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Sample records for aids vaccine initiative

  1. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Methods This case study helps to extend our understanding by analyzing how the Pfizer Global Health Fellows (GHF) program helped develop capacity of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), looking specifically at Fellowship activities in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. From 2005–2009, 8 Pfizer GHF worked with IAVI and local research centers to strengthen capacity to conduct and monitor vaccine trials to meet international standards and expand trial activities. Data collection for the case study included review of Fellow job descriptions, online journals, evaluation reports, and interviews with Fellows and IAVI staff. Qualitative methods were used to analyze factors which influenced the process and outcomes of capacity strengthening. Results Fellows filled critical short-term expert staffing needs at IAVI as well as providing technical assistance and staff development activities. Capacity building included assistance in establishing operating procedures for the start-up period of research centers; training staff in Good Clinical Practice (GCP); developing monitoring capacity (staff and systems) to assure that centers are audit-ready at all times; and strategic planning for data management systems. Factors key to the success of volunteering partnerships included similarities in mission between the corporate and NGO partners, expertise and experience of Fellows, and attitudes of partner organization staff. Conclusion By developing standard operating procedures, ensuring that monitoring and regulatory

  2. An Interview with AIDS Vaccine Researcher Chris Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The search for an AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) vaccine is truly a global effort, with university laboratories, biotech firms, pharmaceutical companies, nonprofit research organizations, hospitals, and clinics all working together to develop an effective vaccine as quickly as possible. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)…

  3. Polyvalent AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M.; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    A major hurdle in the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine is viral diversity. For close to three decades, HIV vaccine development has focused on either the induction of T cell immune responses or antibody responses, and only rarely on both components. After the failure of the STEP trial, the scientific community concluded that a T cell-based vaccine would likely not be protective if the T cell immune responses were elicited against only a few dominant epitopes. Similarly, for vaccines focusing on antibody responses, one of the main criticisms after VaxGen’s failed Phase III trials was on the limited antigen breadth included in the two formulations used. The successes of polyvalent vaccine approaches against other antigenically variable pathogens encourage implementation of the same approach for the design of HIV-1 vaccines. A review of the existing HIV-1 vaccination approaches based on the polyvalent principle is included here to provide a historical perspective for the current effort of developing a polyvalent HIV-1 vaccine. Results summarized in this review provide a clear indication that the polyvalent approach is a viable one for the future development of an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:21054250

  4. Subtype C gp140 Vaccine Boosts Immune Responses Primed by the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative DNA-C2 and MVA-C HIV Vaccines after More than a 2-Year Gap.

    PubMed

    Gray, Glenda E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Elizaga, Marnie L; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Allen, Mary; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; De Rosa, Stephen C; Sato, Alicia; Gu, Niya; Tomaras, Georgia D; Tucker, Timothy; Barnett, Susan W; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Shen, Xiaoying; Downing, Katrina; Williamson, Carolyn; Pensiero, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-06-01

    A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing matched antigens. Following the finding of partial protective efficacy in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial, a protein boost with HIV-1 subtype C V2-deleted gp140 with MF59 was added to the regimen. A total of 48 participants (12 U.S. participants and 36 Republic of South Africa [RSA] participants) were randomized to receive 3 intramuscular (i.m.) doses of SAAVI DNA-C2 of 4 mg (months 0, 1, and 2) and 2 i.m. doses of SAAVI MVA-C of 1.45 × 10(9) PFU (months 4 and 5) (n = 40) or of a placebo (n = 8). Approximately 2 years after vaccination, 27 participants were rerandomized to receive gp140/MF59 at 100 μg or placebo, as 2 i.m. injections, 3 months apart. The vaccine regimen was safe and well tolerated. After the DNA-MVA regimen, CD4(+) T-cell and CD8(+) T-cell responses occurred in 74% and 32% of the participants, respectively. The protein boost increased CD4(+) T-cell responses to 87% of the subjects. All participants developed tier 1 HIV-1C neutralizing antibody responses as well as durable Env binding antibodies that recognized linear V3 and C5 peptides. The HIV-1 subtype C DNA-MVA vaccine regimen showed promising cellular immunogenicity. Boosting with gp140/MF59 enhanced levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIV-1 envelope. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00574600 and NCT01423825.). PMID:27098021

  5. Subtype C gp140 Vaccine Boosts Immune Responses Primed by the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative DNA-C2 and MVA-C HIV Vaccines after More than a 2-Year Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Elizaga, Marnie L.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Allen, Mary; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Sato, Alicia; Gu, Niya; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Tucker, Timothy; Barnett, Susan W.; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N.; Shen, Xiaoying; Downing, Katrina; Williamson, Carolyn; Pensiero, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-01-01

    A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing matched antigens. Following the finding of partial protective efficacy in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial, a protein boost with HIV-1 subtype C V2-deleted gp140 with MF59 was added to the regimen. A total of 48 participants (12 U.S. participants and 36 Republic of South Africa [RSA] participants) were randomized to receive 3 intramuscular (i.m.) doses of SAAVI DNA-C2 of 4 mg (months 0, 1, and 2) and 2 i.m. doses of SAAVI MVA-C of 1.45 × 109 PFU (months 4 and 5) (n = 40) or of a placebo (n = 8). Approximately 2 years after vaccination, 27 participants were rerandomized to receive gp140/MF59 at 100 μg or placebo, as 2 i.m. injections, 3 months apart. The vaccine regimen was safe and well tolerated. After the DNA-MVA regimen, CD4+ T-cell and CD8+ T-cell responses occurred in 74% and 32% of the participants, respectively. The protein boost increased CD4+ T-cell responses to 87% of the subjects. All participants developed tier 1 HIV-1C neutralizing antibody responses as well as durable Env binding antibodies that recognized linear V3 and C5 peptides. The HIV-1 subtype C DNA-MVA vaccine regimen showed promising cellular immunogenicity. Boosting with gp140/MF59 enhanced levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as CD4+ T-cell responses to HIV-1 envelope. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00574600 and NCT01423825.) PMID:27098021

  6. Preparedness for AIDS vaccine trials in India.

    PubMed

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Kochhar, Sonali; Kapoor, Sushma; Das, Sweta; Bahri, Jyoti; Ghosh, Meenakshi Datta; Ganguly, N K; Nayyar, Anjali; Chataway, Mark

    2008-06-01

    India bears a heavy disease burden of HIV/AIDS infected and affected people. A safe, effective and accessible preventive AIDS vaccine, used along with other preventive interventions, is urgently needed to stem the epidemic. This review highlights the extensive preparedness activities undertaken from 2002 by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), its Indian government and non government partners with the Indian scientific, political, media and community stakeholders and the capacity building process, before the conduct of the first ever AIDS vaccine trials in India in early 2005. Issues addressed included mistrust of clinical research due to past history of some unethical trials, transparency, community involvement, stigma and discrimination, provision for care and treatment of participants, informed consent, gender considerations, approval process, and operational aspects. The strong political support along with preparedness activities led to the successful conduct of AIDS vaccine trials enrolling equitably healthy women and men from all sections of society. This has paved the way for future vaccine trials in the country. PMID:18765870

  7. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Research : Vaccines Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Vaccines What Are Vaccines and What Do They Do? A vaccine—also ... immune response against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine ...

  8. Development of an AIDS vaccine using Sendai virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Matano, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Development of an effective AIDS vaccine is crucial for the control of global human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevalence. We have developed a novel AIDS vaccine using a Sendai virus (SeV) vector and investigated its efficacy in a macaque AIDS model of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy have been shown, indicating that the SeV vector is a promising delivery tool for AIDS vaccines. Here, we describe the potential of SeV vector as a vaccine antigen delivery tool to induce effective immune responses against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26232346

  9. Major vaccine project: largest AIDS research grants ever to two "most promising" approaches.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-12-01

    The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has awarded more than $9 million in grants to develop two vaccines. These two vaccines were chosen by experts as the most promising in development. One program, led by Oxford University and the University of Nairobi, will combine two vaccines to investigate if they work well together. A second project will fund development of an HIV vaccine using a non-virulent form of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE). In exchange for investing money into such technologies, IAVI has negotiated for the results to be available in developing countries. Additional information is available on the IAVI web site. PMID:11366075

  10. HIV Vaccines: A Magic Bullet in the Fight against AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Biomedical, logistic, economic, social, and psychosocial issues related to the successful distribution and use of a vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reviewed. A mathematical model is introduced as an aid in conceptualizing these issues. The HIV vaccine should be seen as an adjunct to behavioral modification. (SLD)

  11. Private investment in AIDS vaccine development: obstacles and solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Batson, A.; Ainsworth, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of vaccines for the prevention of AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and other diseases requires both public and private investment. Private investment, however, has been far lower than might have been hoped, given the massive human toll of these diseases, particularly in the poorest countries. With a view to understanding this situation and exploring potential solutions, the World Bank AIDS Vaccine Task Force commissioned a study on the perspectives of the biotechnology, vaccine, and pharmaceutical industries regarding investment in research and development work on an AIDS vaccine. It was found that different obstacles to the development of an AIDS vaccine arose during the product development cycle. During the earlier phases, before obtaining proof of product, the principal barriers were scientific. The lack of consensus on which approach was likely to be effective increased uncertainty and the risks associated with investing in expensive clinical trials. The later phases, which involved adapting, testing, and scaling up production for different populations, were most influenced by market considerations. In order to raise the levels of private research and development in an AIDS vaccine there will probably have to be a combination of push strategies, which reduce the cost and scientific risk of investment, and pull strategies, which guarantee a market. PMID:11545328

  12. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  13. Points for Consideration for dengue vaccine introduction - recommendations by the Dengue Vaccine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Lee, Yong-Seok; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Thiry, Georges; Mahoney, Richard; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Dengue is a public health problem in the tropics and subtropics. There are several vaccine candidates in clinical development. However, there may be gaps in the new vaccine introduction after vaccine licensure before it becomes available in developing countries. In anticipation of the first dengue vaccine candidate to be licensed, Dengue Vaccine Initiative (DVI) and, its predecessor, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) have been working on points for consideration to accelerate evidence-based dengue vaccine introduction, once a vaccine becomes available. In this paper, we review the history of PDVI and its successor, the DVI, and elaborate on the points of consideration for dengue vaccine introduction. PMID:26651238

  14. AIDS Vaccines and Preexposure Prophylaxis: Is Synergy Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Rida, Wasima; Priddy, Frances; Gilmour, Jill; McDermott, Adrian B.; Kamali, Anatoli; Anzala, Omu; Mutua, Gaudensia; Sanders, Eduard J.; Koff, Wayne; Berkley, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract While the long-term goal is to develop highly effective AIDS vaccines, first generation vaccines may be only partially effective. Other HIV prevention modalities such as preexposure prophylaxis with antiretrovirals (PrEP) may have limited efficacy as well. The combined administration of vaccine and PrEP (VAXPREP), however, may have a synergistic effect leading to an overall benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual effects. We propose two test-of-concept trial designs for an AIDS vaccine plus oral or topical ARV. In one design, evidence that PrEP reduces the risk of HIV acquisition is assumed to justify offering it to all participants. A two-arm study comparing PrEP alone to VAXPREP is proposed in which 30 to 60 incident infections are observed to assess the additional benefit of vaccination on risk of infection and setpoint viral load. The demonstrated superiority of VAXPREP does not imply vaccine alone is efficacious. Similarly, the lack of superiority does not imply vaccine alone is ineffective, as antagonism could exist between vaccine and PrEP. In the other design, PrEP is assumed not to be in general use. A 2 × 2 factorial design is proposed in which high-risk individuals are randomized to one of four arms: placebo vaccine given with placebo PrEP, placebo vaccine given with PrEP, vaccine given with placebo PrEP, or VAXPREP. Between 60 and 210 infections are required to detect a benefit of vaccination with or without PrEP on risk of HIV acquisition or setpoint viral load, with fewer infections needed when synergy is present. PMID:21043994

  15. Role of nanotechnology in HIV/AIDS vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Chunying

    2016-08-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the worst crises affecting global health and influencing economic development and social stability. Preventing and treating HIV infection is a crucial task. However, there is still no effective HIV vaccine for clinical application. Nanotechnology has the potential to solve the problems associated with traditional HIV vaccines. At present, various nano-architectures and nanomaterials can function as potential HIV vaccine carriers or adjuvants, including inorganic nanomaterials, liposomes, micelles and polymer nanomaterials. In this review, we summarize the current progress in the use of nanotechnology for the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine and discuss its potential to greatly improve the solubility, permeability, stability and pharmacokinetics of HIV vaccines. Although nanotechnology holds great promise for applications in HIV/AIDS vaccines, there are still many inadequacies that result in a variety of risks and challenges. The potential hazards to the human body and environment associated with some nano-carriers, and their underlying mechanisms require in-depth study. Non-toxic or low-toxic nanomaterials with adjuvant activity have been identified. However, studying the confluence of factors that affect the adjuvant activity of nanomaterials may be more important for the optimization of the dosage and immunization strategy and investigations into the exact mechanism of action. Moreover, there are no uniform standards for investigations of nanomaterials as potential vaccine adjuvants. These limitations make it harder to analyze and deduce rules from the existing data. Developing vaccine nano-carriers or adjuvants with high benefit-cost ratios is important to ensure their broad usage. Despite some shortcomings, nanomaterials have great potential and application prospects in the fields of AIDS treatment and prevention. PMID:26952542

  16. The ethical design of an AIDS vaccine trial in Africa.

    PubMed

    Christakis, N A

    1988-01-01

    In 1987 in Zaire, a French investigator and a small group of Zairians were immunized with a French investigational AIDS vaccine. This action leads to questioning whether different sociocultural settings should have different research ethics applied, especially on pandemic diseases. Another question is to clarify the valid reasons for conducting an AIDS trial in Africa. The design of an AIDS vaccine trial should vary with the ethical and cultural factors of the research population involved, even if the epidemiological and scientific factors are the same worldwide. In Africa, study subjects meet the requirements for AIDS research: They are free from HIV infection and are at risk for the infection. However, concerns center on how to keep the subjects free from risks during the 6 months between HIV tests and how to ensure laboratory test accuracy. The applicability of the findings to that population are essential, although they may be unique to Africa. Research subjects must consent to participating in the trial and must be advised of their antibody status and of their becoming seropositive. To increase the beneficent treatment of subjects and decrease the risks, the study size should be increased and all participants should be counseled to avoid risky behaviors. A subject's family or social group may need to give consent in addition to the subject, because of cultural views. The explanation of the research must be in culturally relevant terms. Africa should have fair access to the vaccine resulting from the research. PMID:3397278

  17. Willingness to participate in AIDS vaccine trials among high-risk populations in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Celentano, D D; Beyrer, C; Natpratan, C; Eiumtrakul, S; Sussman, L; Renzullo, P O; Khamboonruang, C; Nelson, K E

    1995-09-01

    Thailand has been designated a site for preventive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trials, and Phase I and II trials are currently underway. To assess the feasibility of large-scale Phase III trials involving high-risk individuals, questionnaires were administered to four cohorts of potential participants from North Thailand: 215 female commercial sex workers recruited from sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, 219 male STD clients from the same area, 1453 men conscripted into the Royal Thai Army in 1993, and 293 men discharged from the Army in 1993. Approximately 25% of members of each cohort indicated they would definitely join a prophylactic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) trial. The major barriers to participation were concerns about vaccine safety (61% of military cohorts and 32% of civilians) and fear of acquiring AIDS through vaccination (21%). Also expressed were concerns about social discrimination, immediate side effects, and rejection by sexual partner. Two-thirds of respondents indicated that provision of a five-year family health insurance plan would induce them to participate in a vaccine trial, while another 25% did not require any incentive. Overall, these findings indicate that steps must be taken to alleviate fears and misconceptions associated with HIV vaccines before Phase III is initiated. PMID:8527082

  18. Correlates of human papillomavirus vaccine completion among adolescent girl initiators

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; McGrath, Christine J.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine correlates of vaccine series completion among young adolescent US girls who initiated the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS We analyzed National Immunization Survey-Teens 2012 provider-verified data to examine correlates of HPV vaccine completion among 13-17 year old girls who initiated HPV vaccine in 2012 (N=4,548). RESULTS The weighted vaccine series completion rate among 13-17 year old girl initiators was 66.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 64.0-69.3). Adolescent girls who were older, residents of the Northeast (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.73), and had provider-verified seasonal influenza vaccination in the past year (aPR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.11) and provider recommendation (aPR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1.77) were more likely to complete the 3-dose vaccine series. CONCLUSIONS Parents of younger adolescent girls need to be educated about the importance of completing the 3-dose HPV vaccine series. Provider recommendation for the vaccine would also facilitate series completion. PMID:25848128

  19. Initial Aid is Puzzle to Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    States and federal agencies are off to a slow and uneven start in allowing the public to track the first allotments from up to $100 billion in new education funding under the federal economic-stimulus package, despite strong pledges of transparency for the program from the Obama administration. Although about $145 million in aid has been sent from…

  20. Current status of the development of an AIDS vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lasky, L A

    1989-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that the development of a vaccine that would prove effective against infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV, would be an important measure toward eliminating the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS. The biology of HIV is complex and very little is known regarding the host immune defenses against viral infection. The virus has evolved mechanisms to evade the immune system which would appear to make traditional vaccine approaches potentially inadequate. However, all of the diverse technologies which have recently been developed in the field of vaccinology have already been applied in large measure to this disease. These techniques include the use of subunits derived from the virus or by recombinant DNA methods, the use of peptides, the use of anti-idiotypes, and the use of various attenuated viruses which can be utilized as gene carriers. This review summarizes the status of these approaches in an attempt to give a critical overview of the field as it presently exists. PMID:2673294

  1. AIDS in India: emerging from initial chaos.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-01-01

    India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost." PMID:12343054

  2. Clinical hypothesis: Application of AIDS vaccines together with thyroid hormones to increase their immunogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Halabe Bucay, Alberto

    2007-08-14

    To date, none of the vaccines that have been developed to prevent AIDS have proven to be sufficiently effective, despite the human immunodeficiency virus itself having been used as a vector as well as viral fragments, and genetic material from the virus itself and that the vaccines available have been administered with different adjuvants, including cytokines. This paper presents the hypothesis that if AIDS vaccines are administered together with thyroid hormones, the cellular and humoral immune responses will increase and the patients that receive these together will present much better immunogenicity against AIDS. PMID:17570565

  3. Determinants of personal demand for an AIDS vaccine in Uganda: contingent valuation survey.

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David; Pariyo, George; Ainsworth, Martha; Hill, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors affecting demand for an HIV/AIDS vaccine among adults in their prime earning and childbearing years and the impact of vaccination on risk behaviour in a high-prevalence, low-income country. METHODS: A contingent valuation survey of 1677 adults aged 18-60 years was conducted in 12 districts in Uganda. Respondents were asked about a hypothetical vaccine to prevent HIV infection. Households were randomly assigned survey questionnaires with one of two levels of vaccine efficacy (50% or 95%) and one of five prices. The influence of demographic characteristics, vaccine efficacy, self-assessed risk of infection, price, and household assets on vaccine demand was assessed using multivariate regression analysis. FINDINGS: Altogether, 94% (1576/1677) of respondents would be willing to be vaccinated with a free HIV/AIDS vaccine; 31% (78/251) would not be willing to be vaccinated at a price of 5000 Ugandan shillings (2.86 U.S. dollars). Household wealth, vaccine price, and risk behaviour were significant determinants of individual demand. Demand was equally high for both low-efficacy and high-efficacy vaccines. Respondents believed that condom use would be slightly less necessary with a high-efficacy vaccine (655/825; 79.4%) than a low-efficacy vaccine (690/843; 81.8%). However, reported condom use with partners other than spouses in the absence of a vaccine was much lower (137/271; 50.6%), with 26% (175/670) of men and 9.5% (96/1007) of women reporting having had partners other than their spouses during the past year. CONCLUSION: The high demand for an AIDS vaccine of any level of efficacy can be explained by the heavy toll of AIDS in Uganda: 72% (990/1371) of respondents had lost a family member to the disease. An AIDS vaccine would be self-targeting: those with a greater chance of becoming infected and spreading HIV would be more likely to seek a vaccine, improving the efficiency of vaccination programmes. However,,high levels of risk

  4. The vaccines consistency approach project: an EPAA initiative.

    PubMed

    De Mattia, F; Hendriksen, C; Buchheit, K H; Chapsal, J M; Halder, M; Lambrigts, D; Redhead, K; Rommel, E; Scharton-Kersten, T; Sesardic, T; Viviani, L; Ragan, I

    2015-01-01

    The consistency approach for release testing of established vaccines promotes the use of in vitro, analytical, non-animal based systems allowing the monitoring of quality parameters during the whole production process. By using highly sensitive non-animal methods, the consistency approach has the potential to improve the quality of testing and to foster the 3Rs (replacement, refinement and reduction of animal use) for quality control of established vaccines. This concept offers an alternative to the current quality control strategy which often requires large numbers of laboratory animals. In order to facilitate the introduction of the consistency approach for established human and veterinary vaccine quality control, the European Partnership for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EPAA) initiated a project, the "Vaccines Consistency Approach Project", aiming at developing and validating the consistency approach with stakeholders from academia, regulators, OMCLs, EDQM, European Commission and industry. This report summarises progress since the project's inception. PMID:26830158

  5. Ending the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic: The Critical Role of an HIV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fauci, Anthony S.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Marston, Hilary D.

    2014-01-01

    While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic continues, the incidence of HIV infections has fallen because of the deployment of antiretroviral drugs and multiple prevention modalities. To achieve a durable end to the pandemic, a vaccine remains essential. Recent advances in vaccinology offer new promise for an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:25151483

  6. Novel Vaccine Approach Achieves “Functional Cure” of AIDS Virus in Monkeys | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.

  7. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  8. Impact of the free-vaccine policy on timely initiation and completion of hepatitis B vaccination in Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, J N; Wen, X Z; Zhou, Y; Lin, D; Zhang, S Y; Yan, Y S

    2015-06-01

    The extent to which the free-vaccine policy impacts the initiation and completion of a hepatitis B vaccine series is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the free-vaccine policy on hepatitis B vaccination. A provincial survey was conducted in 2006 in Fujian Province, south-east of China, where the free-vaccine policy for hepatitis B was announced in 2002 and implemented in 2003. A total of 1628 children were investigated, and 1443 (88.6%) were included in this analysis. Among the children studied, 55.2% were vaccinated within 24 h of birth, and 76.1% completed the hepatitis B vaccine series on time. The rate of hepatitis B surface antibody positivity increased from 29.9% among children born in 1992 to 90.5% among children born in 2005, while the corresponding HBV infection rate decreased from 30.4% to 1.72%. Logistic regression indicated that, compared to children born between 1996 and 2001, the odds ratios (ORs) for timely initiation were 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-3.84), 5.24 (95% CI, 3.26-8.43) and 9.06 (95% CI, 4.48-18.34) among children born in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively; the corresponding ORs for completing the vaccine series were 4.23 (95% CI, 1.97-9.10), 3.76 (95% CI, 1.81-7.82) and 4.94 (95% CI, 1.74-14.00) among children born in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Children with delayed vaccine initiation (>24 h after birth) were less likely to complete the vaccine series than those who received a timely first dose (OR = 0.02, 95% CI, 0.005-0.09). The impact of the free-vaccine policy on vaccine initiation and vaccine series completion did not differ by children's residence area (rural vs urban). As hypothesized, the odds of completing the vaccine series increased after the free-vaccine policy was announced in 2002 among children with delayed initiation (>24 h after birth) but not among those with timely initiation (≤ 24 h after birth). In conclusion, the free-vaccine policy significantly improved the

  9. Refugees, humanitarian aid and the right to decline vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, A L; Curry, David R

    2015-03-01

    Recent instances of governments and others refusing humanitarian assistance to refugees and IDPs (internally-displaced persons) unless they agreed to polio immunization for their children raise difficult ethical challenges. The authors argue that states have the right and a responsibility to require such vaccinations in instances where the serious vaccine-preventable disease(s) at issue threaten others, including local populations, humanitarian workers, and others in camps or support settings. PMID:25135799

  10. Exploring the Potential Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of AIDS Vaccine within a Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Response in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Thomas M.; Fisher, Kevin A.; McGlynn, Margaret G.; Stover, John; Warren, Mitchell J.; Teng, Yu; Näveke, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background The Investment Framework Enhanced (IFE) proposed in 2013 by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) explored how maximizing existing interventions and adding emerging prevention options, including a vaccine, could further reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This article describes additional modeling which looks more closely at the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of AIDS vaccination in LMICs as part of UNAIDS IFE. Methods An epidemiological model was used to explore the potential impact of AIDS vaccination in LMICs in combination with other interventions through 2070. Assumptions were based on perspectives from research, vaccination and public health experts, as well as observations from other HIV/AIDS interventions and vaccination programs. Sensitivity analyses varied vaccine efficacy, duration of protection, coverage, and cost. Results If UNAIDS IFE goals were fully achieved, new annual HIV infections in LMICs would decline from 2.0 million in 2014 to 550,000 in 2070. A 70% efficacious vaccine introduced in 2027 with three doses, strong uptake and five years of protection would reduce annual new infections by 44% over the first decade, by 65% the first 25 years and by 78% to 122,000 in 2070. Vaccine impact would be much greater if the assumptions in UNAIDS IFE were not fully achieved. An AIDS vaccine would be cost-effective within a wide range of scenarios. Interpretation Even a modestly effective vaccine could contribute strongly to a sustainable response to HIV/AIDS and be cost-effective, even with optimistic assumptions about other interventions. Higher efficacy would provide even greater impact and cost-effectiveness, and would support broader access. Vaccine efficacy and cost per regimen are critical in achieving cost-effectiveness, with cost per regimen being particularly critical in low-income countries and at lower efficacy levels. PMID:26731116

  11. The Children's Vaccine Initiative and vaccine supply: the role of the public sector.

    PubMed

    van Noort, R B

    1992-01-01

    'Children represent the most vulnerable segment of every society--and they are our present and future. Good health, especially of children, promotes personal and national development. Scientific progress, matched with improved capacities of all countries to immunize their children, provides an unparalleled opportunity to save additional lives and prevent additional millions of disabilities annually through a Children's Vaccine Initiative.' (The Netherlands Minister for Development Co-operation.) PMID:1471410

  12. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal models of the disease and provide a potentially invaluable approach for faster and better preclinical evaluation of new drugs and vaccines.

  13. AID-initiated purposeful mutations in immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Myron F; Scharff, Matthew D; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2007-01-01

    Exposure brings risk to all living organisms. Using a remarkably effective strategy, higher vertebrates mitigate risk by mounting a complex and sophisticated immune response to counter the potentially toxic invasion by a virtually limitless army of chemical and biological antagonists. Mutations are almost always deleterious, but in the case of antibody diversification there are mutations occurring at hugely elevated rates within the variable (V) and switch regions (SR) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that are responsible for binding to and neutralizing foreign antigens throughout the body. These mutations are truly purposeful. This chapter is centered on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID is required for initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) in the V regions and class switch recombination (CSR) in the SR portions of Ig genes. By converting C --> U, while transcription takes place, AID instigates a cascade of mutational events involving error-prone DNA polymerases, base excision and mismatch repair enzymes, and recombination pathways. Together, these processes culminate in highly mutated antibody genes and the B cells expressing antibodies that have achieved optimal antigenic binding undergo positive selection in germinal centers. We will discuss the biological role of AID in this complex process, primarily in terms of its biochemical properties in relation to SHM in vivo. The chapter also discusses recent advances in experimental methods to characterize antibody dynamics as a function of SHM to help elucidate the role that the AID-induced mutations play in tailoring molecular recognition. The emerging experimental techniques help to address long-standing conundrums concerning evolution-imposed constraints on antibody structure and function. PMID:17560274

  14. Initial lessons from public-private partnerships in drug and vaccine development.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, C.; Berkley, S.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, venture capital approaches have delivered impressive results in identifying and funding promising health discoveries and bringing them to market. This success has inspired public sector experiments with "social venture capital" approaches to address the dearth of affordable treatment and prevention for diseases of the developing world. Employing the same focus on well-defined and measurable objectives, and the same type of connections to pool and deploy resources as their for-profit counterparts, social venture capitalists seek to use the tools and incentives of capitalism to solve one of its biggest failures: the lack of drugs and vaccines for diseases endemic to low-income populations. As part of a larger trend of partnerships emerging in health product donation and distribution, public-private partnerships for pharmaceutical development have led research and development (R&D) efforts to generate more accessible and efficacious products for diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and AIDS. In this article, three R&D-focused partnerships are explored: the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; the Medicines for Malaria Venture; and the newly formed Global Alliance for TB Drug Development. The article highlights key elements essential to the success of these ventures. PMID:11545329

  15. A common pharmacophoric footprint for AIDS vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Pisterer, Christoph; Mihailescu, Dan; Smith, Jeremy C; Reed, Jennifer

    2004-07-15

    The most promising target antigen for an HIV vaccine designed using the classic antibody strategy has been the viral coat protein gp120. Unfortunately, its high variability has prevented this approach. We examine here a 15-residue peptide derived from the CD4-binding domain of gp120. By use of molecular dynamics computer simulation, it is shown that despite considerable sequence variation, the three-dimensional structure of the peptide is preserved over the full range of clade-specific sequences. Furthermore, sequences threaded onto the structure exhibit common three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic properties. These common physicochemical characteristics constitute a pharmacophoric footprint that promises to be useful in the design of a synthetic antigen for vaccine development. PMID:15239651

  16. Parent Perceptions Important for HPV Vaccine Initiation among Low Income Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Staras, Stephanie A.S.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Patel, Roshni P.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aims were to assess the influence of provider recommendations on parental vaccine perceptions and identify the most potent parent vaccine perceptions for HPV vaccine series initiation considering provider recommendation strength. Methods We administered a questionnaire and assessed HPV vaccine claims among a stratified-random sample of parents of 9-17 year old girls enrolled in Florida's Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated the associations between: (1) parent vaccine perceptions and provider recommendation strength, and (2) parent vaccine perceptions and HPV vaccine series initiation (≥ 1 vaccine claim or positive parental report) controlling for provider recommendation strength. Results The majority of the 2,422 participating parents agreed that the HPV vaccine was safe (61%), would not make girls more likely to have sex (69%), and prevented cervical cancer (71%). About half (44%) reported receiving a strong provider recommendation. Compared to parents without recommendations, parents with strong recommendations had 2 to 7 times higher odds of agreeing that: vaccines are safe, the HPV vaccine is safe, not concerned about side effects, and the vaccine prevents cervical cancer. Even when considering provider recommendation strength, HPV vaccine series initiation was more likely among girls of parents who agreed rather than disagreed that the HPV vaccine was safe [Odds Ratio (OR) =5.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 3.1, 11.1), does not cause sex (OR=2.0, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.4), prevents cervical cancer (OR=2.0, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.4), and prevents HPV infections (OR=1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.0). Conclusions Parent concerns about HPV vaccine are similar to their concerns about other vaccines. Providers should focus HPV vaccine discussions with parents on vaccine safety and illness prevention. PMID:25180815

  17. Non-human primate models for HIV/AIDS vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yongjun; Gordon, Shari; Franchini, Genoveffa; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of HIV vaccines has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that can accurately predict vaccine efficacy. Chimpanzees can be infected with HIV-1 but are not practical for research. However, several species of macaques are susceptible to the Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIV) that causes a disease in macaques that closely mimics HIV in humans. Thus, macaque-SIV models of HIV infection have become a critical foundation for AIDS vaccine development. Here, we examine the multiple variables and considerations that must be taken into account to use this NHP model effectively. These include the species and subspecies of macaques, virus strain, dose and route of administration and macaque genetics including Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules that affect immune responses and other virus restriction factors. We illustrate how these NHP models can be used to carry out studies of immune responses in mucosal and other tissues than could not easily be performed on human volunteers. Futhermore macaques are an ideal model system to optimize adjuvants, test vaccine platforms, and identify correlates of protection that can advance the HIV vaccine field. We also illustrate techniques used to identify different macaque lymphocyte populations and review some poxvirus vaccine candidates that are in various stages of clinical trials. Understanding how to effectively use this valuable model will greatly increase the likelihood of finding a successful vaccine for HIV. PMID:24510515

  18. Scientific considerations for the regulation and clinical evaluation of HIV/AIDS preventive vaccines: report from a WHO-UNAIDS Consultation 13-15 March 2001, Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    2002-07-01

    The consultation was jointly organized by the WHO-UNAIDS HIV Vaccine Initiative and the Quality Assurance and Safety of Biologicals Team of the World Health Organization (WHO). Thirty-four experts from 16 developed and developing countries attended the meeting, bringing together expertise from academic institutions, clinical trial centres, national and international regulatory authorities. Representatives of major pharmaceutical companies were also invited. The primary objective of the meeting was to identify gaps that need to be addressed from regulatory perspective to ensure appropriate progress of HIV vaccine development from basic research to human trials, licensing and future application, with a special focus on needs of developing countries. As a result of discussions, the following priority needs were identified and recommendations were made in order to establish an appropriate regulatory framework for the development and evaluation of preventive HIV/AIDS vaccines, which were divided in two main areas: (a) standardization and control of candidate HIV/AIDS vaccines, and (b) approaches to the conduct of clinical trials of candidate HIV/AIDS vaccines. PMID:12131232

  19. Therapeutic Transcutaneous Immunization with a Band-Aid Vaccine Resolves Experimental Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Laura A.; Clements, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a noninvasive strategy to induce protective immune responses. We describe TCI with a band-aid vaccine placed on the postauricular skin to exploit the unique organization of the stratum corneum and to promote the development of immune responses to resolve active experimental otitis media due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). This therapeutic immunization strategy induced significantly earlier resolution of middle ear fluid and rapid eradication of both planktonic and mucosal biofilm-resident NTHI within 7 days after receipt of the first immunizing band-aid vaccine. Efficacy was ascribed to the homing of immunogen-bearing cutaneous dendritic cells to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, induction of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells, and the presence of immunogen-specific IgM and IgG within the middle ear. TCI using band-aid vaccines could expand the use of traditional parenteral preventative vaccines to include treatment of active otitis media, in addition to other diseases of the respiratory tract due to NTHI. PMID:26018536

  20. Therapeutic Transcutaneous Immunization with a Band-Aid Vaccine Resolves Experimental Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Laura A; Clements, John D; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2015-08-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a noninvasive strategy to induce protective immune responses. We describe TCI with a band-aid vaccine placed on the postauricular skin to exploit the unique organization of the stratum corneum and to promote the development of immune responses to resolve active experimental otitis media due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). This therapeutic immunization strategy induced significantly earlier resolution of middle ear fluid and rapid eradication of both planktonic and mucosal biofilm-resident NTHI within 7 days after receipt of the first immunizing band-aid vaccine. Efficacy was ascribed to the homing of immunogen-bearing cutaneous dendritic cells to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, induction of polyfunctional CD4(+) T cells, and the presence of immunogen-specific IgM and IgG within the middle ear. TCI using band-aid vaccines could expand the use of traditional parenteral preventative vaccines to include treatment of active otitis media, in addition to other diseases of the respiratory tract due to NTHI. PMID:26018536

  1. Macromolecular Assemblage in the Design of a Synthetic AIDS Vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defoort, Jean-Philippe; Nardelli, Bernardetta; Huang, Wolin; Ho, David D.; Tam, James P.

    1992-05-01

    We describe a peptide vaccine model based on the mimicry of surface coat protein of a pathogen. This model used a macromolecular assemblage approach to amplify peptide antigens in liposomes or micelles. The key components of the model consisted of an oligomeric lysine scaffolding to amplify peptide antigens covalently 4-fold and a lipophilic membrane-anchoring group to further amplify noncovalently the antigens many-fold in liposomal or micellar form. A peptide antigen derived from the third variable domain of glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), consisting of neutralizing, T-helper, and T-cytotoxic epitopes, was used in a macromolecular assemblage model (HIV-1 linear peptide amino acid sequence 308-331 in a tetravalent multiple antigen peptide system linked to tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine). The latter complex, in liposome or micelle, was used to immunize mice and guinea pigs without any adjuvant and found to induce gp120-specific antibodies that neutralize virus infectivity in vitro, elicit cytokine production, and prime CD8^+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo. Our results show that the macromolecular assemblage approach bears immunological mimicry of the gp120 of HIV virus and may lead to useful vaccines against HIV infection.

  2. [Public Health initiative for improved vaccination for asylum seekers].

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Stefan O; Wjst, Stephanie; Zelmer, Ursula; Carollo, Stefanie; Schmid, Mirjam; Roller, Gottfried; Eichner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The number of asylum seekers in Germany has increased dramatically in 2015. Their medical care includes the officially recommended vaccinations; yet, no detailed information on this is yet available in Germany. In light of the rising number of asylum seekers, we have developed a concept to facilitate their vaccination. This concept includes the coordination of different partners, the supply of vaccines and other materials through the local health office, and the cooperation with the local physicians' association. To evaluate and accelerate progress, we compared the number of vaccinations conducted by physicians independently of the vaccination concept with those conducted within the new concept. For the period of investigation, 2,256 new asylum seekers were temporarily accommodated in the facilities. The vaccination concept was applied in only some of the facilities. Twenty-eight percent of all asylum seekers (642) were vaccinated at least once; 89 % of the vaccinees (571) were vaccinated within the newly developed concept. In the facilities that were not included in this concept, only 6 % of the refugees were vaccinated, whereas in the facilities that were included up to 58 % were vaccinated. Even though the new concept has started successfully, further innovations are required to reach sufficient vaccination coverage among asylum seekers. In view of the large number of new asylum seekers expected, the adjustment and expansion of the new concept requires professional planning and coordination. Furthermore, additional resources are required. PMID:27072499

  3. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core element of broad control programs against this ectoparasite, in which acquired immunity in cattle to Bm86 is combined with a rational use of acaricides. At present, the conventional vaccine scheme consists of three doses that should be administered at weeks 0, 4 and 7, followed by a booster every six months. Results In this study we assayed a reduction in the number of the initial doses of Gavacplus, evaluated the time course and the level of bovine anti-Bm86 antibodies elicited, and analyzed the vaccine effect on ticks engorging on immunized cattle under production conditions. Following three different immunization schemes, the bovines developed a strong and specific immune response characterized by elevated anti-Bm86 IgG titers. A reduction in the weight of engorging female ticks, in the weight of the eggs laid and also in R. microplus viable eggs percentage was obtained by using only two doses of Gavacplus administered at weeks 0 and 4, followed by a booster six months later. This reduction did not differ from the results obtained on ticks engorging on cattle immunized at weeks 0, 4 and 7. It was also demonstrated that anti-Bm86 antibody titers over 1:640, measured in bovines immunized at weeks 0 and 4, were sufficient to affect weight and reproductive potential of female ticks as compared with ticks engorging on unvaccinated animals. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected in the average weight of eggs laid by ticks engorged on immunized cattle that showed

  4. Generation and Repair of AID-initiated DNA Lesions in B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhangguo; Wang, Jing H.

    2014-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates the secondary antibody diversification process in B lymphocytes. In mammalian B cells, this process includes somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), both of which require AID. AID induces U:G mismatch lesions in DNA that are subsequently converted into point mutations or DNA double stranded breaks during SHM/CSR. In a physiological context, AID targets immunoglobulin (Ig) loci to mediate SHM/CSR. However, recent studies reveal genome-wide access of AID to numerous non-Ig loci. Thus, AID poses a threat to the genome of B cells if AID-initiated DNA lesions cannot be properly repaired. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the specificity of AID targeting and the repair pathways responsible for processing AID-initiated DNA lesions. PMID:24748462

  5. Age at HPV Vaccine Initiation and Completion among US Adolescent Girls: Trend from 2008 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J.; Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose) and completion (≥3 doses) among adolescent girls at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended age (11-12 years). Methods We analyzed National Immunization Survey of Teens 2008-2012 data and examined the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation and completion among <13 year old girls. Results Data on age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion were available for 24,466 and 15,972 girls, respectively. The weighted proportion of girls who initiated the vaccine at <13 years of age was 14.1%, 24.1%, 35.9%, 47.7% and 55.9% in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively (p for trend <.001). The similar trend was also observed for mean age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion (p <.001). Conclusions Additional efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent girls as only half of them receive this vaccine at ACIP recommended age. PMID:25529289

  6. Correlates of human papillomavirus vaccine series completion among young adult female initiators

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H; McGrath, Christine; Berenson, Abbey B

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine the correlates of vaccine series completion among 18–26 year old US women using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Using BRFSS data collected during 2008–2010, we conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the correlates of HPV vaccine completion among HPV vaccine initiators. Among 656 women (18–26 years old) who initiated the HPV vaccine, the overall weighted vaccine series completion rate was 60.7%. It was 32.9%, 65.3%, and 69.9% in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Black and Hispanic women were less likely to complete the series compared with white women. Higher income, having a college degree and completion of the study in a more recent year were associated with higher completion rates. Thus, the reasons for HPV series non-completion may be multifactorial. Interventions targeting 18–26 year old female vaccine initiators with low income and education, and minority backgrounds may improve HPV vaccine series completion. PMID:25424919

  7. Initial findings with a wearable multichannel vibrotactile aid.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Robbins, A M; Todd, S L; Brown, C J

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on the speech perception performance of two profoundly hearing-impaired subjects while using a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Tactaid II) or a new, seven-channel instrument. Both subjects, one a profoundly hearing-impaired teenager and one a postlingually deaf adult, are experienced users of tactile aids. The data suggest better recognition of speech features, words, environmental sounds, and enhancement of lipreading skills with the new multichannel instrument than with the two-channel device. PMID:2069179

  8. Impact of electronic health record (EHR) reminder on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and timely completion

    PubMed Central

    Ruffin, Mack T.; Plegue, Melissa A.; Rockwell, Pamela G.; Young, Alisa P.; Patel, Divya A.; Yeazel, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Initiation and timely completion of the HPV vaccine in young women is critical. We compared initiation and completion of HPV vaccine among women in two community-based networks with electronic health records: one with a prompt and reminder system (prompted cohort) and one without (unprompted cohort). Methods Female patients aged 9–26 years seen between March 1, 2007 and January 25, 2010 were used as retrospective cohorts. Patient demographics and vaccination dates were extracted from the electronic health record. Results Patients eligible for the vaccine included 6019 from the prompted cohort and 9096 from the unprompted cohort. Mean age at initiation was 17.3 years in prompted cohort and 18.1 years at unprompted cohort with significantly more (p<0.001) patients initiating in the prompted cohort (34.9%) compared to the unprompted cohort (21.5%). African Americans age 9–18 years with three or more visits during the observation period were significantly more likely to initiate in the prompted cohort (p<0.001). Prompted cohort was significantly more (p<0.001) likely to complete the vaccine series timely compared to unprompted cohort. Conclusion More patients age 9–26 years initiated and timely completed the HPV vaccine series in clinics using an electronic health record system with prompts compared to clinics without prompts. PMID:25957365

  9. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-08-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  10. A quality improvement initiative to increase pneumococcal vaccination coverage among children after kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Malone, Kathryn; Clark, Stephanie; Palmer, Jo Ann; Lopez, Sonya; Pradhan, Madhura; Furth, Susan; Kim, Jason; Fisher, Brian; Laskin, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Pneumococcal vaccination rates among children receiving a kidney transplant remain suboptimal. Current practice guidelines in the United States recommend giving the PPSV23 after priming with the PCV13. We conducted a QI initiative to increase pneumococcal vaccine rates in our kidney transplant recipients by developing an age-based vaccine algorithm, obtaining vaccine records, and generating reminders for patients and clinicians. A monthly report from the EHR tracked outcomes. The process metric was missed vaccine opportunities, and the overall objective was to improve coverage with both the PCV13 and PPSV23. Over the first six months, we increased the percentage of visits where the vaccine was given from a baseline of 4% to 33%. However, by the end of the 12-month period, the percentage of eligible visits where the vaccine was given decreased to 8.7%. Nevertheless, over the 12-month observation period, we were able to increase the percentage of transplant patients receiving the PCV13 and PPSV23 from 6% to 52%. Utilizing an age-based algorithm and the electronic medical record, vaccine champions can track both missed visit opportunities and the number of vaccinated patients to improve pneumococcal immunization coverage for these high-risk patients. PMID:27334506

  11. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-01-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  12. Salivary binding antibodies induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant gp120 vaccine. The NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group.

    PubMed Central

    Gorse, G J; Yang, E Y; Belshe, R B; Berman, P W

    1996-01-01

    Salivary binding antibodies induced by candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines in healthy, HIV-1 uninfected volunteers were assessed in a clinical trial evaluating intramuscularly injected HIV-1MN recombinant gp120 (rgp120) vaccine alone or with HIV-1IIIB rgp120 vaccine. The two rgp120 vaccines induced envelope glycoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies in whole saliva and serum. PMID:8914773

  13. Interplay between Target Sequences and Repair Pathways Determines Distinct Outcomes of AID-Initiated Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhangguo; Eder, Maxwell D.; Elos, Mihret T.; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S.; Chen, Xiaomi

    2016-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) functions by deaminating cytosines and causing U:G mismatches, a rate-limiting step of Ab gene diversification. However, precise mechanisms regulating AID deamination frequency remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is not known whether different sequence contexts influence the preferential access of mismatch repair or uracil glycosylase (UNG) to AID-initiated U:G mismatches. In this study, we employed two knock-in models to directly compare the mutability of core Sμ and VDJ exon sequences and their ability to regulate AID deamination and subsequent repair process. We find that the switch (S) region is a much more efficient AID deamination target than the V region. Igh locus AID-initiated lesions are processed by error-free and error-prone repair. S region U:G mismatches are preferentially accessed by UNG, leading to more UNG-dependent deletions, enhanced by mismatch repair deficiency. V region mutation hotspots are largely determined by AID deamination. Recurrent and conserved S region motifs potentially function as spacers between AID deamination hotspots. We conclude that the pattern of mutation hotspots and DNA break generation is influenced by sequence-intrinsic properties, which regulate AID deamination and affect the preferential access of downstream repair. Our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for substrate sequences in regulating Ab gene diversity and AID targeting specificity. PMID:26810227

  14. Interplay between Target Sequences and Repair Pathways Determines Distinct Outcomes of AID-Initiated Lesions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangguo; Eder, Maxwell D; Elos, Mihret T; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S; Chen, Xiaomi; Wang, Jing H

    2016-03-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) functions by deaminating cytosines and causing U:G mismatches, a rate-limiting step of Ab gene diversification. However, precise mechanisms regulating AID deamination frequency remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is not known whether different sequence contexts influence the preferential access of mismatch repair or uracil glycosylase (UNG) to AID-initiated U:G mismatches. In this study, we employed two knock-in models to directly compare the mutability of core Sμ and VDJ exon sequences and their ability to regulate AID deamination and subsequent repair process. We find that the switch (S) region is a much more efficient AID deamination target than the V region. Igh locus AID-initiated lesions are processed by error-free and error-prone repair. S region U:G mismatches are preferentially accessed by UNG, leading to more UNG-dependent deletions, enhanced by mismatch repair deficiency. V region mutation hotspots are largely determined by AID deamination. Recurrent and conserved S region motifs potentially function as spacers between AID deamination hotspots. We conclude that the pattern of mutation hotspots and DNA break generation is influenced by sequence-intrinsic properties, which regulate AID deamination and affect the preferential access of downstream repair. Our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for substrate sequences in regulating Ab gene diversity and AID targeting specificity. PMID:26810227

  15. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Oldach, Benjamin R.; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multi-level intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n=20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n=17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0–5 scale; p<0.01) and more positive attitudes toward HPV vaccination (p<0.05) were reported among parents. Parents confirmed that the comic book’s content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates. PMID:24420004

  16. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mira L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multilevel intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n = 20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n = 17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0-5 scale; p < 0.01) and more positive attitudes toward HPV vaccination (p < 0.05) were reported among parents. Parents confirmed that the comic book's content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates. PMID:24420004

  17. A critical role for AID in the initiation of reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Nidhi; Decker, Matthew N.; Brady, Jennifer J.; Bussat, Rose T.; Burns, David M.; Corbel, Stephane Y.; Blau, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic insights into the reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are limited, particularly for early acting molecular regulators. Here we use an acute loss of function approach to demonstrate that activation-induced deaminase (AID) activity is necessary for the initiation of reprogramming to iPSCs. While AID is well known for antibody diversification, it has also recently been shown to have a role in active DNA demethylation in reprogramming toward pluripotency and development. These findings suggested a potential role for AID in iPSC generation, yet, iPSC yield from AID-knockout mouse fibroblasts was similar to that of wild-type (WT) fibroblasts. We reasoned that an acute loss of AID function might reveal effects masked by compensatory mechanisms during development, as reported for other proteins. Accordingly, we induced an acute reduction (>50%) in AID levels using 4 different shRNAs and determined that reprogramming to iPSCs was significantly impaired by 79 ± 7%. The deaminase activity of AID was critical, as coexpression of WT but not a catalytic mutant AID rescued reprogramming. Notably, AID was required only during a 72-h time window at the onset of iPSC reprogramming. Our findings show a critical role for AID activity in the initiation of reprogramming to iPSCs.—Bhutani, N., Decker, M. N., Brady, J. J., Bussat, R. T., Burns, D. M., Corbel, S. Y., Blau, H. M. A critical role for AID in the initiation of reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23212122

  18. Immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with Brucella abortus strain RB51 or 19.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Fach, S J; Palmer, M V; Sacco, R E; Stoffregen, W C; Waters, W R

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). In this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strains RB51 (SRB51) and 19 (S19). Elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) CFU of SRB51 or S19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. Compared to nonvaccinates, elk vaccinated with SRB51 or S19 had greater (P<0.05) antibody responses to SRB51 or S19 after initial vaccination and after booster vaccination. Compared to nonvaccinated elk, greater (P<0.05) proliferative responses to autologous antigen after initial vaccination occurred at only a few sample times in SRB51 (6, 14, and 22 weeks) and S19 (22 weeks) treatment groups. In general, proliferative responses of vaccinates to nonautologous antigens did not differ (P>0.05) from the responses of nonvaccinated elk. Gamma interferon production in response to autologous or nonautologous Brucella antigens did not differ (P>0.05) between controls and vaccinates after booster vaccination. Flow cytometric techniques suggested that proliferation occurred more frequently in immunoglobulin M-positive cells, with differences between vaccination and control treatments in CD4+ and CD8+ subset proliferation detected only at 22 weeks after initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, one technique ([3H]thymidine incorporation) suggested that proliferative responses to SRB51 antigen, but not S19 antigen, were greater (P<0.05) in vaccinates compared to the responses of nonvaccinates. However, in general, flow cytometric and other techniques failed to detect significant anamnestic responses to autologous or nonautologous Brucella antigens in S19 or SRB51 vaccinates after booster vaccination. Although some cellular immune responses were detected after initial or booster vaccination of elk with SRB51

  19. First aid to Cultural Heritage. Training initiatives on rapid documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Tandon, A.; Eppich, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.

  20. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  1. Scientific and regulatory challenges in evaluating clinical trial protocols for HIV-1/AIDS vaccines - A review from a regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Rebecca L; Zhou, TieQun; Knezevic, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Clinical development of prophylactic HIV/AIDS vaccines presents many scientific challenges that result in challenges for regulators reviewing clinical trial applications (CTAs). The World Health Organization (WHO) has the responsibility to provide technical support to these regulators. The search for an HIV/AIDS vaccine will only succeed through well-designed, -conducted and -controlled human efficacy studies reviewed and approved by regulators in countries worldwide, particularly in countries where the epidemic has hit hardest, such as in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This review summarizes the current candidates in development and focuses on challenges regulators face when reviewing CTAs, such as the evolving landscape of "standard of prevention," trials in adolescents, adaptive trial designs, correlates of protection and their analysis, and access to successful vaccines. There are many unknowns in the field of HIV/AIDS vaccine development and often, there is not a clear right or wrong approach because of the scientific challenges described in this review. Consequently, regulators should not feel that decisions need be made in isolation, when there are many available international collaborative efforts and opportunities to seek expert advice. The WHO provides many such opportunities and support to regulators across the globe. PMID:26732973

  2. Exploring the role of neighborhood socio-demographic factors on HPV vaccine initiation among low-income, ethnic minority girls

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Jennifer; Gee, Gilbert C.; Rodriguez, Hector; Kominski, Gerald F.; Glenn, Beth A.; Singhal, Rita; Bastani, Roshan

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about whether neighborhood factors are associated with HPV vaccine uptake, especially among disadvantaged groups that can benefit most from the vaccine. Methods We used data collected from immigrant, low-income mothers of adolescent girls and data from the 2005–2009 American Community Survey to investigate the relationship between HPV vaccine initiation and neighborhood characteristics. We compared initiation rates across levels of neighborhood disadvantage and employed multilevel logistic regression models to examine contextual effects on uptake. Results Overall, 27% of girls (n=479) initiated the vaccine. Initiation rates were highest among girls from the most disadvantaged neighborhoods (30%), however, neighborhood factors were not independently associated with vaccine initiation after adjusting for individual factors. Mother’s awareness of HPV, age, and insurance status were strong predictors for initiation. Conclusions Future interventions should focus on improving awareness among low-income mothers as well as targeting vulnerable families outside the catchment area of public programs. PMID:23081659

  3. Elementary School-Located Influenza Vaccine Programs: Key Stakeholder Experiences from Initiation to Continuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Valerie; Rousculp, Matthew D.; Price, Mark; Coles, Theresa; Therrien, Michelle; Griffin, Jane; Hollis, Kelly; Toback, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the initiation and logistics, funding, perceived barriers and benefits, and disruption of school activities by school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs conducted during the 2008-2009 influenza season. Seventy-two interviews using a structured protocol were conducted with 26 teachers, 16 school administrators, and 30…

  4. Vaccine-Induced CD107a+ CD4+ T Cells Are Resistant to Depletion following AIDS Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Terahara, Kazutaka; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nomura, Takushi; Takahashi, Naofumi; Takeda, Akiko; Shiino, Teiichiro; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ T-cell responses are crucial for effective antibody and CD8+ T-cell induction following virus infection. However, virus-specific CD4+ T cells can be preferential targets for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-specific CD4+ T-cell induction by vaccination may thus result in enhancement of virus replication following infection. In the present study, we show that vaccine-elicited CD4+ T cells expressing CD107a are relatively resistant to depletion in a macaque AIDS model. Comparison of virus-specific CD107a, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 responses in CD4+ T cells of vaccinated macaques prechallenge and 1 week postchallenge showed a significant reduction in the CD107a− but not the CD107a+ subset after virus exposure. Those vaccinees that failed to control viremia showed a more marked reduction and exhibited significantly higher viral loads at week 1 than unvaccinated animals. Our results indicate that vaccine-induced CD107a− CD4+ T cells are depleted following virus infection, suggesting a rationale for avoiding virus-specific CD107a− CD4+ T-cell induction in HIV vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Induction of effective antibody and/or CD8+ T-cell responses is a principal vaccine strategy against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. CD4+ T-cell responses are crucial for effective antibody and CD8+ T-cell induction. However, virus-specific CD4+ T cells can be preferential targets for HIV infection. Here, we show that vaccine-induced virus-specific CD107a− CD4+ T cells are largely depleted following infection in a macaque AIDS model. While CD4+ T-cell responses are important in viral control, our results indicate that virus-specific CD107a− CD4+ T-cell induction by vaccination may not lead to efficient CD4+ T-cell responses following infection but rather be detrimental and accelerate viral replication in the acute phase. This suggests that HIV vaccine design

  5. Current initiatives to protect Rhode Island adolescents through increasing HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Tricia; Devi Wold, Anne; Raymond, Patricia; Duggan-Ball, Sue; Marceau, Kathy; Beardsworth, AnneMarie

    2016-06-01

    This commentary provides an overview of recent initiatives in Rhode Island to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vac-30 cination with the goal of protecting Rhode Island adolescents against vaccine-preventable HPV-associated cancers. With the exception of the introduction of a recent school entry requirement, most of the initiatives and related activities described were conducted as part of a cooperative agreement between 35 RIDOH and CDC, and were supported by the Prevention and Public Health Fund. (1). PMID:27141954

  6. Provider recommendation mediates the relationship between parental human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation and completion among 13–17 year old US adolescent children

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; McGrath, Christine J.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between parental human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness and HPV vaccine initiation/completion based on 13–17 year old US adolescent children and to explore whether these associations were mediated by provider recommendation. Methods We used publicly available National Immunization Survey-Teen 2011 data (11,236 adolescent girls and 12,328 boys). Results Weighted logistic regression analysis showed that parental HPV awareness and provider recommendation predicted HPV vaccine initiation and completion separately among both girls and boys, after adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization variables. When provider recommendation and parental HPV awareness were entered in the model simultaneously, only provider recommendation independently associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion, demonstrating a mediation effect of provider recommendation. Conclusions Future studies are needed to better understand why physicians may not provide a recommendation for the HPV vaccine as well as to identify strategies to improve the provider’s ability to effectively communicate their recommendation. PMID:25238779

  7. Does Language Moderate the Influence of Information Scanning and Seeking on HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Awareness and Initiation among Hispanics?

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Clare F.; Caughy, Margaret O.; Lee, Simon Craddock; Bishop, Wendy P.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether language moderates associations between three communication variables: media use, information scanning (attending to and remembering information) and seeking (actively looking for information), and three HPV outcomes: knowledge, vaccine awareness and vaccine initiation among Hispanics. Participants Hispanic mothers of females aged 8–22 years (N=288) were surveyed. Methods Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions investigated associations between communication variables and HPV outcomes. To examine moderation by language, we compared main effects and interaction models using the likelihood ratio test. Results For English- and Spanish-speakers, Internet use was associated with more HPV knowledge and vaccine awareness, but not initiation. Scanning and seeking were associated with more knowledge, vaccine awareness, and initiation. Language moderated effects of scanning and seeking only on vaccine awareness. Spanish speakers who scanned for information were more likely to be aware of the vaccine than those who did not (80% vs 26%); Spanish speakers who sought information were also more likely to be aware (95% vs 55%). For English speakers, vaccine awareness did not differ between those who scanned and sought and those who did not. Conclusions Effects of information scanning and seeking on HPV vaccine awareness were much greater for Spanish than for English speakers. Providers, therefore, should not assume that Spanish-speaking mothers are already aware of the vaccine. Our findings call attention to heterogeneity within Hispanics which could be particularly important when examining health communication and cancer prevention behaviors. PMID:23495629

  8. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  9. Increasing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Initiation among Publically-Insured Florida Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Livingston, Melvin D.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Sanders, Ashley H.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the feasibility of a multi-level intervention to increase HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents. Methods We used a four-arm factorial quasi-experimental trial to assess feasibility and short-term, preliminary effectiveness of a health system-level, gender-specific postcard campaign and an in-clinic health information technology (HIT) system. Between August to November 2013, we tested the intervention among 11–17 year olds without prior HPV vaccine claims in Florida Medicaid or Children’s Health Insurance Program encounters (2773 girls and 3350 boys) who attended or were assigned to primary care clinics in North Central Florida. Results At least one postcard was deliverable to 95% of parents. Most parents (91% boys’ and 80% girls’) who participated in the process evaluation survey (n=162) reported seeking additional information about the vaccine after receiving the postcard. Only 8% (57 of the 1062) of adolescents assigned to a HIT provider with an office visit during the study used the HIT system. When compared with arms not containing that component, HPV vaccine initiation increased with the postcard campaign [girls Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.1–2.3 and boys = not significant], the HIT system (girls OR = 1.5, 95% CI =1.0–2.3 and boys OR = 1.4, 95% CI=1.0–2.0), and the combined HIT and postcard intervention (girls OR = 2.4, 95% CI =1.4–4.3 and boys OR = 1.6, 95% CI=1.0–2.5). Conclusions A system-level postcard campaign was feasible. Despite low recruitment to the inclinic HIT system, the intervention demonstrated short-term, preliminary effectiveness similar to prior HPV vaccine interventions. PMID:25863554

  10. Enveloped viruses understood via multiscale simulation: computer-aided vaccine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreif, Z.; Adhangale, P.; Cheluvaraja, S.; Perera, R.; Kuhn, R.; Ortoleva, P.

    Enveloped viruses are viewed as an opportunity to understand how highly organized and functional biosystems can emerge from a collection of millions of chaotically moving atoms. They are an intermediate level of complexity between macromolecules and bacteria. They are a natural system for testing theories of self-assembly and structural transitions, and for demonstrating the derivation of principles of microbiology from laws of molecular physics. As some constitute threats to human health, a computer-aided vaccine and drug design strategy that would follow from a quantitative model would be an important contribution. However, current molecular dynamics simulation approaches are not practical for modeling such systems. Our multiscale approach simultaneously accounts for the outer protein net and inner protein/genomic core, and their less structured membranous material and host fluid. It follows from a rigorous multiscale deductive analysis of laws of molecular physics. Two types of order parameters are introduced: (1) those for structures wherein constituent molecules retain long-lived connectivity (they specify the nanoscale structure as a deformation from a reference configuration) and (2) those for which there is no connectivity but organization is maintained on the average (they are field variables such as mass density or measures of preferred orientation). Rigorous multiscale techniques are used to derive equations for the order parameters dynamics. The equations account for thermal-average forces, diffusion coefficients, and effects of random forces. Statistical properties of the atomic-scale fluctuations and the order parameters are co-evolved. By combining rigorous multiscale techniques and modern supercomputing, systems of extreme complexity can be modeled.

  11. Enveloped viruses understood via multiscale simulation: computer-aided vaccine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreif, Z.; Adhangale, P.; Cheluvaraja, S.; Perera, R.; Kuhn, R.; Ortoleva, P.

    2008-04-01

    Enveloped viruses are viewed as an opportunity to understand how highly organized and functional biosystems can emerge from a collection of millions of chaotically moving atoms. They are an intermediate level of complexity between macromolecules and bacteria. They are a natural system for testing theories of self-assembly and structural transitions, and for demonstrating the derivation of principles of microbiology from laws of molecular physics. As some constitute threats to human health, a computer-aided vaccine and drug design strategy that would follow from a quantitative model would be an important contribution. However, current molecular dynamics simulation approaches are not practical for modeling such systems. Our multiscale approach simultaneously accounts for the outer protein net and inner protein/genomic core, and their less structured membranous material and host fluid. It follows from a rigorous multiscale deductive analysis of laws of molecular physics. Two types of order parameters are introduced: (1) those for structures wherein constituent molecules retain long-lived connectivity (they specify the nanoscale structure as a deformation from a reference configuration) and (2) those for which there is no connectivity but organization is maintained on the average (they are field variables such as mass density or measures of preferred orientation). Rigorous multiscale techniques are used to derive equations for the order parameters dynamics. The equations account for thermal-average forces, diffusion coefficients, and effects of random forces. Statistical properties of the atomic-scale fluctuations and the order parameters are co-evolved. By combining rigorous multiscale techniques and modern supercomputing, systems of extreme complexity can be modeled.

  12. Meeting the needs of people with AIDS: local initiatives and Federal support.

    PubMed Central

    Sundwall, D N; Bailey, D

    1988-01-01

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), one of the seven agencies of the Public Health Service, is working to meet some of the resource and patient service needs engendered by the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Those actions derived from, and support the continuation, expansion, and replication of, initiatives at the community and State levels. HRSA is carrying out many of the recommendations of the Intragovernmental Task Force on AIDS Health Care Delivery by enhancing the AIDS training of health care personnel in prevention, diagnosis, and care and by counseling and encouraging the expansion of facilities outside hospitals to care for AIDS patients. The agency, through its pediatric AIDS demonstration projects, is working on models for the care of children with HIV infections. The needs of AIDS patients are being addressed through a drug therapy reimbursement program; demonstration grants to 13 projects to promote coordinated, integrated systems of care in the community; and grants for the development of intermediate and long-term care facilities for patients. Ten regional education and training centers, funded in 1987 and 1988, will increase the supply of health care providers prepared to diagnose and treat persons with HIV infections. Programs will be conducted for several thousand providers over the next 3 years, using such modalities as televised programs and train-the-trainer courses. The centers will also offer support and referral services for providers. PMID:3131821

  13. Convergent Transcription At Intragenic Super-Enhancers Targets AID-initiated Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fei-Long; Du, Zhou; Federation, Alexander; Hu, Jiazhi; Wang, Qiao; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Meyers, Robin M.; Amor, Corina; Wasserman, Caitlyn R.; Neuberg, Donna; Casellas, Rafael; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bradner, James E.; Liu, X. Shirley; Alt, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates both somatic hypermutation (SHM) for antibody affinity maturation and DNA breakage for antibody class switch recombination (CSR) via transcription-dependent cytidine deamination of single stranded DNA targets. While largely specific for immunoglobulin genes, AID also acts on a limited set of off-targets, generating oncogenic translocations and mutations that contribute to B cell lymphoma. How AID is recruited to off-targets has been a long-standing mystery. Based on deep GRO-Seq studies of mouse and human B lineage cells activated for CSR or SHM, we report that most robust AID off-target translocations occur within highly focal regions of target genes in which sense and antisense transcription converge. Moreover, we found that such AID-targeting “convergent” transcription arises from antisense transcription that emanates from Super-Enhancers within sense transcribed gene bodies. Our findings provide an explanation for AID off-targeting to a small subset of mostly lineage-specific genes in activated B cells. PMID:25483776

  14. Genomic Analysis Reveals Pre- and Postchallenge Differences in a Rhesus Macaque AIDS Vaccine Trial: Insights into Mechanisms of Vaccine Efficacy▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Robert E.; Patterson, L. Jean; Aicher, Lauri D.; Korth, Marcus J.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    We have employed global transcriptional profiling of whole blood to identify biologically relevant changes in cellular gene expression in response to alternative AIDS vaccine strategies with subsequent viral challenge in a rhesus macaque vaccine model. Samples were taken at day 0 (prechallenge), day 14 (peak viremia), and week 12 (set point) from animals immunized with replicating adenovirus type 5 host range (Ad5hr) recombinant viruses expressing human immunodeficiency virus HIVenv89.6P, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVgag239, or SIVnef239 alone or in combination with two intramuscular boosts with HIV89.6Pgp140ΔCFI protein (L. J. Patterson et al., Virology 374:322-337, 2008), and each treatment resulted in significant control of viremia following simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P challenge (six animals per group plus six controls). At day 0, 8 weeks after the last treatment, the microarray profiles revealed significant prechallenge differences between treatment groups; data from the best-protected animals led to identification of a network of genes related to B cell development and lymphocyte survival. At peak viremia, expression profiles of the immunized groups were extremely similar, and comparisons to control animals reflected immunological differences other than effector T cell functions. Suggested protective mechanisms for vaccinated animals included upregulation of interleukin-27, a cytokine known to inhibit lentivirus replication, and increased expression of complement components, which may synergize with vaccine-induced antibodies. Divergent expression profiles at set point for the immunized groups implied distinct immunological responses despite phenotypic similarities in viral load and CD4+ T cell levels. Data for the gp140-boosted group provided evidence for antibody-dependent, cell-mediated viral control, whereas animals immunized with only the replicating Ad5hr recombinants exhibited a different evolution of the B cell compartment even

  15. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Vaccinated More Info Glossary Our Partners Related Websites AIDS.gov Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) CDC Vaccines Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program ...

  16. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs. PMID:26685562

  17. Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Radha; Jeyabaskar, Suganya; Sitharaman, Gayathri; Michael, Rajamani Dinakaran; Paul, Agnal Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare are two important intracellular pathogenic bacteria that cause the infectious diseases edwardsiellosis and columnaris in wild and cultured fish. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming. Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda and F. columnare, which interact well with MHC class I alleles. OMPs from E. tarda and F. columnare were selected and analyzed based on their antigenic and immunogenic properties. The OMPs of the genes TolC and FCOL_04620, respectively, from E. tarda and F. columnare were taken for study. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. tarda exhibited excellent protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Five epitopes from the OMP of F. columnare had good protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Further in vitro studies can aid in the development of potential peptide vaccines using the predicted peptides. PMID:27284239

  18. Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Radha; Jeyabaskar, Suganya; Sitharaman, Gayathri; Michael, Rajamani Dinakaran; Paul, Agnal Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare are two important intracellular pathogenic bacteria that cause the infectious diseases edwardsiellosis and columnaris in wild and cultured fish. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming. Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda and F. columnare, which interact well with MHC class I alleles. OMPs from E. tarda and F. columnare were selected and analyzed based on their antigenic and immunogenic properties. The OMPs of the genes TolC and FCOL_04620, respectively, from E. tarda and F. columnare were taken for study. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. tarda exhibited excellent protein-peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Five epitopes from the OMP of F. columnare had good protein-peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Further in vitro studies can aid in the development of potential peptide vaccines using the predicted peptides. PMID:27284239

  19. Recombinant HBV vaccine enhances the rate of sustained virological response when early initiated after anti-HCV combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Amr Shaaban; Farag, Alaa Ahmad; Hassanin, Hassan Mahmoud; Hassaneen, Ahmad Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The overall SVR rate for chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 using the Standard of care is 54.3%. HBV infection can be prevented by the administration of effective and safe vaccine. Evaluation of the vaccination-induced anti-HBs response rates in a cohort of HCV Egyptian patients after being exposed to antiviral combination therapy and the magnitude of its effect on the rate of SVR through its putative role in induction of crossed immunity. (A) 500 HCV patients who had completed the course of antiviral therapy and achieved ETR were retrospectively analyzed and received 20 μg of recombinant DNA vaccine for hepatitis B at time intervals (0, 1, and 4 months). The first dose of the vaccine was initiated one month post treatment. (B) Laboratory analysis: Included routine preliminary investigations to anti viral therapy and specific investigations as determination of anti-HBs antibodies 2 months following the third dose of vaccine. 433 patients showed protective response (86.6%), 67 patients were non-responders (13.4%) (P = 0.003). Adding HBV vaccine 1 month post-treatment increased SVR (400 patients, 80%) (χ(2)  = 40.3, P = 0.000). Diabetes affect response to HBV vaccine (P = 0.0001). Adding HBV vaccine to the post treatment care of patients with HCV after termination of antiviral therapy gain two benefits; protection from HBV and significant increase in rates of SVR. PMID:26147509

  20. AIDS vaccine research in Asia: needs and opportunities. Report from a UNAIDS/WHO/NIID meeting Tokyo, 28-30 October 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-07-30

    A meeting was organized by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Japanese National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) with the following objectives: (i) to discuss public health and economic rationale to accelerate the development and evaluation of HIV vaccines suitable for use in Asia; (ii) to review ongoing preclinical HIV vaccine research in Asia; (iii) to review the Asian experience in conducting clinical trials of HIV candidate vaccines; (iv) to explore possibilities for international collaboration between countries in the region and with other countries and institutions; and (v) to discuss issues related to availability of future effective HIV vaccines. The meeting was attended by participants from Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The HIV epidemic in Asia is rapidly spreading and has already resulted in a total of 7 million HIV infections in the region. The epidemic already has a significant public health and economic impact, which may be worse in the future, unless effective intervention programmes are successfully implemented. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine should be considered as the best hope for a long-term solution to the HIV epidemic in Asia. Asian scientists and institutions have established a number of international collaborations to isolate and characterize prevalent HIV-1 strains (mostly belonging to subtypes C and E) and are developing candidate vaccines based on these subtypes. In the region, phase I/II clinical trials of preventative HIV candidate vaccines have been conducted in Australia, China and Thailand. Since 1993, a comprehensive National AIDS Vaccine Plan has allowed Thailand to conduct phase I/II trials of six different preventative or therapeutic candidate vaccines, and the first phase III preventative efficacy trial has been approved. The meeting

  1. Vaccines

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  2. Poor Initial CD4+ Recovery With Antiretroviral Therapy Prolongs Immune Depletion and Increases Risk for AIDS and Non-AIDS Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jason V.; Peng, Grace; Rapkin, Joshua; Krason, David; Reilly, Cavan; Cavert, Winston P.; Abrams, Donald I.; MacArthur, Rodger D.; Henry, Keith; Neaton, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low CD4+ increases risk for both AIDS- and non–AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of CD4+ recovery early after initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important in the ultimate duration of immune depletion. Methods We examined CD4+ recovery among 850 participants in the Community Program for Clinical Research on AIDS Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies study with virologic suppression (ie, achieved an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL) with 8 months of initial ART and determined subsequent risk for AIDS, non-AIDS diseases (non-AIDS cancers and cardiovascular, end-stage renal, and liver diseases), or death using Cox regression during a median 5-year follow-up. Results Mean pretreatment CD4+ was 221 cells/μL; 18% (n = 149) had a poor CD4+ recovery (<50 cells/μL) after 8 months of effective ART, resulting in lower CD4+ over 5 years. Older age (hazard ratio 1.34/10 yrs, P = 0.003) and lower screening HIV RNA (hazard ratio 0.65 per log10 copies/mL higher, P = 0.001), but not screening CD4+, were associated with a poor CD4+ recovery. After 8 months of effective ART, 30 patients experienced the composite outcome of AIDS, non-AIDS, or death among participants with a poor CD4+ recovery (rate = 5.8/100 person-years) and 74 patients among those with an adequate recovery (≥50 cells/μL; rate = 2.7/100 personyears) (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.24, P < 0.001). The risk of this composite outcome associated with a poor CD4+ recovery declined when ART was initiated at higher CD4+ counts (P < 0.01). Conclusions Impaired immune recovery, despite effective ART, results in longer time spent at low CD4+, thereby increasing risk for a broad category of HIV-related morbidity and mortality conditions. PMID:18645520

  3. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  4. Perceived need of a parental decision aid for the HPV vaccine: content and format preferences.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2012-03-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process. PMID:21444922

  5. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Legacy Recruitment for Experimental AIDS Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Kimberly Sessions

    2005-01-01

    For African Americans, medical research often connotes exploitation and cruelty, making recruiting African Americans to participate in HIV vaccine trials particularly daunting. But infusing adult education principles into such efforts is both increasing African American participation and helping heal the legacy of the Tuskegee experiment.

  6. Initial development of a temporal-envelope-preserving nonlinear hearing aid prescription using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Andrew T; Souza, Pamela E

    2013-06-01

    Most hearing aid prescriptions focus on the optimization of a metric derived from the long-term average spectrum of speech, and do not consider how the prescribed values might distort the temporal envelope shape. A growing body of evidence suggests that such distortions can lead to systematic errors in speech perception, and therefore hearing aid prescriptions might benefit by including preservation of the temporal envelope shape in their rationale. To begin to explore this possibility, we designed a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the multiband compression settings that preserve the shape of the original temporal envelope while placing that envelope in the listener's audiometric dynamic range. The resulting prescription had a low compression threshold, short attack and release times, and a combination of compression ratio and gain that placed the output signal within the listener's audiometric dynamic range. Initial behavioral tests of individuals with impaired hearing revealed no difference in speech-in-noise perception between the GA and the NAL-NL2 prescription. However, gap detection performance was superior with the GA in comparison to NAL-NL2. Overall, this work is a proof of concept that consideration of temporal envelope distortions can be incorporated into hearing aid prescriptions. PMID:24028890

  7. Global Health Initiatives and aid effectiveness: insights from a Ugandan case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) has been a major feature of the aid environment of the last decade. This paper seeks to examine in depth the behaviour of two prominent GHIs in the early stages of their operation in Uganda as well as the responses of the government. Methods The study adopted a qualitative and case study approach to investigate the governance of aid transactions in Uganda. Data sources included documentary review, in-depth and semi-structured interviews and observation of meetings. Agency theory guided the conceptual framework of the study. Results The Ugandan government had a stated preference for donor funding to be channelled through the general or sectoral budgets. Despite this preference, two large GHIs opted to allocate resources and deliver activities through projects with a disease-specific approach. The mixed motives of contributor country governments, recipient country governments and GHI executives produced incentive regimes in conflict between different aid mechanisms. Conclusion Notwithstanding attempts to align and harmonize donor activities, the interests and motives of the various actors (GHIs and different parts of the government) undermine such efforts. PMID:21726431

  8. The Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio and Improved Acceptance of the Polio Vaccine in Northern Nigeria 2007–2015

    PubMed Central

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Zakari, Furera; Damisa, Eunice; Idowu, Audu; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Hammanyero, Kulchumi; Nsubuga, Peter; Korir, Charles; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The polio eradication initiative had major setbacks in 2003 and 2007 due to media campaigns in which renowned scholars and Islamic clerics criticized polio vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) partnered with journalists in 2007 to form the Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio (JAP), to develop communication initiatives aimed at highlighting polio eradication activities and the importance of immunization in northern Nigeria. Methods. We evaluated the impact of JAP activities in Kaduna State by determining the total number of media materials produced and the number of newspaper clips and bulletins published in support of polio eradication. We also determined the number of households in noncompliant communities that became compliant with vaccination during 2015 supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) after JAP interventions and compared caregivers’ sources of information about SIAs in 2007 before and after the JAP was formed. Results. Since creation of the JAP, >500 reports have been published and aired, with most portraying polio vaccine positively. During June 2015 SIAs in high-risk wards of Kaduna STATE, JAP interventions resulted in vaccination of 5122 of 5991 children (85.5%) from noncompliant households. During early 2007, the number of caregivers who had heard about SIA rounds from the media increased from 26% in January, before the JAP was formed, to 33% in March, after the initiation of JAP activities. Conclusions. The formation of the JAP resulted in measurable improvement in the acceptance of polio vaccine in northern Nigeria. PMID:26721745

  9. Design and Focus Test of a Preconsultation Decision Aid for Breast Cancer Reconstruction Patients: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Kenneth J.; Liu, Xiang X.; Luan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To design, develop, and evaluate via focus group a preconsultation decision aid to improve patient satisfaction for breast reconstruction. Methods: The design of the decision aid was based on perceived patient needs, literature, existing decision aids, and current standard of breast cancer reconstruction treatment and consultation at Stanford. Our decision aid was designed to (1) reducing fear of the unknown in patients via providing a knowledge base that they can rely on, (2) helping patients identify their key breast reconstruction concerns, (3) addressing common patient concerns, (4) providing a framework to help patients identify the treatment option that may be right for them, and (5) promoting shared decision making. Physicians were consulted on the decision aid, following which a focus group was conducted for patient feedback. Results: Interviewed patients (n = 12) were supportive of the decision aid initiative. Participants were especially pleased with the side-by-side comparison of surgical options and the parsimonious way information was represented. All patients before undergoing reconstruction (n = 3) requested the decision guide to reference at home. All interviewed patients believed information level was “about right.” Conclusions: Decision aid was well received by patients in the focus group. As the initiative is for quality improvement, we saw no need to further delay the distribution of the decision aid. A pilot study will be conducted to evaluate whether our decision aid has an effect on patients’ decision regret, stress, and anxiety. PMID:26171096

  10. Computer-aided design of T-cell epitope-based vaccines: addressing population coverage.

    PubMed

    Oyarzun, P; Kobe, B

    2015-10-01

    Epitope-based vaccines (EVs) make use of short antigen-derived peptides corresponding to immune epitopes, which are administered to trigger a protective humoral and/or cellular immune response. EVs potentially allow for precise control over the immune response activation by focusing on the most relevant - immunogenic and conserved - antigen regions. Experimental screening of large sets of peptides is time-consuming and costly; therefore, in silico methods that facilitate T-cell epitope mapping of protein antigens are paramount for EV development. The prediction of T-cell epitopes focuses on the peptide presentation process by proteins encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Because different MHCs have different specificities and T-cell epitope repertoires, individuals are likely to respond to a different set of peptides from a given pathogen in genetically heterogeneous human populations. In addition, protective immune responses are only expected if T-cell epitopes are restricted by MHC proteins expressed at high frequencies in the target population. Therefore, without careful consideration of the specificity and prevalence of the MHC proteins, EVs could fail to adequately cover the target population. This article reviews state-of-the-art algorithms and computational tools to guide EV design through all the stages of the process: epitope prediction, epitope selection and vaccine assembly, while optimizing vaccine immunogenicity and coping with genetic variation in humans and pathogens. PMID:26211755

  11. Youth mental health first aid: a description of the program and an initial evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is the peak age of onset for mental illness, with half of all people who will ever have a mental illness experiencing their first episode prior to 18 years of age. Early onset of mental illness is a significant predictor for future episodes. However, adolescents and young adults are less likely than the population as a whole to either seek or receive treatment for a mental illness. The knowledge and attitudes of the adults in an adolescent's life may affect whether or not help is sought, and how quickly. In 2007, the Youth Mental Health First Aid Program was launched in Australia with the aim to teach adults, who work with or care for adolescents, the skills needed to recognise the early signs of mental illness, identify potential mental health-related crises, and assist adolescents to get the help they need as early as possible. This paper provides a description of the program, some initial evaluation and an outline of future directions. Methods The program was evaluated in two ways. The first was an uncontrolled trial with 246 adult members of the Australian public, who completed questionnaires immediately before attending the 14 hour course, one month later and six months later. Outcome measures were: recognition of schizophrenia or depression; intention to offer and confidence in offering assistance; stigmatising attitudes; knowledge about adolescent mental health problems and also about the Mental Health First Aid action plan. The second method of evaluation was to track the uptake of the program, including the number of instructors trained across Australia to deliver the course, the number of courses they delivered, and the uptake of the YMHFA Program in other countries. Results The uncontrolled trial found improvements in: recognition of schizophrenia; confidence in offering help; stigmatising attitudes; knowledge about adolescent mental health problems and application of the Mental Health First Aid action plan. Most results were

  12. Orientation-Specific Joining of AID-initiated DNA Breaks Promotes Antibody Class Switching

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Hu, Jiazhi; Volpi, Sabrina A.; Meyers, Robin M.; Ho, Yu-Jui; Du, Zhou; Robbiani, Davide F.; Meng, Feilong; Gostissa, Monica; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Manis, John P.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    During B cell development, RAG endonuclease cleaves immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) V, D, and J gene segments and orchestrates their fusion as deletional events that assemble a V(D)J exon in the same transcriptional orientation as adjacent Cμ constant region exons1,2. In mice, six additional sets of constant region exons (CHs) lie 100-200 kb downstream in the same transcriptional orientation as V(D)J and Cμ exons2. Long repetitive switch (S) regions precede Cμ and downstream CHs. In mature B cells, class switch recombination (CSR) generates different antibody classes by replacing Cμ with a downstream CH2. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) initiates CSR by promoting deamination lesions within Sμ and a downstream acceptor S region2,3; these lesions are converted into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by general DNA repair factors3. Productive CSR must occur in a deletional orientation by joining the upstream end of an Sμ DSB to the downstream end of an acceptor S region DSB (Fig. 1a). However, the relative frequency of deletional to inversional CSR junctions had not been measured. Thus, whether orientation-specific joining is a programmed mechanistic feature of CSR as it is for V(D)J recombination and, if so, how this is achieved was unknown. To address this question, we adapted high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS)4 into a highly sensitive DSB end-joining assay and applied it to endogenous AID-initiated S region DSBs. We find that CSR indeed is programmed to occur in a productive deletional orientation and does so via an unprecedented mechanism that involves in cis IgH organizational features in combination with frequent S region DSBs initiated by AID. We further implicate ATM-dependent DSB response (DSBR) factors in enforcing this mechanism and provide a solution to the enigma of why CSR is so reliant on the 53BP1 DSBR factor. PMID:26308889

  13. Now That You Want to Take Your HIV/AIDS Vaccine/Biological Product Research Concept into the Clinic: What are “cGMP”?

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Rebecca L.; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Pullen, Jeffrey K.; Butler, Chris; Mehra, Vijay; Shapiro, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Division of AIDS Vaccine Research Program funds the discovery and development of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Basic researchers, having discovered a potential vaccine in the laboratory, next want to take that candidate into the clinic to test the concept in humans, to see if it translates. Many of them have heard of “cGMP” and know that they are supposed to make a “GMP product” to take into the clinic, but often they are not very familiar with what “cGMP” means and why these good practices are so important. As members of the Vaccine Translational Research Branch, we frequently get asked “can’t we use the material we made in the lab in the clinic?” or “aren’t Phase 1 studies exempt from cGMP?” Over the years, we have had many experiences where researchers or their selected contract manufacturing organizations have not applied an appropriate degree of compliance with cGMP suitable for the clinical phase of development. We share some of these experiences and the lessons learned, along with explaining the importance of cGMP, just what cGMP means, and what they can assure, in an effort to de-mystify this subject and facilitate the rapid and safe translational development of HIV vaccines. PMID:25698494

  14. Now that you want to take your HIV/AIDS vaccine/biological product research concept into the clinic: what are the "cGMP"?

    PubMed

    Sheets, Rebecca L; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Pullen, Jeffrey K; Butler, Chris; Mehra, Vijay; Shapiro, Stuart; Pensiero, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The Division of AIDS Vaccine Research Program funds the discovery and development of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Basic researchers, having discovered a potential vaccine in the laboratory, next want to take that candidate into the clinic to test the concept in humans, to see if it translates. Many of them have heard of "cGMP" and know that they are supposed to make a "GMP product" to take into the clinic, but often they are not very familiar with what "cGMP" means and why these good practices are so important. As members of the Vaccine Translational Research Branch, we frequently get asked "can't we use the material we made in the lab in the clinic?" or "aren't Phase 1 studies exempt from cGMP?" Over the years, we have had many experiences where researchers or their selected contract manufacturing organizations have not applied an appropriate degree of compliance with cGMP suitable for the clinical phase of development. We share some of these experiences and the lessons learned, along with explaining the importance of cGMP, just what cGMP means, and what they can assure, in an effort to de-mystify this subject and facilitate the rapid and safe translational development of HIV vaccines. PMID:25698494

  15. Detection of asymptomatic initial herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in animals immunized with subunit HSV glycoprotein vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, D I; Ashley, R L; Stanberry, L R; Myers, M G

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine efficacy will require methods to detect asymptomatic acquisition of HSV infection and to assess the risk of recurrences in these patients. HSV-infected vaccinees should develop antibodies to HSV polypeptides not included in subunit vaccines. Sera from 57 HSV glycoprotein-vaccinated guinea pigs that had asymptomatic initial infections after genital HSV type 2 challenge were collected after vaccination but before HSV challenge and again 30 days after HSV challenge to determine the antibody response to HSV polypeptides. Antibodies to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides were detected in sera collected after viral challenge from 32 (56%) of these 57 animals. Twenty-six (81%) of the 32 animals with detectable antibody developed recurrent disease; however, recurrences also developed in 11 (44%) of the remaining 25 that did not show detectable antibody to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides. The magnitude of vaginal viral shedding during the initial disease period following challenge was significantly lower in animals that did not develop antibody to nonvaccine polypeptides compared with those that did develop antibody (area under the viral shedding curve, 5.2 +/- 3.2 versus 18.1 +/- 5.8; P less than 0.0001) . These data suggest that detection of antibody to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides will identify the majority (70%) of initially asymptomatic vaccinees that develop recurrent disease but that latency can be established even with markedly reduced levels of viral replication that did not induce a detectable antibody response. Images PMID:2153698

  16. Trans-nodal migration of resident dendritic cells into medullary interfollicular regions initiates immunity to influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Matthew C.; Heesters, Balthasar A.; Herndon, Caroline N.; Groom, Joanna R.; Thomas, Paul G.; Luster, Andrew D.; Turley, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are well established as potent antigen-presenting cells critical to adaptive immunity. In vaccination approaches, appropriately stimulating lymph node–resident DCs (LNDCs) is highly relevant to effective immunization. Although LNDCs have been implicated in immune response, their ability to directly drive effective immunity to lymph-borne antigen remains unclear. Using an inactive influenza vaccine model and whole node imaging approaches, we observed surprising responsiveness of LNDC populations to vaccine arrival resulting in a transnodal repositioning into specific antigen collection sites within minutes after immunization. Once there, LNDCs acquired viral antigen and initiated activation of viral specific CD4+ T cells, resulting in germinal center formation and B cell memory in the absence of skin migratory DCs. Together, these results demonstrate an unexpected stimulatory role for LNDCs where they are capable of rapidly locating viral antigen, driving early activation of T cell populations, and independently establishing functional immune response. PMID:25049334

  17. Characterization of a multi-component anthrax vaccine designed to target the initial stages of infection as well as toxaemia

    PubMed Central

    Cote, C. K.; Kaatz, L.; Reinhardt, J.; Bozue, J.; Tobery, S. A.; Bassett, A. D.; Sanz, P.; Darnell, S. C.; Alem, F.; O’Brien, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Current vaccine approaches to combat anthrax are effective; however, they target only a single protein [the protective antigen (PA) toxin component] that is produced after spore germination. PA production is subsequently increased during later vegetative cell proliferation. Accordingly, several aspects of the vaccine strategy could be improved. The inclusion of spore-specific antigens with PA could potentially induce protection to initial stages of the disease. Moreover, adding other epitopes to the current vaccine strategy will decrease the likelihood of encountering a strain of Bacillus anthracis (emerging or engineered) that is refractory to the vaccine. Adding recombinant spore-surface antigens (e.g. BclA, ExsFA/BxpB and p5303) to PA has been shown to augment protection afforded by the latter using a challenge model employing immunosuppressed mice challenged with spores derived from the attenuated Sterne strain of B. anthracis. This report demonstrated similar augmentation utilizing guinea pigs or mice challenged with spores of the fully virulent Ames strain or a non-toxigenic but encapsulated ΔAmes strain of B. anthracis, respectively. Additionally, it was shown that immune interference did not occur if optimal amounts of antigen were administered. By administering the toxin and spore-based immunogens simultaneously, a significant adjuvant effect was also observed in some cases. Thus, these data further support the inclusion of recombinant spore antigens in next-generation anthrax vaccine strategies. PMID:22767539

  18. A School-Located Vaccination Adolescent Pilot Initiative in Chicago: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, Rachel N.; Macario, Everly; Johnson, Daniel C.; Hamlish, Tamara; Alexander, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many adolescents underutilize preventive services and are underimmunized. Methods To promote medical homes and increase immunization rates, we conceptualized and implemented a 3-year, 8-school pilot school-located vaccination collaborative program. We sought community, parent, and school nurse input the year prior to implementation. We selected schools with predominantly Medicaid-enrolled or Medicaid-eligible students to receive Vaccines For Children stock vaccines. Nurses employed by a mass immunizer delivered these vaccines at participating schools 3 times a year. Results Over 3 years, we delivered approximately 1800 vaccines at schools. School administrators, health centers, and neighboring private physicians generally welcomed the program. Parents did not express overt concerns about school-located vaccination. School nurses were not able to participate because of multiple school assignments. Obtaining parental consent via backpack mail was an inefficient process, and classroom incentives did not increase consent form return rate. The influenza vaccine had the most prolific uptake. The optimal time for administering vaccines was during regular school hours. Conclusions Although school-located vaccination for adolescents is feasible, this is a paradigm shift for community members and thus accompanies challenges in implementation. High principal or school personnel turnover led to a consequent lack of institutional memory. It was difficult to communicate directly with parents. Because we were uncertain about the proportion of parents who received consent forms, we are exploring Internet-based and back-to-school registration options for making the consent form distribution and return process more rigorous. Securing an immunization champion at each school helped the immunization processes. Identifying a financially sustainable school-located vaccination model is critical for national expansion of school-located vaccination. PMID:24009983

  19. Communication and education as vaccine against the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa.

    PubMed

    Soola, E O

    1991-01-01

    Attention is focused on the segmentation of the audience (urban, rural, urban slum) and messages, and on how appropriate communication and educational strategies can be adopted to create awareness of AIDS among the African population. It is important to determine the scope, nature, and content of the message in addition to the delivery of these messages through proper channels. Channels of communication vary in reach and influence, and different segments of the population vary in the capacity to absorb information. Rural people are considered susceptible because of their penchant for continually using injections for treatment of any ailment; the source of concern is unsterilized needles and syringes. The semantics of AIDs is discussed to emphasize the problem of how to identify AIDs among the multiplicity of languages in individual countries. For instance, in Nigeria there may be 150-400 languages, and these languages lack systematically developed metalanguage and specialized vocabularies. The view that local language use must be one way, linear is accepted, and the difficulties surmounted. Local languages may be used to transmit information of a nontechnical nature. The literate minority should have access to detailed information on causes, modes of transmission, symptoms, treatment or management, but not everyone needs this extent of detail. The rural and urban residents should know about the incurability of the disease, the mode of transmission, its symptoms, and what should be done if someone is suspected of having an HIV infection. Already the Hausa of Nigeria have a term for AIDs, Karya-Garkuwa, which suggests a disease that breaks down the mechanism of the biological functioning of the body. Communicators must be knowledgeable and able to effectively transmit facts not myths. Of the 3 modes of transmission (sex, blood, mother to child), sexual transmission is the most important. Blood routes are through transfusions, contaminated blood products for

  20. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion. PMID:26930513

  1. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions. PMID:25228485

  2. Reframing governance, security and conflict in the light of HIV/AIDS: a synthesis of findings from the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws upon the findings of the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (ASCI) to reach conclusions about the relationship between HIV/AIDS, security, conflict and governance, in the areas of HIV/AIDS and state fragility, the reciprocal interactions between armed conflicts (including post-conflict transitions) and HIV/AIDS, and the impact of HIV/AIDS on uniformed services and their operational effectiveness. Gender issues cut across all elements of the research agenda. ASCI commissioned 29 research projects across regions, disciplines and communities of practice. Over the last decade, approaches to HIV/AIDS as a security threat have altered dramatically, from the early anticipation that the epidemic posed a threat to the basic functioning of states and security institutions, to a more sanguine assessment that the impacts will be less severe than feared. ASCI finds that governance outcomes have been shaped as much by the perception of HIV/AIDS as a security threat, as the actual impacts of the epidemic. ASCI research found that the current indices of fragility at country level did not demonstrate any significant association with HIV, calling into question the models used for asserting such linkages. However at local government level, appreciable impacts can be seen. Evidence from ASCI and elsewhere indicates that conventional indicators of conflict, including the definition of when it ends, fail to capture the social traumas associated with violent disruption and their implications for HIV. Policy frameworks adopted for political and security reasons translate poorly into social and public health policies. Fears of much-elevated HIV rates among soldiers with disastrous impacts on armies as institutions, have been overstated. In mature epidemics, rates of infection among the military resemble those of the peer groups within the general population. Military HIV/AIDS control policies follow a different and parallel paradigm to national (civilian) policies, in

  3. Catalyzing Country Ownership and Aid Effectiveness: Role of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the contribution of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) global partnership in strengthening aid effectiveness in the education sector, and specifically how the implementation modalities of the EFA-FTI Catalytic Fund (CF) have contributed to this strengthening. The empirical findings are based on a review…

  4. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  5. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control

    PubMed Central

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries’ national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions. PMID:19491291

  6. Sexual Orientation Identity Disparities in Awareness and Initiation of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among U.S. Women and Girls: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Gordon, Allegra R.; Haneuse, Sebastien; Potter, Jennifer E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Lesbians and bisexual women are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) from female and male sexual partners throughout the life course. Objective To examine the association between sexual orientation identity and HPV vaccination among U.S. women. Design We used cross-sectional data 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data. Setting U.S. civilian noninstitutional population. Participants The NSFG used stratified cluster sampling to establish a national probability sample of 12,279 U.S. women aged 15–44 years. Analyses were restricted to the 3,253 women and girls aged 15–25 years who were asked about HPV vaccination. Measurements Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain HPV vaccine awareness and initiation prevalence estimates adjusted for socio-demographic and health care factors for each sexual orientation identity group. Results Eighty-four percent of U.S. women and girls aged 15–25 years reported having ever heard of the HPV vaccine; of these, 28.5% had initiated HPV vaccination. The adjusted prevalence of HPV vaccine awareness was similar among heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian respondents. Among those who had heard of the vaccine, 8.5% (p = 0.007) of lesbians and 33.2% (p = 0.33) of bisexual women and girls had initiated HPV vaccination compared to 28.4% of their heterosexual counterparts, adjusting for covariates. Limitations Self-report, cross-sectional data. Findings may not be generalizable to time periods after 2006–2010 or all U.S. lesbians aged 15–25 years (small sample size for this group). Conclusions Adolescent and young adult lesbians may be less likely to initiate HPV vaccination compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Programs should facilitate access to and utilization of HPV vaccination among young lesbians, a marginalized and underserved population. Primary Funding Source National Cancer Institute Cancer Education Program grant 3R25CA057711. PMID:25961737

  7. National and subnational HIV/AIDS coordination: are global health initiatives closing the gap between intent and practice?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A coordinated response to HIV/AIDS remains one of the 'grand challenges' facing policymakers today. Global health initiatives (GHIs) have the potential both to facilitate and exacerbate coordination at the national and subnational level. Evidence of the effects of GHIs on coordination is beginning to emerge but has hitherto been limited to single-country studies and broad-brush reviews. To date, no study has provided a focused synthesis of the effects of GHIs on national and subnational health systems across multiple countries. To address this deficit, we review primary data from seven country studies on the effects of three GHIs on coordination of HIV/AIDS programmes: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and the World Bank's HIV/AIDS programmes including the Multi-country AIDS Programme (MAP). Methods In-depth interviews were conducted at national and subnational levels (179 and 218 respectively) in seven countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America, between 2006 and 2008. Studies explored the development and functioning of national and subnational HIV coordination structures, and the extent to which coordination efforts around HIV/AIDS are aligned with and strengthen country health systems. Results Positive effects of GHIs included the creation of opportunities for multisectoral participation, greater political commitment and increased transparency among most partners. However, the quality of participation was often limited, and some GHIs bypassed coordination mechanisms, especially at the subnational level, weakening their effectiveness. Conclusions The paper identifies residual national and subnational obstacles to effective coordination and optimal use of funds by focal GHIs, which these GHIs, other donors and country partners need to collectively address. PMID:20196845

  8. Now More than Ever: Building and Sustaining Capacity for School-Located Vaccination Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehnert, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The fall 2009 campaign to vaccinate high-risk U.S. residents against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented three key challenges that had significant impact on the effectiveness of campaigns conducted by local health departments (LHDs), schools, and other community partners. These issues included those of communication and trust, both between…

  9. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  10. HIV Susceptibility of human antigen-specific CD4 T cells in AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine response.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haitao; Liu, Fengliang; Kim, Jerome; Ratto-Kim, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    HIV causes infection and progressive depletion of human CD4 T cells. Emerging data have shown that antigen-specific CD4 T-cell subsets manifest differential susceptibility to HIV, potentially leading to pathogen-specific immune failure and opportunistic infections. This concept was recently explored in context of vectors utilized in HIV vaccine trials, and the data suggest that adenovirus type 5(Ad5)-specific CD4 T cells elicited by Ad5-HIV vaccine may be particularly susceptible to HIV, potentially rendering Ad5 vaccine recipients susceptible to HIV acquisition. We here examined recent data regarding the HIV susceptibility of antigen-specific CD4 T cells induced during infection or HIV vaccination and discussed its potential impact on HIV acquisition risk posed by HIV vaccination. PMID:26814372

  11. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS education initiatives among women in northeastern Thai villages.

    PubMed

    Elkins, D; Maticka-Tyndale, E; Kuyyakanond, T; Kiewying, M; Anusornteerakul, S; Chantapreeda, N; Choosathan, R; Sommapat, S; Theerasobhon, P; Haswell-Elkins, M

    1996-09-01

    A longitudinal, naturalistic experimental design was used in an evaluation of the effects of an HIV/AIDS educational pamphlet controlling for secular trends (most specifically media coverage of HIV/AIDS) in Northeastern Thailand. Nine hundred and fifty-four women from 18 villages completed KAP interviews either in the autumn of 1991 or 1992 with HIV/AIDS education pamphlets distributed to every household in 12 of these villages in the spring of 1992. Pamphlets influenced women's perceptions of personal risk from casual sources and the degree to which they volunteered that condoms were a means of prevention of HIV transmission. Both results were related to the content and style of presentation of information about sources of risk and about condoms in the pamphlets. Secular trends and an increase in communication between villagers had a significant influence on knowledge, perceived efficacy of self protection, readiness to use condoms, and perception of levels and sources of personal risk. PMID:9185249

  12. Associations of Inflammatory Markers with AIDS and non-AIDS Clinical Events after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5224s, a substudy of ACTG A5202

    PubMed Central

    McComsey, Grace A; Kitch, Douglas; Sax, Paul E; Tierney, Camlin; Jahed, Nasreen C; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Brown, Todd T; Bloom, Anthony; Fedarko, Neal; Daar, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of inflammatory biomarkers with clinical events after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is unclear. Methods A5202 randomized 1857 treatment-naive subjects to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavir. Substudy A5224s measured inflammatory biomarkers on subjects with available plasma from baseline and weeks 24 or 96. An exploratory analysis of the association of hsCRP, IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1 with times to AIDS and to non-AIDS events used Cox proportional hazards models. Results Analysis included 244 subjects; 85% male, 48% white non-Hispanic, with median age 39 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 240 cells/μL. Overall, 13 AIDS events (9 opportunistic infections; 3 AIDS-cancers, 1 recurrent bacterial pneumonia) and 18 non-AIDS events (6 diabetes, 4 cancers, 3 cardiovascular, 5 pneumonias) occurred. Higher baseline IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and sICAM-1 were significantly associated with increased risk of AIDS-defining events. Adjustment for baseline HIV-1 RNA did not change results, while adjusting for baseline CD4 count left only sTNF-RI and sICAM-1 significantly associated with increased risk. Time-updated values of IL-6, sTNFR-I and II, and sICAM-1 were also associated with an increased risk. For non-AIDS events, only higher baseline hsCRP was significantly associated with increased risk, while higher IL-6 was marginally associated with higher risk. Analyses of time-updated biomarker values showed TNF-α to be significantly associated with increased risk, even after adjustment for ART, and CD4 count or HIV-1 RNA. Conclusion Higher levels of several inflammatory biomarkers were independently associated with increased risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. PMID:24121755

  13. Insights on Student Aid Technology from NASFAA's 2002-2003 Technology Initiatives Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Craig; Evans, Mark A.; Hallenbeck, Theodore R.; Clemente, Stephen J.; Redwine, Elaine; Croft, Devin; Lowdermilk, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    This special section contains four articles on using technology to improve student financial aid services: (1) "The Technology Pyramid" (advice on the transition from paper to paperless systems); (2) "Strengthening Our Security"; (3) "COD: Moving toward a Universal Delivery System" (about the government's new Common Origin and Disbursement…

  14. Footrot vaccines and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dhungyel, Om; Hunter, James; Whittington, Richard

    2014-05-30

    Research on footrot in small ruminants, which is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, has led to development of vaccines and their application for control, treatment and eradication of the disease in sheep. Footrot vaccines have evolved over decades to contain monovalent whole cell, multivalent recombinant fimbrial, and finally mono or bivalent recombinant fimbrial antigens. Initially whole cell vaccines made against the few known serogroups of D. nodosus were found to be inefficient in control of the disease in the field, which was attributed to the presence of other unidentified serogroups and also the use of inefficient adjuvants. Fimbriae or pili, which are the basis for antigenic variation, were found to be the major protective and also curative antigens but they are not cross protective between the different serogroups. Multivalent vaccines incorporating all the known serogroups have been proven to be of limited efficacy due to the phenomenon of antigenic competition. Recent studies in Nepal, Bhutan and Australia have shown that outbreak-specific vaccination which involves targeting identified serogroups with mono- or bivalent recombinant fimbrial vaccines, can be very effective in sheep and goats. Where multiple serogroups are present in a flock, antigenic competition can be overcome by sequentially targeting the serogroups with different bivalent vaccines every 3 months. A common antigen which would confer immunity to all serogroups would be the ideal immunogen but the initial studies were not successful in this area. Until universal antigen/s are available, flock specific mono or bivalent fimbrial vaccines are likely to be the most effective tool for control and eradication of footrot in sheep and goats. Future research in footrot vaccines should be focused on improving the duration of prophylaxis by incorporating new and emerging immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles, discovering a common antigen and understanding the mechanisms of

  15. Preclinical Studies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS Vaccines: Inverse Correlation between Avidity of Anti-Env Antibodies and Peak Postchallenge Viremia ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Lai, Lilin; Amara, Rama Rao; Montefiori, David C.; Villinger, Francois; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Wyatt, Linda S.; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L.

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS vaccines is the elicitation of anti-Env antibodies (Ab) capable of neutralizing the diversity of isolates in the pandemic. Here, we show that high-avidity, but nonneutralizing, Abs can have an inverse correlation with peak postchallenge viremia for a heterologous challenge. Vaccine studies were conducted in rhesus macaques using DNA priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara boosting with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) immunogens that express virus-like particles displaying CCR5-tropic clade B (strain ADA) or clade C (IN98012) Envs. Rhesus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was used as an adjuvant for enhancing the avidity of anti-Env Ab responses. Challenge was with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-162P3, a CCR5-tropic clade B chimera of SIV and HIV-1. Within the groups receiving the clade B vaccine, a strong inverse correlation was found between the avidity of anti-Env Abs and peak postchallenge viremia. This correlation required the use of native but not gp120 or gp140 forms of Env for avidity assays. The high-avidity Ab elicited by the ADA Env had excellent breadth for the Envs of incident clade B but not clade C isolates, whereas the high-avidity Ab elicited by the IN98012 Env had excellent breadth for incident clade C but not clade B isolates. High-avidity Ab elicited by a SHIV vaccine with a dual-tropic clade B Env (89.6) had limited breadth for incident isolates. Our results suggest that certain Envs can elicit nonneutralizing but high-avidity Ab with broad potential for blunting incident infections of the same clade. PMID:19224993

  16. Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS vaccines: inverse correlation between avidity of anti-Env antibodies and peak postchallenge viremia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Lai, Lilin; Amara, Rama Rao; Montefiori, David C; Villinger, Francois; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Wyatt, Linda S; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L

    2009-05-01

    A major challenge for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS vaccines is the elicitation of anti-Env antibodies (Ab) capable of neutralizing the diversity of isolates in the pandemic. Here, we show that high-avidity, but nonneutralizing, Abs can have an inverse correlation with peak postchallenge viremia for a heterologous challenge. Vaccine studies were conducted in rhesus macaques using DNA priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara boosting with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) immunogens that express virus-like particles displaying CCR5-tropic clade B (strain ADA) or clade C (IN98012) Envs. Rhesus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was used as an adjuvant for enhancing the avidity of anti-Env Ab responses. Challenge was with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-162P3, a CCR5-tropic clade B chimera of SIV and HIV-1. Within the groups receiving the clade B vaccine, a strong inverse correlation was found between the avidity of anti-Env Abs and peak postchallenge viremia. This correlation required the use of native but not gp120 or gp140 forms of Env for avidity assays. The high-avidity Ab elicited by the ADA Env had excellent breadth for the Envs of incident clade B but not clade C isolates, whereas the high-avidity Ab elicited by the IN98012 Env had excellent breadth for incident clade C but not clade B isolates. High-avidity Ab elicited by a SHIV vaccine with a dual-tropic clade B Env (89.6) had limited breadth for incident isolates. Our results suggest that certain Envs can elicit nonneutralizing but high-avidity Ab with broad potential for blunting incident infections of the same clade. PMID:19224993

  17. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  18. An integrated rule- and case-based approach to AIDS initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, L D

    1996-01-01

    The traditional approach to the development of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has been rule-based, where heuristic knowledge is encoded in a set of production rules. A rule-based reasoning (RBR) system needs a well constructed domain theory as its reasoning basis, and it does not make substantial use of the knowledge embedded in previous cases. An RBR system performs relatively well in a knowledge-rich application environment. Although its capability may be limited when previous experiences are not a good representation of the whole population, a case-based reasoning (CBR) system is capable of using past experiences as problem solving tools, therefore, it is appropriate for an experience-rich domain. In recent years, both RBR and CBR have emerged as important and complementary reasoning methodologies in artificial intelligence. For problem solving in AIDS intervention and prevention, it is useful to integrate RBR and CBR. In this paper, a hybrid KBS which integrates a deductive RBR system and an inductive CBR system is proposed to assess AIDS-risky behaviors. PMID:8666473

  19. Association between U.S. State AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) Features and HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation, 2001–2009

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, David B.; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Hessol, Nancy A.; Horberg, Michael A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Moore, Richard D.; Napravnik, Sonia; Patel, Pragna; Silverberg, Michael J.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Willig, James H.; Collier, Ann; Samji, Hasina; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Althoff, Keri N.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Gange, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background U.S. state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are federally funded to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) as the payer of last resort to eligible persons with HIV infection. States differ regarding their financial contributions to and ways of implementing these programs, and it remains unclear how this interstate variability affects HIV treatment outcomes. Methods We analyzed data from HIV-infected individuals who were clinically-eligible for ART between 2001 and 2009 (i.e., a first reported CD4+ <350 cells/uL or AIDS-defining illness) from 14 U.S. cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Using propensity score matching and Cox regression, we assessed ART initiation (within 6 months following eligibility) and virologic suppression (within 1 year) based on differences in two state ADAP features: the amount of state funding in annual ADAP budgets and the implementation of waiting lists. We performed an a priori subgroup analysis in persons with a history of injection drug use (IDU). Results Among 8,874 persons, 56% initiated ART within six months following eligibility. Persons living in states with no additional state contribution to the ADAP budget initiated ART on a less timely basis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.88). Living in a state with an ADAP waiting list was not associated with less timely initiation (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.87–1.45). Neither additional state contributions nor waiting lists were significantly associated with virologic suppression. Persons with an IDU history initiated ART on a less timely basis (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.95). Conclusions We found that living in states that did not contribute additionally to the ADAP budget was associated with delayed ART initiation when treatment was clinically indicated. Given the changing healthcare environment, continued assessment of the role of ADAPs and their features that facilitate prompt treatment is needed. PMID:24260137

  20. Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines.

    PubMed

    Buys, Angela; Macdonald, Raynard; Crafford, Jannie; Theron, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT). Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA) tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL). These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required. PMID:24832497

  1. Introduction of a new Rotavirus vaccine: Initial results of uptake and impact on laboratory confirmed cases in Anglia and Essex, United Kingdom, July 2015.

    PubMed

    Inns, Thomas; Trindall, Amy; Dunling-Hall, Sara; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2016-04-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis accounts for an estimated 130,000 GP consultations and 13,000 hospitalisations for children under 5 y old each year in England and Wales. In July 2013, an oral live attenuated rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) was introduced into the UK infant immunisation program as a 2 dose schedule at 2 and 3 months of age. We collected vaccination uptake from October 2013 to March 2015 and laboratory confirmed cases data on children under the age of 5 y from 1 January 2004 to 31 May 2015. The vaccine uptake rates and laboratory confirmed cases were compared to provide evidence of the impact of this vaccination program. Vaccine uptake rates were available from sentinel data with between 91-98% of GP practices in Anglia and Essex providing data every month. These data showed from February 2014 to March 2015 between 90-92% of infants received the recommended 2 doses of Rotarix® each month. The numbers of rotavirus cases reported by laboratories decreased on average by 82% in the post vaccination seasons. The mean number of cases reported in weeks 1-22 for 2004-2013 in Anglia and Essex was 1,318. For the same period in 2014, 256 cases were reported and initial data for 2015 report 226 cases. In the first 5 months 2014 the greatest reduction in cases (89%) was seen in those under 1 yr (who would have been directly affected by vaccination) with case numbers falling to 59 from a mean 537 cases in the equivalent period for 2004-2013. Initially data suggests a 92% reduction in 2015 compared to the same pre-vaccination periods. For those aged 1 to <5 y who would not have been vaccinated, a reduction of 75% was also evident in 2014 and 77% in 2015, suggesting indirect protection in this group. In conclusion, initial results following the introduction of the Rotavirus vaccine clearly indicates a very good uptake of the vaccine and a significant reduction in the numbers of laboratory confirmed cases. PMID:26618660

  2. Model and experiences of initiating collaboration with traditional healers in validation of ethnomedicines for HIV/AIDS in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2009-01-01

    Many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Namibia have access to antiretroviral drugs but some still use traditional medicines to treat opportunistic infections and offset side-effects from antiretroviral medication. Namibia has a rich biodiversity of indigenous plants that could contain novel anti-HIV agents. However, such medicinal plants have not been identified and properly documented. Various ethnomedicines used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections have not been scientifically validated for safety and efficacy. These limitations are mostly attributable to the lack of collaboration between biomedical scientists and traditional healers. This paper presents a five-step contextual model for initiating collaboration with Namibian traditional healers in order that candidate plants that may contain novel anti-HIV agents are identified, and traditional medicines used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections are subjected to scientific validation. The model includes key structures and processes used to initiate collaboration with traditional healers in Namibia; namely, the National Biosciences Forum, a steering committee with the University of Namibia (UNAM) as the focal point, a study tour to Zambia and South Africa where other collaborative frameworks were examined, commemorations of the African Traditional Medicine Day (ATMD), and consultations with stakeholders in north-eastern Namibia. Experiences from these structures and processes are discussed. All traditional healers in north-eastern Namibia were willing to collaborate with UNAM in order that their traditional medicines could be subjected to scientific validation. The current study provides a framework for future collaboration with traditional healers and the selection of candidate anti-HIV medicinal plants and ethnomedicines for scientific testing in Namibia. PMID:19852791

  3. Active RNAP pre-initiation sites are highly mutated by cytidine deaminases in yeast, with AID targeting small RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Benjamin JM; Wu, Yee Ling; Rada, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Cytidine deaminases are single stranded DNA mutators diversifying antibodies and restricting viral infection. Improper access to the genome leads to translocations and mutations in B cells and contributes to the mutation landscape in cancer, such as kataegis. It remains unclear how deaminases access double stranded genomes and whether off-target mutations favor certain loci, although transcription and opportunistic access during DNA repair are thought to play a role. In yeast, AID and the catalytic domain of APOBEC3G preferentially mutate transcriptionally active genes within narrow regions, 110 base pairs in width, fixed at RNA polymerase initiation sites. Unlike APOBEC3G, AID shows enhanced mutational preference for small RNA genes (tRNAs, snoRNAs and snRNAs) suggesting a putative role for RNA in its recruitment. We uncover the high affinity of the deaminases for the single stranded DNA exposed by initiating RNA polymerases (a DNA configuration reproduced at stalled polymerases) without a requirement for specific cofactors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03553.001 PMID:25237741

  4. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman.

    PubMed

    Mirzal, Andri; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. PMID:27268600

  5. Initial experience with computer aided detection for microcalcification in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, E. F.; Lim, Y. Y.; Wilson, M. W.; Haq, R.; Zhou, J.; Tate, C.; Maxwell, A. J.; Astley, S. M.; Gilbert, F. J.

    2015-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) addresses limitations of 2-D projection imaging for detection of masses. Microcalcification clusters may be more difficult to appreciate in DBT as individual calcifications within clusters may appear on different slices. This research aims to evaluate the performance of ImageChecker 3D Calc CAD v1.0. Women were recruited as part of the TOMMY trial. From the trial, 169 were included in this study. The DBT images were processed with the computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm. Three consultant radiologists reviewed the images and recorded whether CAD prompts were on or off target. 79/80 (98.8%) malignant cases had a prompt on the area of microcalcification. In these cases, there were 1-15 marks (median 5) with the majority of false prompts (n=326/431) due to benign (68%) and vascular (24%) calcifications. Of 89 normal/benign cases, there were 1-13 prompts (median 3), 27 (30%) had no prompts and the majority of false prompts (n=238) were benign (77%) calcifications. CAD is effective in prompting malignant microcalcification clusters and may overcome the difficulty of detecting clusters in slice images. Although there was a high rate of false prompts, further advances in the software may improve specificity.

  6. Initial development of a computer-aided diagnosis tool for solitary pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catarious, David M., Jr.; Baydush, Alan H.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for solitary pulmonary nodules. This CAD tool is built upon physically meaningful features that were selected because of their relevance to shape and texture. These features included a modified version of the Hotelling statistic (HS), a channelized HS, three measures of fractal properties, two measures of spicularity, and three manually measured shape features. These features were measured from a difficult database consisting of 237 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from digitized chest radiographs. The center of each 256x256 pixel ROI contained a suspicious lesion which was sent to follow-up by a radiologist and whose nature was later clinically determined. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to search the feature space via sequential forward search using percentage correct as the performance metric. An optimized feature subset, selected for the highest accuracy, was then fed into a three layer artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN's performance was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A leave-one-out testing/training methodology was employed for the ROC analysis. The performance of this system is competitive with that of three radiologists on the same database.

  7. Policy initiatives for electric-utility load management in AID-assisted countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The demand for electricity has been growing at a rate of over 7 percent per year, on average, for developing countries (in contrast, demand has been rising by less than 3% annually in the United States). While developing nations have traditionally relied on building new power plants to satisfy their increasing needs for electricity, the strategy has proven to be expensive, consuming over one-quarter of their development budgets and over a quarter of their foreign borrowings. Load management, whereby an electric utility modifies its customers' demand characteristics, offers developing countries an alternative for reducing the need to construct new generating capacity and for better utilizing their existing supply facilities. To mitigate the problems associated with high energy growth rates, especially in the power sector, the lack of investment capital for the electricity sector, and the growing concern for environmental hazards including global climate change, the Office of Energy promotes energy efficiency, the role of private power and other supply options to ensure sustainable development. In view of these objectives, the report examines the rationale for load management in the electricity sector and summarizes the positive U.S. experience with these techniques. Additionally, it recommends a strategy for achieving energy efficiency via load management. Lastly, it recommends to A.I.D. a method for identifying priority Agency-assisted countries as candidates for load management assistance.

  8. AIDS Vaccination Studies with an Ex Vivo Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Model: Analysis of the Accessory ORF-A Protein and DNA as Protective Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Pistello, Mauro; Bonci, Francesca; Flynn, J. Norman; Mazzetti, Paola; Isola, Patrizia; Zabogli, Elisa; Camerini, Valentina; Matteucci, Donatella; Freer, Giulia; Pelosi, Paolo; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Determining which antigen must be included in AIDS vaccines to confer maximum protection is of utmost importance. In primate models, vaccines consisting of or including accessory viral proteins have yielded conflicting results. We investigated the protective potential of the accessory protein ORF-A of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in cats. All three immunization strategies used (protein alone in alum adjuvant, DNA alone, or DNA prime-protein boost) clearly generated detectable immune responses. Upon challenge with ex vivo homologous FIV, ORF-A-immunized cats showed distinct enhancement of acute-phase infection relative to mock-immunized animals given alum or empty vector DNA. This effect was tentatively attributed to increased expression of the FIV receptor CD134 that was observed in the immunized cats. However, at subsequent sampling points that were continued for up to 10 months postchallenge, the average plasma viral loads of the ORF-A-immunized animals were slightly but consistently reduced relative to those of the control animals. In addition, CD4+ T lymphocytes in the circulation system declined more slowly in immunized animals than in control animals. These findings support the contention that immunization with lentiviral accessory proteins can improve the host's ability to control virus replication and slow down disease progression but also draw attention to the fact that even simple immunogens that eventually contribute to protective activity can transiently exacerbate subsequent lentiviral infections. PMID:16940498

  9. Biocompatible Anionic Polymeric Microspheres as Priming Delivery System for Effetive HIV/AIDS Tat-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Titti, Fausto; Maggiorella, Maria T.; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Sernicola, Leonardo; Bellino, Stefania; Collacchi, Barbara; Belasio, Emanuele Fanales; Moretti, Sonia; Pavone Cossut, Maria Rosaria; Belli, Roberto; Olivieri, Erika; Farcomeni, Stefania; Compagnoni, Daniela; Michelini, Zuleika; Sabbatucci, Michela; Sparnacci, Katia; Tondelli, Luisa; Laus, Michele; Cafaro, Aurelio; Caputo, Antonella; Ensoli, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a prime-boost regimen of vaccination in Macaca fascicularis that combines priming with novel anionic microspheres designed to deliver the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein and boosting with Tat in Alum. This regimen of immunization modulated the IgG subclass profile and elicited a balanced Th1-Th2 type of humoral and cellular responses. Remarkably, following intravenous challenge with SHIV89.6Pcy243, vaccinees significantly blunted acute viremia, as compared to control monkeys, and this control was associated with significantly lower CD4+ T cell depletion rate during the acute phase of infection and higher ability to resume the CD4+ T cell counts in the post-acute and chronic phases of infection. The long lasting control of viremia was associated with the persistence of high titers anti-Tat antibodies whose profile clearly distinguished vaccinees in controllers and viremics. Controllers, as opposed to vaccinated and viremic cynos, exhibited significantly higher pre-challenge antibody responses to peptides spanning the glutamine-rich and the RGD-integrin-binding regions of Tat. Finally, among vaccinees, titers of anti-Tat IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses had a significant association with control of viremia in the acute and post-acute phases of infection. Altogether these findings indicate that the Tat/H1D/Alum regimen of immunization holds promise for next generation vaccines with Tat protein or other proteins for which maintenance of the native conformation and activity are critical for optimal immunogenicity. Our results also provide novel information on the role of anti-Tat responses in the prevention of HIV pathogenesis and for the design of new vaccine candidates. PMID:25356594

  10. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B

    2015-10-01

    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar

  11. Kaposi Sarcoma of the eyelid as an initial manifestation of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ana Isabel; Neno, Miguel; Badura, Robert; Borges-Costa, João; Filipe, Paulo Leal

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal systemic disease that originates in the vascular endothelium related to Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8). In the early 1980s the first series of cases of disseminated Kaposi Sarcoma in HIV infected patients were reported. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since 1997, these cases are less frequently observed by clinicians. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman, presenting with two asymptomatic purpuric nodules localized in the superior and inferior left eyelids, occluding the palpebral fissure, which were present for 4 months prior to presentation. The eyelid nodules were determined to represent KS, but there were no additional cutaneous lesions. Pulmonary and gastric KS involvement was documented. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated along with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. The nodules gradually disappeared and her immune status eventually improved. Ocular and periorbital involvement of KS associated with HIV-1 infection as the initial clinical manifestations is a rare advent. This case is important as it illustrates that disseminated KS was not to be predicted by the number or the extension of cutaneous lesions. PMID:27617725

  12. Using financial incentives to increase initial uptake and completion of HPV vaccinations: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HPV vaccination reduces the risk of cervical cancer. Uptake however, of the ‘catch-up’ campaign in England for 17-18 year old girls is below the 80% NHS target. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to assess the impact of financial incentives on (a) the uptake and completion of an HPV vaccination programme and (b) the quality of the decisions to undertake the vaccination. Method/Design One thousand (n = 1000) 16-18 year-old girls will be invited to participate in an HPV vaccination programme: Five-hundred (n = 500) will have received a previous invitation to get vaccinated but will have failed to do so (previous non-attenders) and 500 will not have previously received an invitation (first-time invitees). Girls will be randomly selected from eligible participants who are registered with a GP in areas covered by the Birmingham East and North (BEN) and Heart of Birmingham Primary Care Trusts. The two samples of girls will be randomised to receive either a standard vaccination invitation letter or an invitation letter including the offer of vouchers worth £45 for receiving three vaccinations. Girls will also complete a questionnaire to assess the quality of their decisions to be vaccinated. The primary outcome will be uptake of the 1st and 3rd vaccinations. The secondary outcome will be the quality of the decisions to undertake the vaccination, measured by assessing attitudes towards and knowledge of the HPV vaccination. Discussion The key results will be: a) the effectiveness of financial incentives in increasing uptake of the 1st and 3rd vaccinations; b) the role of participants’ socio-economic status in the moderation of the impact of incentives on uptake; and c) the impact of incentives on the quality of decisions to undertake the HPV vaccinations. PMID:22947332

  13. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  14. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Pushko, Peter

    2014-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA{sup ®} platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice.

  15. NIOSH research initiatives to prevent back injuries to nursing assistants, aides, and orderlies in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Collins, J W; Owen, B D

    1996-04-01

    Over the past 100 years, advances in nutrition, modern medicine, public health, and a multitude of public health improvements have increased the life expectancy of U.S. residents. The fact that Americans are living longer has resulted in extensive growth in our elderly population and a rapid employment growth that delivered about 2 million new jobs between 1980 and 1989 in the health care workforce. The Bureau of Labor Statistics Injury and Illness Data for nursing homes rose from 10.7 to 18.6 injuries or illnesses per 100 full-time workers between 1980 and 1992. The injury and illness rates among nursing home workers are partly due to the physical stress of providing round-the-clock assistance with the basic activities of daily living, such as getting in and out of a bed or chair, as well as bathing and toileting. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting a series of research studies to identify strategies to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries to workers in nursing homes. NIOSH has funded two laboratory evaluations of resident transferring methods and one field study in an actual nursing home. The purpose of this paper is to describe the key findings from past NIOSH research initiatives and to present an overview of future research. PMID:8728153

  16. Sex work, reform initiatives and HIV/AIDS in inner-city Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Richter, Marlise

    2008-11-01

    The on-going criminalisation of sex work in South Africa, concurrent sexual partnerships, socio-economic vulnerability, migrant status and gender-based violence intensify sex workers' risk of contracting HIV. These factors combine to restrict the skills, ability and resources of sex workers to negotiate safer sex and to access HIV prevention, treatment and healthcare services. The paper situates the living and working conditions of sex workers in Hillbrow, an inner-city area of Johannesburg, within the South African legal context, especially in regard to current law reform initiatives regarding sex work, as well as the increasing anxiety about the influx of (sex) tourists during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In addition, the paper describes an intervention by the Reproductive Health & HIV Research Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, an innovator in providing mobile healthcare services and education to hotel-based sex workers in Hillbrow. The paper contends that a legal-rights-approach to HIV risk and vulnerability, together with powerful public health considerations, render decriminalisation an imperative response to sex workers' material conditions. PMID:25875460

  17. Utilizing a TLR5-Adjuvanted Cytomegalovirus as a Lentiviral Vaccine in the Nonhuman Primate Model for AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Jesse D.; Chang, W. L. William; Castillo, Luis D.; Schmidt, Kim A.; Kieu, Hung T.; Renzette, Nicholas; Kowalik, Timothy; Barthold, Stephen W.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Barry, Peter A.; Sparger, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) natural history and advances in HIV treatment, there is neither an approved vaccine nor a cure for infection. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel replicating vaccine vector utilizing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and a TLR5 adjuvant. After partial truncation of the central, immunodominant hypervariable domain, flagellin (fliC) from Salmonella was cloned downstream of a codon optimized gag gene from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and transiently expressed in telomerized rhesus fibroblast (TeloRF) cells in culture. Lysates generated from these transfected cells induced the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in a mouse macrophage cell line, in a TLR5-dependent manner. The Gag/FliC expression construct was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the rhesus CMV (RhCMV) genome, and infectious RhCMV was generated following transfection of TeloRF cells. This virus stably expressed an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein through four serial passages. Lysates generated from infected cells induced TNF-α in a TLR5-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of infected cell lysates verified expression of a Gag/FliC fusion protein using a SIV p27 capsid monoclonal antibody. Lastly, rhesus macaques inoculated with this novel RhCMV virus demonstrated increased inflammatory responses at the site of inoculation seven days post-infection when compared to the parental RhCMV. These results demonstrate that an artificially constructed replicating RhCMV expressing an SIV Gag/FliC fusion protein is capable of activating TLR5 in a macrophage cell line in vitro and induction of an altered inflammatory response in vivo. Ongoing animals studies are aimed at determining vaccine efficacy, including subsequent challenge with pathogenic SIV. PMID:27182601

  18. Comparison between a live, attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and an anticoccidial ionophore, on performance of broilers raised with or without a growth promoter, in an initially Eimeria-free environment.

    PubMed

    Waldenstedt, L; Lundén, A; Elwinger, K; Thebo, P; Uggla, A

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of vaccination with Paracox, a live, attenuated vaccine against avian coccidiosis, on broilers isolated from extraneous Eimeria parasites. The study involved 3200 broiler chickens raised in floor pens similar to commercial conditions, but in an initially Eimeria-free environment. Forty percent of the chickens were vaccinated at 3 days of age and given either a basal unmedicated feed or a feed supplemented with the feed antibiotic virginiamycin. Unvaccinated birds were given either the basal feed or feed supplemented either with virginiamycin or the anticoccidial ionophore narasin. At slaughter at 36 days of age vaccinated birds had a lower live weight than non-vaccinated birds. The difference was 4.6% in unmedicated, and 6.0% in virginiamycin medicated chickens. Feed conversion ratio at slaughter was 2.5% higher for unmedicated vaccinated birds, and 1.3% higher for virginiamycin medicated vaccinated birds, compared to respective non-vaccinated groups. There was no significant difference in overall performance of unvaccinated birds given narasin as compared to virginiamycin. At 10 days post vaccination vaccinated birds had a higher number of Clostridium perfringens in the caeca, but there was no difference thereafter. Throughout the experiment, caecal clostridial counts were considerably higher in vaccinated unmedicated birds than in unvaccinated birds given narasin. The number of oocysts shed in the vaccinated groups was very low, but during a subsequent challenge with E. maxima and E. tenella the birds' immunity was found to be satisfactory. PMID:10418192

  19. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  20. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  1. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  2. Smartphone-based hearing test as an aid in the initial evaluation of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Handzel, Ophir; Ben-Ari, Oded; Damian, Doris; Priel, Maayan M; Cohen, Jacob; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) can cause significant morbidity. Treatment with steroids can improve outcome. Delay in initiation of treatment reduces the chance to regain hearing. For this reason SSNHL is considered an emergency. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and a standard audiogram, the latter requiring specialized equipment and personnel. Standard audiogram may not be available at the time and place of patient presentation. A smartphone or tablet computer-based hearing test may aid in the decision to prescribe steroids in this setting. In this study the uHear™ hearing test application was utilized. The output of this ear-level air conduction hearing test is reported in hearing grades for 6 frequencies ranging from 250 to 6000 Hz. A total of 32 patients with unilateral SSNHL proven by a standard audiogram were tested. The results of standard and iPod hearing tests were compared. Based on the accepted criterion of SSNHL (at least 30 dB loss - or 2 hearing grades - in 3 consecutive frequencies) the test had a sensitivity of 0.76 and specificity of 0.91. Using a less stringent criterion of a loss of 2 hearing grades over at least 2 frequencies the sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity 0.86. The correlation coefficient for the comparison of the average hearing grade across the 6 measured frequencies of the study and standard audiogram was 0.83. uHear more accurately reflected hearing thresholds at mid and high tones. Similarly to previously published data, low frequency thresholds could be artificially elevated. In conclusion, uHear can be useful in the initial evaluation of patients with single-sided SSNHL by providing important information guiding the decision to initiate treatment before a standard audiogram is available. PMID:23689282

  3. HIV vaccine development: would more (public) money bring quicker results?

    PubMed

    Winsbury, R

    1999-01-01

    Globally, $200-250 million/year are devoted to HIV vaccine research. Most of those funds pay for basic research rather than product development. Moreover, most of the funds are aimed at the HIV strain commonly found in the US and Europe, and not at the strains common to Africa and other developing countries. While US President Bill Clinton set in 1997 a 10-year target for the development of an HIV vaccine, that target date is looking increasingly unlikely. International vaccine and pharmaceutical companies typically drive vaccine research and development. However, concern over the ultimate profitability of developing and marketing an HIV vaccine, and the fear of major litigation should an eventual vaccine go awry have caused such firms to shy away from investing large amounts of money into HIV vaccine development. These companies somehow have to be attracted back into the field. A World Bank special task force is slated to present its report by mid-1999 on possible funding mechanisms to promote HIV vaccine development. It remains to be resolved whether public funds could and should be used, perhaps through a pooled international vaccine development fund. 2 new International AIDS Vaccine Initiative projects are described. PMID:12295120

  4. R5 Clade C SHIV Strains with Tier 1 or 2 Neutralization Sensitivity: Tools to Dissect Env Evolution and to Develop AIDS Vaccines in Primate Models

    PubMed Central

    Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Watkins, Jennifer D.; Wassermann, Klemens J.; Song, Ruijiang; Wang, Wendy; Kramer, Victor G.; Lakhashe, Samir; Santosuosso, Michael; Poznansky, Mark C.; Novembre, Francis J.; Villinger, François; Else, James G.; Montefiori, David C.; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C) predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1) HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2) phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an “early,” recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a “late” form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM) with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to “late” SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2). After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. Conclusions/Significance SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates. PMID:20657739

  5. Recoding of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Gene by Computer-Aided Design Provides a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingyin; Yang, Chen; Tekes, Gergely; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Codon pair bias (CPB), which has been observed in all organisms, is a neglected genomic phenomenon that affects gene expression. CPB results from synonymous codons that are paired more or less frequently in ORFeomes regardless of codon bias. The effect of an individual codon pair change is usually small, but when it is amplified by large-scale genome recoding, strikingly altered biological phenotypes are observed. The utility of codon pair bias in the development of live attenuated vaccines was recently demonstrated by recodings of poliovirus (a positive-strand RNA virus) and influenza virus (a negative-strand segmented RNA virus). Here, the L gene of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA virus, was partially recoded based on codon pair bias. Totals of 858 and 623 silent mutations were introduced into a 5′-terminal segment of the viral L gene (designated L1) to create sequences containing either overrepresented or underrepresented codon pairs, designated L1sdmax and L1min, respectively. Analysis revealed that recombinant VSV containing the L1min sequence could not be recovered, whereas the virus with the sdmax sequence showed a modest level of attenuation in cell culture. More strikingly, in mice the L1sdmax virus was almost as immunogenic as the parental strain but highly attenuated. Taken together, these results open a new road to attain a balance between VSV virulence and immunogenicity, which could serve as an example for the attenuation of other negative-strand, nonsegmented RNA viruses. PMID:25827413

  6. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  7. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  8. Initial design and physical characterization of a polymeric device for osmosis-driven delayed burst delivery of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Fehr, Ingo; Reitz, Annika S; Dunker, Urip; Beagley, Kenneth W; Dargaville, Tim R; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2015-09-01

    Achieving the combination of delayed and immediate release of a vaccine from a delivery device without applying external triggers remains elusive in implementing single administration vaccination strategies. Here a means of vaccine delivery is presented, which exploits osmosis to trigger delayed burst release of an active compound. Poly(ε-caprolactone) capsules of 2 mm diameter were prepared by dip-coating, and their burst pressure and release characteristics were evaluated. Burst pressures (in bar) increased with wall thickness (t in mm) following Pburst  = 131(.) t + 3(.) 4 (R(2)  = 0.93). Upon immersion in PBS, glucose solution-filled capsules burst after 8.7 ± 2.9 days. Copolymers of hydrophobic ε -caprolactone and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol were synthesized and their physico-chemical properties were assessed. With increasing hydrophilic content, the copolymer capsules showed increased water uptake rates and maximum weight increase, while the burst release was earlier: 5.6 ± 2.0 days and 1.9 ± 0.2 days for 5 and 10 wt% polyethylene glycol, respectively. The presented approach enables the reproducible preparation of capsules with high versatility in materials and properties, while these vaccine delivery vehicles can be prepared separately from, and independently of the active compound. PMID:25787134

  9. When to Initiate Combined Antiretroviral Therapy to Reduce Mortality and AIDS-Defining Illness in HIV-Infected Persons in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 109 cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate. Objective To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated. Design Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 109 cells/L. Setting HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States. Patients 20 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 109 cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 109 cells/L and were included in the analysis. Measurements Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Results Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 109 cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Limitations CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist. Conclusion Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 109 cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 ×109 cells/L. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health. PMID:21502648

  10. Development of cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome 41 months after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Hatakeyama, Shuji; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the most lethal fungal infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of and mortality from cryptococcal meningitis have markedly decreased since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, despite its benefits, the initiation of cART results in immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in some patients. Although IRIS is occasionally difficult to distinguish from relapse or treatment failure, the distinction is important because IRIS requires a different treatment. Here, we present the case of a patient with AIDS who developed symptoms of cryptococcal IRIS 41 months after starting cART. To the best of our knowledge, the time between cART initiation and the onset of cryptococcal IRIS in this patient is the longest that has been reported in the literature. PMID:26425133

  11. Using Behavioral Risk Factor Data as a surveillance tool to monitor the prevalence of initiation, continuation and completion of Human Papilloma Virus vaccination in children

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Gia Elise; Dominguez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (“HPV”) is a common sexually transmitted disease that has infected approximately 79 million men and women in the United States alone. A vaccination is available but in order to be effective it must be received prior to becoming sexually active and recipients must complete a three-dose sequence. In this article we explore the predisposing, enabling and need-based factors associated with parents’ or guardians’ decision to have their child initiate, continue and complete the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. The data file includes 5531 parents and guardians with presumptive knowledge regarding the number of HPV vaccination their child received. Data includes information on the child (e.g. child׳s age) as well as the adult respondent (e.g. health insurance status). A smaller subset of the dataset along with the code to run the model are supplied with this article. The interpretation of these data can be found in the research article published by the authors in the Journal of Preventive Medicine in 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.01.010[1]. PMID:27222864

  12. Using Behavioral Risk Factor Data as a surveillance tool to monitor the prevalence of initiation, continuation and completion of Human Papilloma Virus vaccination in children.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Gia Elise; Dominguez, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus ("HPV") is a common sexually transmitted disease that has infected approximately 79 million men and women in the United States alone. A vaccination is available but in order to be effective it must be received prior to becoming sexually active and recipients must complete a three-dose sequence. In this article we explore the predisposing, enabling and need-based factors associated with parents' or guardians' decision to have their child initiate, continue and complete the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. The data file includes 5531 parents and guardians with presumptive knowledge regarding the number of HPV vaccination their child received. Data includes information on the child (e.g. child׳s age) as well as the adult respondent (e.g. health insurance status). A smaller subset of the dataset along with the code to run the model are supplied with this article. The interpretation of these data can be found in the research article published by the authors in the Journal of Preventive Medicine in 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.01.010[1]. PMID:27222864

  13. The Ebola Vaccine Team B: a model for promoting the rapid development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious disease threats.

    PubMed

    Osterholm, Michael; Moore, Kristine; Ostrowsky, Julie; Kimball-Baker, Kathleen; Farrar, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In support of accelerated development of Ebola vaccines from preclinical research to clinical trials, in November, 2014, the Wellcome Trust and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota established the Wellcome Trust-CIDRAP Ebola Vaccine Team B initiative. This ongoing initiative includes experts with global experience in various phases of bringing new vaccines to market, such as funding, research and development, manufacturing, determination of safety and efficacy, regulatory approval, and vaccination delivery. It also includes experts in community engagement strategies and ethical issues germane to vaccination policies, including eight African scientists with direct experience in developing and implementing vaccination policies in Africa. Ebola Vaccine Team B members have worked on a range of vaccination programmes, such as polio eradication (Africa and globally), development of meningococcal A disease vaccination campaigns in Africa, and malaria and HIV/AIDS vaccine research. We also provide perspective on how this experience can inform future situations where urgent development of vaccines is needed, and we comment on the role that an independent, expert group such as Team B can have in support of national and international public health authorities toward addressing a public health crisis. PMID:26526664

  14. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  15. [Biotechnology and vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Peret, R

    1990-12-01

    Current biotechnologies used in the manufacture of new vaccines are of three kinds: Genetic recombinations leading to either vaccinal sub-units or living vaccines represented by recombinant vectors; Chemical synthesis techniques; Use of the spatial configuration of an anti-antibody similar to the initial antigen. These are the anti-idiotype vaccines. Genetic engineering is the basis of a new generation of vaccines, sought with the aim of attempting to eradicate a number of diseases throughout the world. However, there is presently an inadequacy in resources, most often linked to financial considerations, which limits widespread systematic vaccination. In the future, vaccines against dental caries will probably be obtained from purified proteins of hydrolase fractions common to cariogenic bacteria and resulting from genetic recombinations in the form of vaccinal sub-units. PMID:2077866

  16. Estimation of the standardized risk difference and ratio in a competing risks framework: application to injection drug use and progression to AIDS after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Lau, Bryan; Eron, Joseph J; Brookhart, M Alan; Kitahata, Mari M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Mathews, William C; Mugavero, Michael J

    2015-02-15

    There are few published examples of absolute risk estimated from epidemiologic data subject to censoring and competing risks with adjustment for multiple confounders. We present an example estimating the effect of injection drug use on 6-year risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy between 1998 and 2012 in an 8-site US cohort study with death before AIDS as a competing risk. We estimate the risk standardized to the total study sample by combining inverse probability weights with the cumulative incidence function; estimates of precision are obtained by bootstrap. In 7,182 patients (83% male, 33% African American, median age of 38 years), we observed 6-year standardized AIDS risks of 16.75% among 1,143 injection drug users and 12.08% among 6,039 nonusers, yielding a standardized risk difference of 4.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.27, 8.08) and a standardized risk ratio of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.72). Results may be sensitive to the assumptions of exposure-version irrelevance, no measurement bias, and no unmeasured confounding. These limitations suggest that results be replicated with refined measurements of injection drug use. Nevertheless, estimating the standardized risk difference and ratio is straightforward, and injection drug use appears to increase the risk of AIDS. PMID:24966220

  17. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  18. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  19. Safety and Immunogenicity of Early Measles Vaccination in Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in the United States: Results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 225

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Judy; Li, Hong; Audet, Susette; Smith, Betsy; Moye, John; Nalin, David; Krasinski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Background. PACTG (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group) 225, a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial in the United States evaluated reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2 vaccination regimens: monovalent measles vaccine (Attenuvax) at 6 months of age and measles, mumps, and rubella, live attenuated (MMRII) vaccine at 12 months of age (2D), or only MMRII at 12 months of age (1D) in human immunodeficiency virus–infected (HIV-infected) (POS) and uninfected (NEG) children in the pre–highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART) period. Methods. Plaque-reduction neutralization (PRN) of measles-neutralizing antibody titers were evaluated at study weeks 0, 6, 26, 32, 52, and 130 (∼3 years of age). Results. The 110 subjects included: 65 2DNEG; 30 1DNEG; 7 2DPOS and 8 1DPOS. Vaccinations (n = 175) were associated with no adverse experiences >Grade 2 except for Grade 3 fever (n = 2, 1 1DPOS and 1 1DNEG). Six weeks after Attenuvax, all 2DPOS subjects (7/7) seroresponded (PRN titers ≥120 mIU/mL) with median titers significantly exceeding 2DNEG titers (2115 vs 628 mIU/mL, respectively; P = .023). At ∼3 years of age, 67% 1DPOS (4/6) and 83% 2DPOS (4/5) subjects maintained titers ≥120 mIU/mL. Prevaccination titers ≥25 mIU/mL among 2DNEG subjects correlated inversely with the likelihood of achieving titers ≥120 mIU/mL (56% vs 90%; P = .004). Conclusions. Among HIV-infected children pre-HAART, Attenuvax at 6 months was well tolerated and immunogenic. These data support the current World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation to administer a first dose of measles vaccine at 6 months of age to HIV-infected children. PMID:21666159

  20. DNA vaccination strategy targets epidermal dendritic cells, initiating their migration and induction of a host immune response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Trevor Rf; Schultheis, Katherine; Kiosses, William B; Amante, Dinah H; Mendoza, Janess M; Stone, John C; McCoy, Jay R; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

    2014-01-01

    The immunocompetence and clinical accessibility of dermal tissue offers an appropriate and attractive target for vaccination. We previously demonstrated that pDNA injection into the skin in combination with surface electroporation (SEP), results in rapid and robust expression of the encoded antigen in the epidermis. Here, we demonstrate that intradermally EP-enhanced pDNA vaccination results in the rapid induction of a host humoral immune response. In the dermally relevant guinea pig model, we used high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy to observe direct dendritic cell (DC) transfections in the epidermis, to determine the migration kinetics of these cells from the epidermal layer into the dermis, and to follow them sequentially to the immediate draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, we delineate the relationship between the migration of directly transfected epidermal DCs and the generation of the host immune response. In summary, these data indicate that direct presentation of antigen to the immune system by DCs through SEP-based in vivo transfection in the epidermis, is related to the generation of a humoral immune response. PMID:26052522

  1. DNA vaccination strategy targets epidermal dendritic cells, initiating their migration and induction of a host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Trevor RF; Schultheis, Katherine; Kiosses, William B; Amante, Dinah H; Mendoza, Janess M; Stone, John C; McCoy, Jay R; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E

    2014-01-01

    The immunocompetence and clinical accessibility of dermal tissue offers an appropriate and attractive target for vaccination. We previously demonstrated that pDNA injection into the skin in combination with surface electroporation (SEP), results in rapid and robust expression of the encoded antigen in the epidermis. Here, we demonstrate that intradermally EP-enhanced pDNA vaccination results in the rapid induction of a host humoral immune response. In the dermally relevant guinea pig model, we used high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy to observe direct dendritic cell (DC) transfections in the epidermis, to determine the migration kinetics of these cells from the epidermal layer into the dermis, and to follow them sequentially to the immediate draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, we delineate the relationship between the migration of directly transfected epidermal DCs and the generation of the host immune response. In summary, these data indicate that direct presentation of antigen to the immune system by DCs through SEP-based in vivo transfection in the epidermis, is related to the generation of a humoral immune response. PMID:26052522

  2. Vaccine approaches to malaria control and elimination: Insights from mathematical models.

    PubMed

    White, Michael T; Verity, Robert; Churcher, Thomas S; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-12-22

    A licensed malaria vaccine would provide a valuable new tool for malaria control and elimination efforts. Several candidate vaccines targeting different stages of the malaria parasite's lifecycle are currently under development, with one candidate, RTS,S/AS01 for the prevention of Plasmodium falciparum infection, having recently completed Phase III trials. Predicting the public health impact of a candidate malaria vaccine requires using clinical trial data to estimate the vaccine's efficacy profile--the initial efficacy following vaccination and the pattern of waning of efficacy over time. With an estimated vaccine efficacy profile, the effects of vaccination on malaria transmission can be simulated with the aid of mathematical models. Here, we provide an overview of methods for estimating the vaccine efficacy profiles of pre-erythrocytic vaccines and transmission-blocking vaccines from clinical trial data. In the case of RTS,S/AS01, model estimates from Phase II clinical trial data indicate a bi-phasic exponential profile of efficacy against infection, with efficacy waning rapidly in the first 6 months after vaccination followed by a slower rate of waning over the next 4 years. Transmission-blocking vaccines have yet to be tested in large-scale Phase II or Phase III clinical trials so we review ongoing work investigating how a clinical trial might be designed to ensure that vaccine efficacy can be estimated with sufficient statistical power. Finally, we demonstrate how parameters estimated from clinical trials can be used to predict the impact of vaccination campaigns on malaria using a mathematical model of malaria transmission. PMID:26476361

  3. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process. PMID:26593378

  4. Facilitators and barriers to implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation for participative assessment of children in need and for coordination of services.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sarah; Lessard, Danielle; Chamberland, Claire

    2014-12-01

    As part of an implementation evaluation, this study aims to identify the conditions of practice that facilitated or hindered implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation to support collaboration between partners involved with vulnerable children. Evaluators conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 36 respondents (19 practitioners and 17 managers) who participated in the AIDES initiative trial. Respondents were chosen to include all participating organisations (child protection services, prevention social services). Participants' comments were submitted to descriptive content analysis. Conditions facilitating or hindering implementation of the initiative included the following dimensions: (1) implementation quality; (2) organisational elements (organisational functioning, cooperation between organisations); (3) socio-political issues; and (4) personal and professional characteristics. The study highlights critical elements to consider in implementing and maintaining significant changes in practice in organisations providing assistance to vulnerable children and their families. Social innovations that do not consider such elements are likely to compromise their implementation and sustainability. We must prevent promising social changes from being considered unrealistic or inappropriate due to contextual barriers. PMID:25150926

  5. Tobacco industry sponsorship of community-based public health initiatives: why AIDS and domestic violence organizations accept or refuse funds.

    PubMed

    Stone, Meg; Siegel, Michael B

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the reasons community-based public health organizations in the United States accept or refuse tobacco industry sponsorship. A formative pilot study involving 13 interviews with representatives of AIDS and Domestic Violence organizations in California or the Northeast was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with leaders and fund-raisers working at AIDS and domestic violence organizations that either accepted grants from the tobacco industry or explicitly refused tobacco corporate support. Respondents that accepted grants did so because they believed that the tangible benefits of additional capacity to serve their constituents outweighed the minimal effect they believed refusing funds could have on tobacco control and prevention. Organizations that refused sponsorship either saw tobacco prevention as part of their mission of promoting overall health or social justice, or expressed concern about public association with the tobacco industry. Public health responses to this phenomenon are most effective when they are informed by the realities facing nonprofit leaders as they grapple with the question of whether to accept industry funds. Further research is needed to determine whether accepting sponsorship results in a change in public opinion about tobacco control. Possible interventions include creating positive publicity for organizations that refuse tobacco industry philanthropy. PMID:15643374

  6. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  7. Marginal Structural Models for Case-Cohort Study Designs to Estimate the Association of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation With Incident AIDS or Death

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Anastos, Kathryn; Kingsley, Lawrence; Chmiel, Joan S.; Jacobson, Lisa P.

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the association of antiretroviral therapy initiation with incident acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or death while accounting for time-varying confounding in a cost-efficient manner, the authors combined a case-cohort study design with inverse probability-weighted estimation of a marginal structural Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 950 adults who were positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were followed in 2 US cohort studies between 1995 and 2007. In the full cohort, 211 AIDS cases or deaths occurred during 4,456 person-years. In an illustrative 20% random subcohort of 190 participants, 41 AIDS cases or deaths occurred during 861 person-years. Accounting for measured confounders and determinants of dropout by inverse probability weighting, the full cohort hazard ratio was 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.65) and the case-cohort hazard ratio was 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.83). Standard multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were closer to the null, regardless of study design. The precision lost with the case-cohort design was modest given the cost savings. Results from Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that the proposed approach yields approximately unbiased estimates of the hazard ratio with appropriate confidence interval coverage. Marginal structural model analysis of case-cohort study designs provides a cost-efficient design coupled with an accurate analytic method for research settings in which there is time-varying confounding. PMID:22302074

  8. Immunology of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Beverley, P C L

    2002-01-01

    An ideal vaccine is relatively easy to define, but few real vaccines approach the ideal and no vaccines exist for many organisms, for which a vaccine is the only realistic protective strategy in the foreseeable future. Many difficulties account for the failure to produce these vaccines. All micro-organisms deploy evasion mechanisms that interfere with effective immune responses and, for many organisms, it is not clear which immune responses provide effective protection. However, recent advances in methods for studying immune response to pathogens have provided a better understanding of immune mechanisms, including immunological memory, and led to the realisation that the initiation of immune responses is a key event requiring triggering through 'danger' signals. Based on these findings, the development of novel adjuvants, vectors and vaccine formulations allowing stimulation of optimal and prolonged protective immunity should lead to the introduction of vaccines for previously resistant organisms. PMID:12176847

  9. Polio Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... inactive polio vaccine OPV=oral polio vaccine Polio Vaccination Pronounced [PO-lee-oh] Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... handling and storage Related Pages Global Vaccines and Immunization Global Polio Also Known As & Abbreviations Polio=poliomyelitis ...

  10. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIVmac251 challenge

    PubMed Central

    Faul, Elizabeth J.; Aye, Pyone P.; Papaneri, Amy B.; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P.; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2010-01-01

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIVmac239-Env and RV expressing SIVmac239-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At twelve weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID50 of pathogenic SIVmac251-CX. Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3–1.6-log fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIVmac251 neutralizing antibodies and of CD8+ T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better-maintained peripheral memory CD4+ T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8+ T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223

  11. Initial assessment of impact of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine on febrile respiratory illness and virus transmission in military basic trainees, March 2012.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Charles H; Hawksworth, Anthony; Snyder, Clifford E

    2012-03-01

    After a 12-year hiatus, military recruit training centers resumed administration of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, live, oral (adenovirus vaccine) to trainees beginning in October of 2011. Subsequently, rates of febrile respiratory illnesses (FRI) and adenovirus isolations markedly declined. These findings are consistent with those of a placebo-controlled efficacy trial conducted prior to the vaccine's licensure by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Continued surveillance will clarify the longer term impact of vaccine use. PMID:22452712

  12. [Vaccines for the future].

    PubMed

    Girard, M P

    2009-05-01

    The field of vaccines and vaccinology has seen remarkable progress during the past 20 years. Many vaccines, however, still need to be improved, either because the protection they provide is relatively short-lived and would greatly benefit from the development of booster formulations (as is the case for tuberculosis), or because they only cover part of the many serotypes of the pathogen that causes the disease (rotaviruses, papillomaviruses, or Streptococcus pneumoniae). In addition, still many diseases lack a proper preventive vaccine, such as AIDS, hepatitis C, malaria, viral pneumonias, croup and bronchiolitis, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, Staphylococcus aureus, groups A and B Streptococcus, Shigellas and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, to only name a few. These are the current targets of vaccines under development, a great many of which will hopefully reach the market within the coming 10 years. The development of preventive vaccines against chronic diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis C will probably require more time, due to basic science complexities to be overcome first. It is likely that the future will also see an emphasis on therapeutic vaccines targeted against noninfectious diseases such as cancers (lung, skin, prostate, etc) and metabolic or neurologic diseases (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease). This review will focus on examples of preventive vaccines under development that target infectious diseases with a heavy global burden on public health. PMID:19446671

  13. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongqun; Rappuoli, Rino; De Groot, Anne S.; Chen, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO) has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning. PMID:21772787

  14. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J.; Albert, Steven M.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity. PMID:22108239

  15. Effectiveness of Air Drying and Magnification Methods for Detecting Initial Caries on Occlusal Surfaces Using Three Different Diagnostic Aids.

    PubMed

    Goel, Deepti; Sandhu, Meera; Jhingan, Pulkit; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective-The aim of this study was to assess the effect of magnification and air-drying on detection of carious lesion. Study Design-44 human extracted premolars were selected with sound occlusal surfaces without frank cavitation. The Diagnostic techniques used were Unaided visual examination, Magnifying Loupes (4.2×) and Stereomicroscope (10×, before and after air-drying) and then the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and both the surfaces were examined under Stereomicroscope (50×) to assess the presence or absence of carious lesion in the pit and fissures. The scores were compared to obtain Cohen's kappa coefficient (Reproducibility) and subjected to the Friedman Test and Paired t test. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value used to assess accuracy. Results-On Statistical analysis, visual examination before and after air drying had highest specificity but lowest sensitivity compared to different diagnostic techniques. Magnifying loupes after air-drying had highest sensitivity and lowest specificity compared to other diagnostic techniques. Conclusion-Air drying combined with magnifying aids are cost-effective, reliable method for detection of early carious lesion. If used in pediatric clinical practice, any undesirable pain and discomfort to the patient due to invasive procedures and helps in employing preventive measures. PMID:27472570

  16. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  17. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  18. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  19. Modeling error in assessment of mammographic image features for improved computer-aided mammography training: initial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2011-03-01

    In this study we investigate the hypothesis that there exist patterns in erroneous assessment of BI-RADS image features among radiology trainees when performing diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. We also investigate whether these error making patterns can be captured by individual user models. To test our hypothesis we propose a user modeling algorithm that uses the previous readings of a trainee to identify whether certain BI-RADS feature values (e.g. "spiculated" value for "margin" feature) are associated with higher than usual likelihood that the feature will be assessed incorrectly. In our experiments we used readings of 3 radiology residents and 7 breast imaging experts for 33 breast masses for the following BI-RADS features: parenchyma density, mass margin, mass shape and mass density. The expert readings were considered as the gold standard. Rule-based individual user models were developed and tested using the leave one-one-out crossvalidation scheme. Our experimental evaluation showed that the individual user models are accurate in identifying cases for which errors are more likely to be made. The user models captured regularities in error making for all 3 residents. This finding supports our hypothesis about existence of individual error making patterns in assessment of mammographic image features using the BI-RADS lexicon. Explicit user models identifying the weaknesses of each resident could be of great use when developing and adapting a personalized training plan to meet the resident's individual needs. Such approach fits well with the framework of adaptive computer-aided educational systems in mammography we have proposed before.

  20. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects. PMID:27357302

  1. The State of Norovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Debbink, Kari; Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses represent the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide; however, currently no licensed vaccine exists. Widespread vaccination that minimizes overall norovirus disease burden would benefit the entire population, but targeted vaccination of specific populations such as healthcare workers may further mitigate the risk of severe disease and death in vulnerable populations. While a few obstacles hinder the rapid development of efficacious vaccines, human trials for virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines show promise in both immune response and protection studies, with availability of vaccines being targeted over the next 5–10 years. Ongoing work including identification of important norovirus capsid antigenic sites, development of improved model systems, and continued studies in humans will allow improvement of future vaccines. In the meantime, a better understanding of norovirus disease course and transmission patterns can aid healthcare workers as they take steps to protect high-risk populations such as the elderly and immunocompromised individuals from chronic and severe disease. PMID:24585561

  2. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health.

    PubMed

    Hajj Hussein, Inaya; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; El Sayegh, Skye; Badran, Reina; Raad, Mohamad; Gerges-Geagea, Alice; Leone, Angelo; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live-attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response. The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the eighteenth century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on smallpox. The nineteenth century was a major landmark, with the "Germ Theory of disease" of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live-attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for bacille Calmette-Guerin, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever, and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010, "The Decade of vaccines" was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the "shot@Life" campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability, and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines

  3. Navigating the swampy lowland: a framework for evaluating the effect of community mobilisation in female sex workers in Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Tisha; Kuhlmann, Anne Sebert; Saggurti, Niranjan; Narayanan, Pradeep; Kiran, Usha; Dallabetta, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Background Few models of how community mobilisation works have been elaborated in the scientific literature, and evaluation of the impact of these programmes on HIV and other health outcomes is extremely limited. Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, has been implementing community mobilisation as part of its prevention programming with groups of high-risk individuals across six states since 2005. Purpose To articulate a programme theory and evaluation framework for evaluation of Avahan's approach to community mobilisation among female sex workers in four southern states in India. Methods The authors use a goal-based evaluation approach to describe the programme goals and an underlying programme theory that specifies how the programme is expected to work. Using multilevel structural equation modelling with propensity score matching, the evaluation will compare what is observed in the data with the predicted relationships specified by the model. Results The Avahan model of community mobilisation posits that meaningful participation in high-risk group intervention, structural intervention and organisational development activities leads to identification, collectivisation and ownership, which in turn leads to improved programme outcomes. Strong community groups and an enabling environment reinforce social norm and behaviour change outcomes and lead to sustained impact. Discussion Specifying an explicit programme theory can aid in the evaluation of complex interventions, especially when the evaluation design is observational. In addition to articulating Avahan's community mobilisation approach in a model that can be tested, we recommend some specific measures and methods that could be used to improve evaluation efforts in the future. PMID:22760219

  4. Survival and determinants of mortality in adult HIV/Aids patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Somali Region, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Damtew, Bereket; Mengistie, Bezatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown high initial mortality in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) programs from resource-limited settings. However, there is dearth of evidence on treatment outcomes and associated determinant factors in public hospitals. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess survival and identify predictors of death in adult HIV-infected patients initiating ART at a public hospital in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by reviewing baseline and follow-up records of patients who started ART between December 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011 at Kharamara hospital. Time to death was the main outcome measure. Kaplan-Meier models were used to estimate mortality and Cox proportional hazards models to identify predictors of mortality. Results A total of 784 patients (58.4% females) were followed for a median of 60 months. There were 87 (11.1%) deaths yielding an overall mortality rate of 5.15/100 PYO (95% CI: 4.73-6.37). The estimated mortality was 8.4%, 9.8%, 11.3%, 12.7% and 14.1% at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months respectively. The independent predictors of death were single marital status (AHR: 2.31; 95%CI: 1.18-4.50), a bedridden functional status (AHR: 5.91; 95%CI: 2.87-12.16), advanced WHO stage (AHR: 7.36; 95%CI: 3.17-17.12), BMI < 18.5 Kg/m2 (AHR: 2.20; 95%CI: 1.18-4.09), CD4 count < 50 cells/µL (AHR: 2.70; 95%CI: 1.26-5.80), severe anemia (AHR: 4.57; 95%CI: 2.30-9.10), and TB co-infection (AHR: 2.30; 95%CI: 1.28-4.11). Conclusion Improved survival was observed in patients taking ART in Somali region of Ethiopia. The risk for death was higher in patients with advanced WHO stage, low CD4 count, low Hgb, low BMI, and concomitant TB infection. Intensive case management is recommended for patients with the prognostic factors. Optimal immunologic and weight recoveries in the first 6 months suggest increased effort to retain patients in care at this period. PMID:26889319

  5. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). PMID:26057135

  6. A rapid dissolution procedure to aid initial nuclear forensics investigations of chemically refractory compounds and particles prior to gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reading, David G; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Britton, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid and effective preparative procedure has been evaluated for the accurate determination of low-energy (40-200 keV) gamma-emitting radionuclides ((210)Pb, (234)Th, (226)Ra, (235)U) in uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The measurement of low-energy gamma photons is complicated in heterogeneous samples containing high-density mineral phases and in such situations activity concentrations will be underestimated. This is because attenuation corrections, calculated based on sample mean density, do not properly correct where dense grains are dispersed within a less dense matrix (analogous to a nugget effect). The current method overcomes these problems using a lithium tetraborate fusion that readily dissolves all components including high-density, self-attenuating minerals/compounds. This is the ideal method for dissolving complex, non-volatile components in soils, rocks, mineral concentrates, and other materials where density reduction is required. Lithium borate fusion avoids the need for theoretical efficiency corrections or measurement of matrix matched calibration standards. The resulting homogeneous quenched glass produced can be quickly dissolved in nitric acid producing low-density solutions that can be counted by gamma spectrometry. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated using uranium-bearing Certified Reference Materials and provides accurate activity concentration determinations compared to the underestimated activity concentrations derived from direct measurements of a bulk sample. The procedure offers an effective solution for initial nuclear forensic studies where complex refractory minerals or matrices exist. It is also significantly faster, safer and simpler than alternative approaches. PMID:26572834

  7. Vaccines Through Centuries: Major Cornerstones of Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Hajj Hussein, Inaya; Chams, Nour; Chams, Sana; El Sayegh, Skye; Badran, Reina; Raad, Mohamad; Gerges-Geagea, Alice; Leone, Angelo; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live-attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response. The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the eighteenth century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on smallpox. The nineteenth century was a major landmark, with the “Germ Theory of disease” of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live-attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for bacille Calmette–Guerin, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever, and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010, “The Decade of vaccines” was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the “shot@Life” campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability, and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development

  8. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  9. Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  10. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123(3):712-8. PMID: ...

  11. Risk Factor or Social Vaccine? The Historical Progression of the Role of Education in HIV and AIDS Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Collins, John M.; Leon, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men…

  12. Rapid and Scalable Plant-based Production of a Cholera Toxin B Subunit Variant to Aid in Mass Vaccination against Cholera Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Lauren J.; Baldauf, Keegan J.; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine. The protein induces neutralizing antibodies against the holotoxin, the virulence factor responsible for severe diarrhea. A field clinical trial has suggested that the addition of CTB to killed whole-cell bacteria provides superior short-term protection to whole-cell-only vaccines; however, challenges in CTB biomanufacturing (i.e., cost and scale) hamper its implementation to mass vaccination in developing countries. To provide a potential solution to this issue, we developed a rapid, robust, and scalable CTB production system in plants. Methodology/Principal Findings In a preliminary study of expressing original CTB in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana, the protein was N-glycosylated with plant-specific glycans. Thus, an aglycosylated CTB variant (pCTB) was created and overexpressed via a plant virus vector. Upon additional transgene engineering for retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and optimization of a secretory signal, the yield of pCTB was dramatically improved, reaching >1 g per kg of fresh leaf material. The protein was efficiently purified by simple two-step chromatography. The GM1-ganglioside binding capacity and conformational stability of pCTB were virtually identical to the bacteria-derived original B subunit, as demonstrated in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence-based thermal shift assay. Mammalian cell surface-binding was corroborated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. pCTB exhibited strong oral immunogenicity in mice, inducing significant levels of CTB-specific intestinal antibodies that persisted over 6 months. Moreover, these antibodies effectively neutralized the cholera holotoxin in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results demonstrated that pCTB has robust producibility in Nicotiana plants and retains most, if not all, of major biological activities of

  13. [Vaccination perspectives].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Plotkin, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of vaccinology is to improve the available vaccines and to develop new ones in the light of progress in immunology, molecular biology and biotechnologies. But it must go beyond this, and aim to protect all populations and control diseases, even eradicate them where possible. New vaccine strategies must be developed taking into account the epidemiology of diseases and the inherent logistic problems of implementing these strategies under local conditions. There are three major thrusts to the progress of the discipline. The improvement of the vaccines available. One of the drives of vaccinology is not only to deliver vaccines of increasing safety (replacement of the current vaccine for whooping cough with an acellular vaccine for example), but also to improve vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (in particular for flu, tuberculosis, cholera and rabies vaccines). The optimisation of vaccination programmes and strategies for vaccinations. The ideal is to protect against the greatest possible number of diseases with the smallest number of vaccinations. The development of combinations of vaccines is central to this goal. The objective for the year 2000 is a hexavalent vaccine DTPP Hib HB. The development of new vaccines. Classic techniques continue to be successfully used (inactivated hepatitis A vaccine; attenuated live vaccines for chicken pox and dengue fever; conjugated polyosidic bacterial vaccines for meningococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae). However, it will become possible to prepare vaccines against most transmissible diseases using genetic engineering techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921696

  14. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  15. Vaccine process technology.

    PubMed

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

  16. Meningitis C vaccine (North American vaccine).

    PubMed

    Lattanzi, Maria; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    North American Vaccine Inc (NAVI) has launched a conjugate polysaccharide vaccinefor the prevention of meningitis caused by group C meningococcal bacteria [433475]. The vaccine is based upon conjugate technology, incorporating the serogroup C polysaccharide (CPS) of all three major serogroups. Antibody-dependent, complement-mediated activity was demonstrated in mice and non-human primates, with no detectable adverse effects [277193]. Approval was filed for in the UK in January 2000 [353305]. In July 2000, Baxter received approval for NeisVac-C in the UK, and by September 2000 the vaccine was expected to be incorporated into the NHS's immunization campaign against meningitis C [381225]. NeisVac-C will initially appear labeled from NAVI; Baxter completed its acquisition of NAVI in June 2000 [375389]. Baxter estimates the worldwide global market for the vaccine at US $600 million per year [376204]. PMID:12054072

  17. Gauging the Acceptability of HIV Vaccines: An Exploratory Study Examining Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Injecting Drug Users in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, France

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…

  18. Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?

    PubMed Central

    Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N = 18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N = 105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race / ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls’ likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt. PMID:25483470

  19. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  20. Disseminated vaccine-strain varicella as initial presentation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maves, Ryan C; Tripp, Michael S; Dell, Trevor G; Bennett, Jason W; Ahluwalia, Jaspal S; Tamminga, Cindy; Baldwin, James C; Starr, Clarise Rivera; Grinkemeyer, Michael D; Dempsey, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections have declined in many industrialized countries due to vaccination with the attenuated Oka strain virus. Rare cases of severe, disseminated vaccine-strain VZV infection have occurred in the immunocompromised, although rarely in HIV-infected persons. We describe a man with previously-undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who received VZV vaccination and subsequently presented to a combat hospital in Afghanistan with disseminated varicella, respiratory failure, and sepsis. The patient recovered with ventilator and hemodynamic support, intravenous acyclovir, and empiric antibiotic therapy. DNA sequencing detected Oka strain virus from patient blood specimens. Although safe in most populations, the VZV vaccine may cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Improved detection of HIV infection may be useful in preventing such cases. PMID:24257110

  1. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fry, Tricia; Van Dalen, Kaci; Hurley, Jerome; Nash, Paul

    2012-10-01

    RABORAL V-RG(®)a is a recombinant vaccine used in oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs for wildlife in the United States. Vaccination rates for raccoons are substantially lower than vaccination rates for gray foxes and coyotes. Research suggests that the low viscosity of the oral vaccine may preclude animals from receiving an effective dose when biting into the vaccine bait delivery system. We evaluated the possibility of using two benign compounds, chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC), to increase the viscosity of the vaccine and potentially act as adjuvants to improve the immune response in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Forty mildly sedated raccoons were orally vaccinated via needleless syringe with either RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), chitosan+RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), TMC+ RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), or no vaccine (n = 4), on day 0 and again on day 90. We collected sera every 2-4 wk for 4 mo and evaluated rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). Raccoons were considered responders if rVNA titers were ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Eleven of 12 raccoons vaccinated with TMC+RABORAL V-RG responded after one dose of vaccine, as did eight of 12 vaccinated with RABORAL V-RG, and three of 12 vaccinated with chitosan+ RABORAL V-RG. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an adjuvant, such as TMC, could increase vaccine efficacy to aid in controlling rabies virus spread in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:23060506

  2. Advances in influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenically variable regions of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which requires regular updates to match circulating seasonal influenza A and B virus strains. Given the relatively limited protection induced by current seasonal influenza vaccines, a more universal influenza vaccine that would protect against more—if not all—influenza viruses is among the largest unmet medical needs of the 21st century. New insights into correlates of protection from influenza and into broad B- and T-cell protective anti-influenza immune responses offer promising avenues for innovative vaccine development as well as manufacturing strategies or platforms, leading to the development of a new generation of vaccines. These aim at the rapid and massive production of influenza vaccines that provide broad protective and long-lasting immunity. Recent advances in influenza vaccine research demonstrate the feasibility of a wide range of approaches and call for the initiation of preclinical proof-of-principle studies followed by clinical trials in humans. PMID:24991424

  3. Postgenomics of Neisseria meningitidis for vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Martelli, Paola; Santucci, Annalisa

    2007-10-01

    Meningococcal disease is a global problem. Multivalent (A, C, Y, W135) conjugate vaccines have been developed and licensed; however, an effective vaccine against serogroup B has not yet become available. Outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have been used to disrupt serogroup B epidemics and outbreaks. Postgenomic technologies have been useful in aiding the discovery of new protein vaccine candidates. Moreover, proteomic technologies enable large-scale identification of membrane and surface-associated proteins, and provide suitable methods to characterize and standardize the antigen composition of OMV-based vaccines. PMID:17941821

  4. Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation after a First AIDS-Defining Event: Temporal Changes in Clinical Attitudes in the ICONA Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Ammassari, Adriana; Mussini, Cristina; Ursitti, Maria Alessandra; Caramello, Pietro; Angarano, Gioacchino; Bonfanti, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Mura, Maria Stella; Girardi, Enrico; Antinori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonela D'Arminio

    2014-01-01

    Background Time of starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) after diagnosis of specific AIDS-defining event (ADE) is a crucial aspect. Objectives of this study were to evaluate if in patients diagnosed with ADE the time to ART initiation may vary according to year of diagnosis and type of ADE. Methods All HIV+ persons diagnosed with an ADE over the 6 months prior to or after enrolment in the Icona Foundation study cohort and while ART-naive were grouped according to type of diagnosis: Those with ADE requiring medications interacting with ART [group A], those with ADE treatable only with ART [B] and other ADE [C]. Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate the percentage of people starting ART, overall and after stratification for calendar period and ADE group. Multivariable Cox regression model was used to investigate association between calendar year of specific ADE and time to ART initiation. Results 720 persons with first ADE were observed over 1996–2013 (group A, n = 171; B, n = 115; C, n = 434). By 30 days from diagnosis, 27% (95% CI: 22–32) of those diagnosed in 1996–2000 had started ART vs. 32% (95% CI: 24–40) in 2001–2008 and 43% (95% CI: 33–47) after 2008 (log-rank p = 0.001). The proportion of patients starting ART by 30 days was 13% (95% CI 7–19), 40% (95% CI: 30–50) and 38% (95% CI 33–43) in ADE groups A, B and C (log-rank p = 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounders, people diagnosed after 2008 remained at increased probability of starting ART more promptly than those diagnosed in 1996–1999 (AHR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16–2.56). Conclusions In our “real-life” setting, the time from ADE to ART initiation was significantly shorter in people diagnosed in more recent years, although perhaps less prompt than expected. PMID:24587081

  5. A vaccine strategy against AIDS: an HIV gp41 peptide immunization prevents NKp44L expression and CD4+ T cell depletion in SHIV-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Vincent; Le Grand, Roger; Dausset, Jean; Debré, Patrice

    2008-02-12

    We previously showed that a gp41 peptide (3S) induces expression of a natural killer (NK) ligand (NKp44L) on CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection and that those cells are highly sensitive to NK lysis. In HIV-infected patients, anti-3S antibodies are associated with the maintenance of CD4+ T cell counts close to their baseline values, and CD4+ T cells decrease with the antibody titer. This study sought to determine whether anti-3S immunization could prevent NKp44L expression on these CD4+ T cells in vivo and inhibits the subsequent decline in CD4+ T cell counts by immunizing macaques with 3S and then infecting them with simian HIV(162P3). The results show that anti-3S antibodies inhibited NKp44L expression and NK activity and cytotoxicity. They also decreased the apoptosis rate of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. These data raise questions about the pathogenesis of HIV and present opportunities for both preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:18234855

  6. A vaccine strategy against AIDS: An HIV gp41 peptide immunization prevents NKp44L expression and CD4+ T cell depletion in SHIV-infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Vincent; Le Grand, Roger; Dausset, Jean; Debré, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    We previously showed that a gp41 peptide (3S) induces expression of a natural killer (NK) ligand (NKp44L) on CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection and that those cells are highly sensitive to NK lysis. In HIV-infected patients, anti-3S antibodies are associated with the maintenance of CD4+ T cell counts close to their baseline values, and CD4+ T cells decrease with the antibody titer. This study sought to determine whether anti-3S immunization could prevent NKp44L expression on these CD4+ T cells in vivo and inhibits the subsequent decline in CD4+ T cell counts by immunizing macaques with 3S and then infecting them with simian HIV162P3. The results show that anti-3S antibodies inhibited NKp44L expression and NK activity and cytotoxicity. They also decreased the apoptosis rate of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. These data raise questions about the pathogenesis of HIV and present opportunities for both preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:18234855

  7. [Vaccines in the year 2000].

    PubMed

    Lambert, P H

    1997-01-01

    Vaccinology nowadays is going through an explosive "evolution". This development, which is due to progress in molecular biology and immunology, is accompanied by a world-wide change of how we view vaccination strategies. Thus, the vaccination of travellers and migrants should be increasingly included in the global control of the infectious diseases. The risks linked to travelling, which thanks to extensive vaccination are now better controlled globally, should decrease as the success of these programs grows. However, risks connected to those diseases, which do not yet lend themselves to preventive mass vaccination carried out systematically, will no doubt prevail for a long time. This is the case, for example, for diarrhetic diseases, typhoid fever, malaria, severe respiratory diseases, AIDS, tuberculosis or more regional diseases such as dengue or leishmaniasis. As far as vaccination is concerned, the best approach must take into account industrial feasibility and immunological considerations, as to the nature of the "target" of these new vaccines and the desired time of protection. It is also necessary to simplify immunization protocols in order to improve conditions for those who are vaccinated. Priority is given to the search for new vaccinal formulas compatible with these objectives. Significant changes in the domain of vaccination should therefore be expected in a future near enough to have an impact on our upcoming preventive programs ... from the year 2000 onwards. PMID:9479458

  8. Lassa fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  9. Designing synthetic vaccines for HIV.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Haynes, Barton F; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2015-06-01

    Despite three decades of intensive research efforts, the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine against HIV remains an unrealized goal in the global campaign to contain the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Recent characterization of novel epitopes for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies has fueled research in the design and synthesis of new, well-defined antigenic constructs for the development of HIV envelope-directed vaccines. The present review will cover previous and recent efforts toward the design of synthetic vaccines based on the HIV viral envelope glycoproteins, with special emphasis on examples from our own laboratories. The biological evaluation of some of the most representative vaccine candidates, in terms of their antigenicity and immunogenicity, will also be discussed to illustrate the current state-of-the-art toward the development of fully synthetic HIV vaccines. PMID:25824661

  10. Vaccines for lymphomas: idiotype vaccines and beyond.

    PubMed

    Houot, Roch; Levy, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Therapeutic vaccines for lymphomas have been developed to induce active and long-lasting immune responses against lymphoma capable of eradicating the tumor. Most of these vaccines use the tumor B cell idiotype (the unique variable region of the surface immunoglobulin) as a tumor-specific antigen. The first human clinical trial for lymphoma vaccine was initiated 20 years ago. Along with several other phase I/II trials, it showed encouraging results which supported the initiation of three phase III trials. The results of these trials have recently been released (although not published yet) which failed to demonstrate a prolongation in progression-free survival following chemotherapy. Despite this disappointing result, a number of observations have accumulated over the years that suggest some clinical efficacy of lymphoma vaccines. Several strategies are being developed to improve these results that include optimization of antigen delivery and presentation as well as enhancement of anti-tumor T cell function. This review describes the clinical development of lymphoma vaccines and delineates advances, problems and prospects towards integration of this strategy in the therapeutic armamentarium for lymphoma. PMID:18951668

  11. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  12. A "vaccine" made of ideas.

    PubMed

    Owur, M

    1989-03-01

    Mathematical modelling techniques suggest that health education campaigns that promote safe sex--"a vaccine made of ideas"--have a magnified effect on rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, surveys conducted in a range of countries have shown that mass media educational campaigns increase knowledge yet have a limited impact on behavior. Most effective are community-based initiatives that utilize existing networks and draw on local cultural traditions. For example, a Nairobi health education program in which prostitutes selected by their peers led group meetings where condoms were distributed led to increasing rates of condom use and a reduction in the risk of HIV infection. There is agreement that young people should receive education on the transmission of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before they become sexually active and at risk, yet the age at which such education should begin and the content of the curriculum are controversial issues. It is further essential to recognize that about 40 million of the world's children do not attend school, and many are "street kids" who are forced into prostitution by economic necessity at an early age. Research, pretesting, and evaluation of any AIDS prevention campaigns are essential, especially under conditions of limited resources. PMID:12316486

  13. Outcomes and factors associated with survival of patients with HIV/AIDS initiating antiretroviral treatment in Liangshan Prefecture, southwest of China: A retrospective cohort study from 2005 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang; Gong, Yuhan; Wang, Qixing; Deng, Ling; Zhang, Shize; Liao, Qiang; Yu, Gang; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ju; Ye, Shaodong; Liu, Zhongfu

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive cases have been reported among people who injected drugs in Liangshan Prefecture in southwest of China since 1995 and Liangshan has become one of the most seriously affected epidemic areas in China. In 2004, several patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) at the Central Hospital of Liangshan Prefecture. From 2005 to 2013, the number of patients receiving ART dramatically increased.We conducted a retrospective cohort study to analyze the long-term survival time and associated factors among patients with HIV/AIDS who received ART in Liangshan Prefecture for the first time. Data were collected from the Chinese AIDS Antiretroviral Therapy DATAFax Information System. A life table and the Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportion hazard regression were used to calculate the survival time and its associated factors, respectively.Among 8310 ART-naïve patients with HIV/AIDS who initiated ART, 436 patients died of AIDS-related diseases, and their median time of receiving ART was 15.0 ± 12.3 months, whereas 28.7% of them died within the first 6 months after treatment. The cumulative survival rates of those receiving ART in 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 97.1%, 93.4%, 90.6%, 88.8%, and 86.0%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that male patients on ART were at a higher risk of death from AIDS-related diseases (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.1) than female patients. Patients infected with HIV through injection drug use (IDU) were at a higher risk of death (AHR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) than those infected through heterosexual transmission. Patients with a baseline CD4 cell count <50/mm (AHR = 9.8, 95% CI: 6.0-15.9), 50-199/mm (AHR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.3-4.6), and 200-349/mm (AHR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3) were at a higher risk of death than those with a CD4 cell count ≥350/mm.ART prolonged survival time of patients with HIV/AIDS

  14. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  15. Diphtheria Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook ... Related Pages Pertussis Tetanus Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Abbreviations DTaP=Pediatric - Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis ...

  16. Giardia vaccination.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Ceri, H; Morck, D W

    2000-05-01

    Recently, a Giardia vaccine has become commercially available in the USA for prevention of clinical signs of giardiasis and reduction of cyst shedding in dogs and cats. The vaccine is based upon the current state of knowledge of Giardia antigenicity and immunology. Here, Merle Olson, Howard Ceri and Douglas Morck describe studies that led to the development of this vaccine and subsequent efficacy studies. Immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapeutic application of the vaccine are discussed. PMID:10782082

  17. Not for industry only: medical students and office-based academic detailing the PIVOT (Pregnant women Influenza Vaccine Optimization Team) initiative.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Daina A; Mallen, Jonathan R; Kwiatkowski, Thomas G; Rabin, Jill M; Dlugacz, Yosef D; Silverman, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Academic detailing is a method of educational outreach that utilizes individualized encounters with physicians to broach specific medical issues in an evidence-based and quality-driven manner. Medical students utilized the matter of influenza vaccination during pregnancy as a lens through which to explore the methods of academic detailing in a community setting. Structured and customized dialogues between North Shore-LIJ affiliated obstetricians and Hofstra North Shore-LIJ medical students were conducted regarding the disparity between the proportion of providers that recommend the vaccine and the percentage of pregnant women being vaccinated annually. Ultimately the project aimed to increase vaccine-carrying rates throughout office based practices in the community, while establishing a viable method for up-to-date information exchange between practicing physicians and academic medicine. While the extent of affected change is currently being quantified, the project proved successful insofar as academic detailing allowed the students to gain access to physicians, and engage in compelling and educational conversations. Both the physicians and students felt these interactions were valuable and well worth continuing. The goal for the future is to expand these practices to other pressing public health issues while continuing to refine the technique. PMID:25926764

  18. Who Needs Chickenpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Not Get Chickenpox Vaccine Types of Chickenpox Vaccine Child and Adult Immunization Schedules Possible Side Effects of Chickenpox Vaccine Childcare and School Vaccine Requirements Also Known As & Abbreviations ...

  19. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. PMID:26944711

  20. Predicting the impact of a partially effective HIV vaccine and subsequent risk behavior change on the heterosexual HIV epidemic in low- and middle-income countries: A South African example.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Kyeen M; Owens, Douglas K; Vardas, Eftyhia; Gray, Glenda E; McIntyre, James A; Paltiel, A David

    2007-09-01

    We developed a mathematical model to simulate the impact of various partially effective preventive HIV vaccination scenarios in a population at high risk for heterosexually transmitted HIV. We considered an adult population defined by gender (male/female), disease stage (HIV-negative, HIV-positive, AIDS, and death), and vaccination status (unvaccinated/vaccinated) in Soweto, South Africa. Input data included initial HIV prevalence of 20% (women) and 12% (men), vaccination coverage of 75%, and exclusive male negotiation of condom use. We explored how changes in vaccine efficacy and postvaccination condom use would affect HIV prevalence and total HIV infections prevented over a 10-year period. In the base-case scenario, a 40% effective HIV vaccine would avert 61,000 infections and reduce future HIV prevalence from 20% to 13%. A 25% increase (or decrease) in condom use among vaccinated individuals would instead avert 75,000 (or only 46,000) infections and reduce the HIV prevalence to 12% (or only 15%). Furthermore, certain combinations of increased risk behavior and vaccines with <43% efficacy could worsen the epidemic. Even modestly effective HIV vaccines can confer enormous benefits in terms of HIV infections averted and decreased HIV prevalence. However, programs to reduce risk behavior may be important components of successful vaccination campaigns. PMID:17589368

  1. Vaccinations in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsigrelis, C; Ljungman, P

    2016-03-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk for a number of infections that are potentially preventable by vaccinations such as pneumococcal infections and influenza. Treatment, especially with anti-B-cell antibodies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), negatively impacts the response to vaccination for several months. It is therefore recommended that patients be vaccinated before initiating immunosuppressive therapy if possible. The risk of side-effects with inactivated vaccines is low, but care has to be taken with live vaccines, such as varicella-zoster virus vaccine, since severe and fatal complications have been reported. HSCT patients require repeated doses of most vaccines to achieve long-lasting immune responses. New therapeutic options for patients with hematological malignancies that are rapidly being introduced into clinical practice will require additional research regarding the efficacy of vaccinations. New vaccines are also in development that will require well-designed studies to ascertain efficacy and safety. PMID:26602587

  2. Teaching wilderness first aid in a remote First Nations community: the story of the Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Born, Karen; Orkin, Aaron; VanderBurgh, David; Beardy, Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. Study design A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a community-based participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Methods Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the research focus groups. Three community research partners validated and reviewed the data collected from this process. These data were coded and analysed using open coding. Results Community members responded to the course in ways related to their past experiences with injury and first aid, both as individuals and as members of the community. Feelings of confidence and self-efficacy related access to care and treatment of injury surfaced during the course. Findings also highlighted how the context of the remote First Nations community influenced the delivery and development of course materials. Conclusions Developing and delivering a first aid course in a remote community requires sensitivity towards the response of participants to the course, as well as the context in which it is being delivered. Employing collaborative approaches to teaching first aid can aim to address these unique needs. Though delivery of a first response training programme in a small remote community will probably not impact the morbidity and mortality associated with injury, it has the potential to impact community self-efficacy and confidence when responding to an emergency situation. PMID:23110258

  3. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  4. The history of the smallpox vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexandra J; Devlin, Phillip M

    2006-05-01

    Smallpox was a highly virulent, contagious disease. Initial attempts to control the disease by variolation were controversial and dangerous. Variolation was the subject of some of the earliest published clinical trials. Vaccination was discovered by Edward Jenner in 1796. From initial skepticism by the medical community the uptake became so widespread that smallpox vaccination was made compulsory in England and Wales in 1853. Eventually, this led to the eradication of smallpox in 1980. Parallels can be drawn with modern vaccination and the smallpox vaccine especially with the current intense media scrutiny of modern vaccinations. PMID:16176833

  5. HPV vaccines: Translating immunogenicity into efficacy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Taylor B; Huh, Warner K

    2016-06-01

    Currently available human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are very successful at preventing persistent HPV infection and premalignant cervical lesions. In part due to the unique aspects of HPV immunogenicity and high levels of efficacy no immune correlate has been identified for HPV vaccination. Serum neutralizing antibodies are used to measure vaccine response, but their role as a correlate has not been verified, and this theory fails to explain the prevention of HPV related non-mucosal lesions. Identifying a true correlate would aid in future work in this area but will be difficult in the setting of a highly efficacious vaccine. PMID:26512762

  6. The Unfinished Nature of Rights-Informed HIV- and AIDS-Related Education: An Analysis of Three School-Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miedema, Esther; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, there has been growing investment in concepts of rights in the areas of HIV prevention, care and treatment, including HIV- and AIDS-related education delivered in schools. Despite this increasing commitment to the notion of rights, few efforts appear to have been made to understand the varying conceptions of rights that…

  7. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  9. Predictors of Late HIV Diagnosis among Adult People Living with HIV/AIDS Who Undertake an Initial CD4 T Cell Evaluation, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo; Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early HIV testing and timely initiation of ART is critical for the improved quality of life of PLWHIV. Having identified a higher rates of Late HIV diagnosis, this study was aimed to determine Determinants of late diagnosis of HIV among adult HIV patients in Bahir Dar, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted between January 2010 to December 2011 at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. The study subjects consisted of 267 cases and 267 controls. Cases were adult people living with HIV/AIDS whose initial CD4 T cell count was < 200/μl of blood. Controls were those with a CD4 T cell count of greater than 200/ μl. Trained staff nurses were involved in data collection using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and Binary logistic regression were performed. Results Subjects who hold a certificate and above (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.13. 0.54), being initiated by friends, families and other socials to undertake HIV testing (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.29, 1.48), who reported a medium and high knowledge score about HIV/AIDS and who undertake HIV testing while visiting a clinic for ANC (AOR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.19, 0.83) were less likely to be diagnosed late. Subjects who undertake HIV testing due to providers’ initiation (AOR = 1.70; 95%CI = 1.08, 2.68), who reported a medium internalized stigma (AOR = 4.94; 95% CI = 3.13, 7.80) and who reported a high internalized stigma score towards HIV/AIDS (AOR = 16.64; 95% CI = 8.29, 33.4) had a high odds of being diagnosed late compared to their counterparts. Conclusion Internalized stigma, low knowledge level about HIV/AIDS, not to have attended formal education and failure to undertake HIV testing by own initiation were significant determinant factors associated with Late HIV diagnosis. Education about HIV/AIDS, promotion of general education, and encouraging people to motivate their social mates to undertake HIV testing are

  10. BCG vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and the first domestic BCG vaccine was produced by the National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), current Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), in 1960. Since 1987, BCG manufacture work was handed over to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT), the freeze-dried BCG vaccine was manufactured at a scale required to meet the whole amount of domestic consumption. However, since 2006, the manufacture of BCG vaccine suspended and the whole amount of BCG was imported at this point of time. Now KIT is planning to re-produce the BCG vaccine in Korea under the supervision of KCDC, this will be render great role to National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) and provide initiating step for developing new tuberculosis vaccines in Korea. PMID:23858398

  11. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine. PMID:22129866

  12. Dengue vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir Singh; SK, Shashikantha

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has emerged as one of the major global public health problems. The disease has broken out of its shell and has spread due to increased international travel and climatic changes. Globally, over 2.5 billion people accounting for >40% of the world's population are at risk from dengue. Since the 1940s, dengue vaccines have been under investigation. A live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV) has progressed to phase III efficacy studies. Dengue vaccine has been found to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality. Current dengue vaccine candidates aim to protect against the 4 dengue serotypes, but the recent discovery of a fifth serotype could complicate vaccine development. In recent years, an urgent need has been felt for a vaccine to prevent the morbidity and mortality from this disease in a cost-effective way. PMID:25424928

  13. Vaccine delivery--current trends and future.

    PubMed

    Azad, Neelam; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2006-04-01

    Since its discovery in 1796 by Edward Jenner, vaccines have been an integral aspect of therapeutics, combating a number of infectious diseases with remarkable success. In recent years, due to rapid advances in proteomics, genomics, biotechnology and immunology and the plethora of knowledge amassed in related fields, it is fair to expect vaccine development to progress at an exponential pace. However, as we march on into the 21st century, we are still struggling in our efforts to eradicate fatal diseases such as AIDS, malaria and hepatitis C due, in part, to the absence of effective vaccines against these diseases. Vaccine development faces major challenges both technologically and economically. Newer vaccines that are stable, economical, require fewer doses and can be administered using needle free systems are a worldwide priority. An ideal theoretical vaccine may not be cogent unless formulated and delivered aptly. Delivery of vaccines via oral, intranasal, transcutaneous and intradermal routes will decrease the risk of needle-borne diseases and may eliminate the need for trained personnel and sterile equipment. Crucial to the success of a vaccine is the delivery strategy that is to be employed. Currently, various techniques involving DNA vaccines, adjuvants, microparticles and transgenic plants are being developed and evaluated. Although, no major breakthrough is in prospect, these systems have potential and will take immunization to a new technological level. This review will focus on the current development of some novel vaccine delivery systems and will explore the non-parenteral routes of vaccine administration. PMID:16611000

  14. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  16. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  17. Therapeutic vaccination to treat chronic infectious diseases: current clinical developments using MVA-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Boukhebza, Houda; Bellon, Nadine; Limacher, Jean Marc; Inchauspé, Geneviève

    2012-12-01

    A famous milestone in the vaccine field has been the first successful vaccination against smallpox, in 1798, by Edward Jenner. Using the vaccinia cowpox virus, Jenner was able to protect vaccinees from variola or smallpox. The Modified Virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus strain has been one of the vaccines subsequently developed to prevent smallpox infection and was selected by the US government in their Biodefense strategy. Progress in molecular biology and immunology associated with MVA infection has led to the development of MVA as vaccine platform, both in the field of preventive and therapeutic vaccines. This later class of therapeutics has witnessed growing interest that has translated into an increasing number of vaccine candidates reaching the clinics. Among those, MVA-based therapeutic vaccines have addressed four major chronic infections including viral hepatitis, AIDS, human papillomavirus-linked pathologies and tuberculosis. Clinical trials encompass phase 1 and 2 and have started to show significant results and promises. PMID:22894957

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  19. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  20. [AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943

  1. Scientific challenges and opportunities in developing novel vaccines for the emerging and developing markets

    PubMed Central

    Kochhar, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have had a major role in enhancing the quality of life and increasing life expectancy. Despite these successes and the development of new vaccine technologies, there remain multiple infectious diseases including AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis that require effective prophylactic vaccines. New and traditional technologies have a role in the development and delivery of the new vaccine candidates. The scientific challenges, opportunities and funding models for developing vaccines for low resource settings are highlighted here. PMID:23322007

  2. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause problems like genital warts and some kinds of cancer, a vaccine is an important step in preventing infection and protecting against the spread of HPV. That's why doctors recommend that all girls and guys get the vaccine at these ages: ...

  3. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  4. Anthrax Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... products some military personnel, as determined by the Department of Defense These people should get five doses of vaccine ( ... cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/vaccination/. Contact the U.S Department of Defense (DoD): call 1-877-438-8222 or visit ...

  5. Schistosomiasis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease of public health importance to a billion people. An estimated 200 million people are currently infected; an additional 779 million individuals are at risk to acquire the infection in 74 countries. Despite many years of implementation of mass anti-parasitic drug therapy programs and other control measures, this disease has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas.  The discovery of a protective vaccine still remains the most potentially effective means for the control of this disease, especially if the vaccine provides long-term immunity against the infection. A vaccine would contribute to the reduction of schistosomiasis morbidity through induced immune responses leading to decrease in parasite load and reduced egg production. This vaccine could be administered to children between the ages of 3 and 12 years to prevent severe infection in a particularly high risk population. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:22048120

  6. Typhoid vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Dutta, A K

    2001-08-01

    Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries with about 33 million cases per year. Protective efficacy of traditional acetone/phenol killed vaccines is similar to newer typhoid vaccines (Ty21A and Vi antigen vaccine) but side effects of these newer vaccines are considerably less. Though the mortality is low, typhoid fever causes considerable morbidity and loss of working days. Problems during treatment are increasing due to emergence and spread of multidrug resistant S. typhi. Hence to decrease the incidence of typhoid fever in addition to ensuring safe water supply and excreta disposal a typhoid vaccine needs to be introduced in the National Immunization Schedule. PMID:11563251

  7. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  8. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  9. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  10. Rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G

    1998-01-01

    Encouraging results have been reported from several large trials of tetravalent rhesus rotavirus vaccine, with efficacy of 70-80% against severe disease. A recent Venezuelan study showed similar results to trials in USA and Europe. The vaccine may soon be licensed in USA. It provides the exciting prospect of a strategy to prevent one of the world's major child killers. Other candidate vaccines are under development including human-bovine reassortants, neonatal strains, non-replicating rotaviruses, vector vaccines and other genetically engineered products. Second and third generation rotavirus vaccines are on the horizon. The need for a rotavirus vaccine is well accepted by paediatricians, but public health authorities need to be lobbied. Other issues which need to be addressed include relative importance of non-group A rotaviruses, possible administration with OPV, the influence of breast feeding, and most importantly, cost. It is essential that rotavirus vaccine is somehow made available to all of the world's children, not just those in developed countries. PMID:9553287

  11. AID in aging and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    FRASCA, DANIELA; ANDRISANI, GIANLUCA; DIAZ, ALAIN; FELICE, CARLA; GUIDI, LUISA; BLOMBERG, BONNIE B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of B cell responses in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and healthy individuals of different ages, vaccinated with the pandemic (p)2009 influenza vaccine. The in vivo response was measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, which represents the most established correlate with vaccine protectiveness. The in vitro response was measured by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in cultures of vaccine-stimulated PBMC. Both responses are somewhat impaired in IBD patients undergoing anti-TNF-α treatment but these are much more decreased in IBD patients undergoing treatment with anti-TNF-α and immunosuppressive (IS) drugs. These latter patients had in vivo and in vitro B cell responses similar to those of elderly individuals. Moreover, as we have previously demonstrated in healthy subjects, the in vitro response to the polyclonal stimulus CpG may be used as a biomarker for subsequent vaccine response and AID activation is correlated with the serum response in IBD patients, as it is in healthy individuals. These results altogether indicate that IBD patients on anti-TNF-α and IS have significantly impaired in vivo and in vitro B cell responses, as compared to those on monotherapy. This is the first report to demonstrate that B cell defects, as measured by the autonomous AID reporter, in IBD patients contribute to reduced humoral responses to the influenza vaccine, as we have previously shown for elderly individuals. PMID:23190037

  12. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  13. [Rabbies vaccination].

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    With very few exceptions, rabies is occurring around the globe. The clinical course of this mammal-transmitted infection is almost universally fatal. Thus, the disease is causing more human deaths than any other zoonosis. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic options, pre- or post-exposure vaccination remains the only effective means to avoid development of fatal disease. Save and highly effective cell culture vaccines which have been available for decades provide long-lasting protection. Various vaccination schedules have been tested and are being recommended. PMID:27268449

  14. Intralymphatic immunization enhances DNA vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloy, Kevin J.; Erdmann, Iris; Basch, Veronique; Sierro, Sophie; Kramps, Thomas A.; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Oehen, Stefan; Kündig, Thomas M.

    2001-03-01

    Although DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit potent immune responses in animal models, initial clinical trials in humans have been disappointing, highlighting a need to optimize their immunogenicity. Naked DNA vaccines are usually administered either i.m. or intradermally. The current study shows that immunization with naked DNA by direct injection into a peripheral lymph node enhances immunogenicity by 100- to 1,000-fold, inducing strong and biologically relevant CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Because injection directly into a lymph node is a rapid and easy procedure in humans, these results have important clinical implications for DNA vaccination.

  15. The Reason for Regimen Change Among HIV/AIDS Patients Initiated on First Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Woldemedhin, Beharu; Wabe, Nasir Tajure

    2012-01-01

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly decreased the morbidity and mortality due to HIV disease. However, toxicities, comorbidity, pregnancy, and treatment failure, among others, would result in frequent initial HAART regimen change. Aim: The study was designed to assess the causes of initial highly active antiretroviral therapeutic regimen changes among patients on HAART. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using a retrospective institution-based study, by reviewing the patient information sheet and physician diagnosis cards. Patient cards that showed a change in the initial treatment regimen were assessed and analyzed, to identify the common reason that resulted in a change from the initial treatment regimen. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 340 patient cards were assessed. The majority of the patients (69.29%) were females. The most common first regimen, before the first switch, was stavudine / lamivudine / nevirapine (D4T/3TC/NVP) (54.70%) and stavudine / lamivudine / Efavirenz (D4T/3TC/EFV) (20.88%). The main reasons for modification were toxicity, comorbidity, pregnancy, and treatment failure. The main types of toxicities observed were peripheral neuropathy (36.52%), rash (17.83%), and anemia (17.39%). Conclusion: Toxicity was the main reason for the modification of initial HAART among the study population. Efavirenz-based regimens had the lowest hazard for change relatively, except in pregnancy-related cases. PMID:22393543

  16. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG as an HIV vaccine vector.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Rosamund; Chege, Gerald; Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-06-01

    HIV-1 has resulted in a devastating AIDS pandemic. An effective HIV/AIDS vaccine that can be used to either, prevent HIV infection, control infection or prevent progression of the disease to AIDS is needed. In this review we discuss the use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the tuberculosis vaccine, as a vaccine vector for an HIV vaccine. Numerous features make BCG an attractive vehicle to deliver HIV antigens. It has a good safety profile, elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable, a necessary consideration for developing countries. In this review we discuss the numerous factors that influence generation of a genetically stable recombinant BCG vaccine for HIV. PMID:20353397

  17. Measuring Vaccine Confidence: Introducing a Global Vaccine Confidence Index

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J; Schulz, William S; Tucker, Joseph D; Smith, David M D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Public confidence in vaccination is vital to the success of immunisation programmes worldwide. Understanding the dynamics of vaccine confidence is therefore of great importance for global public health. Few published studies permit global comparisons of vaccination sentiments and behaviours against a common metric. This article presents the findings of a multi-country survey of confidence in vaccines and immunisation programmes in Georgia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom (UK) – these being the first results of a larger project to map vaccine confidence globally. Methods. Data were collected from a sample of the general population and from those with children under 5 years old against a core set of confidence questions. All surveys were conducted in the relevant local-language in Georgia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the UK. We examine confidence in immunisation programmes as compared to confidence in other government health services, the relationships between confidence in the system and levels of vaccine hesitancy, reasons for vaccine hesitancy, ultimate vaccination decisions, and their variation based on country contexts and demographic factors. Results. The numbers of respondents by country were: Georgia (n=1000); India (n=1259); Pakistan (n=2609); UK (n=2055); Nigerian households (n=12554); and Nigerian health providers (n=1272). The UK respondents with children under five years of age were more likely to hesitate to vaccinate, compared to other countries. Confidence in immunisation programmes was more closely associated with confidence in the broader health system in the UK (Spearman’s ρ=0.5990), compared to Nigeria (ρ=0.5477), Pakistan (ρ=0.4491), and India (ρ=0.4240), all of which ranked confidence in immunisation programmes higher than confidence in the broader health system. Georgia had the highest rate of vaccine refusals (6 %) among those who reported initial hesitation. In all other countries surveyed most

  18. Arthropod vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  19. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  20. Meningococcal Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an infection of the covering of the brain and the spinal cord. Meningococcal disease also causes ... legs, have problems with their nervous systems, become deaf or mentally ... use of meningococcal vaccine is important for people at highest risk.

  1. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates. PMID:24215381

  2. Human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescents in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Natasha L; Weiss, Paul; Gargano, Lisa M; Seib, Katherine; Rask, Kimberly J; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage for adolescent females and males remains low in the United States. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011-2013 to determine the effect of 2 educational interventions used to increase adolescent vaccination coverage for the 4 recommended adolescent vaccines: Tdap, MCV4, HPV and influenza. As part of this RCT, this article focuses on: 1) describing initiation and completion of HPV vaccine series among a diverse population of male and female adolescents; 2) assessing parental attitudes toward HPV vaccine; and 3) examining correlates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. Parental attitude score was the strongest predictor of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.39). Other correlates that significantly predicted HPV series initiation were gender, study year, and intervention arm. Parental attitudes remained a significant predictor of receipt of 3 doses of HPV vaccine along with gender, race, school type and insurance type. This study demonstrates that positive parental attitudes are important predictors of HPV vaccination and critical to increasing coverage rates. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to understand how parental attitudes are developed and evolve over time. PMID:25912372

  3. Human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescents in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Natasha L; Weiss, Paul; Gargano, Lisa M; Seib, Katherine; Rask, Kimberly J; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage for adolescent females and males remains low in the United States. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011–2013 to determine the effect of 2 educational interventions used to increase adolescent vaccination coverage for the 4 recommended adolescent vaccines: Tdap, MCV4, HPV and influenza. As part of this RCT, this article focuses on: 1) describing initiation and completion of HPV vaccine series among a diverse population of male and female adolescents; 2) assessing parental attitudes toward HPV vaccine; and 3) examining correlates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. Parental attitude score was the strongest predictor of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.39). Other correlates that significantly predicted HPV series initiation were gender, study year, and intervention arm. Parental attitudes remained a significant predictor of receipt of 3 doses of HPV vaccine along with gender, race, school type and insurance type. This study demonstrates that positive parental attitudes are important predictors of HPV vaccination and critical to increasing coverage rates. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to understand how parental attitudes are developed and evolve over time. PMID:25912372

  4. 78 FR 52535 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK14-001, initial... evaluation of applications received in response to ``Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in...

  5. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  6. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  7. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  8. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  9. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  10. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... The best way to prevent it is through vaccinations. The childhood vaccine is called DTaP. The whooping ...

  11. Directed vaccination against pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H

    2016-06-21

    Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071

  12. Rabies virus-based vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies, poly-functional CD8+ T cell, and protect rhesus macaques from AIDS-like disease after SIV(mac251) challenge.

    PubMed

    Faul, Elizabeth J; Aye, Pyone P; Papaneri, Amy B; Pahar, Bapi; McGettigan, James P; Schiro, Faith; Chervoneva, Inna; Montefiori, David C; Lackner, Andrew A; Schnell, Matthias J

    2009-12-11

    Highly attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine vectors were evaluated for their ability to protect against highly pathogenic SIV(mac251) challenge. Mamu-A*01 negative rhesus macaques were immunized in groups of four with either: RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, a combination of RV expressing SIV(mac239)-Env and RV expressing SIV(mac239)-GagPol, or with empty RV vectors. Eight weeks later animals received a booster immunization with a heterologous RV expressing the same antigens. At 12 weeks post-boost, all animals were challenged intravenously with 100 TCID(50) of pathogenic SIV(mac251-CX). Immunized macaques in both vaccine groups had 1.3-1.6-log-fold decrease in viral set point compared to control animals. The GagPol/Env immunized animals also had a significantly lower peak viral load. When compared to control animals following challenge, vaccinated macaques had a more rapid induction of SIV(mac251) neutralizing antibodies and of CD8(+) T cell responses to various SIV epitopes. Moreover, vaccinated macaques better maintained peripheral memory CD4(+) T cells and were able to mount a poly-functional CD8(+) T cell response in the mucosa. These findings indicate promise for RV-based vectors and have important implications for the development of an efficacious HIV vaccine. PMID:19879223

  13. Promoting Vaccine Confidence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy incorporates a wide range of parental attitudes and behaviors surrounding vaccines. Ironically, the very success of the immunization program has fueled vaccine concerns; because vaccine-preventable diseases are no longer prevalent, attention has shifted to the safety and necessity of vaccines themselves. This article reviews some of the underlying themes of vaccine hesitancy as well as specific vaccine safety concerns. Strategies for discussing vaccines with concerned parents are also discussed. PMID:26337737

  14. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:25109229

  15. An HIV vaccine: how and when?

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, J.

    2001-01-01

    The best long-term hope for controlling the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic is a safe, effective and affordable preventive vaccine, but its development has encountered unprecedented scientific challenges. The first phase I trial of an HIV vaccine was conducted in 1987. Subsequently, more than 30 candidate vaccines have been tested in over 60 phase I/II trials, involving approximately 10 000 healthy volunteers. Most of these trials have been conducted in the USA and Europe, but several have also been conducted in developing countries. The first phase III trials began in the USA in 1998 and in Thailand in 1999 to assess the efficacy of the first generation of HIV vaccines (based on the HIV envelope protein, gp120); the results will be available within the next 1-2 years. To accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine, additional candidate vaccines must be evaluated in parallel in both industrialized and developing countries. This will require international collaboration and coordination and critical ethical issues will need to be addressed. To ensure that future HIV vaccines contribute to the overall HIV/AIDS prevention effort, we should begin planning now on how best to use them. PMID:11799445

  16. A Small Dose of HIV? HIV Vaccine Mental Models and Risk Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Peter A.; Seiden, Danielle S.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Kakinami, Lisa; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    Existing knowledge and beliefs related to HIV vaccines provide an important basis for the development of risk communication messages to support future HIV vaccine dissemination. This study explored HIV vaccine mental models among adults from segments of the population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Nine focus groups were conducted with…

  17. Clinical experience with respiratory syncytial virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Pedro A

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is at times associated with life-threatening lower respiratory tract illness in infancy. Severe infection during the first year of life may be an important risk factor or indicator for the development of asthma in early childhood. Severe infections primarily occur in healthy infants, and young infants and children with specific risk factors. However, RSV causes respiratory infections in all age groups. Indeed it is now recognized that RSV disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. RSV infection remains difficult to treat, and prevention is a worldwide goal. For this reason there has been an intensive effort to develop an effective and safe RSV vaccine. Initial infection with RSV affords limited protection to reinfection, yet repeated episodes decrease the risk for lower respiratory tract illness. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1980, trials of several candidate RSV vaccines failed to attain the desired safety and protection against natural infection. Some vaccine types either failed to elicit immunogenicity, as with the live subcutaneous vaccine, or resulted in exaggerated disease on natural exposure to the virus, as with the formalin-inactivated (FI) type. Currently vaccine candidates are being developed based on the molecular virology of RSV. Recent formulations of candidate RSV vaccines have focused on subunit vaccines [such as purified fusion protein (PFP)], subunit vaccines combined with nonspecific immune activating adjuvants, live attenuated vaccines (including cold passaged, temperature-sensitive or cpts mutants), genetically engineered live attenuated vaccines and polypeptide vaccines. PMID:12671459

  18. Survey of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination in Pregnancy: Education, Knowledge, and Barriers to Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fay, Emily E; Hoppe, Kara K; Schulkin, Jay; Eckert, Linda O

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination. Methods. We administered a 22-question survey to OB/GYN residents about maternal pneumococcal vaccination. We performed descriptive analysis for each question. Results. 238 OB/GYN residents responded. Overall, 69.3% of residents reported receiving vaccination education and 86.0% reported having ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. Most residents knew that asplenia (78.2%), pulmonary disease (77.3%), and HIV/AIDS (69.4%) are indications for vaccination but less knew that cardiovascular disease (45.0%), diabetes (35.8%), asthma (42.8%), nephrotic syndrome (19.7%), and renal failure (33.6%) are also indications for vaccination. Conclusion. OB/GYN residents are taught about vaccines and have ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. However, knowledge of indications for pneumococcal vaccination in pregnancy is lacking. Likely, the opportunity to vaccinate at-risk pregnant patients is being missed. PMID:26949324

  19. Survey of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination in Pregnancy: Education, Knowledge, and Barriers to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Emily E.; Hoppe, Kara K.; Schulkin, Jay; Eckert, Linda O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination. Methods. We administered a 22-question survey to OB/GYN residents about maternal pneumococcal vaccination. We performed descriptive analysis for each question. Results. 238 OB/GYN residents responded. Overall, 69.3% of residents reported receiving vaccination education and 86.0% reported having ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. Most residents knew that asplenia (78.2%), pulmonary disease (77.3%), and HIV/AIDS (69.4%) are indications for vaccination but less knew that cardiovascular disease (45.0%), diabetes (35.8%), asthma (42.8%), nephrotic syndrome (19.7%), and renal failure (33.6%) are also indications for vaccination. Conclusion. OB/GYN residents are taught about vaccines and have ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. However, knowledge of indications for pneumococcal vaccination in pregnancy is lacking. Likely, the opportunity to vaccinate at-risk pregnant patients is being missed. PMID:26949324

  20. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  1. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  2. Cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients’ immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes. PMID:25904595

  3. The impact of new technologies on vaccines.

    PubMed

    Talwar, G P; Diwan, M; Razvi, F; Malhotra, R

    1999-01-01

    Vast changes are taking place in vaccinology consequent to the introduction of new technologies. Amongst the vaccines included in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), the pertussis vaccine has been replaced by acellular purified fractions devoid of side-effects. Non-pathogenic but immunogenic mutants of tetanus and diptheria toxins are likely to replace the toxoids. An effective vaccine against hepatitis B prepared by recombinant technology is in large-scale use. Conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae b, S. pneumococcus and meningococcus are now available, as also vaccines against mumps, rubella and measles. Combination vaccines have been devised to limit the number of injections. Vaccine delivery systems have been developed to deliver multiple doses of the vaccine at a single contact point. A genetically-engineered oral vaccine for typhoid imparts better and longer duration of immunity. Oral vaccines for cholera and other enteric infections are under clinical trials. The nose as a route for immunization is showing promise for mucosal immunity and for anti-inflammatory experimental vaccines against multiple sclerosis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The range of vaccines has expanded to include pathogens resident in the body such as Helicobacter pylori (duodenal ulcer), S. mutans (dental caries), and human papilloma virus (carcinoma of the cervix). An important progress is the recognition that DNA alone can constitute the vaccines, inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A large number of DNA vaccines have been made and shown interesting results in experimental animals. Live recombinant vaccines against rabies and rinderpest have proven to be highly effective for controlling these infections in the field, and those for AIDS are under clinical trial. Potent adjuvants have added to the efficacy of the vaccines. New technologies have emerged to 'humanize' mouse monoclonals by genetic engineering and express these

  4. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p<0.05), negative experiences with health care providers (p<0.05) and anticipated difficulties procuring insurance (p<0.01). Men were concerned that the vaccine would weaken the immune system (p<0.005) or would affect their HIV test results (p<0.05). Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p<0.10) and support from their spouse/significant other for being vaccinated (p<0.10). Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p<0.05) and social influence from friends to get vaccinated (p<0.005). Family support for HIV immunization was a motivator for both men and women (p<0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears

  5. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  6. Revolutionising the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

    2011-01-01

    Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

  7. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease. PMID:26350598

  8. AIDS: Are Children at Risk? ERIC Digest 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    Lack of knowledge and misinformation about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a fatal disease with no cure or vaccine, has caused widespread public concern. Education is an effective way to reduce fears and prevent the spread of the disease. Public school personnel must have accurate information about AIDS in order to make suitable…

  9. HIV-1 Vaccine Trials: Evolving Concepts and Designs

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Missa P; De Groot, Anne S; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    An effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is needed to eradicate the HIV/AIDS pandemic but designing such a vaccine is a challenge. Despite many advances in vaccine technology and approaches to generate both humoral and cellular immune responses, major phase-II and -III vaccine trials against HIV/AIDS have resulted in only moderate successes. The modest achievement of the phase-III RV144 prime-boost trial in Thailand re-emphasized the importance of generating robust humoral and cellular responses against HIV. While antibody-directed approaches are being pursued by some groups, others are attempting to develop vaccines targeting cell-mediated immunity, since evidence show CTLs to be important for the control of HIV replication. Phase-I and -IIa multi-epitope vaccine trials have already been conducted with vaccine immunogens consisting of known CTL epitopes conserved across HIV subtypes, but have so far fallen short of inducing robust and consistent anti-HIV CTL responses. The concepts leading to the development of T-cell epitope-based vaccines, the outcomes of related clinical vaccine trials and efforts to enhance the immunogenicity of cell-mediated approaches are summarized in this review. Moreover, we describe a novel approach based on the identification of SIV and FIV antigens which contain conserved HIV-specific T-cell epitopes and represent an alternative method for developing an effective HIV vaccine against global HIV isolates. PMID:23289052

  10. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Risk Factors, Vaccination Patterns, and Vaccine Perceptions among a Sample of Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…

  11. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  12. 12th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    The 12th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research, hosted by the National Foundation for Infectious Disease, attracted approximately 450 leaders in the fields of epidemiology, health economics, immunology and vaccinology, making it the largest scientific meeting devoted exclusively to vaccine research and technology. The conference highlighted recent issues in vaccine safety, including the history and design of a vaccine for rotavirus. Other topics included discussions of the synergies between veterinary and human vaccine development, updates on the development of vaccines for tuberculosis and malaria, and a comprehensive overview of immunization initiatives and goals for extending coverage of new and underused vaccines. Keynote remarks were provided by David Salisbury (Department of Health, London, UK) who outlined the aims and objectives of the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), an agenda created by the WHO and UNICEF. Salisbury highlighted the four primary aims of GIVS: immunize more people against more diseases, introduce a range of newly available vaccines and technologies, integrate other critical health interventions with immunization, and manage vaccination programs within the context of global interdependence. The GIVS initiative spans the time period of 2006-2015. PMID:19722886

  13. Rabies Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... and booster doses should be given as needed. (Testing or booster doses are not recommended for travelers.) Ask your doctor for details. Vaccination After an Exposure:Anyone who has been bitten by an animal, or who otherwise may have been exposed to ...

  14. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  15. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  16. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... it while traveling. Typhoid strikes about 21 million people a year around the world and kills about 200,000. ... booster dose is needed every 2 years for people who remain at risk. Live typhoid vaccine (oral)Four doses: one capsule every other day for a week (day 1, day 3, day ...

  17. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the world. It would only take one person infected with polio virus coming from another country to bring the ... However, any medicine could cause a serious side effect, such as a severe allergic reaction or even death. The risk of polio vaccine causing serious harm is extremely small.

  18. Replicating vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  19. Weight and Lean Body Mass Change with Antiretroviral Initiation and Impact on Bone Mineral Density: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5224s

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Kristine Mace; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Tebas, Pablo; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; Jahed, Nasreen C.; Mccomsey, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have on weight, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Methods A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naïve participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). All subjects underwent dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal CT for body composition. Analyses used 2-sample t-tests and linear regression. Results A5224s included 269 subjects: 85% male, 47% white non-Hispanic, median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 233 cells/µL. Overall, significant gains occurred in weight, BMI, and LBM at 96 weeks post randomization (all p<0.001). Assignment to ATV/r (vs EFV) resulted in significantly greater weight (mean difference 3.35 kg) and BMI gain (0.88 kg/m2; both p=0.02), but not LBM (0.67 kg; p=0.15), while ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC were not significantly different (p≥0.10). In multivariable analysis, only lower baseline CD4 count and higher HIV-1 RNA were associated with greater increase in weight, BMI, or LBM. In multivariable analyses, increased LBM was associated with an increased hip BMD. Conclusions ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC did not differ in change in weight, BMI, or LBM; ATV/r vs. EFV resulted in greater weight and BMI gain but not LBM. A positive association between increased LBM and increased hip BMD should be further investigated through prospective interventional studies to verify the impact of increased LBM on hip BMD. PMID:24384588

  20. Mucosal immunity and protection against HIV/SIV infection: strategies and challenges for vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Demberg, Thorsten; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    To date most HIV vaccine strategies have focused on parenteral immunization and systemic immunity. These approaches have not yielded the efficacious HIV vaccine urgently needed to control the AIDS pandemic. As HIV is primarily mucosally transmitted, efforts are being refocused on mucosal vaccine strategies, in spite of complexities of immune response induction and evaluation. Here we outline issues in mucosal vaccine design and illustrate strategies with examples from the recent literature. Development of a successful HIV vaccine will require in depth understanding of the mucosal immune system, knowledge that ultimately will benefit vaccine design for all mucosally transmitted infectious agents. PMID:19241252

  1. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  2. Polyionic vaccine adjuvants: another look at aluminum salts and polyelectrolytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvants improve the adaptive immune response to a vaccine antigen by modulating innate immunity or facilitating transport and presentation. The selection of an appropriate adjuvant has become vital as new vaccines trend toward narrower composition, expanded application, and improved safety. Functionally, adjuvants act directly or indirectly on antigen presenting cells (APCs) including dendritic cells (DCs) and are perceived as having molecular patterns associated either with pathogen invasion or endogenous cell damage (known as pathogen associated molecular patterns [PAMPs] and damage associated molecular patterns [DAMPs]), thereby initiating sensing and response pathways. PAMP-type adjuvants are ligands for toll-like receptors (TLRs) and can directly affect DCs to alter the strength, potency, speed, duration, bias, breadth, and scope of adaptive immunity. DAMP-type adjuvants signal via proinflammatory pathways and promote immune cell infiltration, antigen presentation, and effector cell maturation. This class of adjuvants includes mineral salts, oil emulsions, nanoparticles, and polyelectrolytes and comprises colloids and molecular assemblies exhibiting complex, heterogeneous structures. Today innovation in adjuvant technology is driven by rapidly expanding knowledge in immunology, cross-fertilization from other areas including systems biology and materials sciences, and regulatory requirements for quality, safety, efficacy and understanding as part of the vaccine product. Standardizations will aid efforts to better define and compare the structure, function and safety of adjuvants. This article briefly surveys the genesis of adjuvant technology and then re-examines polyionic macromolecules and polyelectrolyte materials, adjuvants currently not known to employ TLR. Specific updates are provided for aluminum-based formulations and polyelectrolytes as examples of improvements to the oldest and emerging classes of vaccine adjuvants in use. PMID:25648619

  3. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites

  4. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  5. Evidence-based decision-making for vaccine introductions: Overview of the ProVac International Working Group’s experience

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Barbara; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Janusz, Cara Bess; Blau, Julia; Munier, Aline; Atherly, Deborah; Mvundura, Mercy; Hajjeh, Rana; Lopman, Benjamin; Clark, Andrew David; Baxter, Louise; Hutubessy, Raymond; de Quadros, Ciro; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pan American Health Organization’s (PAHO) ProVac Initiative aims to strengthen countries’ technical capacity to make evidence-based immunization policy. With financial support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PAHO established the ProVac International Working Group (IWG), a platform created for two years to transfer the ProVac Initiative’s tools and methods to support decisions in non-PAHO regions. Methods In 2011, WHO Regional Offices and partner agencies established the IWG to transfer the ProVac framework for new vaccine decision support, including tools and trainings to other regions of the world. During the two year period, PAHO served as the coordinating secretariat and partner agencies played implementing or advisory roles. Results Fifty nine national professionals from 17 countries received training on the use of economic evaluations to aid vaccine policy making through regional workshops. The IWG provided direct technical support to nine countries to develop cost-effectiveness analyses to inform decisions. All nine countries introduced the new vaccine evaluated or their NITAGs have made a recommendation to the Ministry of Health to introduce the new vaccine. Discussion Developing countries around the world are increasingly interested in weighing the potential health impact due to new vaccine introduction against the investments required. During the two years, the ProVac approach proved valuable and timely to aid the national decision making processes, even despite the different challenges and idiosyncrasies encountered in each region. The results of this work suggest that: (1) there is great need and demand for technical support and for capacity building around economic evaluations; and (2) the ProVac method of supporting country-owned analyses is as effective in other regions as it has been in the PAHO region. Conclusion Decision support for new vaccine introduction in low- and middle-income countries is critical to guiding

  6. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nanagas, Vivian C.; Stolfi, Adrienne; Nanagas, Maria T.; Eberhart, Gregory M.; Alter, Sherman J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1) uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice. PMID:27336012

  7. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  8. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  9. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of Vaccine ... PRETEENS Vaccines You Need ...

  10. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts. PMID:3781857

  11. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

  12. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  13. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  14. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Barcodes Related Link Vaccines & Immunizations Your Child's First Vaccines Format: Select one PDF [335 KB] RTF [260 ... child will get one or more of these vaccines today: DTaP Hib Hepatitis B Polio PCV13 Why ...

  15. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy, please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot) during Pregnancy ( http: / / mothertobaby. org/ fact- sheets/ seasonal- influenza- vaccine- flu- shot- pregnancy/ pdf/ ). Nasal spray flu vaccines ...

  16. Vaccinations and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do not measure your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied ... live” vaccination in the past 2 or 3 weeks. Still, the “MMR” vaccine against measles, mumps and ...

  17. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccine called MMRV, which contains both chickenpox and MMR vaccines, may be given instead of the two individual ... like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  18. Vaccines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HBV) during pregnancy Vaccination and Pregnancy Resources, journal articles, more sources, etc., from Immunization Action Coalition Video: "Vaccines and Your Baby" (26:41 min) Vaccine Education Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, November 2002 Also ...

  19. Vaccine refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    McColloster, Patrick J; Martin-de-Nicolas, Andres

    2014-01-01

    This commentary reviews recent changes in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) vaccine storage guidelines that were developed in response to an investigative report by the Office of the Inspector General. The use of temperature data loggers with probes residing in glycol vials is advised along with storing vaccines in pharmaceutical refrigerators. These refrigerators provide good thermal distribution but can warm to 8 °C in less than one hour after the power is discontinued. Consequently, electric grid instability influences appropriate refrigerator selection and the need for power back-up. System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) values quantify this instability and can be used to formulate region-specific guidelines. A novel aftermarket refrigerator regulator with a battery back-up power supply and microprocessor control system is also described. PMID:24442209

  20. Rotavirus Vaccine -- Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... to these vaccines. The infant's immune response to influenza vaccine administered at the same time as rotavirus vaccine ... previously that an inactivated vaccine (e.g., inactivated influenza vaccine) may be administered either simultaneously or at any ...

  1. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  2. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic

  3. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of first-ever Dengue vaccine candidate in Phase 3 Agenus‘ brain cancer vaccine doubles survival rate in GBM patients New study: Rotavirus vaccines dramatically cut hospitalization rates in US children Therapeutic vaccines – from heart disease to cancer Agenus‘ genital herpes vaccine significantly reduces viral burden in Phase 2 The latest on PaxVax‘ and Gotovax AB’s cholera vaccine candidates ACIP ponders recommendation for Prevnar use in seniors PMID:25424916

  4. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

  5. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic immunotherapy reduces the size of melanoma tumors in phase 3 trial EV71 vaccine protects children against HFMD Influenza vaccination important for risk groups Bharat‘s rotavirus vaccine is safe and modestly efficacious Successfully avoiding the cold-chain for vaccines FDA approval for Stallergenes’ sublingual grass pollen allergy immunotherapy HPV vaccination campaign could change from three to two doses in the UK Valneva continues phase 2/3 trial of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine PMID:25290656

  6. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527

  7. Immunity to Haemonchus contortus and Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A J; Meeusen, E N; González, J F; Piedrafita, D M

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are capable of developing protective immunity to Haemonchus contortus through repeated exposure to this parasite, although this immune protection is the result of a complex interaction among age, gender, physiological status, pregnancy, lactation, nutrition and innate and adaptive immunity in the host animal. There are multiple effectors of the protective immune response, which differ depending on the developmental stage of the parasite being targeted, and our understanding of the effector mechanisms has developed considerably in the 2000s. The rational design of vaccines based on 'natural' or 'exposed' antigens depends on an understanding of this exposure-induced immunity. However, the most effective current vaccines rely on protection via the induction of high circulating antibody levels to 'hidden' gut antigens of H. contortus. The success of this latter strategy has resulted in the launch of a vaccine, which is based on extracts of the parasite's gut, to aid in the control of Haemonchus in Australia. The development of recombinant subunit vaccines based on the components of the successful native vaccine has not yet been achieved and most of the recent successes with recombinant subunit vaccines have focussed on antigens unrelated to the gut antigens. The future integration of an understanding of the immunobiology of this parasite with advances in antigen identification, expression (or synthesis) and presentation is likely to be pivotal to the further development of these recombinant subunit vaccines. Recent progress in each of the components underpinning this integrated approach is summarized in this review. PMID:27238008

  8. New Vaccines for the World's Poorest People.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The 2000 Millennium Development Goals helped stimulate the development of life-saving childhood vaccines for pneumococcal and rotavirus infections while greatly expanding coverage of existing vaccines. However, there remains an urgent need to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as for respiratory syncytial virus and those chronic and debilitating (mostly parasitic) infections known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The NTDs represent the most common diseases of people living in extreme poverty and are the subject of this review. The development of NTD vaccines, including those for hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, is being led by nonprofit product development partnerships (PDPs) working in consortia of academic and industrial partners, including vaccine manufacturers in developing countries. NTD vaccines face unique challenges with respect to their product development and manufacture, as well as their preclinical and clinical testing. We emphasize global efforts to accelerate the development of NTD vaccines and some of the hurdles to ensuring their availability to the world's poorest people. PMID:26356803

  9. A social vaccine? Social and structural contexts of HIV vaccine acceptability among most-at-risk populations in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter A; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon; Yim, Suzy; Walisser, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    A safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccine would be a tremendous asset for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, which bear the greatest global impact of AIDS. Nevertheless, substantial gaps between clinical trial efficacy and real-world effectiveness of already licensed vaccines demonstrate that availability does not guarantee uptake. In order to advance an implementation science of HIV vaccines centred on LMIC settings, we explored sociocultural and structural contexts of HIV vaccine acceptability among most-at-risk populations in Thailand, the site of the largest HIV vaccine trial ever conducted. Cross-cutting challenges for HIV vaccine uptake - social stigma, discrimination in healthcare settings and out-of-pocket vaccine cost - emerged in addition to population-specific barriers and opportunities. A 'social vaccine' describes broad sociocultural and structural interventions - culturally relevant vaccine promotion galvanised by communitarian norms, mitigating anti-gay, anti-injecting drug user and HIV-related stigma, combating discrimination in healthcare, decriminalising adult sex work and injecting drug use and providing vaccine cost subsidies - that create an enabling environment for HIV vaccine uptake among most-at-risk populations. By approaching culturally relevant social and structural interventions as integral mechanisms to the success of new HIV prevention technologies, biomedical advances may be leveraged in renewed opportunities to promote and optimise combination prevention. PMID:22780324

  10. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Edemikpong, N B

    1990-01-01

    While the origin of the AIDS virus remains controversial, it is indisputable that AIDS is spreading worldwide. By June 1987, the World Health Organization estimated that 50 million Africans were infected with HIV and that the disease was epidemic in many parts of the continent. However, African governments chose to deny the threat of the disease. The AIDS crisis has diverted resources from other vital areas of disease prevention, health promotion, and research. Whereas AIDS is spread in developed nations by sexual promiscuity, by drug addicts sharing unclean hypodermic needles, and by homosexual behavior, in Africa cultural factors contribute to the transmission of AIDS. Female genital mutilation leads to extensive laceration of the female genitals upon initiation of sexual intercourse and/or to substitution of anal sex during the weeks and months before vaginal penetration can be achieved. In addition, the reuse of the same knives during the mutilation can spread HIV infection. Other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in Africa include the patriarchal practice of polygamy, the subordinate position of women that makes them unable to insist on protection during intercourse, and a failure to screen blood used in transfusions. With all of these risk factors at play, women at the grassroots level must be equipped with the health education that is the only available tool to fight AIDS. Women's organizations can provide information and education to people at risk of acquiring HIV, counsel infected persons, ensure the safety of the blood supply, and work to overcome harmful traditional practices. PMID:12317073

  11. Chapter 14: HPV vaccine introduction in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Van Damme, Pierre; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Meheus, André

    2006-08-31

    Introduction of a vaccine requires the achievement of three initial milestones. These are licensure by a national control authority that determines the vaccine is safe and effective, development of recommendations for use by expert advisory bodies on immunization, and obtaining funding for vaccination. Once these milestones have been achieved, a successful vaccination program requires that a number of interlinked programmatic components be brought together in a coordinated fashion. These include vaccine purchase and supply, vaccination service delivery, high coverage rates, surveillance of the vaccination program, immunization finance policies and practices, and political will. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination provides unique challenges in all of these areas because of the many gaps in our knowledge. PMID:16949999

  12. Rabies DNA vaccines for protection and therapeutic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2003-07-01

    DNA vaccines have shown efficacy in preclinical animal models in preventing or even treating a variety of diseases caused by infectious agents, malignancies or immunological disorders. One of the main perceived advantages of DNA vaccines for use in less developed countries is their low cost. Nevertheless, in general, immune responses elicited by DNA vaccines are less potent than those induced by traditional vaccines or second generation viral recombinant vaccines, and their efficacy in human Phase I trials has been disappointing. DNA vaccines have shown good efficacy in preventing rabies in some experimental animal models; their performance in postexposure treatment has been less impressive. Considering that rabies is nearly always fatal, efficacious vaccines are available and treatment in most cases is initiated after exposure, the development of current DNA vaccines to rabies for use in humans is, at the current time, not appropriate. PMID:12831368

  13. Cost effectiveness and delivery study for future HIV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barth-Jones, D C; Cheng, H; Kang, L Y; Kenya, Patrick R; Odera, D; Mosqueira, N R; Mendoza, W; Portela, M C; Brito, C; Tangcharoensathien, V; Akaleephan, C; Supantamart, S; Patcharanarumol, W; de Macedo Brigido, L F; Fonseca, M G P; Sanchez, M; Chang, M-L; Osmanov, S; Avrett, S; Esparza, J; Griffiths, U

    2005-09-01

    Research teams from five countries, Brazil, China, Kenya, Peru and Thailand, have initiated a policy-maker survey on vaccine delivery, cost studies for future HIV vaccination programmes, and associated simulation modeling exercises analysing the relative cost-effectiveness of potential HIV vaccination strategies. The survey assesses challenges and opportunities for future country-level HIV vaccination strategies, providing data on the vaccine characteristics (e.g. vaccine efficacies for susceptibility, infectiousness and disease progression) and vaccination programme strategies to be considered in the cost-effectiveness modeling analyses. The study will provide decision-makers with modeling data on vaccination policy considerations that will assist in developing country-level capacities for future HIV vaccine policy adoption and effective delivery systems, and will help delineate the long-term financial requirements for sustainable HIV vaccination programmes. The WHO-UNAIDS HIV Vaccine Initiative and the collaborating researchers welcome comments or questions from policy makers, health professionals and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors about this effort to help advance policy and capacity related to future potential HIV vaccines. PMID:16103763

  14. Evaluation of an Intervention Providing HPV Vaccine in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Brenda W.; Panozzo, Catherine A.; Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Whitesell, Dianne H.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To conduct outcome and process evaluations of school-located HPV vaccination clinics in partnership with a local health department. Methods Temporary clinics provided the HPV vaccine to middle school girls in Guilford County, North Carolina, in 2009–2010. Results HPV vaccine initiation was higher among girls attending host schools than satellite schools (6% vs. 1%, OR = 6.56, CI = 3.99–10.78). Of the girls who initiated HPV vaccine, 80% received all 3 doses. Private insurance or federal programs paid for most vaccine doses. Conclusions Lessons learned for creating more effective school-health department partnerships include focusing on host schools and delivering several vaccines to adolescents, not just HPV vaccine alone. PMID:24034684

  15. Modeling HIV Vaccines in Brazil: Assessing the Impact of a Future HIV Vaccine on Reducing New Infections, Mortality and Number of People Receiving ARV

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Maria Goretti P.; Forsythe, Steven; Menezes, Alexandre; Vuthoori, Shilpa; Possas, Cristina; Veloso, Valdiléa; de Fátima Lucena, Francisca; Stover, John

    2010-01-01

    Background The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios. Methods and Findings The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15–49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections. Conclusions Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial. PMID:20668523

  16. Understanding HPV vaccine uptake among Cambodian American girls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Victoria M; Burke, Nancy J; Ko, Linda K; Sos, Channdara; Liu, Qi; Do, H Hoai; Talbot, Jocelyn; Yasui, Yutaka; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates vary substantially among racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US) with women of Southeast Asian descent having the highest rates. Up to 70 % of cervical cancers could be prevented by widespread use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, there is a lack of information about HPV vaccine uptake among Southeast Asian girls in the US. We conducted a telephone survey of Cambodian women with daughters who were age-eligible for HPV vaccination. Survey items addressed HPV vaccination barriers, facilitators and uptake. Our study group included 86 Cambodian mothers who lived in the Seattle metropolitan area. The proportions of survey participants who reported their daughter had initiated and completed the HPV vaccine series were only 29 and 14 %, respectively. Higher levels of vaccine uptake were significantly associated with mothers having heard about the HPV vaccine from a health professional and having received a recent Pap test. Commonly cited barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of knowledge about the HPV vaccine, not having received a physician recommendation for HPV vaccination and thinking the HPV vaccine is unnecessary in the absence of health problems. Linguistically and culturally appropriate HPV educational programs should be developed and implemented in Cambodian American communities. These programs should aim to enhance understanding of disease prevention measures, increase knowledge about the HPV vaccine and empower women to ask their daughter's doctors for HPV vaccination. PMID:24532309

  17. Understanding HPV Vaccine Uptake Among Cambodian American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Ko, Linda K.; Sos, Channdara; Liu, Qi; Do, H. Hoai; Talbot, Jocelyn; Yasui, Yutaka; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates vary substantially among racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US) with women of Southeast Asian descent having the highest rates. Up to 70% of cervical cancers could be prevented by widespread use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, there is a lack of information about HPV vaccine uptake among Southeast Asian girls in the US. We conducted a telephone survey of Cambodian women with daughters who were age-eligible for HPV vaccination. Survey items addressed HPV vaccination barriers, facilitators, and uptake. Our study group included 86 Cambodian mothers who lived in the Seattle metropolitan area. The proportions of survey participants who reported their daughter had initiated and completed the HPV vaccine series were only 29% and 14%, respectively. Higher levels of vaccine uptake were significantly associated with mothers having heard about the HPV vaccine from a health professional and having received a recent Pap test. Commonly cited barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of knowledge about the HPV vaccine, not having received a physician recommendation for HPV vaccination, and thinking the HPV vaccine is unnecessary in the absence of health problems. Linguistically and culturally appropriate HPV educational programs should be developed and implemented in Cambodian American communities. These programs should aim to enhance understanding of disease prevention measures, increase knowledge about the HPV vaccine, and empower women to ask their daughters’ doctors for HPV vaccination. PMID:24532309

  18. Mothers' support for voluntary provision of HPV vaccine in schools.

    PubMed

    Kadis, Jessica A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gottlieb, Sami L; Lee, Morgan R; Reiter, Paul L; Dittus, Patricia J; Brewer, Noel T

    2011-03-21

    HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers' willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all p<.05). The two concerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters' doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support. PMID:21300097

  19. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of vaccine-gene interaction networks. As a test case, we have examined vaccines for Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis in humans and animals. Results The VO-based SciMiner (VO-SciMiner) was developed to incorporate a total of 67 Brucella vaccine terms. A set of rules for term expansion of VO terms were learned from training data, consisting of 90 biomedical articles related to Brucella vaccine terms. VO-SciMiner demonstrated high recall (91%) and precision (99%) from testing a separate set of 100 manually selected biomedical articles. VO-SciMiner indexing exhibited superior performance in retrieving Brucella vaccine-related papers over that obtained with MeSH-based PubMed literature search. For example, a VO-SciMiner search of "live attenuated Brucella vaccine" returned 922 hits as of April 20, 2011, while a PubMed search of the same query resulted in only 74 hits. Using the abstracts of 14,947 Brucella-related papers, VO-SciMiner identified 140 Brucella genes associated with Brucella vaccines. These genes included known protective antigens, virulence factors, and genes closely related to Brucella vaccines. These VO-interacting Brucella genes were significantly over-represented in biological functional categories, including metabolite transport and metabolism, replication and repair, cell wall biogenesis, intracellular trafficking and secretion, posttranslational modification, and chaperones. Furthermore, a comprehensive interaction network of Brucella vaccines and genes were

  20. Global vaccine supply. The increasing role of manufacturers from middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Francis, Donald P; Du, Yu-Ping; Precioso, Alexander R

    2014-09-15

    Hallmarks in the remarkable evolution of vaccines and their application include the eradication of smallpox, the development and delivery of the early childhood vaccines and the emergence of recombinant vaccines initiated by the hepatitis B vaccine. Now we enter a most exciting era as vaccines are increasingly produced and delivered in less developed countries. The results are dramatic decreases in childhood morbidity and mortality around the world. PMID:25110294

  1. Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC).

    PubMed

    Wharton, Melinda; Strikas, Raymond A; Harpaz, Rafael; Rotz, Lisa D; Schwartz, Benjamin; Casey, Christine G; Pearson, Michele L; Anderson, Larry J

    2003-04-01

    This report supplements the 2001 statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (CDC. Vaccinia [smallpox] vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2001. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-10]:1-25). This supplemental report provides recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program in the United States. To facilitate preparedness and response, smallpox vaccination is recommended for persons designated by public health authorities to conduct investigation and follow-up of initial smallpox cases that might necessitate direct patient contact. ACIP recommends that each state and territory establish and maintain > or = 1 smallpox response team. ACIP and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommend that each acute-care hospital identify health-care workers who can be vaccinated and trained to provide direct medical care for the first smallpox patients requiring hospital admission and to evaluate and manage patients who are suspected as having smallpox. When feasible, the first-stage vaccination program should include previously vaccinated health-care personnel to decrease the potential for adverse events. Additionally persons administering smallpox vaccine in this pre-event vaccination program should be vaccinated. Smallpox vaccine is administered by using the multiple-puncture technique with a bifurcated needle, packaged with the vaccine and diluent. According to the product labeling, 2-3 punctures are recommended for primary vaccination and 15 punctures for revaccination. A trace of blood should appear at the vaccination site after 15-20 seconds; if no trace of blood is visible, an additional 3 insertions should be made by using the same bifurcated needle without reinserting the needle into the vaccine vial. If no evidence of vaccine take is apparent after 7 days, the person can be vaccinated again. Optimal infection-control practices and appropriate

  2. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  3. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  4. Dendritic Cell-Targeted Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Lillian; Delamarre, Lélia

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant effort, the development of effective vaccines inducing strong and durable T-cell responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer cells has remained a challenge. The initiation of effector CD8+ T-cell responses requires the presentation of peptides derived from internalized antigen on class I major histocompatibility complex molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) in a process called cross-presentation. A current strategy to enhance the effectiveness of vaccination is to deliver antigens directly to DCs. This is done via selective targeting of antigen using monoclonal antibodies directed against endocytic receptors on the surface of the DCs. In this review, we will discuss considerations relevant to the design of such vaccines: the existence of DC subsets with specialized functions, the impact of the antigen intracellular trafficking on cross-presentation, and the influence of maturation signals received by DCs on the outcome of the immune response. PMID:24910635

  5. Avian influenza vaccination in North America: strategies and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Suarez, D L; Lee, C W; Swayne, D E

    2006-01-01

    Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks when used as part of a comprehensive control programme that includes quarantines, animal movement controls, increased biosecurity, enhanced surveillance, and education. In North America both whole virus killed adjuvanted vaccines and fowlpox recombinant vaccines have been used to aid in the control of AI. The fowlpox recombinant vaccine is licensed in several countries including the United States (U.S.), but it has only been used in the field in Mexico and some Central American countries. The U.S., however, has considerable experience with the use of killed vaccines, primarily in turkeys. In the state of Minnesota in the 1980s and early 1990s, outbreaks of AI in range-reared turkeys were common, and vaccines were used successfully as part of a controlled marketing programme. More recently, several large layer flocks in Connecticut were vaccinated as an alternative to immediate depopulation after an H7N2 low pathogenic AI outbreak. The vaccinated flocks were intensively monitored for virus shed using sentinel birds, dead bird testing, and eventually some serological surveillance using a neuraminidase DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animal) approach. With these successes, vaccination is being considered as a valuable tool in comprehensive AI control strategies. Consideration for matching the vaccine to the field strain should also be considered to provide optimal protection including reduced shedding of virus. Antigenic drift of AI viruses after extended vaccination programmes has been observed in chickens, similar to what has been observed with human influenza viruses. Therefore, periodical evaluation of the vaccine to the field strain is necessary to maintain good protection from clinical disease and virus shedding. PMID:16447502

  6. [On the moral dutifulness of using vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Refolo, P; González-Melado, F J; Di Pietro, M L

    2015-01-01

    People had contradictory opinions on using vaccinations over time: an initial opposition, later large favour and then doubts and perplexities. In recent times, some movements, blogs and associations stigmatize the use of vaccinations and they are increasingly asking to remove mandatory vaccinations in countries where they are active. The impact of the antivaccination campaigns should not be underestimated, considering that, for example, in Italy, due to these campaigns, adhesions to vaccinations are decreasing by 1% per year, and in reference to rubella and measles, adhesions decreased by 25% in some regions of the country. Overcoming the choice between mandatory and recommended vaccinations, the paper deals with the topic of using preventive immunization starting from the concept of "moral dutifulness". PMID:25756259

  7. Biological and clinical developments in melanoma vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marchand, M; Brichard, V; van Baren, N; Coulie, P G

    2001-05-01

    The identification of antigens recognised on human tumours by autologous T-lymphocytes has opened the way for vaccination strategies involving defined tumour antigens. These vaccinations are therapeutic, i.e. they involve patients with detectable disease. Tumour regressions have been observed in a minority of melanoma patients in Phase I/II trials. Some of these regressions have been complete and long lasting. Improving the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines will critically depend on their capacity to trigger a robust immune response, on the development of appropriate methods to monitor these antitumour immune responses to vaccination and on a better understanding of the mechanisms used by tumours to escape immune attack. Finally, the initiation of large randomised Phase III trials will determine the impact of these vaccines on melanoma treatment. PMID:11727521

  8. Targeting dendritic cells for improved HIV-1 vaccines.

    PubMed

    Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Loré, Karin

    2013-01-01

    As dendritic cells (DCs) have the unique capacity to activate antigen-naive T cells they likely play a critical role in eliciting immune responses to vaccines. DCs are therefore being explored as attractive targets for vaccines, but understanding the interaction of DCs and clinically relevant vaccine antigens and adjuvants is a prerequisite. The HIV-1/AIDS epidemic continues to be a significant health problem, and despite intense research efforts over the past 30 years a protective vaccine has not yet been developed. A common challenge in vaccine design is to find a vaccine formulation that best shapes the immune response to protect against and/or control the given pathogen. Here, we discuss the importance of understanding the diversity, anatomical location and function of different human DC subsets in order to identify the optimal target cells for an HIV-1 vaccine. We review human DC interactions with some of the HIV-1 vaccine antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants currently utilized in preclinical and clinical studies. Specifically, the effects of distinctly different vaccine adjuvants in terms of activation of DCs and improving DC function and vaccine efficacy are discussed. The susceptibility and responses of DCs to recombinant adenovirus vectors are reviewed, as well as the strategy of directly targeting DCs by using DC marker-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to an antigen. PMID:22975879

  9. Applications of nanoparticles for DNA based rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Khan, Sajid Umar; Ali, Zeeshan; Yang, Haowen; Liu, Keke; Mao, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis. Most cases occur in developing countries and are transmitted by dogs. The cell culture vaccines as associated with high cost; therefore, have not replaced the unsafe brain-derived vaccines. In the developing countries these brain-derived rabies vaccines still can be seen in action. Moreover, there will be a need for vaccines against rabies-related viruses against which classical vaccines are not always effective. The worldwide incidence of rabies and the inability of currently used vaccination strategies to provide highly potent and cost-effective therapy indicate the need for alternate control strategies. DNA vaccines have emerged as the safest vaccines and best remedy for complicated diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and rabies. A number of recombinant DNA vaccines are now being developed against several diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Therefore, it can be a valuable alternative for the production of cheaper rabies vaccines against its larger spectrum of viruses. In this review we report published data on DNA-based immunization with sequences encoding rabies with special reference to nanotechnology. PMID:24730305

  10. Impact of BRICS' investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market.

    PubMed

    Kaddar, Miloud; Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector's price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS' accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes. PMID:24940018

  11. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  12. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... The hepatitis B vaccination is a non-infectious, vaccine prepared from recombinant yeast cultures, rather than human blood or plasma. There is no risk of contamination from other bloodborne pathogens nor is there any ... from the vaccine. The vaccine must be administered according to the ...

  13. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  14. Development of Toxoplasma gondii vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite T. gondii. Humans and other warm-blooded animals are its hosts. The infection has a worldwide distribution; one-third of the world’s population has been exposed to this parasite. There are three primary ways of transmission: ingesting uncooked meat containing tissue cysts, ingesting food and water contaminated with oocysts from infected cat feces and congenitally. Those particularly at risk of developing clinical illness include pregnant women, given that the parasite can pose a serious threat to the unborn child if the mother becomes infected while pregnant, and immunosuppressed individuals such as tissue transplant subjects, AIDS subjects, those with certain types of cancer and those undergoing certain forms of cancer therapy. Maternal infections early in pregnancy are less likely to be transmitted to the fetus than infections later in pregnancy, but early fetal infections are more likely to be severe than later infections. In the absence of an effective human vaccine, prevention of zoonotic transmission might be the best way to approach the problem of toxoplasmosis and must be done by limiting exposure to oocysts or tissue cysts. Vaccine development to prevent feline oocyst shedding is ongoing, mostly with live vaccines. The S48 strain Toxovax is a live vaccine originally developed for use in sheep, but when used in cats inhibits sexual development of T. gondii. This vaccine is used in sheep to reduce tissue cyst development. The T-263 strain of T. gondii is a live mutant strain designed to reduce or prevent oocyst shedding by cats by developing only partial infection in the feline intestinal tract. PMID:23111123

  15. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  16. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  17. The Evolution of the Meningitis Vaccine Project

    PubMed Central

    Tiffay, Kathleen; Jodar, Luis; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Socquet, Muriel; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was tasked to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa. African public health officials emphasized that a vaccine price of less than US$0.50 per dose was necessary to ensure introduction and sustained use of this new vaccine. Methods. Initially, MVP envisioned partnering with a multinational vaccine manufacturer, but the target price and opportunity costs were problematic and formal negotiations ended in 2002. MVP chose to become a “virtual vaccine company,” and over the next decade managed a network of public–private and public–public partnerships for pharmaceutical development, clinical development, and regulatory submission. MVP supported the transfer of key know-how for the production of group A polysaccharide and a new conjugation method to the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, based in Pune, India. A robust staff structure supported by technical consultants and overseen by advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine would meet all international standards. Results. A robust project structure including a team of technical consultants and 3 advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed by the Drug Controller General of India and prequalified by the World Health Organization in June 2010. The vaccine was introduced in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010. Conclusions. The development, through a public–private partnership, of a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, PsA-TT, offers a new paradigm for the development of vaccines specifically targeting populations in resource-poor countries. PMID:26553666

  18. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. PMID:25620012

  19. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sodium Ganciclovir Harvoni Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine Hepatitis B Vaccine Human Papillomavirus 9 Valent (Types ... 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) Vaccine, Recombinant Human Papillomavirus Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, ...

  20. Harnessing case isolation and ring vaccination to control Ebola.

    PubMed

    Wells, Chad; Yamin, Dan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Wenzel, Natasha; Gaffney, Stephen G; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Fallah, Mosoka; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Altice, Frederick L; Atkins, Katherine E; Galvani, Alison P

    2015-05-01

    As a devastating Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues, non-pharmaceutical control measures including contact tracing, quarantine, and case isolation are being implemented. In addition, public health agencies are scaling up efforts to test and deploy candidate vaccines. Given the experimental nature and limited initial supplies of vaccines, a mass vaccination campaign might not be feasible. However, ring vaccination of likely case contacts could provide an effective alternative in distributing the vaccine. To evaluate ring vaccination as a strategy for eliminating Ebola, we developed a pair approximation model of Ebola transmission, parameterized by confirmed incidence data from June 2014 to January 2015 in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Our results suggest that if a combined intervention of case isolation and ring vaccination had been initiated in the early fall of 2014, up to an additional 126 cases in Liberia and 560 cases in Sierra Leone could have been averted beyond case isolation alone. The marginal benefit of ring vaccination is predicted to be greatest in settings where there are more contacts per individual, greater clustering among individuals, when contact tracing has low efficacy or vaccination confers post-exposure protection. In such settings, ring vaccination can avert up to an additional 8% of Ebola cases. Accordingly, ring vaccination is predicted to offer a moderately beneficial supplement to ongoing non-pharmaceutical Ebola control efforts. PMID:26024528

  1. Harnessing Case Isolation and Ring Vaccination to Control Ebola

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Chad; Yamin, Dan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Wenzel, Natasha; Gaffney, Stephen G.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Fallah, Mosoka; Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Altice, Frederick L.; Atkins, Katherine E.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues, non-pharmaceutical control measures including contact tracing, quarantine, and case isolation are being implemented. In addition, public health agencies are scaling up efforts to test and deploy candidate vaccines. Given the experimental nature and limited initial supplies of vaccines, a mass vaccination campaign might not be feasible. However, ring vaccination of likely case contacts could provide an effective alternative in distributing the vaccine. To evaluate ring vaccination as a strategy for eliminating Ebola, we developed a pair approximation model of Ebola transmission, parameterized by confirmed incidence data from June 2014 to January 2015 in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Our results suggest that if a combined intervention of case isolation and ring vaccination had been initiated in the early fall of 2014, up to an additional 126 cases in Liberia and 560 cases in Sierra Leone could have been averted beyond case isolation alone. The marginal benefit of ring vaccination is predicted to be greatest in settings where there are more contacts per individual, greater clustering among individuals, when contact tracing has low efficacy or vaccination confers post-exposure protection. In such settings, ring vaccination can avert up to an additional 8% of Ebola cases. Accordingly, ring vaccination is predicted to offer a moderately beneficial supplement to ongoing non-pharmaceutical Ebola control efforts. PMID:26024528

  2. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  3. Strategies to contain the spread of AIDS: A review.

    PubMed

    Okpara, R A

    1992-01-01

    An attempt has been made to review the available strategies to contain the spread of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Also options for clinical management of AIDS' patients are summarized. Development and production of a suitable vaccine is the ultimate goal in the attempts to stop the spread of AIDS. This however has been hampered by the continuous replication and mutation of the Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) within the body of an infected person. For now, effective health education is the most realistic method of controlling the spread of AIDS. PMID:1476970

  4. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-07-01

    Recent advances in the development of immunotherapeutic mAbs for cancer New vaccine reduces malaria infection by 72% Bavarian Nordic's cancer immunotherapy shows promise in colorectal cancer Chinese HFMD vaccine shows high efficacy in Phase 3 Two-dose regimen of Merck's Gardasil looks effective Accelerating influenza vaccine development using synthetic biology A key role for gut microbes in vaccination Understanding of and attitudes towards vaccines: a study in teenagers. PMID:23863285

  5. Existing antiviral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Creed, Rosella; Mendoza, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The innovation of vaccines has allowed for one of the greatest advancements in the history of public health. The first of the vaccines have been the antiviral vaccines, in particular the smallpox vaccine that was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796. This article will review vaccination for the following viral diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, rotavirus, rabies, monkeypox, smallpox, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever. PMID:19335723

  6. Countering Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M; Hackell, Jesse M

    2016-09-01

    Immunizations have led to a significant decrease in rates of vaccine-preventable diseases and have made a significant impact on the health of children. However, some parents express concerns about vaccine safety and the necessity of vaccines. The concerns of parents range from hesitancy about some immunizations to refusal of all vaccines. This clinical report provides information about addressing parental concerns about vaccination. PMID:27573088

  7. Financing vaccinations - the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Mark S; Meheus, Filip; Kollipara, Aparna; Hecht, Robert; Cameron, Neil A; Pillay, Yogan; Hanna, Luisa

    2012-09-01

    South Africa provides a useful country case study for financing vaccinations. It has been an early adopter of new vaccinations and has financed these almost exclusively from domestic resources, largely through general taxation. National vaccination policy is determined by the Department of Health, based on advice from a national advisory group on immunisation. Standard health economic criteria of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, affordability and burden of disease are used to assess whether new vaccinations should be introduced. Global guidelines and the advice of local and international experts are also helpful in making the determination to introduce new vaccines. In terms of recent decisions to introduce new vaccines against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus diarrhoea in children, the evidence has proved unequivocal. Universal rollout has been implemented even though this has led to a fivefold increase in national spending on vaccines. The total cost to government remains below 1-1.5% of public expenditures for health, which is viewed by the South African authorities as affordable and necessary given the number of lives saved and morbidity averted. To manage the rapid increase in domestic spending, efforts have been made to scale up coverage over several years, give greater attention to negotiating price reductions and, in some cases, obtain initial donations or frontloaded deliveries to facilitate earlier universal rollout. There has been strong support from a wide range of stakeholders for the early introduction of new generation vaccines. PMID:22939027

  8. Recent advances in synthetic carbohydrate-based human immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyuan; Qin, Chunjun; Hu, Jing; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Yin, Jian

    2016-04-01

    An effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is urgently needed to prevent HIV infection and progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). As glycosylation of viral proteins becomes better understood, carbohydrate-based antiviral vaccines against special viruses have attracted much attention. Significant efforts in carbohydrate synthesis and immunogenicity research have resulted in the development of multiple carbohydrate-based HIV vaccines. This review summarizes recent advances in synthetic carbohydrate-based vaccines design strategies and the applications of these vaccines in the prevention of HIV. PMID:26992403

  9. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but relapse is common without chronic suppressive therapy. Improvements in treatment are needed in coccidioidomycosis. Research is needed to identify preventive strategies for patients at risk. These strategies may include use of prophylactic antifungal therapy or vaccination. PMID:7704892

  10. Vaccines and future global health needs.

    PubMed

    Nossal, G J V

    2011-10-12

    Increased international support for both research into new vaccines and their deployment in developing countries has been evident over the past decade. In particular, the GAVI Alliance has had a major impact in increasing uptake of the six common infant vaccines as well as those against hepatitis B and yellow fever. It further aims to introduce pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines in the near future and several others, including those against human papillomavirus, meningococcal disease, rubella and typhoid not long after that. In addition, there is advanced research into vaccines against malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. By 2030, we may have about 20 vaccines that need to be used in the developing world. Finding the requisite funds to achieve this will pose a major problem. A second and urgent question is how to complete the job of global polio eradication. The new strategic plan calls for completion by 2013, but both pre-eradication and post-eradication challenges remain. Vaccines will eventually become available beyond the field of infectious diseases. Much interesting work is being done in both autoimmunity and cancer. Cutting across disease groupings, there are issues in methods of delivery and new adjuvant formulations. PMID:21893548

  11. Human biomarkers: can they help us to develop a new tuberculosis vaccine?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Helen A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2016-06-01

    The most effective intervention for the control of infectious disease is vaccination. The BCG vaccine, the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) disease, is only partially effective and a new vaccine is urgently needed. Biomarkers can aid the development of new TB vaccines through discovery of immune mechanisms, early assessment of vaccine immunogenicity or vaccine take and identification of those at greatest risk of disease progression for recruitment into smaller, targeted efficacy trials. The ultimate goal, however, remains a biomarker of TB vaccine efficacy that can be used as a surrogate for a TB disease end point and there remains an urgent need for further research in this area. PMID:27203133

  12. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    MedImmune Vaccines (formerly Aviron) has developed a cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine [FluMist] that can be administered by nasal spray. FluMist is the first live virus influenza vaccine and also the first nasally administered vaccine to be marketed in the US. The vaccine will be formulated to contain live attenuated (att) influenza virus reassortants of the strains recommended by the US Public Health Service for each 'flu season. The vaccine is termed cold-adapted (ca) because the virus has been adapted to replicate efficiently at 25 degrees C in the nasal passages, which are below normal body temperature. The strains used in the seasonal vaccine will also be made temperature sensitive (ts) so that their replication is restricted at 37 degrees C (Type B strains) and 39 degrees C (Type A strains). The combined effect of the antigenic properties and the att, ca and ts phenotypes of the influenza strains contained in the vaccine enables the viruses to replicate in the nasopharynx to produce protective immunity. The original formulation of FluMist requires freezer storage throughout distribution. Because many international markets do not have distribution channels well suited to the sale of frozen vaccines, Wyeth and MedImmune are collaborating to develop a second generation, refrigerator-stable, liquid trivalent cold-adapted influenza vaccine (CAIV-T), which is in phase III trials. Initially, the frozen formulation will only be available in the US. For the 2003-2004 season, FluMist will contain A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) (A/Moscow/10/99-like) and B/Hong Kong/330/2001. Aviron was acquired by MedImmune on 15 January 2002. Aviron is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of MedImmune and is called MedImmune Vaccines. Aviron acquired FluMist in March 1995 through a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US NIAID, and a licensing agreement with the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. In June 2000, the CRADA was

  13. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Murray E.; Turnquist, Sue E.; Ilha, Marcia R. S.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L.; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease Integrated Program (JDIP) Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC), and (2) to validate the AMSC Johne's disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis), or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 × 109 CFU divided in two consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate). All kids were necropsied at 13 months post-challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318) do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329) reduced fecal shedding and tissue colonization. PMID

  14. Immunomodulatory vaccines against autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Sela, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Vaccines are for healthy people, to prevent them from becoming ill. Such prophylactic vaccines have been a great success. Therapeutic vaccines become more and more important, especially as life expectancy increases. Efforts to develop vaccines against such diseases as cancer, AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis, Alzheimer disease, and mad cow disease have not yet reached the stage where they can be successfully used on a daily basis. However, significant progress has been made in the realm of autoimmune diseases, resulting (at least in one case) in an immunomodulatory vaccine against multiple sclerosis that was developed in the author's laboratory, and that is in daily use by about 100,000 patients. The drug or therapeutic vaccine against the exacerbating-remitting type of multiple sclerosis is a copolymer of four amino acid residues, denoted Copaxone, which are related to myelin basic protein. This paper discusses Copaxone as well as a candidate immunomodulatory vaccine against myasthenia gravis, a peptide derived from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Copolymer 1 (Cop 1, glatiramer acetate, Copaxone) is a synthetic amino acid random copolymer that is immunologically cross-reactive with myelin basic protein and suppresses experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in several animal species. Cop 1 slows the progression of disability and reduces the relapse rate in exacerbating-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Cop 1 is a potent inducer of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory cells in mice and humans; and Th2 cells are found in both the brains and spinal cords of Cop 1-treated mice and humans. MG and experimental autoimmune MG are T cell-regulated, antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. Two peptides, representing sequences of the human AChR-alpha-subunit, p195-212 and p259-271, are immunodominant T-cell epitopes in MG patients and two strains of mice. Altered peptide ligand, composed of the randomly arranged two single amino acid analogs inhibits in vitro and in vivo MG

  15. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  16. Live Eimeria vaccination success in the face of artificial non-uniform vaccine administration in conventionally reared pullets.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Hafeez, Mian A; Bulfon, Julia; Barta, John R

    2016-01-01

    Live Eimeria vaccines against coccidiosis in poultry initiate immunity using a vaccine dose containing few oocysts; protection is enhanced through subsequent faecal-oral transmission ("cycling") of parasites in the poultry house. Spray-administered Eimeria vaccines can permit wide variations in doses ingested by individual chicks; some chicks may receive no primary vaccination at all. Consequently, protective immunity for the entire flock depends on successful environmental cycling of vaccine progeny. Pullets missing primary vaccination at day of age can become protected from coccidial challenge through cycling of vaccine progeny oocysts from vaccinated (V) cage mates. This study tested whether 40% cage floor coverage (CFC) with a durable material could improve protection against challenge in these "contact-vaccinated" (CV) or successfully V pullets. The six treatment groups tested were CV, V or sham-vaccinated pullets cage-reared on either 0% or 40% CFC. Oocyst output was measured separately for each group for 30 days following vaccine administration. Lesion scores, body weights and total oocyst outputs were measured to quantify protection at 30 days of age against single or mixed Eimeria species challenge infections. Use of 40% CFC to promote low-level oocyst cycling impacted the flock in two ways: (1) more uniform flock immunity was achieved in the 40% CFC (CV similar to V pullets) compared with 0% CFC and (2) protection was enhanced in the 40% CFC compared with the 0% CFC. The use of CFC is an easily adopted means of improving live Eimeria vaccination of caged pullets. PMID:26743571

  17. HIV preventive vaccine research at the ANRS: the lipopeptide vaccine approach.

    PubMed

    Gahery, Hanne; Choppin, Jeannine; Bourgault, Isabelle; Fischer, Elizabeth; Maillère, Bernard; Guillet, Jean-Gèrard

    2005-01-01

    The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA) has been committed to an original programme combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research programme includes upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. In 2004, most researchers believed that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, 15 phase I and II clinical trials have been established with the aim of evaluating the safety of candidate vaccines and their capacity to induce cellular immune responses. The candidate vaccines tested were recombinant canarypox viruses (ALVAC) containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilised alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins). An original strategy, based on the use of lipopeptides, is also under development. These vaccines comprise synthetic fragments of HIV proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches have within a short time allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides. PMID:16128266

  18. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  19. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

  20. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  1. Antibody persistence and T-cell balance: Two key factors confronting HIV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, George K.; DeVico, Anthony L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for a prophylactic AIDS vaccine is ongoing, but it is now clear that the successful vaccine must elicit protective antibody responses. Accordingly, intense efforts are underway to identify immunogens that elicit these responses. Regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection, be it neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, antibody persistence and appropriate T-cell help are significant problems confronting the development of a successful AIDS vaccine. Here, we discuss the evidence illustrating the poor persistence of antibody responses to Env, the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, and the related problem of CD4+ T-cell responses that compromise vaccine efficacy by creating excess cellular targets of HIV-1 infection. Finally, we propose solutions to both problems that are applicable to all Env-based AIDS vaccines regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection. PMID:25349379

  2. Understanding the initiation of B cell signaling through live cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Antibody responses are initiated by the binding of antigens to clonally distributed cell surface B cell receptors (BCRs) that trigger signaling cascades resulting in B cell activation. Using conventional biochemical approaches, the components of the downstream BCR signaling pathways have been described in considerable detail. However, far less is known about the early molecular events by which the binding of antigens to the BCRs initiates BCR signaling. With the recent advent of high-resolution, high-speed, live-cell and single-molecule imaging technologies, these events are just beginning to be elucidated. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of BCR signaling may provide new targets for therapeutics to block dysregulated BCR signaling in systemic autoimmune diseases and in B cell tumors and to aid in the design of protein subunit vaccines. In this chapter we describe the general procedures for using these new imaging techniques to investigate the early events in the initiation of BCR signaling. PMID:22341229

  3. Theory and strategy for Pneumococcal vaccines in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Funatsu, Yohei; Kimizuka, Yoshifumi; Yagi, Kazuma; Asami, Takahiro; Asakura, Takanori; Suzuki, Shoji; Kamo, Testuro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is the fourth-leading cause of death globally, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important causative pathogen. Because the incidence of pneumococcal diseases is likely to increase with the aging society, we should determine an optimal strategy for pneumococcal vaccination. While consensus indicates that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine prevents invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), its effects on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain controversial. Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was released. The latest clinical study (CAPiTA study) showed that PCV13 reduced vaccine-type CAP and IPD. Based on these results, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended initial vaccination with PCV13 for the elderly. Scientific evidence regarding immunosenescence is needed to determine a more ideal vaccination strategy for the elderly with impaired innate and adaptive immunity. Continuing research on the cost effectiveness of new vaccine strategies considering constantly changing epidemiology is also warranted. PMID:26406267

  4. National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition of Intussusception as Injury for Rotavirus Vaccines to the Vaccine Injury Table. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-06-23

    On July 24, 2013, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) published in the Federal Register a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposing changes to the regulations governing the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). Specifically, the Secretary proposed revisions to the Vaccine Injury Table (Table). The basis for this change is consistent with the Secretary's findings that intussusceptions can reasonably be determined in some circumstances to be caused by rotavirus vaccines. The Secretary is now making this amendment to the Table and to the Qualifications and Aids to Interpretation (QAI), described below under Background Information, as proposed in the NPRM. These regulations will apply only to petitions for compensation under the VICP filed after this final rule becomes effective. PMID:26103742

  5. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  6. AIDS: Setting Policy, Educating Employees at Bank of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagel, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how Bank of America has responded to the problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace by devising a comprehensive policy on life-threatening illnesses and initiating an employee education program on AIDS. (CH)

  7. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  8. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

  9. Comparison of Newcastle disease vaccine administered as powder or liquid in relation to the serum antibody response and adverse vaccinal reactions in broilers.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Huyge, K; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; van Eck, J H H

    2015-01-01

    Liquid spray and aerosol mass vaccination of poultry have several drawbacks, such as uncontrolled deposition of vaccine particles in the respiratory tract and vaccine virus inactivation by formation and evaporation of droplets. These may be addressed by using dry powder vaccines with defined particle size distribution targeting the upper (primary vaccination) or the entire respiratory tract (booster vaccination). Therefore, a coarse Newcastle disease (LZ58 strain) powder vaccine was administered to specified pathogen free (SPF) broiler hens to compare the antibody response and adverse vaccinal reactions with those induced by a coarse liquid spray and a fine liquid aerosol. Groups of 40 broilers each housed in isolators were vaccinated at 4 days of age and intratracheally inoculated with Escherichia coli (strain 506) at 11 days of age. Adverse vaccinal reactions were evaluated by measuring body weight gain and mortality between 4 and 11 days of age and between 11 and 18 days of age, and by recording colibacillosis lesions at 18 days of age. The antibody serum response was measured at 18 days of age by the haemagglutination inhibition test. Despite the relative low initial vaccine virus loss and narrow particle size distribution of the powder vaccines in comparison with their liquid counter parts, no significant differences (P > 0.05) regarding adverse vaccinal reactions and antibody response were observed between broilers vaccinated with the powder vaccines or with their liquid counterparts. PMID:25588317

  10. Antibody and cellular immune responses of naïve mares to repeated vaccination with an inactivated equine herpesvirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wagner, B; Goodman, L B; Babasyan, S; Freer, H; Torsteinsdóttir, S; Svansson, V; Björnsdóttir, S; Perkins, G A

    2015-10-13

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) continues to cause severe outbreaks of abortions or myeloencephalopathy in horses despite widely used vaccination. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of frequent vaccination with an inactivated EHV vaccine on immune development in horses. Fifteen EHV-1 naïve mares were vaccinated a total of 5 times over a period of 8 months with intervals of 20, 60, 90 and 60 days between vaccine administrations. Total antibody and antibody isotype responses were evaluated with a new sensitive EHV-1 Multiplex assay to glycoprotein C (gC) and gD for up to 14 months after initial vaccination. Antibodies peaked after the first two vaccine doses and then declined despite a third administration of the vaccine. The fourth vaccine dose was given at 6 months and the gC and gD antibody titers increased again. Mixed responses with increasing gC but decreasing gD antibody values were observed after the fifth vaccination at 8 months. IgG4/7 isotype responses mimicked the total Ig antibody production to vaccination most closely. Vaccination also induced short-lasting IgG1 antibodies to gC, but not to gD. EHV-1-specific cellular immunity induced by vaccination developed slower than antibodies, was dominated by IFN-γ producing T-helper 1 (Th1) cells, and was significantly increased compared to pre-vaccination values after administration of 3 vaccine doses. Decreased IFN-γ production and reduced Th1-cell induction were also observed after the second and fourth vaccination. Overall, repeated EHV vaccine administration did not always result in increasing immunity. The adverse effects on antibody and cellular immunity that were observed here when the EHV vaccine was given in short intervals might in part explain why EHV-1 outbreaks are observed worldwide despite widely used vaccination. The findings warrant further evaluation of immune responses to EHV vaccines to optimize vaccination protocols for different vaccines and horse groups at risk. PMID

  11. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education Programs and Tools VTrckS (Vaccine Tracking System) Immunization Registries (IIS) Vaccines for Children (VFC) Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) Vaccine Management Business Improvement Project (VMBIP) Global Immunizations & Vaccinations Immunization Program ...

  12. Mumps - Vaccine Q and A

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing vaccine, given as combination measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, separated by at least 28 days, are routinely ... been vaccinated should also receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine, but adults who work in healthcare, a school/ ...

  13. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  14. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  15. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  16. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  17. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...

  18. Delivering the promise of the Decade of Vaccines: opportunities and challenges in the development of high quality new vaccines.

    PubMed

    Keith, Jacqueline A; Agostini Bigger, Laetitia; Arthur, Phyllis A; Maes, Edith; Daems, Rutger

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines (DoV) initiative, launched in 2010, has as its mission "to extend, by 2020 and beyond, the full benefits of immunization to all people, regardless of where they are born, who they are, or where they live". Through their life-saving vaccines, the research-based vaccine companies represented by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA) and the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) make a major contribution toward this vision. In this article, we begin by summarizing progress made over the past three decades in research and development (R&D) of new and future vaccines, and identify the opportunities and challenges faced by the research-based vaccine industry. We then review the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) and provide IFPMA and BIO consensus perspectives on its six strategic objectives. Finally, we identify policy measures to support R&D of, and access to, high-quality, innovative vaccines. PMID:23598480

  19. Student Aid Research. A Manual for Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry Sheehan, Ed.

    This manual contains nine articles intended to assist student financial aid professionals in conducting research. Initial chapters provide basic information for those starting to do such research while later chapters deal with more complex issues. Some chapters include appendices that provide examples of the techniques under consideration. from…

  20. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  1. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  2. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  3. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  4. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  5. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... season, 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine is being incorporated into the seasonal vaccine formulation... vaccine provides some protection. The 2010-2011 vaccine provides protection against H1N1 (pandemic.... People who got the 2009 H1N1 vaccine still need to get vaccinated with the 2010-2011 influenza...

  6. Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA): a target for antivirals and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jagadesh, Anitha; Salam, Abdul Ajees Abdul; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2016-08-01

    Influenza, the most common infectious disease, poses a great threat to human health because of its highly contagious nature and fast transmissibility, often leading to high morbidity and mortality. Effective vaccination strategies may aid in the prevention and control of recurring epidemics and pandemics associated with this infectious disease. However, antigenic shifts and drifts are major concerns with influenza virus, requiring effective global monitoring and updating of vaccines. Current vaccines are standardized primarily based on the amount of hemagglutinin, a major surface antigen, which chiefly constitutes these preparations along with the varying amounts of neuraminidase (NA). Anti-influenza drugs targeting the active site of NA have been in use for more than a decade now. However, NA has not been approved as an effective antigenic component of the influenza vaccine because of standardization issues. Although some studies have suggested that NA antibodies are able to reduce the severity of the disease and induce a long-term and cross-protective immunity, a few major scientific issues need to be addressed prior to launching NA-based vaccines. Interestingly, an increasing number of studies have shown NA to be a promising target for future influenza vaccines. This review is an attempt to consolidate studies that reflect the strength of NA as a suitable vaccine target. The studies discussed in this article highlight NA as a potential influenza vaccine candidate and support taking the process of developing NA vaccines to the next stage. PMID:27255748

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiansong; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-05-01

    Following HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the second most deadly infectious disease in humans. The global TB prevalence has become worse in recent years due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) strains, as well as co-infection with HIV. Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has nearly been used for a century in many countries, it does not protect adult pulmonary tuberculosis and even causes disseminated BCG disease in HIV-positive population. It is impossible to use BCG to eliminate the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection or to prevent TB onset and reactivation. Consequently, novel vaccines are urgently needed for TB prevention and immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the TB prevalence, interaction between M. tb and host immune system, as well as recent progress of TB vaccine research and development. PMID:27156616

  8. HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk: conspiracies, questions and confusion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Newman, Peter A; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T

    2005-12-01

    HIV vaccines offer the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. We explored HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk for HIV/AIDS. Participants (N=99; median age=33 years; 48% female; 22% African-American; 44% Latino; 28% white; 6% other) were recruited from seven high-risk venues in Los Angeles, California, using purposive, venue-based sampling. Results from nine focus groups revealed: 1) mixed beliefs and conspiracy theories about the existence of HIV vaccines; 2) hopefulness and doubts about future HIV vaccine availability; 3) lack of information about HIV vaccines; and 4) confusion about vaccines and how they work. Tailored HIV vaccine education that addresses the current status of HIV vaccine development and key vaccine concepts is warranted among communities at risk. Ongoing dialogue among researchers, public health practitioners and communities at risk may provide a vital opportunity to dispel misinformation and rumors and to cultivate trust, which may facilitate HIV vaccine trial participation and uptake of future HIV vaccines. PMID:16396058

  9. HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk: conspiracies, questions and confusion.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Newman, Peter A.; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T.

    2005-01-01

    HIV vaccines offer the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. We explored HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk for HIV/AIDS. Participants (N=99; median age=33 years; 48% female; 22% African-American; 44% Latino; 28% white; 6% other) were recruited from seven high-risk venues in Los Angeles, California, using purposive, venue-based sampling. Results from nine focus groups revealed: 1) mixed beliefs and conspiracy theories about the existence of HIV vaccines; 2) hopefulness and doubts about future HIV vaccine availability; 3) lack of information about HIV vaccines; and 4) confusion about vaccines and how they work. Tailored HIV vaccine education that addresses the current status of HIV vaccine development and key vaccine concepts is warranted among communities at risk. Ongoing dialogue among researchers, public health practitioners and communities at risk may provide a vital opportunity to dispel misinformation and rumors and to cultivate trust, which may facilitate HIV vaccine trial participation and uptake of future HIV vaccines. PMID:16396058

  10. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease. PMID:12284225

  11. HIV-Host Interactions: Implications for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Barton F.; Shaw, George M.; Korber, Bette; Kelsoe, Garnett; Sodroski, Joseph; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Borrow, Persephone; McMichael, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Development of an effective AIDS vaccine is a global priority. However, the extreme diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which is a consequence of its propensity to mutate to escape immune responses, along with host factors that prevent the elicitation of protective immune responses, continue to hinder vaccine development. Breakthroughs in understanding of the biology of the transmitted virus, the structure and nature of its envelope trimer, vaccine-induced CD8 T cell control in primates, and host control of broadly neutralizing antibody elicitation have given rise to new vaccine strategies. Despite this promise, emerging data from preclinical trials reinforce the need for gaining additional insight into virus – host biology in order to facilitate the development of a successful vaccine. PMID:26922989

  12. A 2020 vision for vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino; Aderem, Alan

    2011-05-26

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), malaria and tuberculosis collectively cause more than five million deaths per year, but have nonetheless eluded conventional vaccine development; for this reason they represent one of the major global public health challenges as we enter the second decade of the twenty-first century. Recent trials have provided evidence that it is possible to develop vaccines that can prevent infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria. Furthermore, advances in vaccinology, including novel adjuvants, prime-boost regimes and strategies for intracellular antigen presentation, have led to progress in developing a vaccine against tuberculosis. Here we discuss these advances and suggest that new tools such as systems biology and structure-based antigen design will lead to a deeper understanding of mechanisms of protection which, in turn, will lead to rational vaccine development. We also argue that new and innovative approaches to clinical trials will accelerate the availability of these vaccines. PMID:21614073

  13. Infection and treatment immunizations for successful parasite vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Mutapi, Francisca; Billingsley, Peter F.; Secor, W. Evan

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of techniques for the expression of recombinant peptide antigens, the availability of human vaccines for parasitic diseases has been ‘imminent’. Yet vaccines based on recombinant proteins are still largely aspirations, not realities. It is now apparent that vaccine development needs additional knowledge about host protective immune response(s), antigen characteristics, and the delivery required to induce those responses. The most successful immune protection against parasites has been generated by infection and treatment, the induction of protective immunity by truncating the course of an infection with drug treatment. Here, we consider the characteristics of an effective, protective anti-parasite vaccine and propose a conceptual framework to aid parasite vaccine development using malaria and schistosomiasis as examples. PMID:23415733

  14. Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses to Cryptosporidium—Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Ludington, Jacob G.; Ward, Honorine D.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, particularly in malnourished children and untreated AIDS patients in developing countries in whom it can cause severe, chronic and debilitating disease. Unfortunately, there is no consistently effective drug for these vulnerable populations and no vaccine, partly due to a limited understanding of both the parasite and the host immune response. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the systemic and mucosal immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection, discuss the feasibility of developing a Cryptosporidium vaccine and evaluate recent advances in Cryptosporidium vaccine development strategies PMID:26279971

  15. The value of HIV protective epitope research for informed vaccine design against diverse viral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Victor G; Byrareddy, Siddappa N

    2014-01-01

    The success of vaccine regimens against viral pathogens hinges on the elicitation of protective responses. Hypervariable pathogens such as HIV avoid neutralization by masking protective epitopes with more immunogenic decoys. The identification of protective, conserved epitopes is crucial for future vaccine candidate design. The strategies employed for identification of HIV protective epitopes will also aid towards rational vaccine design for other viral pathogens. PMID:24964950

  16. Vaccine Adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Alberta; Preiss, Scott; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The concept of stimulating the body’s immune response is the basis underlying vaccination. Vaccines act by initiating the innate immune response and activating antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing a protective adaptive immune response to a pathogen antigen. Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified antigens that have insufficient immunostimulatory capabilities, and have been used in human vaccines for more than 90 years. While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit. Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable. Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects. Activated effectors (such as APCs) then move to draining lymph nodes where they direct the type, magnitude and quality of the adaptive immune response. Thus, the right match of antigens and adjuvants can potentiate downstream adaptive immune responses, enabling the development of new efficacious vaccines. Many infectious diseases of worldwide significance are not currently preventable by vaccination. Adjuvants are the most advanced new technology in the search for new vaccines against challenging pathogens and for vulnerable populations that respond poorly to traditional vaccines. PMID:26343190

  17. Dogs immunized with LBSap vaccine displayed high levels of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokines and CCL4, CCL5 and CXCL8 chemokines in the dermis.

    PubMed

    Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian; Siqueira-Mathias, Fernando Augusto; de Oliveira Cardoso, Jamille Mirelle; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; de Sá, Renata Guerra; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    The complex interplay between cytokines and chemokines regulates innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens; specifically, cytokine and chemokine expression drives activation of immune effector cells and their recruitment to tissue infection sites. Herein, we inoculated dogs with Leishmania braziliensis antigens plus saponin (the LBSap vaccine), as well as with the vaccine components, and then used real-time PCR to evaluate the kinetics of dermal expression of mRNAs of cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-13, TGF-β and IL-10) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL21 and CXCL8) 1, 12, 24 and 48 h after inoculation. We also evaluated the correlation between cytokine and chemokine expression and dermal cellularity. The LBSap vaccine induced high levels of IL-12 and IL-10 expression at 12 and 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we observed positive correlations between IL-12 and IL-13 expression, IFN-γ and IL-13 expression, and IL-13 and TGF-β expression, suggesting that a mixed cytokine microenvironment developed after immunization with the vaccine. Inoculation with the saponin adjuvant alone induced a chemokine and cytokine expression profile similar to that observed in the LBSap group. CCL4 and CXCL8 chemokine expression was up regulated by the LBSap vaccine. CCL5 expression was initially highest in the LBSap group, but at 48 h, expression was highest in the LB group. Information about the kinetics of the immune response to this vaccine gained using this dog model will help to elucidate the mechanisms of and factors involved in a protective response against Leishmania infection and will aid in establishing rational approaches for the development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23911411

  18. Analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses by antigenic cartography and correlation to protection by vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H7 hemagglutinin subtype one of the most common subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry world wide and since it has the potential to become highly pathogenic it is among the priority subtypes for vaccination. Selection of the optimal vaccine seed strains may now be aided by antigenic...

  19. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine that reduced the incidence of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding of MAP would aid control of Johne’s disease (JD). The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candi...

  20. Maintaining Vaccine Delivery Following the Introduction of the Rotavirus and Pneumococcal Vaccines in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Wateska, Angela R.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T.; Welling, Joel; Norman, Bryan A.; Connor, Diana L.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    the availability of all vaccines that may not be initially apparent to decision-makers. PMID:21931805

  1. A History of Financial Aid to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges, universities, and the communities they serve have always been concerned about students' abilities to pay and the systems of aid to support students' learning. This article reviews the history of aiding student in higher education. Early student- and institutionally-led programs are discussed along with initial philanthropic and…

  2. Children, Teachers and the AIDS Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silin, Jonathan G.

    For schools, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) initially represented a policy problem requiring legal and public health experts to assess their ability to exclude students or staff infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus. As the crisis over the potential presence of people with AIDS in the schools abated and with the growing…

  3. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  4. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  5. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  6. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  7. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  8. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  9. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    MedlinePlus

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  10. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  11. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... or HIV infection); or cochlear implants. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Children younger than 2 years old, ...

  12. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  13. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications from the vaccinia virus can be severe. Benefit of Vaccine Following Exposure Vaccination within 3 days ... Policies About CDC.gov Link to Us All Languages Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  14. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  15. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) ... Related Pages Diphtheria Pertussis Feature Story: Adults Need Immunizations, Too Also Known As & Abbreviations Tetanus = Lockjaw DTaP = ...

  16. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... are at increased risk of developing meningococcal disease. Immunization Schedule Vaccination with MCV4 is recommended: when kids ...

  17. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  18. Your child's first vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... these vaccines today: [ ] DTaP [ ] Hib [ ] Hepatitis B [ ] Polio [ ] PCV13 (Provider: Check appropriate boxes) 1. Why get vaccinated? ... the 6-month dose is not needed. Pneumococcal (PCV13) 4 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 12- ...

  19. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals. PMID:17633300

  20. Clinical vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical experience. However, there remain a number of hurdles to overcome. Continuous efforts are focused on increasing the efficacy and reducing the risks related to vaccine use. Cutting-edge knowledge about immunology and microbiology is being rapidly translated to vaccine development. Thus, physicians and others involved in the clinical development of vaccines should have sufficient understanding of the recent developmental trends in vaccination and the diseases of interest. PMID:25648742

  1. Vaccine Reaction Images

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Materials Q fever Info & Guidance for Clinicians Salmonella Shigella Smallpox Smallpox Basics Vaccine Basics Clinicians Vaccination ... Metals Nerve Agents Pulmonary Agents Riot Control Agents Toxic Alcohols Vesicants Chemical-Specific Fact Sheets Toxicology FAQs ...

  2. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Cancer.gov

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  3. Comparison of antibody response to a non-adjuvanted, live canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies vaccine and a killed, adjuvanted rabies vaccine in Eld's deer (Rucervus eldi thamin).

    PubMed

    Marrow, Judilee C; Padilla, Luis R; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Bush, Mitch; Murray, Suzan

    2014-06-01

    Captive Eld's deer (Rucervus eldi thamin) were evaluated for the presence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition after vaccination with either a live canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies vaccine or a killed monovalent rabies vaccine. Twelve deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml of killed, adjuvanted, monovalent rabies vaccine at 5-33 mo of age then annually thereafter, and 14 deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml nonadjuvanted, live canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine at 3-15 mo of age then annually thereafter. Banked serum was available or collected prospectively from deer at 6 mo and 1 yr after initial vaccination, then collected annually. Rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies considered adequate (>0.5 IU/ml) were present in 20/34 samples vaccinated with canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine and in 12/14 samples vaccinated with killed adjuvanted rabies vaccine. Poor seroconversion was noted in deer less than 6 mo of age vaccinated with the canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine. PMID:25000692

  4. Recent advances in vaccination of non-responders to standard dose hepatitis B virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Walayat, Saqib; Ahmed, Zohair; Martin, Daniel; Puli, Srinivas; Cashman, Michael; Dhillon, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem. It is estimated there are more than 2 billion individuals exposed to the virus and 250 million are chronically infected. Hepatitis B is the cause of more than 600000 annual deaths due to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An effective vaccine exists and preventative initiatives center around universal vaccination especially in those at highest risk. Effective vaccination algorithms have led to a significant decline in the development of new infections and its devastating consequences. The vaccine is administered intramuscularly in three doses, with 95% showing long lasting serologic immunity. An additional fourth dose or a repeated higher dose three course regimen is given to those that fail to show immunity. Despite these additional regimens, some remain vulnerable to hepatitis B and are deemed non-responders. Individuals with chronic disease states such as kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes mellitus, as well as those with a genetic predisposition, and those on immunomodulation therapy, have the highest likelihood of non-response. Various strategies have been developed to elicit an immune response in these individuals. These include increased vaccination dose, intradermal administration, alternative adjuvants, alternative routes of administration, co-administration with other vaccines, and other novel therapies. These alternative strategies can show improved response and lasting immunity. In summary, HBV vaccination is a major advance of modern medicine and all individuals at risk should be sought and vaccinated with subsequent adequate titers demonstrated. PMID:26523203

  5. Vaccines in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mitali M; Shah, Aishani C; Mahajan, Rashmi S; Bilimoria, Freny E

    2015-01-01

    A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We’ve come a long way since. Today's vaccines are among the 21st century's most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases. PMID:26120155

  6. A Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  7. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  8. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

  9. The Potential Value of Clostridium difficile Vaccine: An Economic Computer Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Popovich, Michael J.; Tian, Ye; Bailey, Rachel R.; Ufberg, Paul J.; Wiringa, Ann E.; Muder, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts are currently underway to develop a vaccine against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We developed two decision analytic Monte Carlo computer simulation models: (1) an Initial Prevention Model depicting the decision whether to administer C. difficile vaccine to patients at-risk for CDI and (2) a Recurrence Prevention Model depicting the decision whether to administer C. difficile vaccine to prevent CDI recurrence. Our results suggest that a C. difficile vaccine could be cost-effective over a wide range of C. difficile risk, vaccine costs, and vaccine efficacies especially when being used post-CDI treatment to prevent recurrent disease. PMID:20541582

  10. Implications of the Virginia human papillomavirus vaccine mandate for parental vaccine acceptance.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Margaret Jane; Adams Tufts, Kimberly

    2013-05-01

    In 2009, Virginia became the first state in the United States to enact a school vaccine mandate for the human papillomavirus (HPV), putting it at the forefront of the national HPV vaccine mandate controversy. It is critical to explore the public response and sensemaking where the mandate has already been enacted. Thus, we conducted 8 focus group discussions among 33 Virginia parents to explore how they conceptualized the virus and vaccine and their responses to the mandate. Findings suggest that many parents are skeptical of and reluctant to follow a state-mandated vaccine requirement, choosing instead to opt out of the vaccine until they decide the time is right for their daughter and/or until they feel confident in their knowledge about the virus, vaccine, and the impetus for the mandate. Study results can inform future legislation among states considering HPV-related mandates and aid in the development of health-promotion materials within the context of a state mandate. PMID:23275459

  11. Importance of vaccination habit and vaccine choice on influenza vaccination among healthy working adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-11-10

    This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. PMID:20638452

  12. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  13. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  14. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Flipse, Jacky; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. PMID:26065421

  15. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Jacky; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. PMID:26065421

  16. Serologic Vaccination Response after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Rosenberger, Kerstin Daniela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Junghanss, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT) are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. Methods In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. Results Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1) most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2) the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3) SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4) for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. Conclusion Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients remain poorly supported

  17. An Extended Model of Reasoned Action to Understand the Influence of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on African Americans’ Participation in HIV Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200

  18. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    PubMed

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.). PMID:25080553

  19. Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage. PMID:26367185

  20. Local innate immune responses in the vaccine adjuvant-injected muscle.

    PubMed

    Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Inducing a high magnitude of antibodies, possibly in combination with T-cell responses that offer epitope breadth over prolonged periods of time is likely a prerequisite for effective vaccines against severe diseases such as HIV-1 infection, malaria and tuberculosis. A much better understanding of the innate immune mechanisms that are critical for inducing desired responses to vaccination would help in the design of novel vaccines. The majority of human vaccines are administered into the muscle. In this brief review, we focus on the initial innate immune events that occur locally at the site of intramuscular vaccine delivery, and how they are influenced by clinically approved vaccine adjuvants. In particular, the effects on cell mobilization, cell activation and vaccine antigen uptake are reviewed. Understanding how distinct adjuvants enhance and tailor vaccine responses would facilitate the selection of the best-suited adjuvant to improve vaccine efficacy to a given pathogen. PMID:27195117

  1. Local innate immune responses in the vaccine adjuvant-injected muscle

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Inducing a high magnitude of antibodies, possibly in combination with T-cell responses that offer epitope breadth over prolonged periods of time is likely a prerequisite for effective vaccines against severe diseases such as HIV-1 infection, malaria and tuberculosis. A much better understanding of the innate immune mechanisms that are critical for inducing desired responses to vaccination would help in the design of novel vaccines. The majority of human vaccines are administered into the muscle. In this brief review, we focus on the initial innate immune events that occur locally at the site of intramuscular vaccine delivery, and how they are influenced by clinically approved vaccine adjuvants. In particular, the effects on cell mobilization, cell activation and vaccine antigen uptake are reviewed. Understanding how distinct adjuvants enhance and tailor vaccine responses would facilitate the selection of the best-suited adjuvant to improve vaccine efficacy to a given pathogen. PMID:27195117

  2. Avian influenza A viruses in birds of the order Psittaciformes: reports on virus isolations, transmission experiments and vaccinations and initial studies on innocuity and efficacy of oseltamivir in ovo.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Blanco Peña, K M; Yilmaz, A; Redmann, T; Hofheinz, S

    2007-07-01

    Birds of the order Psittaciformes are - besides chickens, turkeys and other birds - also susceptible to infection with avian influenza A viruses (AIV) and succumb following severe disease within one week. Published data prove that various parakeets, amazons, cockatoos, African grey parrots and budgerigars (genera Barnardius, Psittacula, Cacatua, Eolophus, Amazona, Myiopsitta, Psittacus and Melopsittacus) were found dead following natural infections. Natural infections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 cause severe disease and high rates of mortality. Experimental transmission studies with AlVs of the subtypes H5 and H7 confirm these data. Viruses of the subtypes H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H11N6 and H11N8 may cause also clinical signs and occasionally losses in naturally infected psittacine birds. Clinical signs and losses were also noted following experimental infection of budgerigars with a H4N6 virus. In the EU and in other countries, vaccination of exposed exotic and rare birds and poultry is a possible and an acceptable measure to provide protection. Currently, the EU Commission accepts inactivated adjuvanted vaccines whereas in some other countries recently developed vector vaccines are applied. However, birds remain susceptible during the time interval between application of any vaccine and the development of immunity. This critical period can be bridged with antiviral drugs. Our in ovo studies demonstrate that the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is non-toxic for chicken embryos at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg body weight. These dosages prevented entirely the replication of a HPAIV of the subtype H7N1 when this drug is given shortly prior to, simultaneously or soon after inoculation of chicken embryos with this AIV. Thus, we speculate that exposed valuable birds such as psittacines at risk can be successfully treated. PMID:17724934

  3. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    PubMed

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed. PMID:24463951

  4. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  5. DNA vaccines and their applications in veterinary practice: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dhama, K; Mahendran, Mahesh; Gupta, P K; Rai, A

    2008-06-01

    Inoculation of plasmid DNA, encoding an immunogenic protein gene of an infectious agent, stands out as a novel approach for developing new generation vaccines for prevention of infectious diseases of animals. The potential of DNA vaccines to act in presence of maternal antibodies, its stability and cost effectiveness and the non-requirement of cold chain have heightened the prospects. Even though great strides have been made in nucleic acid vaccination, still there are many areas that need further research for its wholesome practical implementation. Major areas of concern are vaccine delivery, designing of suitable vectors and cytotoxic T cell responses. Also, the induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines is inconclusive due to the lack of knowledge regarding the concentration of the protein expressed in vivo. Alternative delivery systems having higher transfection efficiency and the use of cytokines, as immunomodulators, needs to be further explored. Recently, efforts are being made to modulate and prolong the active life of dendritic cells, in order to make antigen presentation a more efficacious one. For combating diseases like acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), influenza, malaria and tuberculosis in humans; and foot and mouth disease, Aujesky's disease, swine fever, rabies, canine distemper and brucellosis in animals, DNA vaccine clinical trials are underway. This review highlights the salient features of DNA vaccines, and measures to enhance their efficacy so as to devise an effective and novel vaccination strategy against animal diseases. PMID:18425596

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, Paul; Bansal, Anju

    2014-12-01

    Although some success was achieved in recent years in HIV prevention, an effective vaccine remains the means with the most potential of curtailing HIV-1 infections worldwide. Despite multiple failed attempts, a recent HIV vaccine regimen demonstrated modest protection from infection. Although the protective efficacy in this trial was not sufficient to warrant licensure, it spurred renewed optimism in the field and has provided valuable insights for improving future vaccine designs. This review summarizes the pertinent details of vaccine development and discusses ways the field is moving forward to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV infection and disease progression. PMID:25287587

  7. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  8. Vaccine-Associated Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2016-01-01

    All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491

  9. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  10. Brief Client-Centered Motivational and Behavioral Intervention to Promote HPV Vaccination in a Hard-to-Reach Population: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Natalie Pierre; Bernstein, Judith; Pelton, Steve; Belizaire, Myrdell; Goff, Ginette; Horanieh, Nour; Freund, Karen M

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a client-centered behavioral intervention (Brief Negotiated Interviewing) on mothers' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine knowledge and vaccination initiation for their adolescent daughters. Methods We randomized mothers to intervention (n = 100) and control (n = 100) groups, and followed them over 12 months. Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine vaccination status. The primary outcome was receipt of the first vaccine. The secondary outcome was HPV vaccine knowledge among mothers. Results Brief Negotiated Interviewing intervention mothers demonstrated increased knowledge about HPV (pre/post mean score of 5 to 10 out of a possible 11; P < .001) and significantly higher mean knowledge scores (10 vs 6, P < .001) than control mothers. However, initiation and completion rates of the vaccine were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Increasing HPV vaccine knowledge did not translate into increased vaccine uptake or completion of vaccination series. Future intervention must explore vaccine reminders to increase HPV vaccination rates. PMID:26968631

  11. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  12. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  13. The content and context of physicians' communication with males about human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Malo, Teri L; Ali, Karla N; Sutton, Steven K; Perkins, Rebecca B; Giuliano, Anna R; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2016-06-01

    A physician's recommendation for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a key predictor of vaccine uptake; however, little is known about how physicians communicate about HPV vaccine with male patients. We sought to describe physicians' HPV vaccine communication practices with males who are of vaccine-eligible age (9-26 years). We surveyed representative samples of pediatric and family medicine physicians in Florida, and assessed whether physicians present HPV vaccine as optional or routine, and as a vaccine that prevents cancer. We also assessed the type of visit during which physicians discuss HPV vaccine with adolescent males and whether other healthcare providers in the practice discuss HPV vaccine or make the initial recommendation. We received 367 completed surveys (50.7% response rate). Few physicians (29.9%) reported they typically present HPV vaccine as routine to males ages 11-12 years, who constitute the target group for routine vaccination. When discussing HPV vaccination, many physicians reported somewhat or strongly emphasizing cancer prevention (80.0%). Physicians most often discussed HPV vaccine when they saw patients for well-child visits (93.0%) and least often at acute care visits (15.3%). Over half reported that at least one other healthcare professional in their practice discusses (56.1%) or makes the initial recommendation for (54.9%) HPV vaccination. Many physicians in our sample are presenting HPV vaccine as optional rather than routine and are missing opportunities to communicate with males about the vaccine. Our findings identify areas for future interventions to improve physicians' HPV vaccine communication and, ultimately, increase the use of this cancer-preventing vaccine. PMID:26835599

  14. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  15. Vaccines for allergy.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  16. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  17. [Vaccinations for the travellers].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2004-03-15

    Immunisations for the traveller include, before specific vaccine, a correct immunisation schedule according to national recommendations with appropriate boosters and hepatitis B immunisation. The yellow fever vaccine is required to entry in countries of endemic area and quadrivalent ACYW135 meningococcal vaccine for entry in Saudi Arabia. Hepatitis A immunisation could be performed at 1 year of age and is recommended for travellers in tropical areas and children vaccination control the disease both in the patient and in the contacts. Meningococcal A+C vaccines are required for travellers in meningitis-prone areas of tropical Africa during the dry season (December to June), and quadrivalent ACYW135 is useful only in Burkina-Faso and Niger. Typhoid and rabies vaccines are required for ambulatory travellers in endemic areas, as Japanese encephalitis in south-west Asia. In central Europe, tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is recommended for patients travelling in forest areas during spring and summer. PMID:15176511

  18. DNA-launched live-attenuated vaccines for biodefense applications.

    PubMed

    Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S; Weaver, Scott C; Tretyakova, Irina

    2016-09-01

    A novel vaccine platform uses DNA immunization to launch live-attenuated virus vaccines in vivo. This technology has been applied for vaccine development against positive-strand RNA viruses with global public health impact including alphaviruses and flaviviruses. The DNA-launched vaccine represents the recombinant plasmid that encodes the full-length genomic RNA of live-attenuated virus downstream from a eukaryotic promoter. When administered in vivo, the genomic RNA of live-attenuated virus is transcribed. The RNA initiates limited replication of a genetically defined, live-attenuated vaccine virus in the tissues of the vaccine recipient, thereby inducing a protective immune response. This platform combines the strengths of reverse genetics, DNA immunization and the advantages of live-attenuated vaccines, resulting in a reduced chance of genetic reversions, increased safety, and improved immunization. With this vaccine technology, the field of DNA vaccines is expanded from those that express subunit antigens to include a novel type of DNA vaccines that launch live-attenuated viruses. PMID:27055100

  19. Understanding sub-optimal HPV vaccine uptake among ethnic minority girls

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth; Tsui, Jennifer; Chang, L. Cindy; Marchand, Erica; Taylor, Victoria M.; Singhal, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Background The introduction of HPV vaccines represents a breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. However, little is known about vaccination uptake and correlates among U.S. low-income, ethnic minority and immigrant populations who may benefit most from the vaccine. Methods Telephone interviews (N=490) were conducted in six languages between January and November 2009 among mothers of vaccine-eligible girls (ages 9–18) using the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Office of Women’s Health service referral hotline. HPV and vaccine awareness, knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and daughter’s vaccine receipt were assessed. Results The sample consisted of low-income, uninsured, ethnic minority and immigrant women. Only 29% of daughters initiated the vaccine and 11% received all three doses. No ethnic differences were observed in initiation or completion rates. Ethnic differences were observed in HPV awareness, perceived risk, and other immunization related beliefs. The strongest predictor of initiation was vaccine awareness (OR=12.00). Daughter’s age and reporting a younger acceptable age for vaccination were positively associated with initiation. Mothers of unvaccinated girls reported lacking information about the vaccine to make a decision (66%) and not knowing where they could obtain the vaccine (74%). Conclusion Vaccination rates in this sample were lower than state and national estimates, and were associated with low levels of vaccine awareness. Interventions, including culturally targeted messaging, may be helpful for enhancing HPV vaccine knowledge, modifying vaccine-related beliefs and increasing uptake. Impact Our findings provide valuable guidance for developing interventions to address sub-optimal HPV vaccination in high risk groups. PMID:21602307

  20. Identifying Parents Who Are Amenable to Pro-Vaccination Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    While health care providers are often cited as parents’ most trusted source for information and advice about vaccination, parents differ in their level of receptiveness to pro-vaccination conversations. The purpose of this research was to identify points in individual parents’ decision-making processes when parents are particularly open to receiving information and advice from their children’s health care providers. Interview data were collected from 20 mothers and 5 couples. Analysis of these data suggested 3 primary circumstances when parents were particularly open to receiving information and advice: during parents’ initial decision-making, as parents continued to assess vaccination options, and during particular circumstances that prompted parents to reconsider previously made vaccination choices. These results provide a mechanism for providers to identify parents who may be particularly receptive to pro-vaccination conversations. By prioritizing conversations with parents at one of these points, health care providers’ efforts at promoting vaccination may be more effective. PMID:27335987

  1. Analysis of B Cell Repertoire Dynamics Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Humans, and Enrichment of Vaccine-specific Antibody Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Galson, Jacob D.; Trück, Johannes; Fowler, Anna; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Münz, Márton; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Reinhard, Claudia; van der Most, Robbert; Pollard, Andrew J.; Lunter, Gerton; Kelly, Dominic F.

    2015-01-01

    Generating a diverse B cell immunoglobulin repertoire is essential for protection against infection. The repertoire in humans can now be comprehensively measured by high-throughput sequencing. Using hepatitis B vaccination as a model, we determined how the total immunoglobulin sequence repertoire changes following antigen exposure in humans, and compared this to sequences from vaccine-specific sorted cells. Clonal sequence expansions were seen 7 days after vaccination, which correlated with vaccine-specific plasma cell numbers. These expansions caused an increase in mutation, and a decrease in diversity and complementarity-determining region 3 sequence length in the repertoire. We also saw an increase in sequence convergence between participants 14 and 21 days after vaccination, coinciding with an increase of vaccine-specific memory cells. These features allowed development of a model for in silico enrichment of vaccine-specific sequences from the total repertoire. Identifying antigen-specific sequences from total repertoire data could aid our understanding B cell driven immunity, and be used for disease diagnostics and vaccine evaluation. PMID:26844287

  2. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  3. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  4. From non school-based, co-payment to school-based, free Human Papillomavirus vaccination in Flanders (Belgium): a retrospective cohort study describing vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities.

    PubMed

    Lefevere, Eva; Theeten, Heidi; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-09-22

    School-based, free HPV vaccination for girls in the first year of secondary school was introduced in Flanders (Belgium) in 2010. Before that, non school-based, co-payment vaccination for girls aged 12-18 was in place. We compared vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities in coverage - 3 important parameters contributing to the effectiveness of the vaccination programs - under both vaccination systems. We used retrospective administrative data from different sources. Our sample consisted of all female members of the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities born in 1995, 1996, 1998 or 1999 (N=66,664). For each vaccination system we described the cumulative proportion HPV vaccination initiation and completion over time. We used life table analysis to calculate age-specific rates of HPV vaccination initiation and completion. Analyses were done separately for higher income and low income groups. Under non school-based, co-payment vaccination the proportions HPV vaccination initiation and completion slowly rose over time. By age 17, the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.75 (95% CI 0.74-076)/0.66 (95% CI 0.65-0.67). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 14.4 years (95% CI 14.4-14.5)/15.4 years (95% CI 15.3-15.4). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage widened over time and with age. Under school-based, free vaccination rates of HPV vaccination initiation were substantially higher. By age 14,the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.90 (95% CI 0.90-0.90)/0.87 (95% CI 0.87-0.88). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 12.7 years (95% CI 12.7-12.7)/13.3 years (95% CI 13.3-13.3). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage and in age-specific coverage were substantially smaller. PMID:26254978

  5. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

  6. Animal models for HIV/AIDS research

    PubMed Central

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Evans, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic continues to present us with unique scientific and public health challenges. Although the development of effective antiretroviral therapy has been a major triumph, the emergence of drug resistance requires active management of treatment regimens and the continued development of new antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, despite nearly 30 years of intensive investigation, we still lack the basic scientific knowledge necessary to produce a safe and effective vaccine against HIV-1. Animal models offer obvious advantages in the study of HIV/AIDS, allowing for a more invasive investigation of the disease and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines. Advances in humanized mouse models, non-human primate immunogenetics and recombinant challenge viruses have greatly increased the number and sophistication of available mouse and simian models. Understanding the advantages and limitations of each of these models is essential for the design of animal studies to guide the development of vaccines and antiretroviral therapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:23154262

  7. Antibody response after a four-site intradermal booster vaccination with cell-culture rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, T; Benjavongkulchai, M; Limsuwan, K; Khawplod, P; Kaewchompoo, W; Chomchey, P; Sitprija, V

    1999-05-01

    The current World Health Organization recommendation for booster vaccination of previously immunized individuals with potential exposure to rabies is two doses of vaccine intramuscularly or intradermally on days 0 and 3. We report responses to two types of postexposure treatment of healthy individuals who had received preexposure rabies vaccination 1 year previously. Group A individuals received four intradermal doses (one-fifth of the diluent volume of vaccine per dose) on day 0, and group B individuals received two intramuscular doses on days 0 and 3. Immunogenicity of the two booster regimens was assessed by titrating the amount of neutralizing antibody (Nab). We found that the booster doses of vaccine produced remarkable responses in all subjects. Nab titers of > or = 0.5 IU/mL (acceptable antibody level for protection against rabies) were detected in all subjects on day 14, and they were shown to be consistently high 1 year after the booster vaccination. We also found that the Nab titers for group A were significantly higher (two- to eightfold) than those for group B on days 5, 14, 150, and 360 after the initial booster vaccination (P < .05). Our study shows that the four-site intradermal booster regimen with use of one-fifth of the diluent volume of cell-culture rabies vaccine on day 0 is associated with a significantly higher antibody response than is the conventional booster regimen for subsequent postexposure rabies treatment of individuals who have received preexposure rabies vaccination with cell-culture rabies vaccine 1 year previously. PMID:10452642

  8. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  9. HIV Vaccine: Recent Advances, Current Roadblocks, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rubens, Muni; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Saxena, Anshul; Shehadeh, Nancy; Appunni, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In spite of successful interventions and treatment protocols, an HIV vaccine would be the ultimate prevention and control strategy. Ever since identification of HIV/AIDS, there have been meticulous efforts for vaccine development. The specific aim of this paper is to review recent vaccine efficacy trials and associated advancements and discuss the current challenges and future directions. Recombinant DNA technologies greatly facilitated development of many viral products which were later incorporated into vectors for effective vaccines. Over the years, a number of scientific approaches have gained popularity and include the induction of neutralizing antibodies in late 1980s, induction of CD8 T cell in early 1990s, and combination approaches currently. Scientists have hypothesized that stimulation of right sequences of somatic hypermutations could induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) capable of effective neutralization and viral elimination. Studies have shown that a number of host and viral factors affect these processes. Similarly, eliciting specific CD8 T cells immune responses through DNA vaccines hold future promises. In summary, future studies should focus on the continuous fight between host immune responses and ever-evasive viral factors for effective vaccines. PMID:26579546

  10. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Haour-Knipe, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978

  11. Influenza Vaccines: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Katherine; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is the best method for the prevention and control of influenza. Vaccination can reduce illness and lessen severity of infection. This review focuses on how currently licensed influenza vaccines are generated in the U.S., why the biology of influenza poses vaccine challenges, and vaccine approaches on the horizon that address these challenges. PMID:25766291

  12. Vaccine Induction of Lymph Node-Resident Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Env-Specific T Follicular Helper Cells in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Demers, Andrew; Shaw, Julia M; Kang, Guobin; Ball, David; Tuero, Iskra; Musich, Thomas; Mohanram, Venkatramanan; Demberg, Thorsten; Karpova, Tatiana S; Li, Qingsheng; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2016-02-15

    Measurement of Ag-specific T follicular helper (TFH) cell activity in rhesus macaques has not previously been reported. Given that rhesus macaques are the animal model of choice for evaluating protective efficacy of HIV/SIV vaccine candidates and that TFH cells play a pivotal role in aiding B cell maturation, quantifying vaccine induction of HIV/SIV-specific TFH cells would greatly benefit vaccine development. In this study, we quantified SIV Env-specific IL-21-producing TFH cells for the first time, to our knowledge, in a nonhuman primate vaccine study. Macaques were primed twice mucosally with adenovirus 5 host range mutant recombinants encoding SIV Env, Rev, Gag, and Nef followed by two i.m. boosts with monomeric SIV gp120 or oligomeric SIV gp140 proteins. At 2 wk after the second protein boost, we obtained lymph node biopsy specimens and quantified the frequency of total and SIV Env-specific IL-21(+) TFH cells and total germinal center B cells, the size and number of germinal centers, and the frequency of SIV-specific Ab-secreting cells in B cell zones. Multiple correlation analyses established the importance of TFH for development of B cell responses in systemic and mucosally localized compartments, including blood, bone marrow, and rectum. Our results suggest that the SIV-specific TFH cells, initially induced by replicating adenovirus-recombinant priming, are long lived. The multiple correlations of SIV Env-specific TFH cells with systemic and mucosal SIV-specific B cell responses indicate that this cell population should be further investigated in HIV vaccine development as a novel correlate of immunity. PMID:26773147

  13. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  14. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  15. Immune reconstitution and vaccination outcome in HIV-1 infected children

    PubMed Central

    Cagigi, Alberto; Cotugno, Nicola; Giaquinto, Carlo; Nicolosi, Luciana; Bernardi, Stefania; Rossi, Paolo; Douagi, Iyadh; Palma, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence on routine immunization of HIV-1 infected children point out the need for a special vaccine schedule in this population. However, optimal strategies for identifying individuals susceptible to infections, and then offering them sustained protection through appropriate immunization schedule, both in terms of timing and number of vaccine doses, still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the degree of immune recovery after HAART initiation is important in guiding administration of routine vaccination in HIV-1 infected children. Although quantitative measures (e.g., CD4+ T-cell counts and immunoglobulin levels) are frequently performed to evaluate immune parameters, these measures do not fully mirror functional immune recovery. Here, we will review the status of single mandatory and recommended vaccines for HIV-1 infected children in relation to immune recovery after HAART initiation with the aim of identifying new means to help design personalized vaccine schedules for this population. PMID:22906931

  16. Health Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination in Developing Countries: Progress and Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Umesh D; Johnson, Hope; Steele, A Duncan; Tate, Jacqueline E

    2016-05-01

    Two rotavirus vaccines have been licensed in >100 countries worldwide since 2006. As of October 2105, these vaccines have been implemented in the national immunization programs of 79 countries, including 36 low-income countries that are eligible for support for vaccine purchase from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Rotavirus vaccines were initially introduced in Australia and countries of the Americas and Europe after completion of successful clinical trials in these regions, and the impact of routine vaccination in reducing the health burden of severe childhood gastroenteritis in these regions has been well documented. Because of concerns around the performance of orally administered rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, vaccine implementation in these settings only began after additional clinical trials were completed and the World Health Organization issued a global recommendation for use of rotavirus vaccines in 2009. This supplementary issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases includes a collection of articles describing the impact and effectiveness of routine rotavirus vaccination in developing countries that were among the early adopters of rotavirus vaccine. The data highlight the benefits of vaccination and should provide valuable evidence to sustain vaccine use in these countries and encourage other countries to adopt routine rotavirus vaccination to reduce the health burden of severe childhood gastroenteritis. PMID:27059361

  17. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  18. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals. PMID:24523276

  19. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  20. The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oraby, Tamer; Thampi, Vivek; Bauch, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models that couple disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour often assume that the incentive to vaccinate disappears if disease prevalence is zero. Hence, they predict that vaccine refusal should be the rule, and elimination should be difficult or impossible. In reality, countries with non-mandatory vaccination policies have usually been able to maintain elimination or very low incidence of paediatric infectious diseases for long periods of time. Here, we show that including injunctive social norms can reconcile such behaviour-incidence models to observations. Adding social norms to a coupled behaviour-incidence model enables the model to better explain pertussis vaccine uptake and disease dynamics in the UK from 1967 to 2010, in both the vaccine-scare years and the years of high vaccine coverage. The model also illustrates how a vaccine scare can perpetuate suboptimal vaccine coverage long after perceived risk has returned to baseline, pre-vaccine-scare levels. However, at other model parameter values, social norms can perpetuate depressed vaccine coverage during a vaccine scare well beyond the time when the population's baseline vaccine risk perception returns to pre-scare levels. Social norms can strongly suppress vaccine uptake despite frequent outbreaks, as observed in some small communities. Significant portions of the parameter space also exhibit bistability, meaning long-term outcomes depend on the initial conditions. Depending on the context, social norms can either support or hinder immunization goals. PMID:24523276