protein, showed high degrading activity against all tested AHLs, whether short- or long-chain forms, with or without substitution at carbon 3. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that AidC functions as an AHL lactonase catalyzing AHL ring opening by hydrolyzing lactones. An assay to determine the effects of covalent and ionic bonding showed that Zn(2+) is important to AidC activity both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the aidC gene could also be PCR amplified from several other Chryseobacterium strains. In conclusion, this study indicated that the aidC gene, encoding a novel AHL lactonase, may be widespread throughout the genus Chryseobacterium. Our results extend the diversity and known bacterial hosts of AHL-degrading enzymes.

  8. AidC, a Novel N-Acylhomoserine Lactonase from the Potato Root-Associated Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB) Group Bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. Strain StRB126

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Zhao; Someya, Nobutaka; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are used as quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules by many Gram-negative bacteria. We have reported that Chryseobacterium sp. strain StRB126, which was isolated from the root surface of potato, has AHL-degrading activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized the aidC gene from the genomic library of StRB126. AidC has AHL-degrading activity and shows homology to several metallo-β-lactamase proteins from Bacteroidetes, although not to any known AHL-degrading enzymes. Purified AidC, as a maltose-binding fusion protein, showed high degrading activity against all tested AHLs, whether short- or long-chain forms, with or without substitution at carbon 3. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that AidC functions as an AHL lactonase catalyzing AHL ring opening by hydrolyzing lactones. An assay to determine the effects of covalent and ionic bonding showed that Zn2+ is important to AidC activity both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the aidC gene could also be PCR amplified from several other Chryseobacterium strains. In conclusion, this study indicated that the aidC gene, encoding a novel AHL lactonase, may be widespread throughout the genus Chryseobacterium. Our results extend the diversity and known bacterial hosts of AHL-degrading enzymes. PMID:22941089

  9. Marketing Need-Based Financial Aid Programs: An Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities represent one of the most utilized sources of need-based financial aid information for students and families, and yet most research in access marketing is focused at the national and state levels. There is sparse published information about the effects of financial aid marketing observed through quantitative analysis, in…

  10. The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

  11. HIV/AIDS in Dance Education: A Pilot Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Thompson, Shara

    2005-01-01

    A pilot research project was conducted to address issues related to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in dance in higher education. The primary goals were to summarize the impact of HIV/AIDS on dance and dance education, to document the profession's response (research, curricula, programs,…

  12. "And the Band Played on": Developing Ethical Leadership through a Case Study of the AIDS Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Sarah; Sathe, Laurie Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Randy Shilts (1987), author of "And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic," uses the analogy of the sinking ship and the "band playing on" to draw attention to America's false sense of security in the midst of the growing AIDS crisis. We describe a doctoral curriculum in which students examine the conflicts inherent in their…

  13. Reaching High-Risk Youth through Model AIDS Education Programs: A Case by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This report evaluates the High Risk Youth Demonstration Project, which is predicated on the idea that youth-serving agencies (YSAs) can be key sources for adolescent AIDS education. When the Center for Population Options (CPO) conceptualized a strategy for bringing AIDS education to underserved youth, it was responding to the following three areas…

  14. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Background Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician–patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. Aim To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Design of study Qualitative study using interviews. Setting Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. Method The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Results Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Conclusion Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist. PMID:21062547

  15. Cancer support groups: a critical review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Wachala, Elizabeth D

    2007-05-01

    Support groups for adults affected by cancer are widely offered by local community and national agencies in North America. This type of psychosocial intervention is defined in terms of its structure and functions, and its theoretical underpinnings and models of practice are described. Forty-four empirical studies of professionally led cancer support groups are summarized and critically reviewed. These studies include 32 outcome evaluations of randomized controlled trials, two process evaluations, and 10 consumer satisfaction studies. The findings reveal high levels of consumer satisfaction, and the outcome evaluations substantiate the morale and other quality of life benefits short of prolonging life. Discussion centers on priorities for future research and practice.

  16. Practicing Social Movement Theory in Case Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormrod, James S.

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates the use of a "case study group" method for teaching social movement theory. The aim was to give students the opportunity to practice theorizing actively rather than simply learning theory passively. The method provides this by requiring students to undertake case studies on social movements of their choice for the…

  17. Developing Dialogic Teaching Identities through Online Video Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Nathan Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers narrate and develop their identities through their participation in an online video study group. Participants are six public school world language teachers using "Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling" (TPRS) methodology who live in geographically diverse regions of the United States but…

  18. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  19. [TIMI group study of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the history of development of various methods of reperfusion therapy in myocardial infarction. The method of intracoronary thrombolysis was developed and used in Russia in 1976. In 1984 the TIMI Study Group initiated large-scale long-term trial of thrombolytic therapy in myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris. Some basic results of the study are outlined.

  20. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Japanese public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of 32 Japanese mental health professionals to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms). Responses to these open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 38 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 176 items, 56 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this article. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the Japanese public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to health professionals working in health and welfare settings who do not have clinical mental health training. PMID:21592409

  1. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  2. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  3. A systematic review of cohort studies of the quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients after antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yantao; Liu, Zhibin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Huixin; Ding, Guowei; Su, Yingying; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to review cohort studies that analyze changes in the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS. We searched the PubMed and EmBase databases from inception to December 2012 for primary cohort studies of the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Two independent reviewers screened and selected published studies of quality of life that had been followed up for more than 12 weeks after the beginning of cART. Data from the papers were analyzed to identify common characteristics of the effects of cART on the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Eight cohort studies were found: only four were assessed as high quality and four were assessed as moderate quality. None of the studies described patient selection. Six studies followed the patients for one year or more, and the other studies for less than 6 months. Seven studies reported quality of life had been improved after initiation of cART, and one study reported no change. Previous research suggested that cART improved the quality of life of AIDS patients for a limited time, so further research for longer periods is needed to confirm this outcome.

  4. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from

  5. Mutual Aid and Self-Help Groups in Minority Communities: A Preliminary Essay on Their Significance for High School United States History Classes Accompanied by Classroom Materials and Lesson Plans. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Steve

    The values of private association and self-help through individual effort have been a compelling aspect of the American philosophy. Reaffirming Americanism was not the only reason that immigrant or minority groups created mutual aid or self-help societies, however, since immediate economic and social goals were significant motivations for such…

  6. A Sociopolitical Study of the Concept and Role of Ethnic Teacher Aides in Victorian State Schools. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lois, Comp.; Stockley, David, Comp.

    A study utilized survey and case-study techniques supplemented by examination of documents to facilitate a sociopolitical investigation of the concept and role of ethnic teacher aides in state schools in Victoria, Australia. A theoretical framework was developed, combining an historical sociology of knowledge with a systems management perspective.…

  7. A Quantitative Study of Teacher Readiness to Teach School-Based HIV/AIDS Education in Kenyan Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang'at, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' self-perceived readiness to teach school-based HIV/AIDS Awareness and Prevention education in Kenyan primary schools based on their knowledge, attitudes and instructional confidence. This research utilized a non-experimental quantitative approach with a…

  8. Nurse Aide. D.O.T. No. 355.674-014. Student's Individualized Study Packet. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Developed for students in a cooperative training program in health occupations education, this study guide is designed for individualized study of competencies for nurse aides, orderlies, and attendants. It follows the general responsibilities outlined in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The occupational outlook and job description are first…

  9. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Bryan, Michael; Siegel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methods and results for the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), conducted for the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Washington, DC. The following legislation authorizes this and previous cycles of NPSAS, as well as two longitudinal studies deriving…

  10. Very Young Children Affected and Infected by HIV/AIDS: How are they Living?: A Case Study from Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Otaala, Barnabas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a recent study conducted jointly by the authors in the Khomas Region of Namibia. The study developed and trialled research and documentation methods regarding very young children who had been infected or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Because of the stigma attached to the disease, effective methods for assessing…

  11. Electrophysiological study (VEP, BAEP) in HIV-1 seropositive patients with and without AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pierelli, F; Soldati, G; Zambardi, P; Garrubba, C; Spadaro, M; Tilia, G; Pauri, F; Morocutti, C

    1993-01-01

    One hundred-twenty nine HIV-1 seropositive patients (39 females, 90 males) were studied by means of pattern visual evoked potential (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) recording. Utilizing the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control the patients were clinically defined and then subdivided into four groups: group A included patients of category II (n:11); group B patients of category III (n:29); group C patients of category IVa and IVc2 (n:55) and group D patients belonging to the other subgroups of category IV (n:34). EP were altered in 26.35% of the entire group with a marked prevalence of BAEP alterations (21.7%) rather than of VEP (4.65%). A considerable amount of BAEP abnormalities (24.13%) were found in patients with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (group B). A significant increase of BAEP mean interpeak latencies were observed in group B, C, D patients when compared with those of the control group. On the whole, EP were altered in 20.65% of the neurologically asymptomatic patients. EP alterations may precede any clinical manifestation and can be found during the earlier phases of HIV-1 infection.

  12. Prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Skolasky, Richard L.; Seaberg, Eric; Munro, Cynthia; Becker, James T.; Martin, Eileen; Ragin, Ann; Levine, Andrew; Miller, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV+ individuals and determine whether the frequency of HAND changed over 4 years of follow-up. Methods: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is a prospective study of gay/bisexual men. Beginning in 2007, all MACS participants received a full neuropsychological test battery and functional assessments every 2 years to allow for HAND classification. Results: The frequency of HAND for the 364 HIV+ individuals seen in 2007–2008 was 33% and for the 197 HIV+ individuals seen at all time periods during the 2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2011–2012 periods were 25%, 25%, and 31%, respectively. The overall frequency of HAND increased from 2009–2010 to 2011–2012 (p = 0.048). Over the 4-year study, 77% of the 197 HIV+ individuals remained at their same stage, with 13% showing deterioration and 10% showing improvement in HAND stage. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with HAND progression. A diagnosis of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of symptomatic HAND compared to a diagnosis of normal cognition. Conclusion: HAND remains common in HIV+ individuals. However, for the majority of HIV+ individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy with systemic virologic suppression, the diagnosis of HAND is not a progressive condition over 4 years of follow-up. Future studies should evaluate longitudinal changes in HAND and specific neurocognitive domains over a longer time period. PMID:26718568

  13. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    PubMed

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  14. [Studying the development of imipramine tolerance and prospects of its overcoming with the aid of tianeptine].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, V L; Kenunen, O G

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of two groups of mice to sub-chronic imipramine administration has been studied in a series of experiments, where one (control) group received physiological saline instead of imipramine. Then, both groups were randomly divided to receive either tianeptine (two groups) or physiological saline (two groups) for three days. After this period, the reaction of mice to imipramine was assessed again by measuring the immobilization duration in the tail suspension test. It was found that sub-chronic administration of imipramine (6 days) did not reduce sensitivity of the mice to this medication. Tianeptine showed "pro-depressive" action in the tail suspension test, but the administration of tianeptine increased the sensitivity of rodents to imipramine.

  15. Comparative study of auxetic geometries by means of computer-aided design and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez Elipe, Juan Carlos; Díaz Lantada, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several auxetic and potentially auxetic geometries have been summarized in previous reviews and research, precise information regarding relevant properties for design tasks is not always provided. In this study we present a comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional auxetic geometries carried out by means of computer-aided design and engineering tools (from now on CAD-CAE). The first part of the study is focused on the development of a CAD library of auxetics. Once the library is developed we simulate the behavior of the different auxetic geometries and elaborate a systematic comparison, considering relevant properties of these geometries, such as Poisson ratio(s), maximum volume or area reductions attainable and equivalent Young’s modulus, hoping it may provide useful information for future designs of devices based on these interesting structures.

  16. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) TO THE STUDY OF MARINE BENTIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) scanner at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Procedures were developed, using the attenuation of X-rays, to differentiate between sediment and the water contained in macrobenthic...

  17. Laboratory Governance: Issues for the Study Group on Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Thomas; Dominic, Joseph

    Background information and an analysis of issues involved in the governance of new regional educational laboratories are presented. The new laboratories are to be established through a 1984 competition administered by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The analysis is designed to assist the Study Group on Regional Laboratories to advise…

  18. Mapping Task Switching in Frontal Cortex Through Neuropsychological Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shallice, Tim; Stuss, Donald T.; Picton, Terence W.; Alexander, Michael P.; Gillingham, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers evidence provided by large neuropsychological group studies and meta-analyses of functional imaging experiments on the location in frontal cortex of the subprocesses involved in the carrying out of task-switching paradigms. The function of the individual subprocesses is also considered in the light of analyses of the performance of normal subjects. PMID:18982110

  19. Teacher Study Groups As a Means of Rural Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Hecimovic, Tony

    A teacher study group was formed at Garfield Elementary School (Billings, Montana) to provide opportunities for professional development. Garfield Elementary has a student population of over 400 students, approximately 50 of whom qualify for special education services. The majority of children come from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and…

  20. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  1. Literacy Partners: Teacher Innovation in a Study/Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, Dana L.

    A study/research partnership between university teacher educators and teachers was formed when teachers at the third-, fourth- and fifth-grade levels decided to implement an innovation called Literature Response Groups in their classrooms. The setting was an urban elementary school in northern California. Participants included six elementary…

  2. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  3. Effective Single-Parent Training Group Program: Three System Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Miller, Keva M.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study highlights Dr. Elsie Pinkston and colleagues' research on the effectiveness of behavior parent training and examines the application of single-parent training group (SPG) programs to three parent-child dyads exposed to distressed family circumstances. Methods: Single-system evaluation designs were conducted with two…

  4. [Professionalization of nursing aides at the State of Sao Paulo: a study of supply/demand regarding training].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lavínia Santos de Souza; Lampe, Glória Nicoladelli; Martins, Cleide Lavieri; Miyashiro, Sueli Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to verify the problem of nursing aides professionalization and to analyze the offer of courses and demand regarding technical level capacitation at the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained through the analysis of documents on professional capacitation in the area in the 1990s. Authors identified a scenario of conceptual and political changes regarding the professionalization and the existence of a great number of aides being professionalized. They also verified a tendency to increase the offer of courses and the demand regarding the capacitation and specialization at the technical level.

  5. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Vinay; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. PMID:26504376

  6. Understanding Teacher Aides' Definitions of Reading: Implications for Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lois Ruth; Davidson, Christina Ruth; Aprile, Kerry Therese

    2015-01-01

    While teacher aides often provide individual and group reading instruction for at-risk readers, research suggests these interventions may not always bring about reading gains. This Australian study investigated upper primary school teacher aides' definitions of reading, drawing on semi-structured interview responses and written definitions…

  7. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 7: Top down functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The functions are identified and described in chart form as a tree in which the basic functions, to 'Provide National Identification Service,' are shown at the top. The lower levels of the tree branch out to indicate functions and sub-functions. Symbols are used to indicate whether or not a function was automated in the AIDS 1 or 2 system or is planned to be automated in the AIDS 3 system. The tree chart is shown in detail.

  8. AIDS: Amyl-Nitrite Use as a Factor (A Proposed Analytic Case-Control Study)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health , 1984 Supervising Professors Benjamin Bradshaw .. A study design is proposed to test the...from a politically based homo- sexual group. The use o.a politically based homosexual group as a source of controls-is proposed as they are more...or those claiming Haiti as the/r country of origin will be excluded. The case and • comparison 4roups will be matched on number of sexual partners

  9. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  10. [First-aid training at work on interpersonal development: exploratory study on employees in integration into the workplace centres].

    PubMed

    Lafitte, Pascale; Bridot, Michel; Semedo, Luis; Gagnayre, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Research and Security and the “CHANTIER Ecole” network have developed first-aid training for employees of integration into the workplace centres. Specifically geared towards workplace safety, but similar in its content to home first-aid and rescue training, this training is also designed to enhance individual and collective responsibility and citizenship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the personal and interpersonal effects of first-aid training of these employees by considering their social and professional difficulties in terms of psychosocial skills, such as empowerment, stress and emotions management, and decision-making capacity. A descriptive-inductive study was conducted over 18 months based on the grounded theory approach. Five integration into the work-place centres participated in the study and 34 interviews were conducted. These results raise several questions concerning: a) the characteristics of this public targeted by this training and their perception of integration into the workplace; b) the suitability of this training to working conditions and the link with other types of training such as family health education; c) the relationship between citizenship training and first-aid training at work, as it is more applicable to family training than workplace training. A quantitative study is considered to confirm these observations in other integration into the workplace centres.

  11. Paraprofessional Teacher Aide to Teacher: An Oral History Study of Five Alumnae of the Career Opportunities Program (COP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This oral history study addressed the problem of under-representation of minority teachers through the voices and perspectives of five African American female paraprofessional teacher aides who entered the teaching profession through participation in the Career Opportunities Program in Erie, Pennsylvania from 1970 through 1974. Two theoretical…

  12. Assessment of HIV/AIDS comprehensive correct knowledge among Sudanese university: a cross-sectional analytic study 2014

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawi, Abdulateef; Mirghani, Hyder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Comprehensive correct HIV/AIDS knowledge (CCAK) is defined as correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, and reject the most common misconceptions about HIV transmission. There are limited studies on this topic in Sudan. In this study we investigated the Comprehensive correct HIV/AIDS knowledge among Universities students. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among 556 students from two universities in 2014. Data were collected by using the self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Chi-square was used for testing the significance and P. Value of ≥ 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results The majority (97.1%) of study subjects have heard about a disease called HIV/AIDS, while only 28.6% of them knew anyone who is infected with AIDS in the local community. Minority (13.8%) of students had CCAK however, males showed a better level of CCAK than females (OR = 2.77) with high significant statistical differences (P. Value = 0.001). Conclusion Poor rate of CCAK among university students is noticed, especially among females. Almost half of students did not know preventive measures of HIV, nearly two thirds had misconception, about one third did not know the mode of transmission of HIV. PMID:27642389

  13. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Real-Time Computer-Aided Study of the Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article…

  14. AIDS-Related Stigmas and Safe-Sex Practices of African-American College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…

  15. 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04) Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series. NCES 2005-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccobono, J.; Siegel, P.; Cominole, M.; Dudley, K.; Charleston, S.; Link, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04), conducted for the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), collected comprehensive data regarding how students and their families pay for postsecondary education. The primary objective of NPSAS:04 is to produce reliable national estimates of…

  16. State Merit-Based Aid and Enrolling in Graduate Study: Evidence from the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the effect of a state merit-based aid program for undergraduate students on subsequent enrollment in graduate school. It uses student unit record data to analyze the impact of the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship (KEES). Price theory is used as a framework for understanding the incentives provided by KEES. Using a…

  17. An Aggregate Study of Single-Case Research Involving Aided AAC: Participant Characteristics of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Mason, Rose A.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who cannot speak at all or not intelligibly are frequently taught to use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The majority of the research on the use of AAC with individuals with ASD has been single-case research studies. This investigation involved a meta-analysis of the…

  18. Unilateral neglect and perceptual parsing: a large-group study.

    PubMed

    Neppi-Mòdona, Marco; Savazzi, Silvia; Ricci, Raffaella; Genero, Rosanna; Berruti, Giuseppina; Pepi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Array-centred and subarray-centred neglect were disambiguated in a group of 116 patients with left neglect by means of a modified version of the Albert test in which the central column of segments was deleted so as to create two separate sets of targets grouped by proximity. The results indicated that neglect was more frequent in array- than subarray-centred coordinates and that, in a minority of cases, neglect co-occurred in both coordinate-systems. The two types of neglect were functionally but not anatomically dissociated. Presence of visual field defects was not prevalent in one type of neglect with respect to the other. These data contribute further evidence to previous single-case and small-group studies by showing that neglect can occur in single or multiple reference frames simultaneously, in agreement with current neuropsychological, neurophysiological and computational concepts of space representation.

  19. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Using a Web-Based Interactive Decision Aid for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Community Practice Settings: Findings From Focus Groups With Primary Care Clinicians and Medical Office Staff

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information is lacking about the capacity of those working in community practice settings to utilize health information technology for colorectal cancer screening. Objective To address this gap we asked those working in community practice settings to share their perspectives about how the implementation of a Web-based patient-led decision aid might affect patient-clinician conversations about colorectal cancer screening and the day-to-day clinical workflow. Methods Five focus groups in five community practice settings were conducted with 8 physicians, 1 physician assistant, and 18 clinic staff. Focus groups were organized using a semistructured discussion guide designed to identify factors that mediate and impede the use of a Web-based decision aid intended to clarify patient preferences for colorectal cancer screening and to trigger shared decision making during the clinical encounter. Results All physicians, the physician assistant, and 8 of the 18 clinic staff were active participants in the focus groups. Clinician and staff participants from each setting reported a belief that the Web-based patient-led decision aid could be an informative and educational tool; in all but one setting participants reported a readiness to recommend the tool to patients. The exception related to clinicians from one clinic who described a preference for patients having fewer screening choices, noting that a colonoscopy was the preferred screening modality for patients in their clinic. Perceived barriers to utilizing the Web-based decision aid included patients’ lack of Internet access or low computer literacy, and potential impediments to the clinics’ daily workflow. Expanding patients’ use of an online decision aid that is both easy to access and understand and that is utilized by patients outside of the office visit was described as a potentially efficient means for soliciting patients’ screening preferences. Participants described that a system to link the

  20. The effectiveness of web-based and face-to-face continuing education methods on nurses' knowledge about AIDS: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Khatony, Alireza; Nayery, Nahid Dehghan; Ahmadi, Fazlolaah; Haghani, Hamid; Vehvilainen-Julkunen, Katri

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about web-based education outcomes in comparison with a face-to-face format can help researchers and tutors prepare and deliver future web-based or face-to-face courses more efficiently. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of web-based and face-to-face continuing education methods in improving nurses' knowledge about AIDS. Methods A quasi-experimental method was used with a pre-test and post-test design. In this study 140 nurses with BSc degrees were chosen through a random sampling method and divided into a web-based and a face-to-face group by random allocation. For the former group the intervention consisted of a web-based course on AIDS; the latter received a 3-hour lecture course on the same subject. At the beginning and end of the course in both groups, the nurses' knowledge was measured by a questionnaire. Pre- and post-test scores were compared within and between the groups. Results The results show that there was no significant difference between the groups in either the pre-test (t(138) = -1.7, p = 0.096) nor the post-test (t(138) = -1.4, p = 0.163) scores in the knowledge test. However, there was a significant difference in the pre-test and post-test scores within each group (web-based, t(69) = 26, p < .001; face-to-face, t(69) = 24.3, p < .001). Conclusion The web-based method seems to be as effective as the face-to-face method in the continuing education of nurses. Therefore, the web-based method is recommended, as complementary to the face-to-face method, for designing and delivering some topics of continuing education programs for nurses. PMID:19591678

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) / reproductive tract infections (RTI) including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) / human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among the women of reproductive age group: a review.

    PubMed

    Nahar, A; Azad, A K

    1999-06-01

    Despite great improvements in preventing and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including HIV/AIDS, infections have been increasing significantly throughout the world. The problem of STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS among women aged 15-49 years is increasing at an alarming rate. Certain biological risk factors and cultural practices enhance the vulnerability of women of reproductive age. Among these biological risks are age, gender, blood transfusion during pregnancy and childbirth, and the development of asymptomatic STDs/RTIs. These are exacerbated by cultural practices like douching with pharmaceutical products, use of intravaginal substances, and the practice of anal sex. STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS affect female reproductive health in certain ways: mother-to-child transmission, effects on pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, low birth weight, ectopic pregnancy), infertility, cancer, and rise in AIDS-related mortality. On the other hand, society will experience an increase in orphans, destabilization of the family unit, and a reduction in family income. Considering the impact of these diseases on the reproductive health of women and the community, measures should be taken to prevent and control the epidemic. The paper discusses certain interventions and diagnostic and preventive strategies against STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS.

  2. AIDS education for primary school children in Tanzania: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Klepp, K I; Ndeki, S S; Seha, A M; Hannan, P; Lyimo, B A; Msuya, M H; Irema, M N; Schreiner, A

    1994-08-01

    In the adjacent regions of Arusha and Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, researchers conducted a quasi-experimental, nested cross-sectional design to evaluate the Ngao (shield) HIV/AIDS education program for public primary school children, a culturally specific program. The baseline survey and the 6-month follow-up survey included 2026 and 1785 6th-7th grade children, respectively. Teachers of the participating schools and health workers participated in a 1-week training workshop before they implemented the program over 2-3 months. Its intent was to reduce the pupils' risk of HIV infection and to improve their acceptance of and care for people with AIDS. At baseline, the pupils in intervention and comparison schools tended to be comparable. At follow-up, however, intervention pupils had been exposed to more AIDS information (scores, 13.1 vs. 10.5), had discussed AIDS more often (10.9 vs. 7.8), and had a higher increase in AIDS knowledge (14.5 vs. 11.5) than did the comparison pupils (p = .0001 for all the above). They also had significantly more positive attitudes towards people with AIDS than the comparison pupils (9 vs. 6.7; p = .0008). Pupils in the intervention had more restrictive subjective norms regarding sexual intercourse (45.5 vs. 43.8; p = .011) and less intention to engage in sexual intercourse over the next 3 months than at baseline. Yet, they were not significantly different from comparison pupils, because the comparison pupils also had a change in attitude. These findings show that teachers in primary schools and health educators can implement a workable and effective HIV/AIDS education program for school children.

  3. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  4. Evaluation of computer-aided instruction in a gross anatomy course: a six-year study.

    PubMed

    McNulty, John A; Sonntag, Beth; Sinacore, James M

    2009-01-01

    Web-based computer-aided instruction (CAI) has become increasingly important to medical curricula. This multi-year study investigated the effectiveness of CAI and the factors affecting level of individual use. Three CAI were tested that differed in specificity of applicability to the curriculum and in the level of student interaction with the CAI. Student personality preferences and learning styles were measured using the Meyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Information on "computer literacy" and use of CAI was collected from student surveys. Server logs were used to quantify individual use of respective CAI. There was considerable variability in the level of utilization of each CAI by individual students. Individual use of each CAI differed and was associated with gender, MBTI preferences and learning style, but not with "computer literacy." The majority of students found the CAI useful for learning and used the CAI by themselves. Students who accessed the CAI resources most frequently scored significantly higher on exams compared with students who never accessed the resources. Our results show that medical students do not uniformly use CAI developed for their curriculum and this variability is associated with various attributes of individual students. Our data also provide evidence of the importance of understanding student preferences and learning styles when implementing CAI into the curriculum.

  5. A video-aided study of the diet of wild white-headed Langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijie; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qing; Qin, Dagong; Li, Xingdong; Wang, Dezhi; Jin, Tong; Chen, Mei; Pan, Wenshi

    2011-01-01

    Asian leaf-eating monkeys have flexible, environmentally adaptable feeding strategies. The diet and food choices of white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) have, however, not yet been studied in the Nongguan Karst Hills in China, where one of the two main surviving populations of this endangered species lives. From 2000 to 2002 inclusive, we adopted an innovative video playback analysis method to identify the food species used by the langurs and to calculate the corresponding feeding frequency for each species. The video-aided methodology was shown to be efficient. It provided high-quality images, and the plant species could be identified in 98.3% of the feeding records. Based on this analysis, we found that the langurs in Nongguan fed on 70 species of plants, among which 24 were identified as their staple food species. The cumulative curve for the staple food species reached a plateau at 255 (43.7%) feeding records. This result indicated that most of the langurs' staple food species had been identified by the analysis.

  6. Understanding the effects of PEMFC contamination from balance of plant assembly aids materials: In situ studies

    DOE PAGES

    Opu, Md.; Bender, G.; Macomber, Clay S.; ...

    2015-06-29

    In this study, in situ performance data were measured to assess the degree of contamination from leachates of five families of balance of plant (BOP) materials (i.e., 2-part adhesive, grease, thread lock/seal, silicone adhesive/seal and urethane adhesive/seal) broadly classified as assembly aids that may be used as adhesives and lubricants in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Leachate solutions, derived from soaking the materials in deionized (DI) water at elevated temperature, were infused into the fuel cell to determine the effect of the leachates on fuel cell performance. During the contamination phase of the experiments, leachate solution was introducedmore » through a nebulizer into the cathode feed stream of a 50 cm2 PEMFC operating at 0.2 A/cm2 at 80°C and 32%RH. Voltage loss and high frequency resistance (HFR) were measured as a function of time and electrochemical surface area (ECA) before and after contamination were compared. Two procedures of recovery, one self-induced recovery with DI water and one driven recovery through cyclic voltammetry (CV) were investigated. Finally, performance results measured before and after contamination and after CV recovery are compared and discussed.« less

  7. Understanding the effects of PEMFC contamination from balance of plant assembly aids materials: In situ studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opu, Md.; Bender, G.; Macomber, Clay S.; Van Zee, J. W.; Dinh, Huyen N.

    2015-06-29

    In this study, in situ performance data were measured to assess the degree of contamination from leachates of five families of balance of plant (BOP) materials (i.e., 2-part adhesive, grease, thread lock/seal, silicone adhesive/seal and urethane adhesive/seal) broadly classified as assembly aids that may be used as adhesives and lubricants in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Leachate solutions, derived from soaking the materials in deionized (DI) water at elevated temperature, were infused into the fuel cell to determine the effect of the leachates on fuel cell performance. During the contamination phase of the experiments, leachate solution was introduced through a nebulizer into the cathode feed stream of a 50 cm2 PEMFC operating at 0.2 A/cm2 at 80°C and 32%RH. Voltage loss and high frequency resistance (HFR) were measured as a function of time and electrochemical surface area (ECA) before and after contamination were compared. Two procedures of recovery, one self-induced recovery with DI water and one driven recovery through cyclic voltammetry (CV) were investigated. Finally, performance results measured before and after contamination and after CV recovery are compared and discussed.

  8. Ab-Initio Study of the Group 2 Hydride Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Joe P.; Wright, Timothy G.; Manship, Daniel R.

    2013-06-01

    The beryllium hydride (BeH)- dimer has recently been shown to be surprisingly strongly bound, with an electronic structure which is highly dependent on internuclear separation. At the equilibrium distance, the negative charge is to be found on the beryllium atom, despite the higher electronegativity of the hydrogen. The current study expands this investigation to the other Group 2 hydrides, and attempts to explain these effects. M. Verdicchio, G. L. Bendazzoli, S. Evangelisti, T. Leininger J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 192, (2013)

  9. Geothermal development of the Madison group aquifer: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A geothermal well has been drilled at the St. Mary's Hospital in Pierre, South Dakota. The well is 2176 feet deep and artesian flows 375 gpm at 106/sup 0/F. The well is producing fluids from the Mississippian Madison Group, a sequence of carbonate rocks deposited over several western states. The project was funded to demonstrate the goethermal potential of this widespread aquifer. This case study describes the development of the project through geology, drilling, stimulation, and testing.

  10. Medical aid schemes respond to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G

    1999-01-01

    The insurance and medical aid industries reacted strongly in the 1980s to alarmist predictions of the likely impact of HIV upon employee benefits. Actuaries and accountants moved quickly to contain the risk, and most medical aid trustees quickly implemented a total exclusion of HIV treatment from their benefits. For more than 1 decade, it was argued that HIV/AIDS is a self-inflicted illness, often categorized with other STDs. In response, healthcare providers simply bypassed insurance restrictions and compensation limits by masking patient diagnoses to reflect pneumonia or other ambiguous, yet fully reimbursable, illnesses. Now, common sense has finally prevailed as a few managed healthcare programs are stepping forward to break the impasse. The largest such program is Aid for AIDS, run by Pharmaceutical Benefit Management Ltd. for schemes within the Medscheme Group. The Group built an entirely new, secure unit off-site from their normal branches to guarantee the confidentiality of patients' records and diagnoses, while treatment guidelines have been issued to every practicing physician in the country.

  11. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kanowski, Leonard G; Kelly, Claire M; Langlands, Robyn L

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations). The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful and appropriate by the

  12. Drivers for the effective management of HIV and AIDS in the South African construction industry--a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Harinarain, Nishani; Haupt, Theo Conrad

    2014-09-01

    Different industries manage the threats presented by HIV and AIDS in different ways. The construction industry is particularly vulnerable to the pandemic because of its large unskilled labour force, high labour turnover and the migratory nature of the workforce. The study reported on in this paper, the first of its kind in the South African construction industry, aimed to identify the important drivers needed for the effective management of HIV and AIDS and to understand their impact on the construction industry. The aim was achieved in two stages. The first stage involved an extensive literature review to determine the factors that drive corporate response in the management of HIV and AIDS in the South African construction sector. Six drivers, namely legal requirements, social pressures, business costs, voluntary regulation, visibility of the disease, and individuals within companies with a total of 87 items were identified. An iterative Delphi technique with a panel of experts was used to validate the factors identified in the literature review and formed the second stage of this research. The Delphi method was used as it provided a systematic approach to achieve consensus on the six drivers for effective management of HIV and AIDS management in the construction industry. An expert panel responded to three iterations of questionnaires to achieve consensus. The experts reached consensus on 56 items categorised under the 6 drivers. This study found that the legal driver was considered most important but only second in terms of impact. The second most important driver was the visibility of the disease and was regarded as the driver with the highest impact. Internal agents ranked third in terms of importance and impact. This study can be used for further research to assist the construction industry in helping fight HIV and AIDS.

  13. Study on computer-aided alignment method of reflective zoom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jide; Chang, Jun; Xie, Guijuan; Zhang, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Computer-aided alignment is an effective method to improve the imaging quality of high-precision, complex, and off-axis optical systems. However, how to determine the misalignment quickly, exactly and constantly is essential to the technology of computer-aided alignment. Owing to the varying optical characteristics of a zoom system, sensitivity matrices are used in the alignment rather than a single matrix. Thus, the processing of sensitivity matrices is important for the computer-aided alignment of the reflective zoom system. So, the total least squares is proposed in order to solve the problems of the numerical instability and the result inaccuracy which result from the solution of the least squares method directly. Finally, the simulant calculation is processed using the numerical analysis model established in the essay. The results demonstrate that the computation method is rational and effective.

  14. Addressing the intersections of violence and HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study of service providers.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Hubach, Randolph D

    2011-01-01

    This article examines what measures health care and social service providers take to address intersections between various forms of violence and HIV/AIDS in the delivery of services to their clients/patients. We operated within an organizationallinteractional uncertainty theoretical framework and analyzed qualitative interview data from 30 providers offering services related to violence or HIV/AIDS in the San Francisco Bay Area. We found that providers used several strategies to mitigate crossover risk, but they enacted these measures on a case-by-case basis and tended not to follow a dedicated and complete protocol with every client/patient. We also identify nine factors that affected providers' capacity to discern and effectively address violence-HIV/AIDS intersections, present providers' descriptions of their needs in terms of addressing crossover risk, and discuss implications for interventions.

  15. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  16. Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse.

    PubMed

    Myint, Thein; Anderson, Albert M; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N; Bamberger, David M; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p < 0.0001) and 5% death (p = 0.28) in the PC group. Relapse occurred in 53% of the nonadherent patients but not in the adherent patients (p < 0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients with initial central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis relapsed compared to 15% of patients without CNS involvement (p = 0.0004), which may be accounted for by nonadherence. In addition, patients with antigenuria above 2.0 ng/mL at 1-year follow-up were 12.82 times (95% confidence interval, 2.91-55.56) more likely to relapse compared to those with antigenuria below 2.0 ng/mL. Discontinuation of antifungal therapy was safe in adherent patients who completed at least 1 year of antifungal treatment, and had CD4 counts >150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis.

  17. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  18. Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua: results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette C; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach's alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV.

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Lombardi, S; Poli, A; Garzelli, C; Matteucci, D; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Malvaldi, G; Tozzini, F

    1995-01-01

    The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies. PMID:7704896

  20. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gorgas, Diane L.; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P.; Way, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. Methods This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact

  1. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 2: Technical feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this effort are presented in a manner for use by both the AIDS 3 Operational and Economic Feasibility subtasks as well as the Development of Alternative subtask. The approach taken was to identify the major functions that appear in AIDS 3 and then to determine which technologies would be needed for support. The technologies were then examined from the point of view of reliability, throughput, security, availability, cost and possible future trends. Whenever possible graphs are given to indicate projected costs of rapidly changing technologies.

  2. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  3. Technology-Aided Programs for Assisting Communication and Leisure Engagement of Persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Two Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Ferrarese, Giacomina; Zullo, Valeria; Addante, Luigi M.; Spica, Antonella; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    Technology-aided programs for assisting communication and leisure engagement were assessed in single-case studies involving two men with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Study I involved a 51-year-old man with a virtually total loss of his motor repertoire and assessed a technology-aided program aimed at enabling him to (a) write and send out…

  4. Simultaneous inference for longitudinal data with detection limits and covariates measured with errors, with application to AIDS studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lang

    2004-06-15

    In AIDS studies such as HIV viral dynamics, statistical inference is often complicated because the viral load measurements may be subject to left censoring due to a detection limit and time-varying covariates such as CD4 counts may be measured with substantial errors. Mixed-effects models are often used to model the response and the covariate processes in these studies. We propose a unified approach which addresses the censoring and measurement errors simultaneously. We estimate the model parameters by a Monte-Carlo EM algorithm via the Gibbs sampler. A simulation study is conducted to compare the proposed method with the usual two-step method and a naive method. We find that the proposed method produces approximately unbiased estimates with more reliable standard errors. A real data set from an AIDS study is analysed using the proposed method.

  5. Small-Group Phonological Awareness Training for Pre-Kindergarten Children with Hearing Loss Who Wear Cochlear Implants and/or Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Douglas, Michael; Ackal, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This case report details a year-long phonological awareness (PA) intervention for pre-kindergarten children with hearing loss (CHL) who use listening and spoken language. All children wore cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Intervention occurred for 15 min/day, 4 days per week across the pre-kindergarten school year and was delivered by…

  6. The "aid contract" and its compensation scheme: a case study of the performance of the Ugandan health sector.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Cruz, Valeria; McPake, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Current literature on aid effectiveness describes increasing use of a more contractual approach to the relationship between donor and recipient government in which a system of rewards and penalties for good and bad performance operates. The purpose of this case study of the Ugandan health sector was to understand the extent to which this approach is influencing processes and effectiveness. This qualitative study used a conceptual framework based on agency theory and 'realistic evaluation'. Our results showed that the main official mechanism to assess and reward performance established through the Sector Wide Approach lacked objective criteria and was based on an unstructured system of discussions and agreements among donors. The achievement of a satisfactory performance rating was facilitated by the agreeing to undertakings that were under-demanding, vaguely formulated and lacking quantitative benchmarks against which progress could be measured. However, even when poor performance was readily observable, penalties failed to be applied by donors. This was always the case in relation to health sector performance and mostly so in relation to general governance and accountability. Funds continued to be disbursed despite the lack of progress made in achieving targets and undertakings and other evident performance problems (e.g. in the area of governance). A series of explanations of the failure to penalise were put forward by donor representatives in relation to this behaviour including the need to maintain long-term relationships based on trust and not to undermine health sector performance by withdrawing aid. Thus there are likely to be incentives to disburse funds and report success, irrespective of the realities of aid programmes in the context of large foreign aid volumes associated with increased political visibility of aid in donor countries.

  7. Risk factors associated with Tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS: A pair-matched case-control study in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhezhe; Lin, Mei; Nie, Shaofa; Lan, Rushu

    2017-01-01

    Background As one of the poorest provinces in China, Guangxi has a high HIV and TB prevalence, with the annual number of TB/HIV cases reported by health department among the highest in the country. However, studies on the burden of TB-HIV co-infection and risk factors for active TB among HIV-infected persons in Guangxi have rarely been reported. Objective To investigate the risk factors for active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China. Methods A surveillance survey was conducted of 1 019 HIV-infected patients receiving care at three AIDS prevention and control departments between 2013 and 2015. We investigated the cumulative prevalence of TB during 2 years. To analyze risk factors associated with active TB, we conducted a 1:1 pair-matched case-control study of newly reported active TB/HIV co-infected patients. Controls were patients with HIV without active TB, latent TB infection or other lung disease, who were matched with the case group based on sex and age (± 3 years). Results A total of 1 019 subjects were evaluated. 160 subjects (15.70%) were diagnosed with active TB, including 85 clinically diagnosed cases and 75 confirmed cases. We performed a 1:1 matched case-control study, with 82 TB/HIV patients and 82 people living with HIV/AIDS based on surveillance site, sex and age (±3) years. According to multivariate analysis, smoking (OR = 2.996, 0.992–9.053), lower CD 4+ T-cell count (OR = 3.288, 1.161–9.311), long duration of HIV-infection (OR = 5.946, 2.221–15.915) and non-use of ART (OR = 7.775, 2.618–23.094) were independent risk factors for TB in people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The prevalence of active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi was 173 times higher than general population in Guangxi. It is necessary for government to integrate control planning and resources for the two diseases. Medical and public health workers should strengthen health education for TB/HIV prevention and

  8. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  9. Kidney Dysfunction and Markers of Inflammation in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Alison G.; Darilay, Annie; McKay, Heather; Margolick, Joseph B.; Estrella, Michelle M.; Palella, Frank J.; Bolan, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Jacobson, Lisa P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at higher risk for chronic kidney disease than HIV-uninfected individuals. We investigated whether the inflammation present in treated HIV infection contributes to kidney dysfunction among HIV-infected men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was directly measured (using iohexol) along with 12 markers of inflammation in Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify inflammatory processes related to kidney dysfunction. The estimated levels of these inflammatory processes were used in adjusted logistic regression analyses evaluating cross-sectional associations with kidney function outcomes. Results. There were 434 HIV-infected men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and 200 HIV-uninfected men. HIV-infected men were younger (median age, 51 vs 53 years) and had higher urine protein-creatinine ratios (median, 98 vs 66 mg/g) but comparable GFRs (median, 109 vs 106 mL/min|1.73 m2). We found an inflammatory process dominated by markers: soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, soluble interleukin 2 receptor α, soluble gp130, soluble CD27, and soluble CD14. An increase of 1 standard deviation in that inflammatory process was associated with significantly greater odds of GFR ≤90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio, 2.0) and urine protein >200 mg/g (odds ratio, 2.3). Conclusions. Higher circulating levels of immune activation markers among treated HIV-infected men may partially explain their higher burden of kidney dysfunction compared with uninfected men. PMID:25762788

  10. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

  11. AIDS: a new frontier in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A

    1994-01-01

    HIV infection has become a pandemic. As such, it is the most recent inclusion to epidemiology studies. A review of past epidemics allows a different perspective on the current status of scientific knowledge regarding AIDS. HIV is a retrovirus, one of three groups identified. The other two groups are commonly referred to as HTLV I and II and do not cause AIDS. Two forms of HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) make up the third group, HTLV-III. As with any research, various theories are formed, tested, and often rejected. Some theories receive excessive publicity before testing, resulting in incorrect public beliefs that become myths. The cumulative number of cases of AIDS in the United States is 361,509, as of December 31, 1993. Healthcare workers experience multiple opportunities for exposure to the infection in the course of their duties. Based on data from the 1993 BMET/CE survey, several biohazard issues, as well as preventive measures, are discussed.

  12. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  13. AIDS Related Stigma in Social Relations: A Qualitative Study in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Saillard, Elif Kus; Kaya, Nilay; Turan, Feryal

    2011-01-01

    The actual number of HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey is higher than the number of cases reported, and People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) may refrain from acknowledging their sickness or seeking help because of the stigma associated with HIV and fear of discrimination from their close friends, workmates, and even their families. In this paper we aim to…

  14. National Evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA): Summary of the Second-Year Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John E.

    This document summarizes in non-technical terms the preliminary policy-relevant findings of a national evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) Basic and Pilot Programs during the second year of program operations, 1974-75. An attempt is also made to relate the second year results to findings in the first evaluation year, 1973-74. A major…

  15. Use of the Canterbury Child's Aid in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Leonard; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A blind infant used the Canterbury Child's Aid (a binaural spatial sensor) for such purposes as reaching, feeding, and walking. As a preschooler, she used it to explore novel environments and avoid objects in her path. Training increased her responsiveness to and action upon the environment. (CL)

  16. Studies of Verbal Problem Solving: I. Two Performance-Aiding Programs. Technical Report No. 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Nicholas A., Jr.; And Others

    This booklet describes two computer programs that were written to provide on-line aid to problem solvers. Both programs were designed for "membership" problems, or those in which there are several English sentences and implicit relationships. The task was to infer a membership structure that is compatible with all the logical constraints.…

  17. Computer Aided Instruction: A Study of Student Evaluations and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, David; Deck, Alan; McCrickard, Myra

    2008-01-01

    Computer aided instruction (CAI) encompasses a broad range of computer technologies that supplement the classroom learning environment and can dramatically increase a student's access to information. Criticism of CAI generally focuses on two issues: it lacks an adequate foundation in educational theory and the software is difficult to implement…

  18. Umbanda healers as effective AIDS educators: case-control study in Brazilian urban slums (favelas).

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; de Souza, M A

    1997-01-01

    During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in AIDS awareness, knowledge about risky HIV behaviour, information about correct condom use, and acceptance of lower-risk, alternative ritual blood practices and decreases (P < 0.001) in prejudicial attitudes related to HIV transmission were found among mobilized healers as compared to 100 untrained controls. Respected Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS.

  19. AIDS at the Medical College of Georgia--A Study in Institutional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koelbl, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The article addresses issues arising when a dental student is positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or has AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Considered are the student's right to confidentiality, the duty to warn, the patient's right to informed consent, guidelines of the American Dental Association, possible alternatives…

  20. Food Safety Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Persons with AIDS: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438

  1. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  2. Meaning Making in Cancer Survivors: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joel; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. Methods In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. Results Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also) experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. Conclusions The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors. PMID:24086695

  3. Best practice workplace HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa: A review of case studies and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background A group of experts attending a tripartite interregional meeting on best practices in HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes organised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in Geneva, Switzerland, identified 34 best practice workplace HIV programmes from across the world. Method The ten criteria that were used for reviewing best practice workplace HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa include acceptability, accessibility, ethical soundness, perceived impact, relevance, appropriateness, innovativeness, efficiency, sustainability and replicability. Results More than one-third (35.3%) of the 34 best practice workplace interventions identified were found in businesses and industries in South Africa. This constitutes a significant and encouraging effort to deal with HIV/AIDS in the workplace. Approximately 16.7% of the best practice workplace HIV/AIDS interventions focused on policy and legal frameworks, 50% of these interventions focused on prevention, 16.7% provided links beyond the workplace and a further 16.7% were interventions that focused on knowledge and evidence. A third (33.3%) of practices were found in the mining industry, 16.7% in the motor industry, 16.7% from workers’ unions, and the rest (33.3%) were found in a sugar company, an electricity supply company, a pharmaceutical company and the ministry of Public Service and Administration. Conclusion It is encouraging that over one-third of all best practice workplace HIV interventions identified by the ILO experts were found in South Africa. The majority of these policies and programmes were focused on HIV prevention.

  4. National logistics working groups: A landscape analysis study.

    PubMed

    Leab, Dorothy; Schreiber, Benjamin; Kasonde, Musonda; Bessat, Olivia; Bui, Son; Loisel, Carine

    2017-04-19

    Several countries have acknowledged the contributions made by national logistics working groups (NLWG) to ensure equitable access to the expanded program on immunization's (EPI) vaccines against preventable diseases. In order to provide key insights to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) supply chain hub - as well as other players, including national EPI - a landscape analysis study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016. This is a cross-sectional survey taken by 43 countries that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data was collected through a desk review, consultation, interviews, and distance questioning. References and guidance were used to determine and specify the underlying mechanisms of NLWGs. The key findings are:This study has provided a general overview of the status of NLWGs for immunization in various countries. Based on the key insights of the study, technical assistance needs have been identified, and immunization partners will be required to help countries create and reinforce their NLWGs.

  5. Impact of Mental Health First Aid on Confidence Related to Mental Health Literacy: A National Study With a Focus on Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Crisanti, Annette S.; Luo, Li; McFaul, Mimi; Silverblatt, Helene; Pyeatt, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    Objective Low mental health literacy (MHL) is widespread in the general population and even more so among racial and ethnic minority groups. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to improve MHL. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of MHFA on perceptions of confidence about MHL in a large national sample and by racial and ethnic subgroup. Methods The self-perceived impact of MHFA on 36,263 people who completed the 12-hour training and a feedback form was examined. Results A multiple regression analysis showed that MHFA resulted in high ratings of confidence in being able to apply various skills and knowledge related to MHL. Perceived impact of MHFA training differed among some racial and ethnic groups, but the differences were small to trivial. Conclusions Future research on MHFA should examine changes in MHL pre-post training and the extent to which perceived increases in MHL confidence among trainees translate into action. PMID:26522673

  6. Numerical renormalization group study of a dissipative quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glossop, M. T.; Ingersent, K.

    2007-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by dissipation in a quantum dot device at the degeneracy point. We employ a Bose-Fermi numerical renormalization group approach [1] to study the simplest case of a spinless resonant-level model that couples the charge density on the dot to a dissipative bosonic bath with density of states B(φ)ŝ. In anticipation of future experiments [2] and to assess further the validity of theoretical techniques in this rapidly developing area, we take the conduction-electron leads to have a pseudogap density of states: ρ(φ) |φ|^r, as considered in a very recent perturbative renormalization group study [3]. We establish the conditions on r and s such that a QPT arises with increasing dissipation strength --- from a delocalized phase, where resonant tunneling leads to large charge fluctuations on the dot, to a localized phase where such fluctuations are frozen. We present results for the single-particle spectrum and the response of the system to a local electric field, extracting critical exponents that depend in general on r and s and obey hyperscaling relations. We make full comparison with results of [3] where appropriate. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0312939. [1] M. T. Glossop and K. Ingersent, PRL 95, 067202 (2005); PRB (2006). [2] L. G. G. V. Dias da Silva, N. P. Sandler, K. Ingersent, and S. E. Ulloa, PRL 97, 096603 (2006). [3] C.-H. Chung, M. Kir'can, L. Fritz, and M. Vojta (2006).

  7. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  8. Functional renormalization group study of nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-01-22

    A chiral model based on nucleons interacting via boson exchange is investigated. Fluctuation effects are included consistently beyond the mean-field approximation in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The liquid-gas phase transition of symmetric nuclear matter is studied in detail. No sign of a chiral restoration transition is found up to temperatures of about 100 MeV and densities of at least three times the density of normal nuclear matter. Moreover, the model is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter and the constraints from neutron star observations are discussed.

  9. Profit 󈨐 Summary Report. Report of the Profit Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-07

    Evaluation of the Test of the Employed Capital Concept Pro E,, a.l-.•iih•er Purpose VI-3 Approach V 1-5 Findings VI-12 M!osenile of Findings VI-19...development of a new profit policy. The Profit 󈨐 study group, with help from the Defense Contract 9 Audit Agency (DCAA), the General Accounting Office...attention were specifically organized for "in-depth" analysis. These "Major Issues" , are: /; (1) DPC 107 and the return-on-investment -- concept (2

  10. Perspectives on Use of Mobility Aids in a Diverse Population of Seniors: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, Linda; Allen, Susan; Isenstadt, Deborah; Wasserman, Melanie; Iezzoni, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background Many older adults who might benefit from using mobility aids do not or will not use them. Studies show that attitudes and beliefs strongly affect the decision to use mobility aids. Despite the growing diversity of the population, no prior studies have compared attitudes towards and beliefs about mobility aids by race and ethnicity. Objective This study aimed to explore whether and how attitudes towards and beliefs about mobility aid use vary by race and ethnicity. Methods We conducted 12 focus groups with 61 community dwelling persons age 65+ years from three groups: White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic. Data were coded and compared across groups. Results For all groups, perceived benefits of mobility devices in maintaining independence and control produced positive attitudes. However, the association of mobility aid use with aging and physical decline contributed to stigmatizing attitudes. Black and Hispanic participants expressed apprehension about using unsafe or inappropriate secondhand equipment, heightened concerns about mobility aid users becoming subjects of negative biases, and a preference for fashionable aids. Hispanic participants expressed a preference for human assistance. Participants of all groups perceived physicians as influencing their decisions to use aids. Conclusions Social pressures and perceived stigma deter mobility aid use, particularly in minority populations. Greater physician involvement, positive peer models and affordable, safe, visually appealing devices would promote greater acceptance of mobility aids. PMID:20160951

  11. 'Many people know the law, but also many people violate it': discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam--results of a national study.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Lisa J; Semrau, Katherine; Hammett, Theodore M; Phong, Nguyen Tuan; Tung, Nguyen Duy; Nguyen, Ha; Glandon, Douglas; Huong, Nguyen Mai; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) is defined within and prohibited by the 2007 national HIV/AIDS law. Despite the law, PLHIV face discrimination in health care, employment, education and other spheres. This study presents the first national estimates of the levels and types of discrimination that are defined in Vietnamese law and experienced by PLHIV in Vietnam. A nationally representative sample of 1200 PLHIV was surveyed, and 129 PLHIV participated in focus group discussions (FGDs). In the last 12 months, nearly half of the survey population experienced at least one form of discrimination and many experienced up to six different types of discrimination. The most common forms of discrimination included disclosure of HIV status without consent; denial of access to education for children; loss of employment; advice, primarily from health care providers, to abstain from sex; and physical and emotional harm. In logistic regression analysis, the experience of discrimination differed by gender, region of residence and membership status in a PLHIV support group. The logistic regression and FGD results indicate that disclosure of HIV status without consent was associated with experiencing other forms of discrimination. Key programme and policy recommendations are discussed.

  12. Mortality Trends in the US Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study (1986–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Minn M.; Nesheim, Steven R.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Carter, Rosalind J.; Farley, John; Palumbo, Paul; Koenig, Linda J.; Bulterys, Marc

    2011-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Nachman, on pages 1035–6.) Background. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated morbidity and mortality. The bimodal mortality distribution in HIV-infected children makes it important to evaluate temporal effects of HAART among a birth cohort with long-term, prospective follow-up. Methods. Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study (PACTS)/PACTS–HIV Follow-up of Perinatally Exposed Children (HOPE) study was a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–sponsored multicenter, prospective birth cohort study of HIV-exposed uninfected and infected infants from 1985 until 2004. Mortality was evaluated for the no/monotherapy, mono-/dual-therapy, and HAART eras, that is, 1 January 1986 through 31 December 1990, from 1 January 1991 through 31 December 1996, and 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2004. Results. Among 364 HIV-infected children, 56% were female and 69% black non-Hispanic. Of 98 deaths, 79 (81%) and 61 (62%) occurred in children ≤3 and ≤2 years old, respectively. The median age at death increased significantly across the eras (P < .0001). The average annual mortality rates were 18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6–26.8), 6.9 (95% CI, 5.4–8.8), and 0.8 (95% CI, 0.4–1.5) events per 100 person-years for the no/monotherapy, mono-/dual-therapy and HAART eras, respectively. The corresponding 6-year survival rates for children born in these eras were 57%, 76%, and 91%, respectively (P < .0001). Among children who received HAART in the first 6 months of age, the probability of 6-year survival was 94%. Ten-year survival rates for HAART and non-HAART recipients were 94% and 45% (P < .05). HAART-associated reductions in mortality remained significant after adjustment for confounders (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, .08–.76). Opportunistic infections (OIs) caused 31.8%, 16.9%, and 9.1% of deaths across the respective eras (P = .051). Conclusions

  13. Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984-2013.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Cook, Robert L; Chen, Xinguang; Surkan, Pamela J; Becker, James T; Shoptaw, Steve; Martin, Eileen; Plankey, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV-)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984-2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds of membership in the decreaser, increaser and chronic high use groups. Alcohol, smoking, stimulant and other recreational drug use were associated with increasing marijuana use across all four trajectory groups. Antiretroviral therapy use over time was associated with decreasing marijuana use in the abstainer/infrequent and increaser trajectory groups. Having a detectable HIV viral load was associated with increasing marijuana use in the increaser group only. Future investigations are needed to determine whether long-term patterns of use are associated with adverse consequences especially among HIV+ persons.

  14. Allocation of aid for health institutions in Ukraine: implications from a case study of Chornobyl (Chernobyl) area hospitals.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Renata; Bezchlibnyk-Butler, Kalyna; Wodoslawsky, Marika Dubyk

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, numerous non-governmental organizations have sought to improve the health status of populations struggling with the lingering effects of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear disaster. Political and economic features of Ukraine's government produced a health system unable to provide services required by its population. To compensate somewhat for these shortcomings, Ukraine's health institutions rely on foreign donations. However, to effectively target foreign aid efforts, a more thorough understanding of the administration of health institutions in Ukraine is needed. This study investigates the organizational structures, care delivery, and legislative and financial regulations in the country's health system and their implications for patient care. Through an exhaustive study of four representative health institutions across Ukraine, the authors identify how donor organizations can achieve their aid objectives and work within the country's health infrastructure.

  15. Erotized, AIDS-HIV information on public-access television: a study of obscenity, state censorship and cultural resistance.

    PubMed

    Lukenbill, W B

    1998-06-01

    This study analyzes court records of a county-level obscenity trial in Austin, Texas, and the appeal of the guilty verdict beginning with a Texas appellate court up to the U.S. Supreme Court of two individuals who broadcast erotized AIDS and HIV safer sex information on a public-access cable television. The trial and appellate court decisions are reviewed in terms of argument themes, and the nature of sexual value controversy is outlined. Erotic materials often conflict with broad-based sexual and community values, and providing erotized HIV and AIDS information products can be a form of radical political action designed to force societal change. This study raises question as to how this trial and this type of informational product might affect the programs and activities of information resource centers, community-based organizations, libraries, and the overall mission of public health education.

  16. Study on the applicability of instrumental measures for black-box evaluation of static feedback control in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madhu, N; Wouters, J; Spriet, A; Bisitz, T; Hohmann, V; Moonen, M

    2011-08-01

    Presented is a report on black-box evaluation of feedback control systems for commercial hearing aids. The aim of the study is to examine the ability of existing instrumental measures to quantify the performance of the feedback control system in black-box settings and on realistic signals, when more than one element of the signal processing chain may be active (compression, noise suppression, microphone directionality, etc.). The evaluation is carried out on 6 different hearing aids and for 10 measures. Thereby it is possible to see which measure is best suited to measuring which specific characteristic of the feedback control system, and serves as a beginning for conducting perceptual tests. The study uses static (but variable) feedback paths and is based on signals recorded from the in-ear microphone of an artificial head, on which the hearing instruments are mounted.

  17. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  18. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...

  19. Computer-aided detection of HER2 amplification status using FISH images: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Surti, Urvashi; Bhargava, Rohit; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase cells and discard nonanalyzable cells due to cell overlapping and/or other image staining debris (or artifacts). The scheme then maps the detected analyzable cells onto two other gray scale images corresponding to the red and green color of the original image followed by application of a raster scan and labeling algorithms to separately detect the HER-2/neu ("red") and CEP17 ("green") FISH signals. A simple distance based criterion is applied to detect and merge split FISH signals within each cell. The CAD scheme computes the ratio between independent "red" and "green" FISH signals of all analyzable cells identified on an image. If the ratio is >= 2.0, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from a HER2+ case; otherwise, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from HER2- case. When we applied the CAD scheme to the testing dataset, the average computed HER2 amplification ratios were 1.06+/-0.25 and 2.53+/-0.81 for HER2- and HER2+ samples, respectively. The

  20. Can patient decision aids help people make good decisions about participating in clinical trials? A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Lott, Alison; Fergusson, Dean A; Shojania, Kaveh G; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Saginur, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that the standard process for obtaining informed consent in clinical trials can be inadequate, with study participants frequently not understanding even basic information fundamental to giving informed consent. Patient decision aids are effective decision support tools originally designed to help patients make difficult treatment or screening decisions. We propose that incorporating decision aids into the informed consent process will improve the extent to which participants make decisions that are informed and consistent with their preferences. A mixed methods study will test this proposal. Methods Phase one of this project will involve assessment of a stratified random sample of 50 consent documents from recently completed investigator-initiated clinical trials, according to existing standards for supporting good decision making. Phase two will involve interviews of a purposive sample of 50 trial participants (10 participants from each of five different clinical areas) about their experience of the informed consent process, and how it could be improved. In phase three, we will convert consent forms for two completed clinical trials into decision aids and pilot test these new tools using a user-centered design approach, an iterative development process commonly employed in computer usability literature. In phase four, we will conduct a pilot observational study comparing the new tools to standard consent forms, with potential recruits to two hypothetical clinical trials. Outcomes will include knowledge of key aspects of the decision, knowledge of the probabilities of different outcomes, decisional conflict, the hypothetical participation decision, and qualitative impressions of the experience. Discussion This work will provide initial evidence about whether a patient decision aid can improve the informed consent process. The larger goal of this work is to examine whether study recruitment can be improved from (barely) informed consent

  1. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  2. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) Database: an integrated database for HIV-related studies.

    PubMed

    Cserhati, Matyas F; Pandey, Sanjit; Beaudoin, James J; Baccaglini, Lorena; Guda, Chittibabu; Fox, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    We herein present the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium-Data Coordinating Center (NNTC-DCC) database, which is the only available database for neuroAIDS studies that contains data in an integrated, standardized form. This database has been created in conjunction with the NNTC, which provides human tissue and biofluid samples to individual researchers to conduct studies focused on neuroAIDS. The database contains experimental datasets from 1206 subjects for the following categories (which are further broken down into subcategories): gene expression, genotype, proteins, endo-exo-chemicals, morphometrics and other (miscellaneous) data. The database also contains a wide variety of downloadable data and metadata for 95 HIV-related studies covering 170 assays from 61 principal investigators. The data represent 76 tissue types, 25 measurement types, and 38 technology types, and reaches a total of 33,017,407 data points. We used the ISA platform to create the database and develop a searchable web interface for querying the data. A gene search tool is also available, which searches for NCBI GEO datasets associated with selected genes. The database is manually curated with many user-friendly features, and is cross-linked to the NCBI, HUGO and PubMed databases. A free registration is required for qualified users to access the database.

  3. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of

  4. Can Financial Aid Improve Student Success at Louisiana's Community Colleges? A Study of the Potential Impact of Redistributing State Gift Aid on the Success of Pell Grant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Kevin; Heffron, Mark; Schneider, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the authors investigate the relationship between levels of financial aid and student success in Louisiana community colleges, with a focus on Pell Grant recipients. They measure success by whether a student earned a certificate or an associate's degree within three years of enrolling as a first-time full-time student or transferred…

  5. Flight results from a study of aided inertial navigation applied to landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Carson, T. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Schmidt, S. F.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the approach and landing performance of a Kalman filter aided inertial navigation system using flight data obtained from a series of approaches and landings of the CV-340 aircraft at an instrumented test area. A description of the flight test is given, in which data recorded included: (1) accelerometer signals from the platform of an INS; (2) three ranges from the Ames-Cubic Precision Ranging System; and (3) radar and barometric altimeter signals. The method of system evaluation employed was postflight processing of the recorded data using a Kalman filter which was designed for use on the XDS920 computer onboard the CV-340 aircraft. Results shown include comparisons between the trajectories as estimated by the Kalman filter aided system and as determined from cinetheodolite data. Data start initialization of the Kalman filter, operation at a practical data rate, postflight modeling of sensor errors and operation under the adverse condition of bad data are illustrated.

  6. Linear Odontometric Analysis of Permanent Dentition as A Forensic Aid: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sunil Sukumaran; Gopakumar, Devi; Kurian, Nisha; Parameswar, Arjun; Baby, Tibin Kaithappillil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sex determination in forensic anthropology is an essential step for medico-legal purposes and crucial for identification as the number of possible matches is reduced to 50%. Teeth are an excellent material for anthropological, genetic, odontological and forensic investigations as they are known to resist a variety of ante-mortem and post-mortem insults. Sexual dimorphism in tooth size and the accuracy of odontometric sex prediction is found to vary in different population and therefore it is necessary to determine specific population values in order to make identification possible. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of sexual dimorphism in South Kerala population. Aim To evaluate and estimate the degree of odontometric sexual dimorphism in all permanent teeth except third molars and the variations in odontometric dimensions between the left and right side teeth of the maxillary and mandibular arches in male and female groups. Materials and Methods The MesioDistal (MD) and BuccoLingual (BL) measurements of 28 teeth were estimated from the preorthodontic casts of 132 subjects; male group (66 males) and female group (66 females) of age range 15-25 years using digital Verniers’ Caliper. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 17 and the Students’ t-test for two independent samples. Results The MesioDistal (MD) and BuccoLingual (BL) parameters of all permanent teeth in the study group showed sexual dimorphism. Over 39% of the tooth variables showed reverse dimorphism. The comparison of mean values of MD and BL diameters of the maxillary and mandibular, right and left side teeth in male and female groups showed statistical significance in males whereas females show non-significant values in both MD and BL diameters. Conclusion The study showed a varied percentage of sexual dimorphism and variation in the mean values of MD and BL dimensions in males, but not in females between right and left side teeth of the

  7. Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.

    PubMed

    Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H

    1999-03-01

    Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts /=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission.

  8. Assessment of ventricular diastolic function in AIDS patients from Congo: a Doppler echocardiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Seghers, L; Vita, E; Tonduangu, K; Bayekula, M

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the prevalence of left ventricular dysfunction in African patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The hypothesis was that HIV infected patients with left ventricular dysfunction are asymptomatic.
Methods—M mode, cross sectional, and Doppler echocardiography were performed in 49 consecutive patients (30 HIV positive (HIV+) carriers and 19 AIDS patients). None of the patients or 58 controls had a medical history of cardiovascular abnormalities.
Results—Cardiac abnormalities were not suspected on physical, electrocardiographic, and radiological examination. Forty two of the HIV infected patients had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction; this was more pronounced in AIDS patients than in HIV+ carriers. Systolic function was normal in both stages of HIV infection. Left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (mean (SD)) increased from 87.2 (12.4) ms in the carrier state to 103.9 (19.3) ms in AIDS (p < 0.05, Bonferoni correction), peak early filling velocity declined from 0.54 (0.1) to 0.44 (0.1) m/s (p < 0.05), and late velocity increased from 0.64 (0.1) to 0.69 (0.2) m/s. A restrictive filling pattern was explained by concentric hypertrophy in 23 HIV infected patients, and by systemic amyloidosis with left ventricular dilatation in 12 of 49 HIV infected patients.
Conclusions—Echocardiography is a useful technique for detecting left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in HIV infected patients with clinically unsuspected cardiac lesions. Systolic function was normal despite the presence of such cardiac abnormalities.

 Keywords: HIV infection;  AIDS;  diastolic dysfunction;  black Africans;  echocardiography PMID:9813567

  9. $200,000 Grants Awarded to CCR Researchers for HIV/AIDS Studies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, the Office of AIDS Research (OAR) awarded two, two-year grants of $200,000 each to Anu Puri, Ph.D., and Robert Blumenthal, Ph.D., both of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Nanobiology Program, and to Eric Freed, Ph.D., of the HIV Drug Resistance Program, for their research on potential new treatments for HIV.

  10. AIDE - Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Cathy L.

    2013-04-28

    Would you like to know when someone has dropped an undesirable executable binary on our system? What about something less malicious such as a software installation by a user? What about the user who decides to install a newer version of mod_perl or PHP on your web server without letting you know beforehand? Or even something as simple as when an undocumented config file change is made by another member of the admin group? Do you even want to know about all the changes that happen on a daily basis on your server? The purpose of an intrusion detection system (IDS) is to detect unauthorized, possibly malicious activity. The purpose of a host-based IDS, or file integrity checker, is check for unauthorized changes to key system files, binaries, libraries, and directories on the system. AIDE is an Open Source file and directory integrity checker. AIDE will let you know when a file or directory has been added, deleted, modified. It is included with the Red Hat Enterprise 6. It is available for other Linux distros. This is a case study describing the process of configuring AIDE on an out of the box RHEL6 installation. Its goal is to illustrate the thinking and the process by which a useful AIDE configuration is built.

  11. The political economy of HIV / AIDS: a case study of the "Kariba nexus".

    PubMed

    Webb, D

    1998-04-01

    HIV/AIDS in southern Africa threatens the re-establishment of political and economic stability in the region after decades of conflict. 4 of the 5 highest HIV prevalence countries in the world are in southern Africa. While the process of re-integration has partly shaped the epidemiology of HIV in the region and contributes to its continued spread, the impact of AIDS will also create negative forces which will counteract the process of regionalization. The end of longstanding conflicts and turmoil in southern Africa has been followed by the massive movement of returning migrants together with considerable internal displacement. This movement has considerable implications for the spread of HIV. The example of the Kariba nexus is presented. Possibly the world's current area of highest HIV seroprevalence is the nexus centered upon Lake Kariba on the Zambia/Zimbabwe border. The area, encompassing the Southern Province of Zambia up as far as Lusaka and Mongu in Western Province, western and central Zimbabwe, northern Botswana, and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia, is characterized by large movements of people involved in formal and informal sector trading. The high 1996 adult HIV seroprevalence in Francistown, Botswana, of 43.1% suggests cross-border movements with neighboring Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. High regional HIV prevalence, planning to cope with the impact of HIV/AIDS, private sector costs, political factors, welfare implications, and recommendations are discussed.

  12. The impact of HIV and AIDS research: a case study from Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Swaziland is experiencing the world’s worst HIV and AIDS epidemic. Prevalence rose from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004. The Report ‘Reviewing ‘Emergencies’ for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era’ published in 2007 bought together social and economic indicators. It built a picture of the epidemic as a humanitarian emergency, requiring urgent action from international organisations, donors, and governments. Following a targeted communications effort, the report was believed to have raised the profile of the issue and Swaziland - a success story for HIV and AIDS research. Methods Keen to understand how, where and why the report had an impact, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division commissioned an assessment to track and evaluate the influence of the research. This tapped into literature on the significance of understanding the research-to-policy interface. This paper outlines the report and its impact. It explores key findings from the assessment and suggests lessons for future research projects. Results The paper demonstrates that, although complex, and not without methodological issues, impact assessment of research can be of real value to researchers in understanding the research-to-policy interface. Conclusion Only by gaining insight into this process can researchers move forward in delivering effective research. PMID:21679390

  13. [Studies on virulence of HIV and development of non-virulent live AIDS vaccine using monkeys].

    PubMed

    Hayami, Masanori; Horiuchi, Reii

    2004-06-01

    A great effort for developing AIDS vaccine has been carried out in the world, designed by various new ideas based on basic research information obtained in recent virology and immunology. Withall it, to obtain effective AIDS vaccine is considered skeptical. One of the reasons of its difficulty is a lack of experimental animals susceptible to HIV-1. In our laboratory, we have succeeded in developing chimeric SIV having 3' half of HIV-1 genome including env (SHIV), which is infectious to macaque monkeys. One of SHIVs has been proved nonpathogenic in monkeys from various aspects and it afforded protective immunity to monkeys against pathogenic SHIV challenge infection. Now, we are trying to develop anti-HIV live attenuated vaccines using the nonpathogenic SHIV as a starting material. In the history of virus vaccine, live attenuated vaccines have been proved most effective in measles and polio-myelitis. However, it is not clear whether nonpathogenic HIV exists or not. Futhermore, even if nonpathogenic HIV could be obtained, there is possibility that it will easily mutate to pathogenic one. Therefore, to develop live attenuated AIDS vaccine is considered dangerous. In this article, We will introduce our research on SHIV pathogenicity using monkeys and hypothesize possibility to obtain nonpathogenic HIV which is speculated from the origin and evolution of HIV/SIV. To clarify virulence and nonvirulence of HIV and to obtain nonpathogenic virus are not only applied research but also basic science to dissolve the fundemental question why HIV can induce the disease.

  14. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  15. Does expressed acceptance reflect genuine attitudes? A bogus pipeline study of the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of a person with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kristin W; Miller, Carol T

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether expressed acceptance of a person with AIDS reflects genuine acceptance or a desire to appear to be accepting. Theory and research on the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of stigmatized people provided the framework for investigating this question. After writing about death or another aversive topic, participants indicated their acceptance of a target with AIDS while connected to physiological equipment that they believed could detect lies (bogus pipeline) or was simply measuring physiological responses to participation in the study. As predicted, participants in the mortality salience/bogus pipeline condition indicated significantly less acceptance of the target with AIDS than participants in the other three conditions, suggesting that acceptance of a person with AIDS is at least partially a result of wanting to appear to be accepting, without necessarily genuinely accepting someone with AIDS.

  16. Urinary tract infection in men with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    De Pinho, A M; Lopes, G S; Ramos-Filho, C F; Santos, O da R; De Oliveira, M P; Halpern, M; Gouvea, C A; Schechter, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether bacteriuria and, specifically, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) occur with increased frequency in men with HIV infection. METHODS--In this cross-sectional study we investigated three groups of men, aged from 18 to 50 years. Group A was composed of patients with a diagnosis of AIDS; Group B, of patients without HIV infection, and group C of patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. Patients with any known predisposing factor for UTI were excluded from the study. A clean-catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient on the first day of hospital admission (groups A and B) or during a visit to the outpatient clinic (group C). Bacteriuria was diagnosed when > or = 100,000 colony forming units/ml, urine were grown. RESULTS--There were 415 patients, 151 in group A, 170 in group B and 94 in group C. Bacteriuria was significantly more frequently in group A (20 cases, 13.3%) than in groups B (3 cases, 1.8%, p = 0.00007) and C (3 cases, 3.2%, p = 0.009). Ten cases of bacteriuria in group A (6.6%) were symptomatic while no case of symptomatic UTI was seen in groups B (p = 0.0004) and C (p = 0.008). The frequency of UTI in homosexual men with AIDS (7 cases, 6.7%) was not significantly different from that observed in men with AIDS who denied homosexuality (3 cases, 6.5%). E coli was the predominant pathogen associated with UTI. Although adequate response to a two-week course of antibiotics was observed in most cases, an in-hospital mortality rate of 20% was found among AIDS patients with symptomatic UTI. CONCLUSIONS--In the present study, the frequency of bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI was found to be increased in men with AIDS. E coli was the predominant pathogen in these cases. These data suggest that symptomatic UTI may represent a relevant cause of morbidity for men with AIDS. PMID:8300097

  17. Teaching Astronomy in Extracurricular Study Groups of Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, Mher; Grigoryan, Avetik

    2016-12-01

    The report presents the history of activity of Extracurricular Study Groups of Ar¬menia teaching astronomy and related subjects. It mainly refers to the Aerospace Club founded in 1988, which has long been acting as an officially unre¬gis¬tered, but efficiently performing non-governmental organization – Armenian Youth Ae¬ro¬space Society. The Club teaches, provides a truly scientific view of the world, advocates astronomy and other scientific and technical areas, provides interesting lectures and ar¬ticles to schools and mass media, arranges seminars and meetings with renowned experts, publishes scientific ar¬ticles, manuals, books, puts forward important scientific and techno-logical problems and offer students to work together on them, seek for solutions and develop possible appli¬ca¬tions. All this is aimed at maintaining and further development of leading positions of Armenia's scientific potential, particularly in astronomy.

  18. Multi-wavelengths studies of fossil galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    Fossil systems are understood to be the end product of galaxy mergers within groups and clusters. Their halo morphology points to their relaxed/virialised nature, thus allowing them to employed as observational probes for the evolution of cosmic structures, their thermodynamics and dark matter distribution. Cosmological simulations, and their underlying models, are broadly consistent with the early formation epoch for fossils. In a series of studies we have looked into the dark matter, IGM and galaxy properties, across a wide range of wavelengths, from X-ray through optical and IR to the Radio, to achieve a better understating of fossil systems, the attributed halo age, IGM heating and their AGNs and use them as laboratories to probe galaxy formation models. We combine luminosity gap with luminosity segregation to identify the most dynamically relaxed systems which allows us to reveal brand new connections between galaxies and their environments.

  19. Studies of nearby poor clusters - The Eridanus group

    SciTech Connect

    Willmer, C.N.A.; Focardi, P.; Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Results are reported from dynamical study of the Eridanus group of galaxies. This system is quite prominent in one of the large-scale features found in the recently completed Southern Sky Redshift Survey (da Costa et al., 1988): the Eridanus-Fornax-Dorado filament. The irregualr aspect of Eridanus suggests the existence of subclustering, which is confirmed by statistical tests. These subclusters are bound, suggesting that the system is still condensing from the Hubble flow and may eventually form a cluster of about 10 to the 14th solar mass. By calculating the two-body orbital solution, it is found that the Eridanus complex and the Fornax cluster also form a bound system, although still in the expansion phase. 41 refs.

  20. Outpatient antibiotic therapy for elderly patients. HIAT Study Group.

    PubMed

    Angel, J V

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of outpatient intravenous (IV) therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime, in patients > or = 60 years of age and to determine its effect on length of hospital stay. Subset analysis was performed with 62 patients with various infections who had been enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, open-label trial of IV cefotaxime delivered through a computerized ambulatory delivery system (ADS). Initial treatment was given in hospital if required, followed by home therapy. The overall clinical response rate among evaluable patients was 98%, and the overall bacteriologic response rate was 93%. The mean duration of inpatient therapy was 3.6 days less than the mean of 8.2 days allowed under diagnosis-related group (DRG) allotments. Outpatient therapy with cefotaxime via infusion pump is safe and effective and may reduce hospitalization requirements.

  1. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  3. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  4. CIDA funds AIDS counselling and care centre in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Meehan, S T

    1993-12-01

    In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving

  5. Multicultural Influences on Group Learning: A Qualitative Higher Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Arthur; Weaven, Scott; Herington, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    Although the literature examining the usefulness of group projects is extensive, the link between cooperative learning, group performance and skills transfer in multicultural contexts remains unclear. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 107 international and domestic postgraduate and undergraduate marketing students to investigate this…

  6. Gout in immigrant groups: a cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Gasevic, Danijela; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holzmann, Martin J; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-13

    Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included the whole population of Sweden. Gout was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. The association between incidence of gout and country of birth was assessed by Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using Swedish-born individuals as referents. All models were conducted in both men and women, and the full model was adjusted for age, place of residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socio-economic status and co-morbidities. The risk of gout varied by country of origin, with highest estimates, compared to Swedish born, in fully adjusted models among men from Iraq (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.54-2.16), and Russia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26-2.27), and also high among men from Austria, Poland, Africa and Asian countries outside the Middle East; and among women from Africa (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.31), Hungary (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71), Iraq (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.74) and Austria (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.70), and also high among women from Poland. The risk of gout was lower among men from Greece, Spain, Nordic countries (except Finland) and Latin America and among women from Southern Europe, compared to their Swedish counterparts. The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention.

  7. Multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners. Design of The MASTERPLAN Study [ISRCTN73187232

    PubMed Central

    van Zuilen, Arjan D; van der Tweel, Ingeborgh; Blankestijn, Peter J; Bots, Michiel L; van Buren, Marjolijn; ten Dam, Marc AGJ; Kaasjager, Karin AH; van de Ven, Peter JG; Vervoort, Gerald; Vleming, Louis-Jean; Ligtenberg, Gerry; Wetzels, Jack FM

    2006-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a greatly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently developed guidelines address multiple risk factors and life-style interventions. However, in current practice few patients reach their targets. A multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse practitioners was effective in achieving treatment goals and reducing vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus and in patients with heart failure. We propose that this also holds for the CKD population. Design MASTERPLAN is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate whether a multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse-practicioners reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Approximately 800 patients with a creatinine clearance (estimated by Cockcroft-Gault) between 20 to 70 ml/min, will be included. To all patients the same set of guidelines will be applied and specific cardioprotective medication will be prescribed. In the intervention group the nurse practitioner will provide lifestyle advice and actively address treatment goals. Follow-up will be five years. Primary endpoint is the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary endpoints are cardiovascular morbidity, overall mortality, decline of renal function, change in markers of vascular damage and change in quality of life. Enrollment has started in April 2004 and the study is on track with 700 patients included on October 15th, 2005. This article describes the design of the MASTERPLAN study. PMID:16573836

  8. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  9. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population.

  10. Paradoxes and asymmetries of transnational networks: a comparative case study of Mexico's community-based AIDS organizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2008-02-01

    This article examines whether transnational networks reconfigure state-civil society relationships in ways that lead to civil society empowerment and increased organizational capacity to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mexico. Using a comparative case study, I identify the types of transnational networks and exchanges that both help and hinder community-based HIV/AIDS organizations (CBOs) that provide AIDS prevention and treatment services in Tijuana and Mexico City. Data derive from over 50 formal interviews, organizational documents and archival records, and observation. I argue that the form and function of transnational networks is shaped by the geo-political context of local organizational fields and that, in turn, transnational networks provide innovative opportunities for civil society-state partnerships that favor some local organizations over others. Ultimately, I take apart the prevailing assumption that transnational networks are inherently good, and show how they can (re)produce inter-organizational stratification at the local level. The conclusions of this research are helpful to international health practitioners and social scientists seeking to understand how civil society's participation in transnational networks can both challenge and reproduce existing community-state power regimes and health inequities.

  11. [Descriptive study of homophobia and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of the transvestites in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.

  12. Decision making among HIV+ drug using men who have sex with men: a preliminary report from the Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eileen M; DeHaan, Samantha; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gonzalez, Raul; Weller, Joshua; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    HIV+ substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) make significantly poorer decisions than HIV- SDIs, but the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this impairment have not been identified. We administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a measure of decision making under uncertain risk, and the Cups Task, a measure of decision making under specified risk, to a group of 56 HIV+ and 23 HIV- men who have sex with men (MSMs) with a history of substance dependence enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The IGT provides no explicit information regarding the contingencies for each possible choice, and the probability of each outcome remains ambiguous at least for the early trials; in contrast, the Cups Task provides explicit information about the probability of each outcome. The HIV+ group made significantly poorer decisions on the IGT than the HIV- group. Cups Task performance did not differ significantly between HIV- and HIV+ groups. Exploratory analyses of the IGT data suggested that HIV+ subjects tended to perform more poorly during the early learning phase when uncertainty about specific outcomes was greatest. Additionally, performance on the final two trial blocks was significantly correlated with Stroop Interference scores, suggesting that IGT performance is driven increasingly by executive control during the later portion of the task. Potential cognitive mechanisms to be explored in later studies are discussed, including impairment in implicit learning processing.

  13. Decision Making and Drug Abuse Among HIV+ Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Preliminary Report from the Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Eileen M.; DeHaan, Samantha; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gonzalez, Raul; Weller, Joshua; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    HIV+ substance dependent individuals (SDIs) make significantly poorer decisions compared with HIV− SDIs, but the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this impairment have not been identified. We administered the Iowa Gambling Task, a measure of decision making under uncertain risk, and the Cups Task, a measure of decision making under specified risk, to a group of 56 HIV+ and 23 HIV− men who have sex with men (MSMs) with a history of substance dependence enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The IGT provides no explicit information regarding the contingencies for each possible choice, and the probability of each outcome remains ambiguous at least for the early trials; in contrast, the Cups Task provides explicit information about the probability of each outcome. The HIV+ group made significantly poorer decisions on the IGT compared with the HIV− group. Cups Task performance did not differ significantly between HIV− and HIV+ groups. Exploratory analyses of the IGT data suggested that HIV+ subjects tended to perform more poorly during the early learning phase when uncertainty about specific outcomes was greatest. Additionally, performance on the final two trial blocks was significantly correlated with Stroop Interference scores, suggesting IGT performance is driven increasingly by executive control during the later portion of the task. Potential cognitive mechanisms to be explored in later studies are discussed, including impairment in implicit learning processing PMID:23701366

  14. The recurrence sequence via the Fibonacci groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aküzüm, Yeşim; Deveci, Ömür

    2016-04-01

    This work develops properties of the recurrence sequence defined by the aid of the relation matrix of the Fibonacci groups. The study of this sequence modulo m yields cyclic groups and semigroups from generating matrix. Finally, we extend the sequence defined to groups and then, we obtain its period in the Fibonacci groups.

  15. International Pediatric MS Study Group Clinical Trials Summit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, Marc; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Bar-Or, Amit; Ghezzi, Angelo; Kornberg, Andrew; Krupp, Lauren B.; Pohl, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Wassmer, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric studies for new biological agents are mandated by recent legislation, necessitating careful thought to evaluation of emerging multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies in children with MS. Challenges include a small patient population, the lack of prior randomized clinical trials, and ethical concerns. The goal of this meeting was to assess areas of consensus regarding clinical trial design and outcome measures among academic experts involved in pediatric MS care and research. Methods: The Steering Committee of the International Pediatric MS Study Group identified key focus areas for discussion. A total of 69 meeting attendees were assembled, including 35 academic experts. Regulatory and pharmaceutical representatives also attended, and provided input, which informed academic expert consensus decisions. Results: The academic experts agreed that clinical trials were necessary in pediatric MS to obtain pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy data, and regulatory approval allowing for greater medication access. The academic experts agreed that relapse was an appropriate primary outcome measure for phase III pediatric trials. An international standardized cognitive battery was identified. The pros and cons of various trial designs were discussed. Guidelines surrounding MRI studies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and registries were developed. The academic experts agreed that given the limited subject pool, a stepwise approach to the launch of clinical trials for the most promising medications is necessary in order to ensure study completion. Alternative approaches could result in unethical exposure of patients to trial conditions without gaining knowledge. Conclusion: Consensus points for conduct of clinical trials in the rare disease pediatric MS were identified amongst a panel of academic experts, informed by regulatory and industry stakeholders. PMID:23509048

  16. [Children of heroin-addicted parents: a risk group. Study of 110 cases].

    PubMed

    Casado Flores, J; Baño Rodrigo, A; Lirio Casero, J; Solera Oliva, R

    1993-08-01

    In order to know the medical and social problems of children of heroin addicted parents (one or both), one-hundred and nineteen patients were studied. All children had been hospitalized suffering from different diseases. The age of these children ranged from 1 day to 17.3 years (19.6 +/- 30.9 months). Seventy-four of the children were less than 1 year old. The total number of admissions was 159 (range 1-14), representing 2.575 days of hospitalization. The most frequent diagnoses were infectious diseases (gastrointestinal and respiratory), deficiency related diseases (malnutrition and anemia) and parental neglect. Maltreatment was suspected in 44 children (physical: 10, severely neglected: 26, abandonment: 8). Eight children died during the study (AIDS: 4, maltreatment: 2, other causes: 2). Nine parents also died (4 from heroin overdose). The social and family environment of these children, with an increased risk for delinquency and marginality, as well as frequent hospitalizations, make these children a special group at risk for social and health problems which demands multidisciplinary attention and understanding.

  17. Evaluation of patient satisfaction with different hearing aids: A study of 107 patients.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Seçkin; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; San, Turhan; Cingi, Cemal

    2017-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated patient satisfaction with different types of hearing aids in 107 patients-60 males and 47 females, aged 8 to 84 years (mean: 53.8)-with unilateral or bilateral hearing loss, each of whom used two different hearing devices for at least 3 years per device. The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids, Turkish edition (IOI-HA-TR) was used to evaluate satisfaction levels; we also calculated our own total individual subjective satisfaction (TISS) scores. We divided 16 different hearing devices into two types: device 1 and device 2; on average, device 2 had more channels, a lower minimum frequency, and a higher maximum frequency. We found that the IOI-HA-TR scores and TISS scores were higher and usage time was greater during device 2 use, and that there was a positive correlation between IOI-HA-TR and TISS scores. A total of 69 patients (64.5%) used device 2 for more than 8 hours per day, while 38 patients (35.5%) used it for 4 to 8 hours per day during the final 2 weeks of the trial. In contrast, 40 patients (37.4%) used device 1 for more than 8 hours, 50 (46.7%) used it for 4 to 8 hours, and the remaining 17 (15.9%) used it for less than 4 hours; the difference in the duration of use of the two devices was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Younger patients and patients with more education were more satisfied with their devices than were older patients and those who were not as well educated. We conclude that devices with good technologic features such as more channels, a lower minimum frequency, and a higher maximum frequency result in better hearing. Also, based on the age difference that we observed, we recommend that psychological support be provided to older patients with aided hearing to enhance their mental health and quality of life.

  18. Medical communication and technology: a video-based process study of the use of decision aids in primary care consultations

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Eileen; Heaven, Ben; Rapley, Tim; Murtagh, Madeleine; Graham, Ruth; Thomson, Richard; May, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Background Much of the research on decision-making in health care has focused on consultation outcomes. Less is known about the process by which clinicians and patients come to a treatment decision. This study aimed to quantitatively describe the behaviour shown by doctors and patients during primary care consultations when three types of decision aids were used to promote treatment decision-making in a randomised controlled trial. Methods A video-based study set in an efficacy trial which compared the use of paper-based guidelines (control) with two forms of computer-based decision aids (implicit and explicit versions of DARTS II). Treatment decision concerned warfarin anti-coagulation to reduce the risk of stroke in older patients with atrial fibrillation. Twenty nine consultations were video-recorded. A ten-minute 'slice' of the consultation was sampled for detailed content analysis using existing interaction analysis protocols for verbal behaviour and ethological techniques for non-verbal behaviour. Results Median consultation times (quartiles) differed significantly depending on the technology used. Paper-based guidelines took 21 (19–26) minutes to work through compared to 31 (16–41) minutes for the implicit tool; and 44 (39–55) minutes for the explicit tool. In the ten minutes immediately preceding the decision point, GPs dominated the conversation, accounting for 64% (58–66%) of all utterances and this trend was similar across all three arms of the trial. Information-giving was the most frequent activity for both GPs and patients, although GPs did this at twice the rate compared to patients and at higher rates in consultations involving computerised decision aids. GPs' language was highly technically focused and just 7% of their conversation was socio-emotional in content; this was half the socio-emotional content shown by patients (15%). However, frequent head nodding and a close mirroring in the direction of eye-gaze suggested that both parties

  19. The Health Effects of Worksite HIV/AIDS Interventions. A Review of the Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A literature review identified 12 studies reporting the impact of worksite HIV/AIDS intervention programs. Ten studies reported positive effects on knowledge and/or attitudes. Few had control or comparison groups. Given the small number of studies and poor methodology, the literature on worksite HIV/AIDS intervention was classified as weak.…

  20. Profiles in Successful Group Piano for Children: A Collective Case Study of Children's Group-Piano Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the best practices in beginning group-piano instruction. Four beginning and intermediate groups of piano students (N =20) were observed. Data were triangulated through in-class observation of students and teachers, teacher interviews and student questionnaires. The master teachers…

  1. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  2. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. Background The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. Setting West London Police Station. Participants Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. Methods and Outcome Measures A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the ‘thematic framework approach’ to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Our responsibility?’—Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) ‘Confidence’—Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) ‘Training needs’—Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) ‘Personal first aid knowledge’—Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. PMID:26826155

  3. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  4. International Pediatric MS Study Group Global Members Symposium report.

    PubMed

    Wassmer, Evangeline; Chitnis, Tanuja; Pohl, Daniela; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Ghezzi, Angelo; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Krupp, Lauren B; Makhani, Naila; Rostásy, Kevin; Tardieu, Marc; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waldman, Amy; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Kornberg, Andrew J

    2016-08-30

    The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group held its inaugural educational program, "The World of Pediatric MS: A Global Update," in September 2014 to discuss advances and challenges in the diagnosis and management of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory CNS disorders. Highlights included a discussion on the revised diagnostic criteria, which enable the differentiation of MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and other neuroinflammatory disorders. While these criteria currently identify clinical and MRI features for a particular diagnosis, advances in biomarkers may prove to be useful in the future. An update was also provided on environmental factors associated with pediatric MS risk and possibly outcomes, notably vitamin D deficiency. However, optimal vitamin D intake and its role in altering MS course in children have yet to be established. Regarding MS outcomes, our understanding of the cognitive consequences of early-onset MS has grown. However, further work is needed to define the course of cognitive function and its long-term outcome in diverse patient samples and to develop strategies for effective cognitive rehabilitation specifically tailored to children and adolescents. Finally, treatment strategies were discussed, including a need to consider additional drug treatment options and paradigms (escalation vs induction), although treatment should be tailored to the individual child. Of critical importance, clinical trials of newer MS agents in children are required. Although our understanding of childhood MS has improved, further research is needed to have a positive impact for children and their families.

  5. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  6. Effect of resin coating on adhesion and microleakage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing fabricated all-ceramic crowns after occlusal loading: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Pilecki, Peter; Nasser, Nasser A; Bravis, Theodora; Wilson, Ron F; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Watson, Timothy F; Foxton, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of resin coating and occlusal loading on adhesion and microleakage of all-ceramic crowns. Molars were prepared for an all-ceramic crown and were divided into two groups: non-coated (control) and resin-coated with Clearfil Tri-S Bond. Crowns were fabricated using CEREC 3 and cemented using Clearfil Esthetic Cement. After 24 h of storage in water, the restored teeth in each group were divided into two subgroups: unloaded, or loaded while stored in water. Mechanical loading was achieved with an axial force of 80 N at 2.5 cycles s(-1) for 250,000 cycles. After immersion in Rhodamine B, the specimens were sectioned and processed for microleakage evaluation by confocal microscopy, which was followed by further sectioning for microtensile bond testing. Loading had no significant effect on microleakage in either the resin-coated or non-resin-coated groups. Resin coating did not reduce the microleakage at the dentine interface but increased the microleakage at the enamel interface. All the beams fractured during slicing when non-coated and loaded. The bond strengths of non-coated and unloaded, resin-coated and unloaded, and resin-coated and loaded groups were 15.82 +/- 4.22, 15.17 +/- 5.24, and 12.97 +/- 5.82 MPa, respectively. Resin coating with Clearfil Tri-S Bond improved the bonding of resin cement to dentine for loaded specimens. However, it was not effective in reducing the microleakage, regardless of whether it was loaded or unloaded.

  7. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  8. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  9. Many hands make light work: further studies in group evolution.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Nicholas; Harvey, Inman; Virgo, Nathaniel; Philippides, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    When niching or speciation is required to perform a task that has several different component parts, standard genetic algorithms (GAs) struggle. They tend to evaluate and select all individuals on the same part of the task, which leads to genetic convergence within the population. The goal of evolutionary niching methods is to enforce diversity in the population so that this genetic convergence is avoided. One drawback with some of these niching methods is that they require a priori knowledge or assumptions about the specific fitness landscape in order to work; another is that many such methods are not set up to work on cooperative tasks where fitness is only relevant at the group level. Here we address these problems by presenting the group GA, described earlier by the authors, which is a group-based evolutionary algorithm that can lead to emergent niching. After demonstrating the group GA on an immune system matching task, we extend the previous work and present two modified versions where the number of niches does not need to be specified ahead of time. In the random-group-size GA, the number of niches is varied randomly during evolution, and in the evolved-group-size GA the number of niches is optimized by evolution. This provides a framework in which we can evolve groups of individuals to collectively perform tasks with minimal a priori knowledge of how many subtasks there are or how they should be shared out.

  10. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through December 2001. Year-End Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This report presents tables on: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and AIDS, by area and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates and HIV infection cases, by area and age group; male and female adult/adolescent annual AIDS and HIV infection rates; AIDS and HIV cases by age group, exposure category, and sex; male and female…

  11. A cross-sectional study to assess knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the worker population was amongst the most affected groups. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador. Methods A cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 115 companies (1,732 workers), stratified by three large provinces and working sectors (commerce, manufacturing and real estate) was conducted. A validated instrument developed by Family Health International was used to evaluate HIV prevention knowledge and common local misconceptions about HIV transmission. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed using SAS. Results Incorrect knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission were found in 49.1% (95% CI: 46.6–51.6) of subjects. Incorrect knowledge was higher among males (OR = 1.73 [1.39–2.15]), older subjects (OR = 1.35 [1.02–1.77]), subjects with lower education (OR = 3.72 [2.44–5.65]), manual labor workers (OR = 2.93 [1.82–4.73]) and subjects without previous exposure to HIV intervention programs (OR = 2.26 [1.79–2.86]). Incorrect knowledge about preventive measures was found among 32.9% (95%CI: 30.6–35.2) of respondents. This proportion was higher among subjects with lower education (OR = 2.28 [1.52–3.43]), married subjects (OR = 1.34 [1.07–1.68]), manual labor workers (OR = 1.80 [1.34–2.42]), and subjects not previously exposed to HIV intervention programs (OR = 1.44 [1.14–1.83]). Conclusions HIV intervention programs targeting company workers are urgently needed to improve knowledge and reduce HIV transmission in Ecuador. PMID:23410074

  12. Clinical holistic medicine: a pilot study on HIV and quality of life and a suggested cure for HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Joav

    2004-05-11

    This study was undertaken to examine the association between the immunological impact of HIV (measured by CD4 count) and global self-assessed quality of life (QOL) (measured with QOL1) for people suffering from HIV, to see if the connection was large and statistically strong enough to support our hypothesis of a strong QOL-immunological connection through the nonspecific, nonreceptor-mediated immune system, and thus to give a rationale for a holistic cure for HIV. This cross-sectional population study in Uganda included 20 HIV infected persons with no symptoms of AIDS and a CD4 count above 200 mill./liter. The main outcome measures were CD4 count, global QOL measured with the validated questionnaire QOL1, translated to Luganda and translated back to English. We found a large, clinically significant correlation between the number of T-helper cells (CD4) and global self-assessed quality of life (QOL1) (r = 0.57, p = 0.021), when controlled for age, gender, and years of infection. Together with other studies and holistic medicine theory, the results have given rationale for a holistic cure for HIV. We suggest, based on our findings and theoretical considerations, that HIV patients who improve their global QOL, also will improve their CD4 counts. Using the technique of holistic medicine based on the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, we hypothesize that the improvement of QOL can have sufficient biological effect on the CD4, which could avoid or postpone the development of AIDS. A holistic HIV/AIDS cure improving the QOL draws on hidden resources in the person and is thus affordable for everybody. Improving global QOL also means a higher consciousness and a more ethical attitude, making it more difficult for the HIV-infected person to pass on the infection.

  13. Aids-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a retrospective study in a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vidal, José E; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C; Fink, Maria Cristina D S; Pannuti, Cláudio S; Trujillo, J Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available about progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from Brazil. The objectives of this study were to describe the main features of patients with PML and estimate its frequency among AIDS patients with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic diseases admitted to the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2003 to April 2004. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed. Twelve (6%) cases of PML were identified among 219 patients with neurological diseases. The median age of patients with PML was 36 years and nine (75%) were men. Nine (75%) patients were not on antiretroviral therapy at admission. The most common clinical manifestations were: focal weakness (75%), speech disturbances (58%), visual disturbances (42%), cognitive dysfunction (42%), and impaired coordination (42%). The median CD4+ T-cell count was 45 cells/microL. Eight (67%) of 12 patients were laboratory-confirmed with PML and four (33%) were possible cases. Eleven (92%) presented classic PML and only one case had immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-related PML. In four (33%) patients, PML was the first AIDS-defining illness. During hospitalization, three patients (25%) died as a result of nosocomial pneumonia and nine (75%) were discharged to home. Cases of PML were only exceeded by cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and CNS tuberculosis, the three more frequent neurologic opportunistic infections in Brazil. The results of this study suggest that PML is not an uncommon HIV-related neurologic disorder in a referral center in Brazil.

  14. Student Use of Out-of-Class Study Groups in an Introductory Undergraduate Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    Rybczynski, Stephen M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Self-formed out-of-class study groups may benefit student learning; however, few researchers have quantified the relationship between study group use and achievement or described changes in study group usage patterns over a semester. We related study group use to performance on content exams, explored patterns of study group use, and qualitatively described student perceptions of study groups. A pre- and posttest were used to measure student content knowledge. Internet-based surveys were used to collect quantitative data on exam performance and qualitative data on study group usage trends and student perceptions of study groups. No relationship was found between gains in content knowledge and study group use. Students who participated in study groups did, however, believe they were beneficial. Four patterns of study group use were identified: students either always (14%) or never (55%) used study groups, tried but quit using them (22%), or utilized study groups only late in the semester (9%). Thematic analysis revealed preconceptions and in-class experiences influence student decisions to utilize study groups. We conclude that students require guidance in the successful use of study groups. Instructors can help students maximize study group success by making students aware of potential group composition problems, helping students choose group members who are compatible, and providing students materials on which to focus their study efforts. PMID:21364102

  15. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  16. The Potential Efficacy of Psychological First Aid on Self-Reported Anxiety and Mood: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M; Sherman, Martin F; Goncher, Ian

    2016-03-01

    The authors explored the efficacy of a randomized controlled trial to assess the potential benefits of psychological first aid (PFA) compared with a social acknowledgement condition in a sample of 42 participants who spoke about a stressful life event. Demographics and standardized questionnaires, including the state version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale and the Brief Profile of Mood States, assessed anxiety and mood state. Those in the PFA group evidenced significantly lower anxiety scores at 30-minute postdisclosure than at baseline and, although not significant, showed lowered distressed mood compared with baseline at 30-minute postdisclosure. Those in the social acknowledgment condition evidenced increases in anxiety and distressed mood scores, albeit not significantly, at 30 minutes post disclosure compared with their baseline scores. These results provide preliminary empirical evidence for the efficacy of PFA, and implications for intervention and additional assessment are suggested.

  17. Latent and manifest empiricism in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: a case study of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Waldram, James B; Hatala, Andrew R

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of the traditional treatment of a Q'eqchi' Maya man in southern Belize in 2011 who is suffering from AIDS-related sickness. The purpose is to detail the empirical nature of Q'eqchi' Maya medicine, distinguishing between manifest and latent empiricism, as evidenced in the healers evolving attempts to treat the patient in the absence of knowledge of his biomedical diagnosis. The paper argues for a more complete understanding of the empirical nature of much Indigenous healing, which parallels aspects of scientific medicine, and for better collaboration among traditional healers and biomedical practitioners in strongly Indigenous areas.

  18. Dialectical theory and the study of HIV/AIDS and other epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Epidemics have been important in human history. This article discusses epidemics as part of a metabolic dialectics of humanity within nature. The creative thoughts and actions of those people most threatened by HIV/AIDS, and the thoughts and actions of science, have shaped both each other and the virus. The virus has reacted through mutation in ways that mimic strategic intelligence. The dialectics of capital and states has shaped these interactions and, in some cases, been shaped by them. Practical action to minimize the harms epidemics do can be strengthened by understanding of these epidemics, and Marxist theory and practices can be strengthened by understanding the dialectics of public health and the struggles around it more fully. PMID:23894218

  19. Formation of selfbound states in a one-dimensional nuclear model—a renormalization group based density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemler, Sandra; Pospiech, Martin; Braun, Jens

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear physics, density functional theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and renormalization group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theory and our DFT-RG approach is discussed and illustrated with the aid of the calculation of the second-order energy correction for a system of N identical fermions interacting via a general two-body interaction. Moreover, we discuss the control of spuriously emerging fermion self-interactions in DFT studies within our framework. In general, our approach may help to guide the development of energy functionals for future quantitative DFT studies of heavy nuclei from microscopic interactions.

  20. Transport of recombinant human CD4-immunoglobulin G across the human placenta: pharmacokinetics and safety in six mother-infant pairs in AIDS clinical trial group protocol 146.

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, W T; Duliege, A M; Kline, M W; Hammill, H; Minkoff, H; Ammann, A J; Chen, S; Izu, A; Mordenti, J

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant CD4-immunoglobulin G (rCD4-IgG) is a 98-kDa human immunoglobulin-like protein that is produced by fusing the gp120 binding domain of CD4 to the Fc portion of the human IgG1 heavy chain. This hybrid molecule was given to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women at the onset of labor by intravenous bolus at 1 mg/kg of body weight (group A; n = 3) and 1 week prior to and at the onset of labor by the same route and at the same dose (group B; n = 3). In addition to pharmacokinetic studies, safety in the mothers and infants was determined through routine chemistries, hematology, and urinalysis; immunologic and HIV infection statuses in the infants were assessed through lymphocyte cultures, p24 antigen level determination, culture of HIV from plasma, PCR, lymphocyte subset enumeration, quantitative immunoglobulin analysis, and lymphocyte proliferation. Thirty minutes after the rCD4-IgG injection, concentrations in maternal serum were 12 to 23 micrograms/ml. These concentrations declined slowly, with initial and terminal half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) of 9.95 +/- 3.23 and 47.6 +/- 22.3 h, respectively. Infants were born 2.6 to 46.5 h after rCD4-IgG administration; concentrations of rCD4-IgG in cord blood ranged from 28 to 107 ng/ml. The half-life of rCD4-IgG in infants ranged from 5 to 29 h. These data demonstrate that the transfer of rCD4-IgG from the mother to the fetus is rapid and that newborns do not appear to have any difficulty eliminating rCD4-IgG. No safety concerns in mothers or infants were encountered. Although the study did not address the question of efficacy, none of the infants was HIV type 1 infected 36 months later. In summary, these findings document that bifunctional immune molecules can be transported across the placenta, and this general approach may be used in the future to block vertical transmission of HIV type 1. PMID:7664172