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Sample records for aids virus infection

  1. [Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in Chile].

    PubMed

    García O, Maritza; Olea N, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    In Chile, the first cases of AIDS were reported 23 years ago, and since then, through December 2006, 17.235 persons have been notified with HIV infection or AIDS1. To the year 2005, there have been 5.288 fatal cases of AIDS. The last available data indicates that notification rates for AIDS and HIV infection in 2006 were 2.5 and 4.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, respectively, and mortality rate for AIDS in 2005 was 2.4 per 100.000 inhabitants. Trend analysis shows a decline in the notification rate among men, both for HIV infection and AIDS, which could be a real decrease or a sub notification bias. In Chile, like in other countries of the region, variations in the epidemiologic pattern were observed considering age group, gender, educational level and geographic distribution of the population. Currently, the Chilean Ministry of Health has implemented both a surveillance and monitoring system on line, in order to improve the quality and opportunity of the information, therefore providing an important tool to HIV infection/AIDS prevention and control strategies.

  2. Antiretroviral Therapy in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Sooty Mangabeys: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calascibetta, Francesca; Micci, Luca; Carnathan, Diane; Lawson, Benton; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Bosinger, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk; Chahroudi, Ann; Mackel, Joseph; Keele, Brandon F.; Long, Samuel; Lifson, Jeffrey; Paiardini, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) do not develop AIDS despite high levels of viremia. Key factors involved in the benign course of SIV infection in SMs are the absence of chronic immune activation and low levels of infection of CD4+ central memory (TCM) and stem cell memory (TSCM) T cells. To better understand the role of virus replication in determining the main features of SIV infection in SMs, we treated 12 SMs with a potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for 2 to 12 months. We observed that ART suppressed viremia to <60 copies/ml of plasma in 10 of 12 animals and induced a variable decrease in the level of cell-associated SIV DNA in peripheral blood (average changes of 0.9-, 1.1-, 1.5-, and 3.7-fold for CD4+ transitional memory [TTM], TCM, effector memory [TEM], and TSCM cells, respectively). ART-treated SIV-infected SMs showed (i) increased percentages of circulating CD4+ TCM cells, (ii) increased levels of CD4+ T cells in the rectal mucosa, and (iii) significant declines in the frequencies of HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells in the blood and rectal mucosa. In addition, we observed that ART interruption resulted in rapid viral rebound in all SIV-infected SMs, indicating that the virus reservoir persists for at least a year under ART despite lower infection levels of CD4+ TCM and TSCM cells than those seen in pathogenic SIV infections of macaques. Overall, these data indicate that ART induces specific immunological changes in SIV-infected SMs, thus suggesting that virus replication affects immune function even in the context of this clinically benign infection. IMPORTANCE Studies of natural, nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of African monkeys have provided important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the progression to AIDS during pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of humans and SIV infection of Asian macaques. In this study, for the first time, we treated SIV-infected

  3. Antibody to hepatitis E virus in HIV-infected individuals and AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Balayan, M S; Fedorova, O E; Mikhailov, M I; Rytick, P G; Eremin, V F; Danilova, T I; Shevelev, B I; Gorbacheva, E C; Pankova, G Y

    1997-07-01

    Antibody to hepatitis E virus of IgG class (anti-HEV IgG) is regularly detected in industrialized countries, where HEV is non-endemic, at levels not exceeding 2-3%; seropositive individuals are often found in certain groups of patients and professionals exposed to an increased risk of blood-borne infections. The present study was aimed at the identification of anti-HEV IgG in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), living in Russia and Belarus, an area of low anti-HEV prevalence with a moderate spread of HIV infection and AIDS. In Russia, 13 out of 117 HIV-infected patients (11.1%) were found to be anti-HEV seropositive. This differed significantly from the frequency observed in the normal population (1.7%) but not from the frequency in a matching control, high-risk group consisting of male prisoners (8.0%). No difference in the frequency of anti-HEV IgG seropositivity was found between groups of HIV-infected men subdivided by sexual orientation. The rate of anti-HEV seropositivity increased with the progression of HIV infection, reaching 43.3% in AIDS patients and 38.1% in those who died from AIDS. In Belarus, anti-HEV IgG seropositivity was not found among 20 HIV-infected subjects nor among individuals from the control risk group, which consisted of 25 intravenous drug users. In conclusion, HEV infection may have common transmission mechanisms (risk factors) with HIV infection rather than represent an additional opportunistic infection in AIDS.

  4. Dissecting the role of dendritic cells in simian immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wonderlich, Elizabeth R.; Kader, Muhamuda; Wijewardana, Viskam

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the loss of the two principal types of dendritic cell (DC), myeloid DC (mDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC), but the mechanism of this loss and its relationship to AIDS pathogenesis remain ill-defined. The nonhuman primate is a powerful model to dissect this response for several reasons. Both DC subsets have been well characterized in nonhuman primates and shown to have strikingly similar phenotypic and functional characteristics to their counterparts in the human. Moreover, decline of mDC and pDC occurs in rhesus macaques with end-stage simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, the model of HIV infection in humans. In this brief review, we discuss what is known about DC subsets in pathogenic and nonpathogenic nonhuman primate models of HIV infection and highlight the advances and controversies that currently exist in the field. PMID:21717075

  5. Development of AIDS in a chimpanzee infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, F J; Saucier, M; Anderson, D C; Klumpp, S A; O'Neil, S P; Brown, C R; Hart, C E; Guenthner, P C; Swenson, R B; McClure, H M

    1997-01-01

    The condition of a chimpanzee (C499) infected with three different isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for over 10 years progressed to AIDS. Disease development in this animal was characterized by (i) a decline in CD4+ cells over the last 3 years; (ii) an increase in viral loads in plasma; (iii) the presence of a virus, termed HIV-1JC, which is cytopathic for chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells; and (iv) the presence of an opportunistic infection and blood dyscrasias. Genetic analysis of the V1-V2 region of the envelope gene of HIV-1JC showed that the virus present in C499 was significantly divergent from all inoculating viruses (> or = 16% divergent at the amino acid level) and was suggestive of a large quasispecies. Blood from C499 transfused into an uninfected chimpanzee (C455) induced a rapid and sustained CD4+-cell decline in the latter animal, concomitant with high plasma viral loads. These results show that HIV-1 can induce AIDS in chimpanzees and suggest that long-term passage of HIV-1 in chimpanzees can result in the development of a more pathogenic virus. PMID:9094687

  6. Toward an AIDS vaccine: lessons from natural simian immunodeficiency virus infections of African nonhuman primate hosts.

    PubMed

    Sodora, Donald L; Allan, Jonathan S; Apetrei, Cristian; Brenchley, Jason M; Douek, Daniel C; Else, James G; Estes, Jacob D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Kaur, Amitinder; Kirchhoff, Frank; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Pandrea, Ivona; Schmitz, Jörn E; Silvestri, Guido

    2009-08-01

    The design of an effective AIDS vaccine has eluded the efforts of the scientific community to the point that alternative approaches to classic vaccine formulations have to be considered. We propose here that HIV vaccine research could greatly benefit from the study of natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections of African nonhuman primates. Natural SIV hosts (for example, sooty mangabeys, African green monkeys and mandrills) share many features of HIV infection of humans; however, they usually do not develop immunodeficiency. These natural, nonprogressive SIV infections represent an evolutionary adaptation that allows a peaceful coexistence of primate lentiviruses and the host immune system. This adaptation does not result in reduced viral replication but, rather, involves phenotypic changes to CD4(+) T cell subsets, limited immune activation and preserved mucosal immunity, all of which contribute to the avoidance of disease progression and, possibly, to the reduction of vertical SIV transmission. Here we summarize the current understanding of SIV infection of African nonhuman primates and discuss how unraveling these evolutionary adaptations may provide clues for new vaccine designs that might induce effective immune responses without the harmful consequences of excessive immune activation.

  7. HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A

    1996-09-01

    Many of the clinical features of HIV/AIDS can be ascribed to the profound immune deficiency which develops in infected patients. The destruction of the immune system by the virus results in opportunistic infection, as well as an increased risk of autoimmune disease and malignancy. In addition, disease manifestations related to the virus itself may occur. For example, during the primary illness which occurs within weeks after first exposure to HIV, clinical symptoms occur in at least 50% of cases, typically as a mononucleosis syndrome. HIV-related complications are rarely encountered in patients with preserved immunity (i.e. CD4 T-cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3). Recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex (HSV), herpes zoster (VZV), oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia occur with increasing frequency as the CD4 count drops below this level. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) occurs in association with HIV and often presents early in the clinical course. The risk of developing opportunistic infections and malignancies typical of AIDS increases progressively as CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. The clinical manifestations of infections associated with AIDS tend to fall into well-recognized patterns of presentation, including pneumonia, dysphagia/odynophagia, diarrhoea, neurological symptoms, fever, wasting, anaemia and visual loss. The commonest pathogens include Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare and cytomegalovirus. Malignant disease in patients with HIV infection also occurs in a characteristic pattern. Only two tumours are prevalent: Kaposi's sarcoma, a multifocal tumour of vascular endothelium which typically involves skin and mucosal surfaces; and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is typically high grade in phenotype, often arising within the central nervous system. The principles of therapy include reduction of HIV replication by antiretroviral

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in east Africa: challenges and possibilities for prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency infection and AIDS are a major recent microbial infection in east Africa with serious health and socioeconomic impacts in the region. At present HIV infection and AIDS account for more than 50% of adult medical admissions into some of the national and provincial hospitals as well as for 10-15% of paediatric admissions. AIDS is also at present the commonest cause of death among those aged 15-45 years. Tuberculosis, a closely associated disease to HIV infection, has increased more than three fold in some countries in the region. The prevalence of HIV infection currently ranges from 10-30% among adults in urban areas and from less than 1% to 25% in adults in rural areas; since this prevalence is still rising, the full impact of the AIDS problem in east Africa is yet to be realised. This is different from the situation in many developed countries where AIDS is no longer a priority health issue and where peak prevalences of the infection have been reached. The differences in HIV prevalences between east Africa and developed countries are due to poverty, ignorance, high prevalence of other STDs and associated cultural and traditional practices which prevail and facilitate HIV transmission in the region. While more than 80% of HIV infection in east Africa is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, 5-15% of cases are perinatally transmitted and the remaining cases are transmitted through blood and blood products. While a lot of scientific advances have been made in immunopathology of AIDS, diagnostics and in social behavioural studies, we are still a long way towards getting curative therapy and or effective preventive vaccines. Recent discovery that use of zidovudine can significantly reduce perinatal HIV transmission is an additional breakthrough. While knowledge and tools for preventing HIV transmission are available in the world, prospects for AIDS control in east Africa appear gloomy unless major efforts are made in the reduction of

  9. Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hospitalized Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Kouhpayeh, Hamid-Reza; Moazen, Javad; Farrokhian, Mohsen; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex. On the other hand, a patient with HIV can acquire other infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and also STIs. Co-infections and co-morbidities can affect the treatment route of patients with HIV/AIDs. Sometimes, physicians should treat these infections before treating the HIV infection. Therefore, it is important to identify co-infection or comorbidity in patients with HIV/AIDS. Objectives This study was conducted in order to understand the prevalence of HIV/AIDS/STI co-infection. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated all HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to the infectious wards of Boo-Ali hospital (Southeastern Iran) between March 2000 and January 2015. All HIV/AIDS patients were studied for sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and genital herpes. A questionnaire including data on age, sex, job, history of vaccination against HBV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), HCV-Ab, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test, and urine culture was designed. Data was analyzed by the Chi square test and P values of < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Among the 41 patients with HIV/AIDS (11 females and 30 males; with age range of 18 to 69 years) five cases (12.1%) had a positive test (1:8 or more) for

  10. Nosocomial infections in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected and AIDS patients: major microorganisms and immunological profile

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Matsuo, T.; Reiche, E.M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy advances have proportioned to AIDS patients a survival increase. At the same time, the permanence of the seropositive people in the nosocomial environment becomes common not only by the adverse reactions caused by this therapy, but also by several opportunistic diseases that take them into and out of hospital environment. During the hospital permanence, the patients expose their impaired immune system to the nosocomial virulent microorganisms, and acquire destructive nosocomial infections that sometimes can be lethal. Among several hospital syndromes described, little is known about infections in immunocompromised patients and how their immune system is able to determine the course of the infection. The objective of this study was to describe the major microorganisms involved in the nosocomial infections of HIV-1 seropositive patients associated with their immunological status. The survey was carried out with the Hospital Infection Control Service records, from University Hospital, Londrina, Paraná, Southern of Brazil, during the period from July 2003 to July 2004. From all the cases studied (n=969), 24 patients (2.5%) had AIDS diagnosis and a half of them was women with the mean of CD4+ T cells counts of 158/mm3. The main topography of the infection was pulmonary (50.0%) and the main isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A major incidence of infection was observed in patients with CD4+ T cells counts lower than 50/mm3. The study of the relationship between the impairment of the immune system and infectious agents could provide a better healthcare of people living with HIV/AIDS and advances into the nosocomial infection control systems. PMID:24031336

  11. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  12. [HIV infection and AIDS in urology].

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Miller, J; Gahr, M; Ringert, R H

    1994-05-01

    Up to December 1993, a total of 10858 AIDS cases were reported to the central AIDS registry at the Federal Health Office. Human immunodeficiency virus is acquired through needle sharing (i.v. drug users), contaminated blood transfusions, intercourse with infected persons and transplacentally by fetuses. In Germany, about seven people a day are estimated to acquire the HIV infection. Half the patients will develop systemic manifestations of AIDS within 12-13 years. Only a small percentage of these patients suffer from urological manifestations, e.g. urinary tract infection, prostatism or HIV-associated nephropathy. Nevertheless, knowledge of genitourinary pathology caused by HIV makes early diagnosis of AIDS possible.

  13. Spectrum of opportunistic infections in AIDS cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Bairy, I; Shivananda, P G

    2003-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency viruses are the initial causative agents in AIDS, but most of the morbidity and mortality in AIDS cases result from opportunistic infections, Identification of such pathogen is very important for clinicians and health planners to tackle the AIDS epidemic in more effective manner. The present study describes the clinical and laboratory profile of 100 AIDS causes who presented to a referral hospital. Oral candidiasis (59.00%) was found to be the most common opportunistic infection, followed by tuberculosis (56.00%), Cryptosporidium infection (47.00%) and Pneumocystis carinii (7.00%). Presence of oral candidiasis and weight loss is highly predictive of low DC4 count and can be considered as a marker of HIV disease progression. The patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis are also on rise. Recognition of dual infection and taking adequate steps to deal with this epidemic is needed. As Cryptosporidium infection was detected in large number, provision of safe drinking water and maintaining good hygiene is important for prevention. Early diagnosis of opportunistic infection and prompt treatment, delays the progression towards AIDS. 91.00% of patients were infected with HIV1 and 4.00% had HIV2 infection and 5.00% were dully infected. 87.00% of patients were males and 13.00% were belonging to 21-40 years of age. Majority of them were belonging to lower socioeconomic status and heterosexual route of transmission was the commonest mode of spread.

  14. A Cross-sectional Study of the Association Between Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis Among Participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McKibben, Rebeccah A.; Haberlen, Sabina A.; Post, Wendy S.; Brown, Todd T.; Budoff, Matthew; Witt, Mallory D.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Palella, Frank J.; Thio, Chloe L.; Seaberg, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the association of chronic HCV infection and coronary atherosclerosis among participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods. We assessed 994 men with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (87 of whom had chronic HCV infection) for coronary plaque, using noncontrast coronary computed tomography (CT); 755 also underwent CT angiography. We then evaluated the associations of chronic HCV infection and HIV infection with measures of plaque prevalence, extent, and stenosis. Results. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, HIV serostatus, behaviors, and CVD risk factors, chronic HCV infection was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of coronary artery calcium (prevalence ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.63), any plaque (prevalence ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09–1.45), and noncalcified plaque (prevalence ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.16–1.75). Chronic HCV infection and HIV infection were independently associated with the prevalence of any plaque and of noncalcified plaque, but there was no evidence of a synergistic effect due to HIV/HCV coinfection. The prevalences of coronary artery calcium, any plaque, noncalcified plaque, a mixture of noncalcified and calcified plaque, and calcified plaque were significantly higher among men with an HCV RNA load of ≥2 × 106 IU/mL, compared with findings among men without chronic HCV infection. Conclusions. Chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical CVD, suggesting that vigilant assessments of cardiovascular risk are warranted for HCV-infected individuals. Future research should determine whether HCV infection duration or HCV treatment influence coronary plaque development. PMID:26216904

  15. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  16. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    PubMed

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  17. Opportunistic infections in women with HIV AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, Gweneth B

    2012-12-01

    Women account for half of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infections. Heterosexual contact is the leading risk factor in women. Over 50% of patients are significantly immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Women with advanced HIV infection are at a risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). OIs lead to significant morbidity and cost. Some of OIs may impact women more significantly than men, that is, human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. OIs during pregnancy can increase the risk of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV and some OIs, such as Hepatitis C. This chapter will review of OIs that are most important in women's health.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  19. Five-year review of HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected patients in a New York City AIDS center.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Psevdos, George; Sharp, Victoria

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective review of 4,721 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, followed at St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York City, was conducted from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. HIV-Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection rate was 218/4,721, 4.6%. Among co-infected patients, 19 patients (19/218, 8.7%) died; 13 patients (13/19, 68.4%) died from non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining including 2 patients with liver failure. More non-survivors (5 patients, 5/19, 26.3%) had liver cirrhosis than those who survived (8 patients, 8/199, 4.0%; P = 0.002). There were more patients with positive HBV e antigen (HBeAg) among non-survivors, (12 patients, 12/19, 63.2%) than among survivors (74 patients, 74/199, 37.2%; P = 0.047). HIV-HBV co-infection is associated with increased overall mortality. Therefore, use of dual active antiretrovirals, particularly, tenofovir (TDF) based regimen for optimal suppression of HIV-HBV and immune restoration with prevention of high risk behaviors may contribute to improved outcomes.

  20. Cutaneous mixed infections in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Estrada, J A; Rurangirwa, A; Dosal, F L

    1990-02-01

    We report a new case of mixed infection occurring at the same site of the skin in a human immune deficiency virus-positive patient. Hyperkeratotic and crusted erosions contained fusospirochetal organisms, Cryptococcus neoformans, and another unidentified fungus.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) / reproductive tract infections (RTI) including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) / human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among the women of reproductive age group: a review.

    PubMed

    Nahar, A; Azad, A K

    1999-06-01

    Despite great improvements in preventing and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including HIV/AIDS, infections have been increasing significantly throughout the world. The problem of STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS among women aged 15-49 years is increasing at an alarming rate. Certain biological risk factors and cultural practices enhance the vulnerability of women of reproductive age. Among these biological risks are age, gender, blood transfusion during pregnancy and childbirth, and the development of asymptomatic STDs/RTIs. These are exacerbated by cultural practices like douching with pharmaceutical products, use of intravaginal substances, and the practice of anal sex. STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS affect female reproductive health in certain ways: mother-to-child transmission, effects on pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, low birth weight, ectopic pregnancy), infertility, cancer, and rise in AIDS-related mortality. On the other hand, society will experience an increase in orphans, destabilization of the family unit, and a reduction in family income. Considering the impact of these diseases on the reproductive health of women and the community, measures should be taken to prevent and control the epidemic. The paper discusses certain interventions and diagnostic and preventive strategies against STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS.

  2. Anatomic Fat Depots and Coronary Plaque Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Palella, Frank J; McKibben, Rebeccah; Post, Wendy S; Li, Xiuhong; Budoff, Matthew; Kingsley, Lawrence; Witt, Mallory D; Jacobson, Lisa P; Brown, Todd T

    2016-04-01

    Methods.  In a cross-sectional substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring was performed on all men, and, for men with normal renal function, coronary CT angiography (CTA) was performed. Associations between fat depots (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue [aSAT], and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue [tSAT]) with coronary plaque presence and extent were assessed with logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, race, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parameters. Results.  Among HIV-infected men (n = 597) but not HIV-uninfected men (n = 343), having greater VAT was positively associated with noncalcified plaque presence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, P < .05), with a significant interaction (P < .05) by HIV serostatus. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected men had lower median aSAT and tSAT and greater median VAT among men with BMI <25 and 25-29.9 kg/m(2). Among HIV-infected men, VAT was positively associated with presence of coronary plaque on CTA after adjustment for CVD risk factors (OR = 1.04, P < .05), but not after additional adjustment for BMI. There was an inverse association between aSAT and extent of total plaque among HIV-infected men, but not among HIV-uninfected men. Lower tSAT was associated with greater CAC and total plaque score extent regardless of HIV serostatus. Conclusions.  The presence of greater amounts of VAT and lower SAT may contribute to increased risk for coronary artery disease among HIV-infected persons.

  3. Anatomic Fat Depots and Coronary Plaque Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Palella, Frank J.; McKibben, Rebeccah; Post, Wendy S.; Li, Xiuhong; Budoff, Matthew; Kingsley, Lawrence; Witt, Mallory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Brown, Todd T.

    2016-01-01

    Methods. In a cross-sectional substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring was performed on all men, and, for men with normal renal function, coronary CT angiography (CTA) was performed. Associations between fat depots (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue [aSAT], and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue [tSAT]) with coronary plaque presence and extent were assessed with logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, race, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parameters. Results. Among HIV-infected men (n = 597) but not HIV-uninfected men (n = 343), having greater VAT was positively associated with noncalcified plaque presence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, P < .05), with a significant interaction (P < .05) by HIV serostatus. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected men had lower median aSAT and tSAT and greater median VAT among men with BMI <25 and 25–29.9 kg/m2. Among HIV-infected men, VAT was positively associated with presence of coronary plaque on CTA after adjustment for CVD risk factors (OR = 1.04, P < .05), but not after additional adjustment for BMI. There was an inverse association between aSAT and extent of total plaque among HIV-infected men, but not among HIV-uninfected men. Lower tSAT was associated with greater CAC and total plaque score extent regardless of HIV serostatus. Conclusions. The presence of greater amounts of VAT and lower SAT may contribute to increased risk for coronary artery disease among HIV-infected persons. PMID:27419170

  4. Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  5. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  6. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-02-09

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations.

  7. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  8. Detection of AIDS Virus in Macrophages in Brain Tissue from AIDS Patients with Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Scott; Gendelman, Howard E.; Orenstein, Jan M.; Canto, Mauro C.; Pezeshkpour, Gholam H.; Yungbluth, Margaret; Janotta, Frank; Aksamit, Allen; Martin, Malcolm A.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    1986-09-01

    One of the common neurological complications in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a subacute encephalopathy with progressive dementia. By using the techniques of cocultivation for virus isolation, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy, the identity of an important cell type that supports replication of the AIDS retrovirus in brain tissue was determined in two affected individuals. These cells were mononucleated and multinucleated macrophages that actively synthesized viral RNA and produced progeny virions in the brains of the patients. Infected brain macrophages may serve as a reservoir for virus and as a vehicle for viral dissemination in the infected host.

  9. [West Nile virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  10. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  11. Varicella zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Anne A.; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Gilden, Don; Grose, Charles; Hambleton, Sophie; Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Oxman, Michael N.; Seward, Jane F.; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death — a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia). The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia is unknown and it is difficult to treat. Furthermore, other zoster complications can develop, including myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, stroke (vasculopathy), retinitis, and gastroenterological infections such as ulcers, pancreatitis and hepatitis. VZV is the only human herpesvirus for which highly effective vaccines are available. After varicella or vaccination, both wild-type and vaccine-type VZV establish latency, and long-term immunity to varicella develops. However, immunity does not protect against reactivation. Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster. In this Primer we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VZV infections, with an emphasis on the molecular events that regulate these diseases. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/14×VI1 PMID:27188665

  12. Giant viruses infecting algae.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Meints, R H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. DNA sequence analysis of its 330, 742-bp genome leads to the prediction that this phycodnavirus has 376 protein-encoding genes and 10 transfer RNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 40% of these genes resemble proteins of known function. The chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses, in addition to their large genome size. These features include the following: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases; (b) PBCV-1 encodes at least part, if not the entire machinery to glycosylate its proteins; (c) PBCV-1 has at least two types of introns--a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene and a splicesomal processed type of intron in its DNA polymerase gene. Unlike the chlorella viruses, large double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that infect marine, filamentous brown algae have a circular genome and a lysogenic phase in their life cycle.

  13. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Joel B.; Mathias, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic continues. All health-care workers, including physicians and dental personnel, may be instrumental in recognizing risk factors associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Oral signs and symptoms of HIV infection may be the first presentation of the disease or may develop during the course of the disease and require management. Knowledge of the signs, symptoms and associated infections and tumours is needed to assist in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13 PMID:21253078

  14. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  15. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As a ... Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  16. An Exploration of Medical Care: A Content Analysis of the Views of People with the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Patricia F.; And Others

    Perceptions of the quality of medical care and the attitudes of medical personnel experienced by people infected with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus were studied using subjects known to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. Ten infected subjects participated in the study. Their interview…

  17. Novel Vaccine Approach Achieves “Functional Cure” of AIDS Virus in Monkeys | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    data and case definitions. By 1985 a virus, named at that time HTLV III, had been identified as the infectious agent of AIDS and the transmission of...in the military. HTLV III became internationally accepted as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the testing became the organized and...with the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases to "conduct clinical and epidemiological studies of cutaneous

  19. [Widespread gastrointestinal CMV infection as the presenting manifestation of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Dayan, K; Neufeld, D M; Lang, R; Novis, B; Bernheim, J; Freund, U

    1993-02-01

    A 53-year-old man is reported who developed a widespread gastrointestinal infection due to cytomegalic (CMV) virus and was found to be suffering from AIDS. He died of overwhelming pulmonary infection. There is need for awareness of the rapid increase of AIDS in our local population, particularly in groups not regarded as at high risk. It is imperative to keep this diagnosis in mind when dealing with patients with gastroenterocolitis not responding to standard treatments. CMV has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, from carrier state to life-threatening infection. In the gastrointestinal system it causes inflammation and ulcers in the mucosa that may bleed or perforate. There are increasing numbers of reports of CMV ileocolitis in homosexuals with AIDS. The rate of sero-positive CMV in healthy homosexual populations is 94-100% and in 14% there is active infection. CMV is the main infective agent in patients suffering from AIDS; 90% will develop an infection with this virus and in most cases it will be fatal.

  20. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend ... with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

  1. Short Communication: Current Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 2 Infections Among HIV/AIDS Patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Alencar, Wong Kuen

    2015-05-01

    During the 1990s, high prevalences of HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HIV/human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections were detected in São Paulo, Brazil in association with intravenous drug use (IDU). The current prevalences and risk factors for HIV/HTLV-1/-2 were evaluated in 1,608 patients attending the AIDS/STD Reference and Training Center in São Paulo. Blood samples were analyzed for HTLV-1/2-specific antibodies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA Murex HTLV-I+II, Diasorin, and Gold ELISA HTLV-I+II, REM) and immunoblotting (HTLV Blot 2.4, MP Biomedicals and INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II, Innogenetics) and for the pol proviral DNA segments of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 by "in-house" real-time PCR. These analyses revealed that 50 (3.11%) of the samples were HTLV positive, including 25 (1.55%) that were HTLV-1 positive, 21 (1.31%) that were HTLV-2 positive, and 4 (0.25%) that were HTLV positive (untypeable). The median age of the HIV/HTLV-coinfected individuals was 50 years versus 44 years in the overall population (p=0.000). The risk factors associated with HIV/HTLV-1/-2 coinfections were female gender (OR 3.26, 1.78-5.95), black/pardo color (OR 2.21, 1.21-4.03), infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (OR 4.27, 2.32-7.87) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (OR 24.40, 12.51-48.11), and intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 30.01, 15.21-59.29). The current low prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-infected patients in São Paulo could be explained in part by programs providing IDUs with sterile needles and syringes and changes in the drug usage patterns of individuals from injecting cocaine to smoking crack cocaine.

  2. Executive summary of the GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan consensus document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (updated January 2014).

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Juan; Polo, Rosa; Lozano, Fernando; López Aldeguer, José; Antela, Antonio; Arribas, José Ramón; Asensi, Víctor; Blanco, José Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Domingo, Pere; Galindo, María José; Gatell, José María; González-García, Juan; Iribarren, José Antonio; Locutura, Jaime; López, Juan Carlos; Mallolas, Josep; Martínez, Esteban; Miralles, Celia; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Palacios, Rosario; Pérez Elías, María Jesús; Pineda, Juan Antonio; Podzamczer, Daniel; Portilla, Joaquín; Pulido, Federico; Ribera, Esteban; Riera, Melchor; Rubio, Rafael; Santos, Jesús; Sanz, Jesús; Tuset, Montserrat; Vidal, Francesc; Rivero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and grade of the recommendation varies with clinical circumstances, number of CD4 cells, comorbid conditions and prevention of transmission of HIV. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load. Initial ART should always comprise a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a third drug from a different family (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, protease inhibitor, or integrase inhibitor). This update presents the causes and criteria for switching ART in patients with undetectable plasma viral load and in cases of virological failure. An update is also provided for the specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, and pregnancy) and with comorbid conditions (tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer).

  3. Quantitative evaluations of the effect of UV irradiation on the infectivity of HTLV-III (AIDS virus) with HTLV-I-carrying cell line, MT-4

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, H.; Koyanagi, Y.; Harada, S.; Yamamoto, N.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on HTLV-III was quantitatively studied to evaluate the dosage of UV irradiation which inactivates the virus for sterilization of blood products and for laboratory decontamination. In order to estimate the biologic activity and quantitation of the virus, induction of HTLV-III-specific antigens and inhibition of DNA synthesis in MT-4 cells infected by UV-irradiated HTLV-III were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique and proliferation assay using (3H)thymidine uptake, respectively. Furthermore, plaque-forming assay was performed to count the infectious viral particles. Results showed that HTLV-III was completely inactivated by 5000 J/m2 UV irradiation. Cloned UV-irradiated HTLV-III (UV-1) was obtained from a plaque that was formed by 2000 J/m2 UV-irradiated virus. When MT-4 cells were infected by the clone UV-1, ballooning degeneration of cells was predominantly induced. These ballooning cells were not usually observed in MT-4 cells infected by unirradiated HTLV-III. The resistance to UV was not different between clone UV-1 and unirradiated HTLV-III.

  4. [Epidemiological surveillance of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in French Polynesia in 1991].

    PubMed

    Gras, C; Gendron, Y; Philippon, G; Chungue, E; Laudon, F; Sirven, D; Renaud, A; Lebras, J; Cardines, D; Prigent, D

    1992-01-01

    The authors make out a statement about HIV infection in French Polynesia at the date of 1991 December 31. 96 cases all together of seropositive and AIDS infected people were recorded. These patients are young generally (78 p.c. between 21 and 40 years old) sexually contaminated (72 out of 96) and live in Tahiti island (94 p.c.). Sex-ratio is 2.8 male/1 female. Among them, we noted 55 p.c. of Europeans, 38 p.c. of Polynesians and 7 p.c. of Asiatic people. Epidemiological monitoring of the infection was made easy because of a set of laws and possibilities of detection highly favourable. Progress of the infection is constant, with 20 new cases detected each year with a prevalence of 150 cases of AIDS per 1 million of inhabitants, French Polynesia could be classified as the 5th or 6th region of France as far as the importance of the disease. Clinical, biological and epidemiological taking of charge of patients is detailed as well as the prevention campaign.

  5. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  6. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2013-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease.

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  8. Executive summary of the Consensus Document of GeSIDA and Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS on combined antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2013).

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    In the present update of the guidelines, a starting combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) is recommended in symptomatic patients, in pregnant women, in serodiscordant couples with a high risk of transmission, in patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus requiring treatment, and in patients with HIV-related nephropathy. Guidelines on cART are included in the event of a concurrent diagnosis of HIV infection with an AIDS-defining event. In asymptomatic naïve patients, cART is recommended if the CD4(+) lymphocyte count is <500cells/μL; if the CD4(+) lymphocyte count is >500cells/μL, cART can be delayed, although it may be considered in patients with liver cirrhosis, chronic infection due to hepatitis C virus, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load (PVL) >10(5)copies/mL, CD4(+) lymphocyte percentage <14%, cognitive impairment, and age >55 years. cART in naïve patients requires a combination of 3 drugs, and its aim is to achieve undetectable PVL. Treatment adherence plays a key role in sustaining a favorable response. cART can, and should be, changed if virological failure occurs, in order to return to undetectable PVL. Approaches to cART in acute HIV infection, in women, in pregnancy, in tuberculosis, and post-exposure prophylaxis are also examined.

  9. Soy isoflavones and virus infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones and their related flavonoid compounds exert antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo against a wide range of viruses. Genistein is, by far, the most studied soy isoflavone in this regard, and it has been shown to inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses, as well as s...

  10. Executive summary of the GESIDA/National AIDS Plan Consensus Document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (updated January 2015).

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Juan; Polo, Rosa; Aldeguer, José López; Lozano, Fernando; Aguirrebengoa, Koldo; Arribas, José Ramón; Blanco, José Ramón; Boix, Vicente; Casado, José Luis; Clotet, Bonaventura; Crespo, Manuel; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; García, Federico; Gatell, José María; González-García, Juan; Gutiérrez, Félix; Iribarren, José Antonio; Knobel, Hernando; Llibre, Josep María; Locutura, Jaime; López, Juan Carlos; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Podzamczer, Daniel; Portilla, Joaquín; Pulido, Federico; Ribera, Esteban; Riera, Melchor; Rubio, Rafael; Santos, Jesús; Sanz-Moreno, José; Sanz, Jesús; Téllez, María Jesús; Tuset, Montserrat; Rivero, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and grade of the recommendation vary depending on the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, the presence of opportunistic infections or comorbid conditions, age, and the efforts to prevent the transmission of HIV. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should comprise three drugs, namely, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one drug from another family. Three of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) as the third drug, are considered a preferred regimen; a further seven regimens, which are based on an INSTI, an non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a protease inhibitor boosted with ritonavir (PI/r), are considered alternatives. The reasons and criteria for switching ART are presented both for patients with an undetectable PVL and for patients who experience virological failure, in which case the rescue regimen should include three (or at least two) drugs that are fully active against HIV. The specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, pregnancy) and comorbid conditions (tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer) are updated.

  11. [Consensus document of Gesida and Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) regarding combined antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2012)].

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    This consensus document has been prepared by a panel consisting of members of the AIDS Study Group (Gesida) and the Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) after reviewing the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals, or presented in medical scientific meetings. Gesida has prepared an objective and structured method to prioritise combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in naïve patients. Recommendations strength (A, B, C) and the evidence which supports them (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria. The current antiretroviral treatment (ART) of choice for chronic HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, in pregnancy, in serodiscordant couples with high transmission risk, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, and HIV nephropathy. Guidelines on ART treatment in patients with concurrent diagnosis of HIV infection and an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: 1) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts <350 cells/μL; 2) when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, therapy will be recommended and only delayed if patient is reluctant to take it, the CD4 are stabilised, and the plasma viral load is low; 3) therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >10(5) copies/mL, proportion of CD4 cells <14%, and in people aged >55 years. ART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors nucleoside analogues and a third drug (non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually

  12. Executive summary of the GESIDA/National AIDS Plan Consensus Document on Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults Infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Updated January 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should comprise 3 drugs, namely, 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and 1 drug from another family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) as the third drug, are considered a preferred regimen; a further 6 regimens, which are based on an INSTI, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a protease inhibitor boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir (PI/COBI, PI/r), are considered alternatives. The reasons and criteria for switching ART are presented both for patients with an undetectable PVL and for patients who experience virological failure, in which case the rescue regimen should include 3 (or at least 2) drugs that are fully active against HIV. The specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, pregnancy) and comorbid conditions (tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer) are updated.

  13. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  14. Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity of the Aids Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-10

    Pehrson, P., Chiodi , F., Moberg, L., Does Nef also lead to higher virus loads and more Fenyo, E.V., Asjo, B. & Forsgren, M . (1987), Anti- efficient...promulgated by the National Institutes of Health. PI Signature _Date 4 MOdnia Of Cytotciocity of the 11DB VirUS Ootract No. EN=O7-90-0-O12S % M " OF OCNTENIS 6...HLy-i, HIV-2, and SWV replicaticn in a variety of lyqkid and ummcytoid calls hi. Determine m ~advniaii of actioni of vFR in edharKing xrv-i infectivity

  15. Direct Inoculation of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus from Sooty Mangabeys in Black Mangabeys (Lophocebus aterrimus): First Evidence of AIDS in a Heterologous African Species and Different Pathologic Outcomes of Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Apetrei, Cristian; Gormus, Bobby; Pandrea, Ivona; Metzger, Michael; ten Haaft, Peter; Martin, Louis N.; Bohm, Rudolf; Alvarez, Xavier; Koopman, Gerrit; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Veazey, Ronald S.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Baskin, Gary; Heeney, Jonathan; Marx, Preston A.

    2004-01-01

    A unique opportunity for the study of the role of serial passage and cross-species transmission was offered by a series of experiments carried out at the Tulane National Primate Research Center in 1990. To develop an animal model for leprosy, three black mangabeys (BkMs) (Lophocebus aterrimus) were inoculated with lepromatous tissue that had been serially passaged in four sooty mangabeys (SMs) (Cercocebus atys). All three BkMs became infected with simian immunodeficiency virus from SMs (SIVsm) by day 30 postinoculation (p.i.) with lepromatous tissue. One (BkMG140) died 2 years p.i. from causes unrelated to SIV, one (BkMG139) survived for 10 years, whereas the third (BkMG138) was euthanized with AIDS after 5 years. Histopathology revealed a high number of giant cells in tissues from BkMG138, but no SIV-related lesions were found in the remaining two BkMs. Four-color immunofluorescence revealed high levels of SIVsm associated with both giant cells and T lymphocytes in BkMG138 and no detectable SIV in the remaining two. Serum viral load (VL) showed a significant increase (>1 log) during the late stage of the disease in BkMG138, as opposed to a continuous decline in VL in the remaining two BkMs. With the progression to AIDS, neopterin levels increased in BkMG138. This study took on new significance when phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly showed that all four serially inoculated SMs were infected with different SIVsm lineages prior to the beginning of the experiment. Furthermore, the strain infecting the BkMs originated from the last SM in the series. Therefore, the virus infecting BkMs has not been serially passaged. In conclusion, we present the first compelling evidence that direct cross-species transmission of SIV may induce AIDS in heterologous African nonhuman primate (NHP) species. The results showed that cross-species-transmitted SIVsm was well controlled in two of three BkMs for 2 and 10 years, respectively. Finally, this case of AIDS in an African monkey

  16. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Almand, Erin A.; Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease. PMID:28335562

  17. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Almand, Erin A; Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-03-21

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease.

  18. Use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin in HIV type 1-infected children (Pediatric AIDS clinical trials group protocol 273).

    PubMed

    Stiehm, E R; Fletcher, C V; Mofenson, L M; Palumbo, P E; Kang, M; Fenton, T; Sapan, C V; Meyer, W A; Shearer, W T; Hawkins, E; Fowler, M G; Bouquin, P; Purdue, L; Sloand, E M; Nemo, G J; Wara, D; Bryson, Y J; Starr, S E; Petru, A; Burchett, S

    2000-02-01

    The clinical, immunologic, and virologic effects and the pharmacokinetics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were assessed in 30 HIV-infected children aged 2-11 years. All had moderately advanced disease with an immune complex-dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen >70 pg/mL and were on stable antiviral therapy. Three groups of 10 children received 6 monthly infusions of 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of HIVIG, and serial immunologic and virologic assays were performed. HIVIG doses as high as 800 mg/kg were safe and well tolerated. The half-life of HIVIG, determined by serial p24 antibody titers, was 13-16 days, the volume of distribution was 102-113 mL/kg, and clearance was 5.6-6.0 mL/kg/day. Plasma ICD p24 decreased during the infusions, but CD4 cell levels, plasma RNA copy number, cellular virus, immunoglobulin levels, and neutralizing antibody titers were minimally affected by the infusions. Clinical status did not change during the 6-month infusion and 3-month follow-up periods.

  19. Yeast and the AIDS Virus: The Odd Couple

    PubMed Central

    Andréola, Marie-Line; Litvak, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Despite being simple eukaryotic organisms, the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been widely used as a model to study human pathologies and the replication of human, animal, and plant viruses, as well as the function of individual viral proteins. The complete genome of S. cerevisiae was the first of eukaryotic origin to be sequenced and contains about 6,000 genes. More than 75% of the genes have an assigned function, while more than 40% share conserved sequences with known or predicted human genes. This strong homology has allowed the function of human orthologs to be unveiled starting from the data obtained in yeast. RNA plant viruses were the first to be studied in yeast. In this paper, we focus on the use of the yeast model to study the function of the proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the search for its cellular partners. This human retrovirus is the cause of AIDS. The WHO estimates that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2.0 million annual deaths due to AIDS. Current therapy is able to control the disease but there is no permanent cure or a vaccine. By using yeast, it is possible to dissect the function of some HIV-1 proteins and discover new cellular factors common to this simple cell and humans that may become potential therapeutic targets, leading to a long-lasting treatment for AIDS. PMID:22778552

  20. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  1. Chikungunya virus infection: an overview.

    PubMed

    Caglioti, Claudia; Lalle, Eleonora; Castilletti, Concetta; Carletti, Fabrizio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Bordi, Licia

    2013-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, first isolated in Tanzania in 1952. The main vectors are mosquitoes from the Aedes species. Recently, the establishment of an envelope mutation increased infectivity for A. albopictus. CHIKV has recently re-emerged causing millions of infections in countries around the Indian Ocean characterized by climate conditions favourable to high vector density. Importation of human cases to European regions with high density of suitable arthropod vectors (such as A. albopictus) may trigger autochthonous outbreaks. The clinical signs of CHIKV infection include non-specific flu-like symptoms, and a characteristic rash accompanied by joint pain that may last for a long time after the resolution of the infection. The death rate is not particularly high, but excess mortality has been observed in concomitance with large CHIKV outbreaks. Deregulation of innate defense mechanisms, such as cytokine inflammatory response, may participate in the main clinical signs of CHIKV infection, and the establishment of persistent (chronic) disease. There is no specific therapy, and prevention is the main countermeasure. Prevention is based on insect control and in avoiding mosquito bites in endemic countries. Diagnosis is based on the detection of virus by molecular methods or by virus culture on the first days of infection, and by detection of an immune response in later stages. CHIKV infection must be suspected in patients with compatible clinical symptoms returning from epidemic/endemic areas. Differential diagnosis should take into account the cross-reactivity with other viruses from the same antigenic complex (i.e. O'nyong-nyong virus).

  2. [National consensus document by GESIDA/National Aids Plan on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2011 update)].

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    The update of these adult antiretroviral treatment (cART) recommendations has been carried out by consensus of a panel consisting of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (Gesida, AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS, Spanish AIDS Plan) who have reviewed the antiretroviral efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented in medical scientific meetings. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the data source: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) was established by consensus in each situation. The current treatment of choice for HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. Combined ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, and guidelines on this treatment in patients with an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: a) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts <350 cells/μL; b) Therapy should be recommended when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, except when CD4 are stabilized, there is low plasma viral load, or the patient not willing; c) Therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/ μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, high cardiovascular risk, HIV nephropathy, viral load > 100,000 copies/ mL, proportion of CD4 cells < 14%, in people aged >55 years, and in cases of discordant serological sexual couples in order to reduce transmission. cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nucleoside analogues (AN) and a non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NN) or 2 AN and a

  3. Nitric oxide and virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Akaike, T; Maeda, H

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has complex and diverse functions in physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. The mechanisms of many events induced by NO are now well defined, so that a fundamental understanding of NO biology is almost established. Accumulated evidence suggests that NO and oxygen radicals such as superoxide are key molecules in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. NO biosynthesis, particularly through expression of an inducible NO synthase (iNOS), occurs in a variety of microbial infections. Although antimicrobial activity of NO is appreciated for bacteria and protozoa, NO has opposing effects in virus infections such as influenza virus pneumonia and certain other neurotropic virus infections. iNOS produces an excessive amount of NO for long periods, which allows generation of a highly reactive nitrogen oxide species, peroxynitrite, via a radical coupling reaction of NO with superoxide. Thus, peroxynitrite causes oxidative tissue injury through potent oxidation and nitration reactions of various biomolecules. NO also appears to affect a host's immune response, with immunopathological consequences. For example, overproduction of NO in virus infections in mice is reported to suppress type 1 helper T-cell-dependent immune responses, leading to type 2 helper T-cell-biased immunological host responses. Thus, NO may be a host response modulator rather than a simple antiviral agent. The unique biological properties of NO are further illustrated by our recent data suggesting that viral mutation and evolution may be accelerated by NO-induced oxidative stress. Here, we discuss these multiple roles of NO in pathogenesis of virus infections as related to both non-specific inflammatory responses and immunological host reactions modulated by NO during infections in vivo. PMID:11106932

  4. Dengue virus antibodies enhance Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Lauren M; Carlin, Eric R; Jenkins, Meagan M; Tan, Amanda L; Barcellona, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Cindo O; Michael, Scott F; Isern, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV have greatly heightened awareness. It is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Dengue virus (DENV), the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus, is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity may enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may lead to increased disease severity. Understanding the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies. PMID:28090318

  5. Dengue virus antibodies enhance Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lauren M; Carlin, Eric R; Jenkins, Meagan M; Tan, Amanda L; Barcellona, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Cindo O; Michael, Scott F; Isern, Sharon

    2016-12-01

    For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV have greatly heightened awareness. It is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Dengue virus (DENV), the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus, is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity may enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may lead to increased disease severity. Understanding the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies.

  6. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement.

  7. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cherpes, Thomas L; Matthews, Dean B; Maryak, Samantha A

    2012-12-01

    Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurological disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV transmission is most efficient when maternal genital tract HSV infection is acquired proximate to the time of delivery, signifying that neonatal herpes prevention strategies need to focus on decreasing the incidence of maternal infection during pregnancy and more precisely identifying infants most likely to benefit from prophylactic antiviral therapy.

  8. Co-infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1): does immune activation lead to a faster progression to AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the phenotypic profile of T lymphocytes subsets among Mozambican patients co-infected by HIV and HTLV-1. Methods We enrolled 29 patients co-infected by HTLV-1 and HIV (co-infected), 59 patients mono-infected by HIV (HIV) and 16 healthy controls (HC), respectively. For phenotypic analysis, cells were stained with the following fluorochrome-labeled anti-human monoclonal antibodies CD4-APC, CD8-PerCP, CD25-PE, CD62L-FITC, CD45RA-FITC. CD45RO-PE, CD38-PE; being analysed by four-colour flow cytometry. Results We initially found that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly higher in co-infected, as compared to HIV groups. Moreover, CD4+ T Lymphocytes from co-infected patients presented significantly higher levels of CD45RO and CD25, but lower levels of CD45RA and CD62L, strongly indicating that CD4+ T cells are more activated under HTLV-1 plus HIV co-infection. Conclusion Our data indicate that HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients progress with higher CD4+ T cell counts and higher levels of activation markers. In this context, it is conceivable that in co-infected individuals, these higher levels of activation may account for a faster progression to AIDS. PMID:20028500

  9. [Pulmonary fungal infection in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Denis, B; Lortholary, O

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections are the most common opportunistic infections (OI) occurring during the course of HIV infection, though their incidence has decreased dramatically with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART). Most cases occur in untreated patients, noncompliant patients or patients whose multiple antiretroviral regimens have failed and they are a good marker of the severity of cellular immunodepression. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is the second most frequent OI in France and cryptococcosis remains a major problem in the Southern Hemisphere. With the increase in travel, imported endemic fungal infection can occur and may mimic other infections, notably tuberculosis. Fungal infections often have a pulmonary presentation but an exhaustive search for dissemination should be made in patients infected with HIV, at least those at an advanced stage of immune deficiency. Introduction of cART in combination with anti-fungal treatment depends on the risk of AIDS progression and on the risk of cumulative toxicity and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) if introduced too early. Fungal infections in HIV infected patients remain a problem in the cART era. IRIS can complicate the management and requires an optimised treatment regime.

  10. [HIV/AIDS infection. The Brazilian view. AIDS in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, A P; De Sa, C A; Rubini, N

    1996-01-01

    The Ministry of Health coordinates and orients in Brazil all the activities concerning the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which is officially designated as AIDS. The first AIDS' case registered in Brazil was, by retrospective diagnosis, in 1981 but it was in 1982 that the first two diagnosis in live patients were made. The incidence is very high in this country that is among the ones where the higher number of cases are being registered. The great majority of the Brazilian cases occurs in the cities and in direct proportion to the population index. The groups of risk are the same universally known and a comparative increase of heterosexual transmission is noted, chiefly due to the use of injectable drugs and bisexuality of the male partners. Another problem that is being increased is pediatric AIDS, with raising importance of perinatal transmission as well as the use of injectable drugs and precocious prostitution in adolescence. The transfusional and haemophilic AIDS have proportionally decreased due to the control of blood products. The control and the orientation activity of the Ministry of Health is directed to varied points such as: compulsory cases notification, cooperation between public and private sectors, preventive and sexual orientation, freely delivered medication and laboratory tests including sigilous tests, lay and technical personnel preparation, diversified informative and educational campaigns. Trial tests with anti-HIV vaccines have begun to be performed. Multiple Reference Centers were officially established by the administration. Among them is to be quoted the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée Guinle of Rio de Janeiro where the authors work. It is credited for its intensive activity and pioneerism. In this Institution special attention was due against discrimination of HIV-infected patients, to diagnosis, to anonymous and sigilous tests, to medical and psychological assistance, to myocardium involvement, to the virologic study of the

  11. SIV vpx is essential for macrophage infection but not for development of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Susan V; Converse, A Peter; Hrecka, Kasia; Hurley, Mollie; Knight, Heather; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey; Mansfield, Keith G; Skowronski, Jacek; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of rhesus macaques infected with a vpx deletion mutant virus of simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVΔvpx) demonstrates that Vpx is essential for efficient monocyte/macrophage infection in vivo but is not necessary for development of AIDS. To compare myeloid-lineage cell infection in monkeys infected with SIVΔvpx compared to SIVmac239, we analyzed lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues from SIVΔvpx-infected rhesus (n = 5), SIVmac239-infected rhesus with SIV encephalitis (7 SIV239E), those without encephalitis (4 SIV239noE), and other SIV mutant viruses with low viral loads (4 SIVΔnef, 2 SIVΔ3). SIV+ macrophages and the percentage of total SIV+ cells that were macrophages in spleen and lymph nodes were significantly lower in rhesus infected with SIVΔvpx (2.2%) compared to those infected with SIV239E (22.7%), SIV239noE (8.2%), and SIV mutant viruses (10.1%). In colon, SIVΔvpx monkeys had fewer SIV+ cells, no SIV+ macrophages, and lower percentage of SIV+ cells that were macrophages than the other 3 groups. Only 2 SIVΔvpx monkeys exhibited detectable virus in the colon. We demonstrate that Vpx is essential for efficient macrophage infection in vivo and that simian AIDS and death can occur in the absence of detectable macrophage infection.

  12. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R

    2014-08-01

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  13. Urinary tract infection in men with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    De Pinho, A M; Lopes, G S; Ramos-Filho, C F; Santos, O da R; De Oliveira, M P; Halpern, M; Gouvea, C A; Schechter, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether bacteriuria and, specifically, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) occur with increased frequency in men with HIV infection. METHODS--In this cross-sectional study we investigated three groups of men, aged from 18 to 50 years. Group A was composed of patients with a diagnosis of AIDS; Group B, of patients without HIV infection, and group C of patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. Patients with any known predisposing factor for UTI were excluded from the study. A clean-catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient on the first day of hospital admission (groups A and B) or during a visit to the outpatient clinic (group C). Bacteriuria was diagnosed when > or = 100,000 colony forming units/ml, urine were grown. RESULTS--There were 415 patients, 151 in group A, 170 in group B and 94 in group C. Bacteriuria was significantly more frequently in group A (20 cases, 13.3%) than in groups B (3 cases, 1.8%, p = 0.00007) and C (3 cases, 3.2%, p = 0.009). Ten cases of bacteriuria in group A (6.6%) were symptomatic while no case of symptomatic UTI was seen in groups B (p = 0.0004) and C (p = 0.008). The frequency of UTI in homosexual men with AIDS (7 cases, 6.7%) was not significantly different from that observed in men with AIDS who denied homosexuality (3 cases, 6.5%). E coli was the predominant pathogen associated with UTI. Although adequate response to a two-week course of antibiotics was observed in most cases, an in-hospital mortality rate of 20% was found among AIDS patients with symptomatic UTI. CONCLUSIONS--In the present study, the frequency of bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI was found to be increased in men with AIDS. E coli was the predominant pathogen in these cases. These data suggest that symptomatic UTI may represent a relevant cause of morbidity for men with AIDS. PMID:8300097

  14. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome.

    PubMed

    Handley, Scott A; Thackray, Larissa B; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew D; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C; Permar, Sallie R; Schmitz, Joern E; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M; Veazey, Ronald S; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2012-10-12

    Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy, which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next-generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence by using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis.

  15. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  16. BK virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, J; Muñoz, P; Garcia de Viedma, D; Cabrero, I; Loeches, B; Montilla, P; Gijon, P; Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Bouza, E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BK virus (BKV) infection in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our hospital. The presence of BKV was analysed in urine and plasma samples from 78 non-selected HIV-infected patients. Clinical data were recorded using a pre-established protocol. We used a nested PCR to amplify a specific region of the BKV T-large antigen. Positive samples were quantified using real-time PCR. Mean CD4 count in HIV-infected patients was 472 cells/mm3 and median HIV viral load was <50 copies/mL. BKV viraemia was detected in only 1 HIV-positive patient, but 57.7% (45 out of 78) had BKV viruria, which was more common in patients with CD4 counts>500 cells/mm3 (74.3% vs 25.7%; p=0.007). Viruria was present in 21.7% of healthy controls (5 out of 23 samples, p=0.02). All viral loads were low (<100 copies/mL), and we could not find any association between BKV infection and renal or neurological manifestations. We provide an update on the prevalence of BKV in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. BKV viruria was more common in HIV-infected patients; however, no role for BKV has been demonstrated in this population.

  17. Fungal infections in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, K; Meyer, R D

    1986-01-01

    Persons with AIDS are predisposed to a variety of previously rare bacterial and fungal infections. Improvement in the quality and duration of survival of AIDS patients depends on the efficacy of treatment for these infections. Between 58-81% of AIDS patients contract fungal infections at some time, and 10-20% of AIDS patients die as a direct consequence of such infections. Oral candidiasis, commonly known as thrush, is the most common fungal infection among AIDS and AIDS Related Complex patients, occurring in 80-90% of cases. In a recent U.S. study, 59% of persons with oral candidiasis who were at high risk of contracting AIDS went on to develop Kaposi's sarcoma and other life- threatening infections. The most common life-threatening fungal infection experienced by AIDS patients is cryptococcosis, a disease occurring among 6% of American AIDS patients and having a mortality rate of 17% during initial infections and 75-100% on relapse. Other opportunistic infections associated with AIDS and AIDS Related Complex are bronchial candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, disseminated histoplasmosis, and disseminated coccidioidomycosis. All are treatable but eradication i s difficult and relapse common.

  18. Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: a combined study of two cohorts.

    PubMed

    Cysique, Lucette A; Maruff, Paul; Brew, Bruce J

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals across pre- and post-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras. Two cohorts of HIV-infected individuals attending tertiary referral hospital outpatient clinics were studied. The cohorts represented two eras of antiretroviral medication: monotherapy (n = 51) and HAART (n = 90). Each was compared in nine neuropsychological domains in regard to the prevalence as well as pattern of neuropsychological impairment. Because the authors intended to characterize the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological deficits in nondemented advanced HIV-infected individuals, patients with a current diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex were not included. The prevalence of impairment was not significantly different across pre-HAART and HAART eras using a standard criterion to define impairment: -2 SD in two neuropsychological measures (41.1%/38.8%). Prevalence of deficits was not significantly reduced in patients with undetectable plasma viral load. The pattern of neuropsychological impairment was different across pre-HAART and HAART eras, with an improvement in attention, verbal fluency, visuoconstruction deficits, but a deterioration in learning efficiency and complex attention. This change remained even in patients with an undetectable plasma viral load, although the severity was partially diminished. Neuropsychological deficits remain common in the HAART era, essentially uninfluenced by HAART. The finding that some neuropsychological functions are improving while other are deteriorating indicates that these deficits do not reflect "burnt out" damage but rather that there is an active intracerebral process occurring, the nature of which is still to be determined.

  19. Plasmodium chabaudi infection induces AID expression in transitional and marginal zone B cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilmore, Joel R.; Maue, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein–Barr virus and repeated malaria infections. A defining feature of eBL is the translocation of the c‐myc oncogene to the control of the immunoglobulin promoter. Activation‐induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been shown to be critical for this translocation. Malaria infection induces AID in germinal center B cells, but whether malaria infection more broadly affects AID activation in extrafollicular B cells is unknown. Methods We either stimulated purified B cells from AID‐green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter mice or infected AID‐GFP mice with Plasmodium chabaudi, AID fluorescence was monitored in B cell subsets by flow cytometry. Results In vitro analysis of B cells from these mice revealed that CpG (a Toll‐like receptor 9 ligand) was a potent inducer of AID in both mature and immature B cell subsets. Infection of AID‐GFP mice with Plasmodium chabaudi demonstrated that AID expression occurs in transitional and marginal zone B cells during acute malaria infection. Transitional B cells were also capable of differentiating into antibody secreting cells when stimulated in vitro with CpG when isolated from a P. chabaudi‐infected mouse. Conclusions These data suggest that P. chabaudi is capable of inducing AID expression in B cell subsets that do not participate in the germinal center reaction, suggesting an alternative role for malaria in the etiology of eBL. PMID:27980783

  20. Confidentiality Limits with Clients Who Have the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lizbeth A.; Harding, Anna K.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the issue of defining limits of confidentiality for the life-threatening dilemma of a client who has the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus and who continues to be sexually active without informing his or her partners. Reviews the medical background of AIDS, legal limits, and ethical issues of confidentiality. Supports…

  1. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS Print A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...

  2. The Origins of the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Max; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    1988-01-01

    States that the virus is not unique since it has been discovered in other primates as well as in man. Relates studies of viruses that indicate some have evolved disease-free coexistence with their animal hosts. (RT)

  3. [Zika virus infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Varjasi, Gabriella; Póka, Róbert

    2017-04-01

    The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. Its primary vectors are the Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus. Before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. Since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in America, especially in Brazil. In August 2016 they reported cases from New York and Poland, too. Most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. The most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. Microcephalia's most serious consequence is mental retardation, which puts great burden on both the family and the society. The viral infection increases the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is an acute autoimmune disease which causes demyelination and, in the worst cases, it can also be fatal. Yet we do not possess adequate and specific vaccination nor antiviral therapy, although, since July 2016, the effectiveness of a DNA based vaccine is being tested on humans. More than half of the world's population lives in areas contaminated by infected mosquitoes so there is a great need for the development of an effective method against the vector mosquitoes. Sadly, even the vector control strategies aren't effective enough to push back the epidemic. Pregnant or fertile women must take the highest precautions against mosquito bites, especially if they travel to regions ravaged by the epidemic. The safest solution would be to postpone both the trip and the childbearing. In Europe, the vectors aren't spread enough to cause major threat, except maybe the warmer regions bordered by the Mediterranean Sea. However, it is possible that in the near future other viruses spread by Aedes mosquitoes could appear. Naturally, the travellers and immigrants, who came from endemic regions can also contribute to the spread of the epidemic. Thanks to the changes in global weather, there were reported findings of mosquitoes of the Aedes albopictus species in Hungary, which are slowly invading the continent, although

  4. Virus Infections in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Hogue, Ian B.; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2013-01-01

    Virus infections usually begin in peripheral tissues and can invade the mammalian nervous system (NS), spreading into the peripheral (PNS) and more rarely the central nervous systems (CNS). The CNS is protected from most virus infections by effective immune responses and multi-layer barriers. However, some viruses enter the NS with high efficiency via the bloodstream or by directly infecting nerves that innervate peripheral tissues, resulting in debilitating direct and immune-mediated pathology. Most viruses in the NS are opportunistic or accidental pathogens, but a few, most notably the alpha herpesviruses and rabies virus, have evolved to enter the NS efficiently and exploit neuronal cell biology. Remarkably, the alpha herpesviruses can establish quiescent infections in the PNS, with rare but often fatal CNS pathology. Here we review how viruses gain access to and spread in the well-protected CNS, with particular emphasis on alpha herpesviruses, which establish and maintain persistent NS infections. PMID:23601101

  5. Self-Deferral, HIV Infection, and the Blood Supply: Evaluating an AIDS Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Novick, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of self-deferral, a social screen implemented to protect the U.S. blood supply from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prior to the advent of laboratory testing. Mathematical models are developed to estimate the number of infectious transfusions ultimately leading to AIDS prior to self-deferral.…

  6. Guidelines for Counselling about HIV Infection and Disease. WHO AIDS Series 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The present guidelines have been prepared to provide counselors, health care workers, and others with a model for use in counseling people affected directly or indirectly by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The guidelines describe the nature, role, and principles of counseling, the…

  7. HIV/AIDS Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find a Funding Opportunity Opportunities & Announcements ... related co-infections, such as hepatitis, malaria, and tuberculosis. Treatment of HIV Infection In the early 1980s ...

  8. [Occult hepatitis C virus infection].

    PubMed

    Carreño García, Vicente; Nebreda, Javier Bartolomé; Aguilar, Inmaculada Castillo; Quiroga Estévez, Juan Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the detection of HCV-RNA in liver in the absence of anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA determined by conventional techniques. The development of a new enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against a conserved epitope in the HCV core protein, together with the detection of HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in serum after concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation, allow diagnosis of more than 90% of patients with occult HCV without the need to perform a liver biopsy. Histological damage in occult HCV infection ranges from minimal changes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, although in general this disease is less severe than classical chronic hepatitis C. A significant prevalence of occult HCV infection has been identified in risk groups such as hemodialysis patients and the family members of patients with occult hepatitis C. This occult HCV infection can also be found in subjects without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease.

  9. Hematologic disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cosby, Cecily D

    2007-01-01

    Nurses encounter patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection at various stages of their infection and in a variety of settings. This article focuses on the most common hematologic disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which can precipitate complications and frequently accompany hospitalization. It is important for nurses to have a solid foundation as to the cause of these disorders, their impact on quality of life and outcomes, and management strategies.

  10. Tuberculosis and histoplasmosis co-infection in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Carlos A; Restrepo, Carlos A; Molina, Diego A; Tobón, Angela M; Kauffman, Carol A; Murillo, Carolina; Restrepo, Angela

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Coinfection with tuberculosis in some countries occurs in 8-15% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected patients who have histoplasmosis. This coinfection interferes with prompt diagnosis, and treatment is difficult because of drug interactions. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 14 HIV-infected patients who had concomitant tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The most frequent clinical manifestations were weight loss (85.7%), asthenia (78.5%), and fever (64.2%). The diagnosis of histoplasmosis was made primarily by histopathology (71.4%), and the diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by means of direct microscopic examination (71.4%). Death occurred in two patients, and relapse of both infections occurred in one patient. Moxifloxacin was substituted for rifampicin in six patients, with good outcomes noted for both infections. The clinical presentation does not readily identify acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who have tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. The use of a fluoroquinolone as an alternative agent in place of rifampicin for tuberculosis allows effective therapy with itraconazole for histoplasmosis.

  11. Examination of brains of AIDS cases for human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D G; Itagaki, S; Berry, K; McGeer, P L

    1989-01-01

    The role of direct virus infection as a determining factor in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia was investigated using in situ hybridisation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Four of the five AIDS dementia patients in this series demonstrated HIV infected cells distributed in widely different parts of the brain, but only one case showed HCMV infected cells. The greater abundance of HIV was in subcortical white matter in nodular areas consisting of monocyte/macrophage infiltrates. The cells were occasionally arranged as a multinucleated syncitium. In two cases, a few large cells with the appearance of neurons were positive for HIV hybridisation. By appropriate treatment with ribonuclease, it was shown that hybridisation was primarily to HIV RNA. HCMV infected cells were observed in small numbers in only one of the positive cases, suggesting that HCMV is not a determining factor in AIDS dementia. HCMV positive cells were located in the grey matter, with an appearance suggestive of neurons. Cells expressing the MHC-class II antigen HLA-DR, a marker of reactive microglia and macrophages, were observed to be extensive in affected brain sections in the one case examined. These cells were present in greater number than HIV infected cells. In this case, extensive numbers of HIV infected cells were noticed along the peripheral margin of the substantia innominata. This could indicate infection in this case of a critical brain region from the cerebrospinal fluid. Images PMID:2543795

  12. Bell's palsy and infection with rubella virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, G A; Al-Husaini, A

    1983-01-01

    Viral antibody-titres were measured in 28 patients with Bell's palsy seen in Baghdad. These cases were selected to include only those seen within 24 hours from onset. No association with recent viral infection other than rubella virus was demonstrated. Four cases showed immunological evidence of simultaneous rubella virus infection but without other clinical evidence of the disease. PMID:6886708

  13. Systemic fungal infections in patients with human inmunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, C; Arenas, R; Moreno-Coutiño, G; Vásquez, E; Fernández, R; Chang, P

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. In immunocompromised patients, primary pulmonary infection can spread to the skin and meninges. Clinical manifestations appear in patients with a CD4(+) lymphocyte count of less than 150 cells/μL. Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. It can present as diffuse pulmonary disease or as a disseminated form primarily affecting the central nervous system, the bones, and the skin. Cryptococcosis is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans (var. neoformans and var. grubii) and Cryptococcus gattii, which are members of the Cryptococcus species complex and have 5 serotypes: A, B, C, D, and AD. It is a common opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, even those receiving antiretroviral therapy. Histopathologic examination and culture of samples from any suspicious lesions are essential for the correct diagnosis of systemic fungal infections in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  14. The Molecular Biology of the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseltine, William A.; Wong-Staal, Flossie

    1988-01-01

    Describes the initial site, and symptoms of the human immunodeficiency virus. Explains the diverse behavior and destructive consequences of the disease through discussion, diagrams, and pictures of the life cycle of the virus and the genetic material that controls it. (RT)

  15. Mechanisms of Cytotoxicity of the Aids Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    proteins, saturation of binding was adileved with approximately 25 ul (300 ug) of 68 Mecanica of Cytotcadcity of the AIM Virus Oontract No. EMM17-90-C...viral assembly. Virology 179, 749-758. Human immunodeficiency virus vpr gene encodes a vinon-assocated PAxTON, W., CONNOR, R. 1. & LANDAU , N. R

  16. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  17. Beyond SHM and CSR: AID and related cytidine deaminases in the host response to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Brad R; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2007-01-01

    As the primary effector of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) serves an important function in the adaptive immune response. Recent advances have demonstrated that AID and a group of closely related cytidine deaminases, the APOBEC3 proteins, also act in the innate host response to viral infection. Antiviral activity was first attributed to APOBEC3G as a potent inhibitor of HIV. It is now apparent that the targets of the APOBEC3 proteins extend beyond HIV, with family members acting against a wide variety of viruses as well as host-encoded retrotransposable genetic elements. Although it appears to function through a different mechanism, AID also possesses antiviral properties. Independent of its antibody diversification functions, AID protects against transformation by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV), an oncogenic retrovirus. Additionally, AID has been implicated in the host response to other pathogenic viruses. These emerging roles for the AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases in viral infection suggest an intriguing evolutionary connection of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.

  18. Comparative study viruses with computer-aided phase microscope AIRYSCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.

    1996-12-01

    Traditionally viruses are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after complicated procedure of sample preparation without the possibility to study it under natural conditions. We obtained images of viruses (Vaccinia virus, Rotavirus) and rickettsias (Rickettsia provazekii, Coxiella burnetti) in native state with computer-aided phase microscope airyscan -- the interference microscope of Linnik layout with phase modulation of the reference wave with dissector image tube as coordinate-sensitive photodetector and computer processing of phase image. A light source was the He-Ne laser. The main result is coincidence of dimensions and shape of phase images with available information concerning their morphology obtained with SEM and other methods. The fine structure of surface and nuclei is observed. This method may be applied for virus recognition and express identification, investigation of virus structure and the analysis of cell-virus interaction.

  19. Virus structure using the computer-aided phase microscope Airyscan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kaverin, Nikolai V.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Kufal, Georgy E.

    1997-04-01

    Investigation of features and functions of some small biological objects (smaller than 500 nm), in particular, viruses, with conventional optical microscopy is practically impossible. Usually their images are obtained with methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which precludes work with samples in a native state. We obtained images of different viruses including influenza A virus in native state with computer-aided phase microscope (CPM) Airyscan, in which an He-Ne laser is used as a light source. The main purpose of this work was to show the possibility to obtain adequate structure images of influenza viruses with diameter about 100 nm in conditions quite close to native and to investigate different stages of influenza virus budding. We suppose that these results may be considered as a basis for further studies of cell-virus interaction.

  20. Detection and diagnosis of rice-infecting viruses

    PubMed Central

    Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shiba, Takuya; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Ueno, Takanori; Hirae, Masahiro; Sasaya, Takahide

    2013-01-01

    Rice-infecting viruses have caused serious damage to rice production in Asian, American, and African countries, where about 30 rice viruses and diseases have been reported. To control these diseases, developing accurate, quick methods to detect and diagnose the viruses in the host plants and any insect vectors of the viruses is very important. Based on an antigen–antibody reaction, serological methods such as latex agglutination reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have advanced to detect viral particles or major proteins derived from viruses. They aid in forecasting disease and surveying disease spread and are widely used for virus detection at plant protection stations and research laboratories. From the early 2000s, based on sequence information for the target virus, several other methods such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification have been developed that are sensitive, rapid, and able to differentiate closely related viruses. Recent techniques such as real-time RT-PCR can be used to quantify the pathogen in target samples and monitor population dynamics of a virus, and metagenomic analyses using next-generation sequencing and microarrays show potential for use in the diagnosis of rice diseases. PMID:24130554

  1. Virus-induced aggregates in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

    2012-10-17

    During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review.

  2. Modulation of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Functions during Progression to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Silke; Greenough, Thomas C.; Krumbiegel, Mandy; Greenberg, Michael; Skowronski, Jacek; Sullivan, John L.; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein has several independent functions that might contribute to efficient viral replication in vivo. Since HIV-1 adapts rapidly to its host environment, we investigated if different Nef properties are associated with disease progression. Functional analysis revealed that nef alleles obtained during late stages of infection did not efficiently downmodulate class I major histocompatibility complex but were highly active in the stimulation of viral replication. In comparison, functional activity in downregulation of CD4 and enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity were maintained or enhanced after AIDS progression. Our results demonstrate that various Nef activities are modulated during the course of HIV-1 infection to maintain high viral loads at different stages of disease progression. These findings suggest that all in vitro Nef functions investigated contribute to AIDS pathogenesis and indicate that nef variants with increased pathogenicity emerge in a significant number of HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:11264355

  3. Virus infection speeds: Theory versus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2010-12-01

    In order to explain the speed of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) infections, we develop a simple model that improves previous approaches to the propagation of virus infections. For VSV infections, we find that the delay time elapsed between the adsorption of a viral particle into a cell and the release of its progeny has a very important effect. Moreover, this delay time makes the adsorption rate essentially irrelevant in order to predict VSV infection speeds. Numerical simulations are in agreement with the analytical results. Our model satisfactorily explains the experimentally measured speeds of VSV infections.

  4. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  5. The Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasner, Peter D.; Kaslow, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology and natural history of human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Discusses early and late clinical manifestations, diagnosis of infection, incubation and latency periods, and survival time. Reviews data from published literature on distribution of HIV infection in adult United States population and factors that…

  6. Occult hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Kim, Yoon Jun

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) refers to the presence of HBV DNA in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen. Since OBI was first described in the late 1970s, there has been increasing interest in this topic. The prevalence of OBI varies according to the different endemicity of HBV infection, cohort characteristics, and sensitivity and specificity of the methods used for detection. Although the exact mechanism of OBI has not been proved, intra-hepatic persistence of viral covalently closed circular DNA under the host’s strong immune suppression of HBV replication and gene expression seems to be a cause. OBI has important clinical significance in several conditions. First, OBI can be transmitted through transfusion, organ transplantation including orthotopic liver transplantation, or hemodialysis. Donor screening before blood transfusion, prophylaxis for high-risk organ transplantation recipients, and dialysis-specific infection-control programs should be considered to reduce the risk of transmission. Second, OBI may reactivate and cause acute hepatitis in immunocompromised patients or those receiving chemotherapy. Close HBV DNA monitoring and timely antiviral treatment can prevent HBV reactivation and consequent clinical deterioration. Third, OBI may contribute to the progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease including hepatitis C. Finally, OBI seems to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma by its direct proto-oncogenic effect and by indirectly causing persistent hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this needs further investigation. We review published reports in the literature to gain an overview of the status of OBI and emphasize the clinical importance of OBI. PMID:25544873

  7. Out of the Shadows: Building an Agenda and Strategies for Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS among Street and Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes the findings of a conference that examined the problem of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among street and homeless youth. Street and homeless youth, by virtue of their circumstances and the behaviors they engage in, are at great risk of becoming infected with HIV,…

  8. Zika Virus Infection: Current Concerns and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Ranjan, Aruna; Chu, Jian Feng; Foo, Wei Lim; Chai, Zhi Xin; Lau, Eileen YinYien; Ye, Heuy Mien; Theam, Xi Jin; Lok, Yen Ling

    2016-12-01

    The Zika virus outbreaks highlight the growing importance need for a reliable, specific and rapid diagnostic device to detect Zika virus, as it is often recognized as a mild disease without being identified. Many Zika virus infection cases have been misdiagnosed or underreported because of the non-specific clinical presentation. The aim of this review was to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the published peer-reviewed evidence related to clinical presentations, various diagnostic methods and modes of transmission of Zika virus infection, as well as potential therapeutic targets to combat microcephaly. Zika virus is mainly transmitted through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can also be transmitted through blood, perinatally and sexually. Pregnant women are advised to postpone or avoid travelling to areas where active Zika virus transmission is reported, as this infection is directly linked to foetal microcephaly. Due to the high prevalence of Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly in the endemic area, it is vital to confirm the diagnosis of Zika virus. Zika virus infection had been declared as a public health emergency and of international concern by the World Health Organisation. Governments and agencies should play an important role in terms of investing time and resources to fundamentally understand this infection so that a vaccine can be developed besides raising awareness.

  9. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature.

  10. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Bethany A.; Powers, Linda S.; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks. PMID:26562011

  11. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  12. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. Methods This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. Results We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-15

    JL. Dental management in HIV infection. Howard University School of Dentistry , Washington DC. April 1990. Konzelman Presentation 1990 Konzelman JL. HIV...1992. . Konzelman Manuscript 1992 Konzelman JL. Dental management of the HIV infected patient . US Army Institute of Dental Research Information...but have tailed to develop a method sufficiently robust to contribute to patient management . whole culture titrations, plasma cultures and quantitative

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in Singapore--the first 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Chew, S K; Chan, R; Monteiro, E H; Sng, E H

    1990-12-01

    As at 31 May 1990, fifty Singaporeans with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection had been detected. Of these, nineteen had the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The majority of infected persons had been infected through sexual contact (homosexual 52%; bisexual 24%; heterosexual 20%) with men and women from countries where HIV infection was prevalent. The majority of infected patients (88%) were in the age range 20-39 years. There was one case of blood transfusion-associated AIDS. There were no infected paediatric or haemophiliac cases or intravenous drug use in any of the patients. A spectrum of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and cancers was observed, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was the most frequent presentation. Thirteen patients with AIDS had died and the median survival time was about seven months.

  15. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  16. Herpes simplex type-1 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A

    2003-06-01

    Oral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus represents one of the more common conditions the dental practitioner will be called upon to manage. Unique in its ability to establish latency and undergo subsequent recurrence, it is an ubiquitous infectious agent for which a cure does not exist. For the immunocompetent patient, herpes virus simplex infection typically represents nothing more than a nuisance. However, for the immunocompromised patient, this infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently introduced antiviral drug regimens may reduce the morbidity and potential mortality of the herpes simplex virus, especially in immunocompromised patients. The value of antiviral therapy in the management of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection in the immunocompetent patient remains an area of contentious debate.

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection: an innate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract infection in children and adults. However, infection with this virus sometimes leads to severe lower respiratory disease and is the major cause of infant hospitalisations in the developed world. Several risk factors such as baby prematurity and congenital heart disease are known to predispose towards severe disease but previously healthy, full-term infants can also develop bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia during RSV infection. The causes of severe disease are not fully understood but may include dysregulation of the immune response to the virus, resulting in excessive recruitment and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells that can cause damage. This review highlights recent discoveries on the balancing act of immune-mediated virus clearance versus immunopathology during RSV infection. PMID:28105323

  18. Innate immune responses in raccoons after raccoon rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Sribalachandran, Hariharan; Rosatte, Rick; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Kyle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic wildlife diseases pose significant health risks not only to their primary vectors but also to humans and domestic animals. Rabies is a lethal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RV). This RNA virus can infect a range of terrestrial mammals but each viral variant persists in a particular reservoir host. Active management of these host vectors is needed to minimize the negative impacts of this disease, and an understanding of the immune response to RV infection aids strategies for host vaccination. Current knowledge of immune responses to RV infection comes primarily from rodent models in which an innate immune response triggers activation of several genes and signalling pathways. It is unclear, however, how well rodent models represent the immune response of natural hosts. This study investigates the innate immune response of a primary host, the raccoon, to a peripheral challenge using the raccoon rabies virus (RRV). The extent and temporal course of this response during RRV infection was analysed using genes predicted to be upregulated during infection (IFNs; IFN regulatory factors; IL-6; Toll like receptor-3; TNF receptor). We found that RRV activated components of the innate immune system, with changes in levels of transcripts correlated with presence of viral RNA. Our results suggest that natural reservoirs of rabies may not mimic the immune response triggered in rodent models, highlighting the need for further studies of infection in primary hosts.

  19. Imported Mayaro virus infection in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Hassing, Robert-Jan; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Blank, Sybrandus N; Thevarayan, Subashini; Tolou, Hugues; van Doornum, Gerard; van Genderen, Perry J

    2010-10-01

    A Dutch couple, presenting with persisting arthralgias, temporary fever and rash after a stay in Surinam were diagnosed with Mayaro virus infection. Mayaro virus is a relatively unknown South American Alphavirus responsible for dengue-like clinical features and persisting arthralgias. An important, but probably underappreciated cross-reactivity with other Alphaviruses like Chikungunya virus is present, which may become of clinical importance in the event the various Alphaviruses will have overlapping geographical distributions and in seroprevalence studies.

  20. METHODS USED TO STUDY RESPIRATORY VIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Flaño, Emilio; Jewell, Nancy A.; Durbin, Russell K.; Durbin, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    This unit describes protocols for infecting the mouse respiratory tract, and assaying virus replication and host response in the lung. Respiratory infections are the leading cause of acute illness worldwide, affecting mostly infants and children in developing countries. The purpose of this unit is to provide the readers with a basic strategy and protocols to study the pathogenesis and immunology of respiratory virus infection using the mouse as an animal model. The procedures include: (i) basic techniques for mouse infection, tissue sampling and preservation, (ii) determination of viral titers, isolation and analysis of lymphocytes and dendritic cells using flow-cytometry, and (iii) lung histology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. PMID:19499505

  1. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  2. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1993-01-01

    Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

  4. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  5. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several factors, such as age and nutritional status can affect the susceptibility to influenza infections. Moreover, exposure to air pollutants, such as diesel exhaust (DE), has been shown to affect respiratory virus infections in rodent models. Influenza virus primarily infects ...

  6. [The very severe sensorineural deafness patients caused by rubella virus infection: two cases report].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wan, Lang; Xu, Fen

    2015-09-01

    To explore the audiological features in children who were sever sensorineural hearing loss infected with rubella virus. There were two cases of rubella virus infection in children who were deaf, they conducted the distortion product otoacoustic emission, ABR and auditory steady-state evoked response (ASSR) examination, then analyzed the results comprehensively. Two patients' mothers were prompted to have infected rubella virus during the early three months pregnant period by history and laboratory tests. The two patients were not detected deafness gene mutation. Audiology results implied the two patients were very severe binaural sensorineural deafness, so they were recommended to equipped with hearing aids and cochlear implant surgery. Early pregnancy women infected with rubella virus can cause very severe offspring sensorineural deafness. The crowd whose mother were suspected to infect with rubella virus in early pregnancy, that should be tracked and detected hearing in order to achieve early detection, early intervention and early treatment.

  7. High prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Carreño, Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the absence of detectable antibodies against HCV and of viral RNA in serum is called occult HCV infection. Its prevalence and clinical significance in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is unknown. HCV RNA was tested for in the liver samples of 52 patients with chronic HBV infection and 21 (40 %) of them were positive for viral RNA (occult HCV infection). Liver fibrosis was found more frequently and the fibrosis score was significantly higher in patients with occult HCV than in negative ones, suggesting that occult HCV infection may have an impact on the clinical course of HBV infection.

  8. HIV/AIDS and Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections (OIs). There are many types of OIs. Tuberculosis and a serious related disease, Mycobacterium avium complex ( ... for Disease Control and Prevention) Also in Spanish Tuberculosis (AIDS.gov) Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and ...

  9. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  10. Effects of Smoking on Non-AIDS-Related Morbidity in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Daniel K.; Kaner, Robert J.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has many adverse health consequences. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection smoke at very high rates, and many of the comorbidities associated with smoking in the general population are more prevalent in this population. It is likely that a combination of higher smoking rates along with an altered response to cigarette smoke throughout the body in persons with HIV infection leads to increased rates of the known conditions related to smoking. Several AIDS-defining conditions associated with smoking have been reviewed elsewhere. This review aims to summarize the data on non-AIDS-related health consequences of smoking in the HIV-infected population and explore evidence for the potential compounding effects on chronic systemic inflammation due to HIV infection and smoking. PMID:23572487

  11. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle world-wide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bRSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by org...

  12. Pathogenesis of Lassa Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    virus , an arenavirus distantly related to Lassa Lassa fever ...other arenaviruses in animal models (5. 6). In VOL. 37, 1982 LASSA VIRUS INFECTION IN GUINEA PIGS 777S[ iU FIG. 6. (A) Lassa viral antigens in...resem- ent with the hemoconcentration associated with bles human and primate Lassa virus infection other human hemorrhagic fever virus infections. than

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    PubMed

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  14. Preventing opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: implications for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J E; Hu, D J; Holmes, K K; Jaffe, H W; Masur, H; De Cock, K M

    1996-07-01

    More than 18 million persons in the world are estimated to have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As immunodeficiency progresses, these persons become susceptible to a wide variety of opportunistic infections (OIs) The spectrum of OIs varies among regions of the world. Tuberculosis is the most common serious OI in sub-Saharan Africa and is also more common in Latin America and in Asia than in the United States. Bacterial and parasitic infections are prevalent in Africa; protozoal infections such as toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, and isosporiasis are also common in Latin America. Fungal infections, including cryptococcosis and Penicillium marneffei infection, appear to be prevalent in Southeast Asia. Despite limited health resources in these regions, some measures that are recommended to prevent OIs in the United States may be useful for prolonging and improving the quality of life of HIV-infected persons. These include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections; isoniazid to prevent tuberculosis; and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to prevent disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Research is needed to determine the spectrum of OIs and the efficacy of various prevention measures in resource-poor nations, and health officials need to determine a minimum standard of care for HIV-infected persons. An increasing problem in the developing world, HIV/AIDS should receive attention comparable to other tropical diseases.

  15. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J.; Bidle, Kay D.; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host–virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host–virus “arms race” during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean. PMID:25964340

  16. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses.

    PubMed

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J; Bidle, Kay D; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-05-26

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host-virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host-virus "arms race" during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean.

  17. Health care delivery for people with HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Arkell, S

    Health care delivery for people with HIV infection and AIDS will need to change in the future to accommodate the expected increasing numbers of people affected. Nurses have an important role in preventing the spread of HIV infection and in caring for this group of people.

  18. Global Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gayle, Helene D.; Hill, Gena L.

    2001-01-01

    This review provides information on the epidemiology, economic impact, and intervention strategies for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) at the end of 1999, an estimated 34.3 million people were living with HIV/AIDS. Most of the people living with HIV, 95% of the global total, live in developing countries. Examples of the impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Newly Independent States provide insight into the demographics, modes of exposure, treatment and prevention options, and the economic effect of the epidemic on the global community. The epidemic in each region of the world is influenced by the specific risk factors that are associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS and the responses that have evolved to address it. These influences are important in developing HIV/AIDS policies and programs to effectively address the global pandemic. PMID:11292641

  19. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Estimate AIDS after HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Apenteng, Ofosuhene O; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2015-01-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health concern in many parts of the world, and mathematical models are commonly applied to understand the spread of the HIV epidemic. To understand the spread of HIV and AIDS cases and their parameters in a given population, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic factors. The current study used this framework to assess the interaction between individuals who developed AIDS after HIV infection and individuals who did not develop AIDS after HIV infection (pre-AIDS). We first investigated how probabilistic parameters affect the model in terms of the HIV and AIDS population over a period of time. We observed that there is a critical threshold parameter, R0, which determines the behavior of the model. If R0 ≤ 1, there is a unique disease-free equilibrium; if R0 < 1, the disease dies out; and if R0 > 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable. We also show how a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach could be used as a supplement to forecast the numbers of reported HIV and AIDS cases. An approach using a Monte Carlo analysis is illustrated to understand the impact of model-based predictions in light of uncertain parameters on the spread of HIV. Finally, to examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study was performed of reported HIV and AIDS cases from an annual data set in Malaysia, and then we compared how these approaches complement each other. We conclude that HIV disease in Malaysia shows epidemic behavior, especially in the context of understanding and predicting emerging cases of HIV and AIDS.

  20. Persistent RNA virus infections: do PAMPS drive chronic disease?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mary K; Morrison, Thomas E

    2017-02-16

    Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways.

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Falsey, Ann R

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common winter time respiratory virus that affects persons of all ages and is the major cause of serious lower respiratory tract infections in young children. However, RSV is also an important pathogen in adults, particularly in the elderly, patients with chronic lung disease, or those with impaired immunity. Clinical features of RSV infections overlap with other respiratory viruses, so laboratory tests are required to establish the diagnosis. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of samples from nasal swabs, sputum, or bronchoalveolar lavage is a sensitive test to substantiate the diagnosis. Serologies are useful in epidemiological surveys. The clinical course of RSV infections is variable. In infants, RSV presents as bronchiolitis. In adults, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness is characteristic. However, severe pneumonia can occur, particularly in the elderly with comorbidities or compromised immune status. Humoral antibodies confer partial immunity to RSV infection and disease severity; cellular immunity is important to eradicate RSV in established infections. Treatment of RSV infections is often supportive. Aerosolized ribavirin is approved for RSV infections in infants; its role in adults is controversial. Infection control measures are critical to limit spread of RSV. Currently, RSV vaccines are not available, but candidate vaccines are being developed.

  2. Thyroid hormone: a "prime suspect" in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) patients?

    PubMed

    Amadi, K; Sabo, A M; Ogunkeye, O O; Oluwole, F S

    2008-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the final and most serious stage of the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus. The Immune system is the target of AIDS. We investigate presently any possible involvement of thyroid hormone, the deficiency of which gives rise to oedema and susceptibility to nonspecific infections; with a view to finding the primary factor seeding the disease. It has been reported that circumcision reduced the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection. Beyond circumcision however there might be some constitutional factor that comprises HIV infection to clinical AIDS. It is against this background that our research team turned to possible dyshormonopoisis and to thyroid hormone as a prime suspect among other possible factors that cause clinical AIDS. Moreover the hormone has been reported to be crucial for optimum immune function. A population of 200 seropositive AIDS patients were investigated against a control of 50 subjects made up of 25 healthy circumcised males and 25 healthy females; all of who were seronegative for the disease. The parameters investigated include thyrotropin (TSH), Thyroxine (T4), Total protein (TP), Albumin (Alb), Globulin (Glob), Immune complex (IC3) and Bence Jones proteins (BJP) levels in serum or urine. All seropositive clinically HIV/AIDS patients were hypothyroid. Seronegatives had significantly higher T4, TP, and Alb levels at P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 for Glob than seropositives. Seropositive females exhibited significant (P < 0.001) higher levels of IC3 than seronegative males. The globulin levels of all HIV patients were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than control. BJP was also isolated in the urine of patients. The findings suggest that thyroid hormone deficiency is a primary culprit for the other inert or dormant factors to be activated.

  3. Clinical Potential of the Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Cidofovir, Adefovir, and Tenofovir in Treatment of DNA Virus and Retrovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonates HPMPC (cidofovir), PMEA (adefovir), and PMPA (tenofovir) have proved to be effective in vitro (cell culture systems) and in vivo (animal models and clinical studies) against a wide variety of DNA virus and retrovirus infections: cidofovir against herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8), polyomavirus, papillomavirus, adenovirus, and poxvirus (variola virus, cowpox virus, vaccinia virus, molluscum contagiosum virus, and orf virus) infections; adefovir against herpesvirus, hepadnavirus (human hepatitis B virus), and retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus types 1 [HIV-1] and 2 [HIV-2], simian immunodeficiency virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus) infections; and tenofovir against both hepadnavirus and retrovirus infections. Cidofovir (Vistide) has been officially approved for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) has been approved for the treatment of HIV infections (i.e., AIDS), and adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera) has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Nephrotoxicity is the dose-limiting side effect for cidofovir (Vistide) when used intravenously (5 mg/kg); no toxic side effects have been described for adefovir dipivoxil and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, at the approved doses (Hepsera at 10 mg orally daily and Viread at 300 mg orally daily). PMID:14557287

  4. Oesophagobronchial fistula caused by varicella zoster virus in a patient with AIDS: a unique case

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, F; Uberti-Foppa, C; Quiros-Roldan, E; Fanti, L; Lillo, F; Lazzarin, A

    2002-01-01

    Human herpesvirus oesophagitis in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients is caused by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus; no cases of oesophagitis and oesophagobrochial fistula as a result of varicella zoster virus (VZV) have been reported to date. This report describes the case of a patient with a 2–3 mm deep oesophageal ulcer whose viral culture was positive for VZV. The patient was treated with acyclovir with resolution of the symptomatology. After the end of the induction treatment, because of the onset of fever and fits of coughing during eating, the patient underwent oesophagography, which showed an ulcer with an oesophagobronchial fistula in the middle and lower third of the oesophagus. This case report stresses the role of VZV infection as a possible cause of oesophagobronchial fistula, a rare but benign condition in patients with AIDS. PMID:11986352

  5. HIV/AIDS - pregnancy and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007689.htm HIV/AIDS - pregnancy and infants To use the sharing features ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  6. The management of herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Brentjens, Mathijs H; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2002-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus persists in a latent form for the life of its host, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently no cure is available. Antiviral therapy is the main treatment modality, used either orally, intravenously, or topically to prohibit further replication of the virus and thereby minimize cellular destruction. However, immunologic advances in the treatment and prevention of herpes simplex infections are promising and continue to be studied.

  7. Peptide inhibitors of dengue virus and West Nile virus infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hrobowski, Yancey M; Garry, Robert F; Michael, Scott F

    2005-01-01

    Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral infection. The envelope glycoprotein (E) of flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), are class II viral fusion proteins comprised predominantly of beta sheets. We used a physio-chemical algorithm, the Wimley-White interfacial hydrophobicity scale (WWIHS) [1] in combination with known structural data to identify potential peptide inhibitors of WNV and DENV infectivity that target the viral E protein. Viral inhibition assays confirm that several of these peptides specifically interfere with target virus entry with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the 10 μM range. Inhibitory peptides similar in sequence to domains with a significant WWIHS scores, including domain II (IIb), and the stem domain, were detected. DN59, a peptide corresponding to the stem domain of DENV, inhibited infection by DENV (>99% inhibition of plaque formation at a concentrations of <25 μM) and cross-inhibition of WNV fusion/infectivity (>99% inhibition at <25 μM) was also demonstrated with DN59. However, a potent WNV inhibitory peptide, WN83, which corresponds to WNV E domain IIb, did not inhibit infectivity by DENV. Additional results suggest that these inhibitory peptides are noncytotoxic and act in a sequence specific manner. The inhibitory peptides identified here can serve as lead compounds for the development of peptide drugs for flavivirus infection. PMID:15927084

  8. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Deficiency Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Dis 158:1158, 1988 2. Albert J, Bredberg U, Chiodi F, et a: A new human retrovirus isolate of West African origin (SBL-6669) and its relationship to...J Epidemiol 4:426, 1988 27. Chiodi F, Albert J, Olausson E, et al: Isolation frequency of human immunodeficiency virus from cerebrospinal fluid and...blood of patients with varying severity of HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 4:351, 1988 28. Chiodi F, Bredberg-Baden U, Biberfeld G, et al

  9. Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing the G Protein of Rabies Virus Protects Mice after Rabies Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. PMID:25552723

  10. Respiratory virus infection among hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: evidence for asymptomatic parainfluenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Peck, Angela J; Englund, Janet A; Kuypers, Jane; Guthrie, Katherine A; Corey, Lawrence; Morrow, Rhoda; Hackman, Robert C; Cent, Anne; Boeckh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    The incidence of respiratory virus infection after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has probably been underestimated with conventional testing methods in symptomatic patients. This prospective study assessed viral infection episodes by testing weekly respiratory samples collected from HCT recipients, with and without symptoms reported by questionnaire, for 100 days after HCT. Samples were tested by culture and direct fluorescent antibody testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and influenza A and B, and by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for RSV, PIV, influenza A and B, and metapneumovirus (MPV). Of 122 patients, 30 (25%) had 32 infection episodes caused by RSV (5), PIV (17), MPV (6), influenza (3), RSV, or influenza (1). PIV, with a cumulative incidence estimate of 17.9%, was the only virus for which asymptomatic infection was detected. Lower virus copy number in patients with no or one symptom compared with 2 or more symptoms was found for all viruses in all patients (P < .001), with PIV infection having a similar virus-specific comparison (P = .004). Subclinical infection with PIV may help explain why infection-control programs that emphasize symptoms are effective against RSV and influenza but often not against PIV.

  11. Small molecule inhibitors of ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Picazo, Edwige; Giordanetto, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Ebola viruses are extremely virulent and highly transmissible. They are responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fevers with human mortality rates of up to 90%. No prophylactic or therapeutic treatments in the form of vaccine, biologicals or small molecule, currently exist. Yet, a wealth of antiviral research on ebola virus is being generated and potential inhibitors have been identified in biological screening and medicinal chemistry programs. Here, we detail the state-of-the-art in small molecule inhibitors of ebola virus infection, with >60 examples, including approved drugs, compounds currently in clinical trials, and more exploratory leads, and summarize the associated in vitro and in vivo evidence for their effectiveness.

  12. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae.

  13. Novel approaches towards conquering hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Yi; Chen, Hong-Song

    2007-01-01

    Currently approved treatments for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include the immunomodulatory agent, IFN-α, and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Their efficacy is limited by their side effects, as well as the induction of viral mutations that render them less potent. It is thus necessary to develop drugs that target additional viral antigens. Chemicals and biomaterials by unique methods of preventing HBV replication are currently being developed, including novel nucleosides and newly synthesized compounds such as capsid assembling and mRNA transcription inhibitors. Molecular therapies that target different stages of the HBV life cycle will aid current methods to manage chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The use of immunomodulators and gene therapy are also under consideration. This report summarizes the most recent treatment possibilities for CHB infection. Emerging therapies and their potential mechanisms, efficacy, and pitfalls are discussed. PMID:17352010

  14. Immune responses and Lassa virus infection.

    PubMed

    Russier, Marion; Pannetier, Delphine; Baize, Sylvain

    2012-11-05

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa and caused by Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus. It may be fatal, but most patients recover from acute disease and some experience asymptomatic infection. The immune mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology and immune responses induced in patients. We discuss here the roles of the various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems in Lassa virus infection and in the control of viral replication and pathogenesis.

  15. Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2013-02-01

    Genital herpes infections are extremely common worldwide and ~22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus. Eighty percent of those affected with genital herpes are unaware of being infected. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is neonatal herpes disease. Fortunately, neonatal herpes simplex infections are uncommon but due to the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Most recently, the initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This review will summarize the epidemiology of maternal and neonatal herpes infections and discuss clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of infants with neonatal herpes disease.

  16. Control of viruses infecting grapevine.

    PubMed

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fuchs, Marc; Katis, Nikolaos I

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is a high value vegetatively propagated fruit crop that suffers from numerous viruses, including some that seriously affect the profitability of vineyards. Nowadays, 64 viruses belonging to different genera and families have been reported in grapevines and new virus species will likely be described in the future. Three viral diseases namely leafroll, rugose wood, and infectious degeneration are of major economic importance worldwide. The viruses associated with these diseases are transmitted by mealybugs, scale and soft scale insects, or dagger nematodes. Here, we review control measures of the major grapevine viral diseases. More specifically, emphasis is laid on (i) approaches for the production of clean stocks and propagative material through effective sanitation, robust diagnosis, as well as local and regional certification efforts, (ii) the management of vectors of viruses using cultural, biological, and chemical methods, and (iii) the production of resistant grapevines mainly through the application of genetic engineering. The benefits and limitations of the different control measures are discussed with regard to accomplishments and future research directions.

  17. Plant virus infections control stomatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Rose R.; Emblow, Mark S. M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-09-01

    Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV). Virus infected plants had significantly lower stomatal indices in systemic leaves of susceptible systems; N. tabacum 9.8% reduction and A. thaliana 12.3% reduction, but not in the resistant hosts. Stomatal density in systemic leaves was also significantly reduced in virus infected A. thaliana by 19.6% but not in N. tabacum or the resistant systems. In addition, transpiration rate was significantly reduced in TMV infected N. tabacum.

  18. Plant virus infections control stomatal development

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Rose R.; Emblow, Mark S. M.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV). Virus infected plants had significantly lower stomatal indices in systemic leaves of susceptible systems; N. tabacum 9.8% reduction and A. thaliana 12.3% reduction, but not in the resistant hosts. Stomatal density in systemic leaves was also significantly reduced in virus infected A. thaliana by 19.6% but not in N. tabacum or the resistant systems. In addition, transpiration rate was significantly reduced in TMV infected N. tabacum. PMID:27687773

  19. Microbial Translocation and Inflammation Occur in Hyperacute Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Compromise Host Control of Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Greene, Justin M.; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Gieger, Samantha M.; Buechler, Connor R.; Crosno, Kristin A.; Peterson, Eric J.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Estes, Jacob D.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Brenchley, Jason M.; O’Connor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute “pre-peak” phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood. This, heretofore unappreciated, hyperacute-phase microbial translocation was accompanied by sustained reduction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific antibody titer, intestinal permeability, increased abundance of CD4+CCR5+ T cell targets of virus replication, and T cell activation. To test whether increasing gastrointestinal permeability to cause microbial translocation would amplify viremia, we treated two SIV-infected macaque ‘elite controllers’ with a short-course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)–stimulating a transient increase in microbial translocation and a prolonged recrudescent viremia. Altogether, our data implicates translocating microbes as amplifiers of immunodeficiency virus replication that effectively undermine the host’s capacity to contain infection. PMID:27926931

  20. Marine Viruses that infect Eukaryotic Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kei; Tomaru, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Marine microalgae, in general, explain large amount of the primary productions on the planet. Their huge biomass through photosynthetic activities is significant to understand the global geochemical cycles. Many researchers are, therefore, focused on studies of marine microalgae, i.e. phytoplankton. Since the first report of high abundance of viruses in the sea at late 1980's, the marine viruses have recognized as an important decreasing factor of its host populations. They seem to be composed of diverse viruses infectious to different organism groups; most of them are considered to be phages infectious to prokaryotes, and viruses infecting microalgae might be ranked in second level. Over the last quarter of a century, the knowledge on marine microalgal viruses has been accumulated in many aspects. Until today, ca. 40 species of marine microalgal viruses have been discovered, including dsDNA, ssDNA, dsRNA and ssRNA viruses. Their features are unique and comprise new ideas and discoveries, indicating that the marine microalgal virus research is still an intriguing unexplored field. In this review, we summarize their basic biology and ecology, and discuss how and what we should research in this area for further progress.

  1. Development of clinical disease in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    English, R V; Nelson, P; Johnson, C M; Nasisse, M; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    1994-09-01

    Cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) develop an AIDS-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. To investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and 12 random-source (RS) cats were infected with FIV. Over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mitogen responses compared with controls. Beginning 18-24 months after infection, 10 RS cats developed chronic clinical disease typical of feline AIDS, including stomatitis and recurrent upper respiratory disease; 4 SPF cats also developed chronic clinical disease, 2 with neurologic disease and 2 with B cell lymphomas. Thus, immunologic background is important in the type of disease that develops in cats infected with FIV, and FIV represents a promising animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in humans.

  2. [AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8].

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; de Dios Soler, Marcela; Bare, Patricia; Villafañe, María F; De Tezanos Pinto, Miguel; Perez Bianco, Raúl; Narbaitz, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of the B-cell type are the second most common neoplasm among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS. Here, we evaluated 48 cases of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL) diagnosed at the Histopathological Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas of the National Academy of Medicine. Five were females and 43 were males with a median of age of 37 years at the time of the diagnosis. Micrometer sections were prepared and stained with hematoxilin-eosin; immunohistochemical examination for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was carried out in 48/48 cases. Additionally, biotinilated oligonucleotides were used to determine the presence of DNA of the Human Herpes virus type-8 (HHV-8) in 14/14 biopsy smears corresponding to plasmablastic lymphomas (PL). All were fenotype B cell lymphomas with an aggressive course and advanced neoplasm disease at the time of diagnosis. Virological findings showed the strong association between EBV and AIDS-related NHL. According to the histopathological subtype, the EBV genome was detected in 16/21 (76%) diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 1/3 Burkitt lymphoma and 3/4 (75%) of primary central nervous system lymphomas. Globally, EBV genome was detected in 20/28 NHL of this series. Detection of HHV-8 was negative in all cases of PL. Hodgkin lymphoma were more frequent in males 18/20 (90%), with an aggressive clinical course and a significant predominance of the subtypes associated with worse prognosis (90% of cases). We detected a significant association between EBV and HL (90% of cases). We consider that all cases of AIDS related lymphomas should be assessed for the presence of EBV because its presence may play a role in the prognosis.

  3. A mathematical model of the spread of the AIDS virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, J.M.; Stanley, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical computer model of the spread of the AIDS epidemic in the US is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This model predicts the spreading of the HIV infection, and subsequent development of clinical AIDS in various population groups. These groups are chosen according to age, frequency and type of sexual contact, population density, and region of the country. Type of sexual contact includes not only the heterosexual, homosexual differentiation but also repeated contacts with such primary partners as spouses. In conjunction with the computer model, we are developing a database containing relevant information on the natural history of the viral infection, the prevalence of the infection and of clinical AIDS in the population, the distribution of people into sexual behavior groups as a function of age and information on interregional contacts. The effects of variable infectiousness and sexual activity during the long period from infection to disease are found to have a major impact on the predictions of the model. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-01-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system. Images Figure 1. PMID:11041500

  5. Infection of Bergmann glia in the cerebellum of a skunk experimentally infected with street rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A C; Phelan, C C; Rossiter, J P

    2000-10-01

    Rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus and glial cell infection is not prominent in the central nervous system (CNS). Paraffin-embedded tissues from the cerebella of skunks experimentally infected with either a skunk salivary gland isolate of street rabies virus or the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus were examined with immunoperoxidase staining for rabies virus antigen by using an anti-rabies virus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody. A skunk infected with street rabies virus showed prominent infection of Bergmann glia. Although infected Purkinje cells were observed, they usually demonstrated a relatively small amount of antigen in their perikarya. A CVS-infected skunk showed many intensely labeled Purkinje cells and a relatively small number of infected Bergmann glia. These findings indicate that although rabies virus is a highly neuronotropic virus, street rabies virus strains do not always demonstrate strict neuronotropism in the central nervous system.

  6. Origin of the transmitted virus in HIV infection: infected cells versus cell-free virus.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Manish

    2014-12-15

    All human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected inocula, such as genital secretions, breast milk, and blood, contain both cell-free virus and infected cells. The relative contributions of cell-free and/or cell-associated virus in establishing an infection in a naive host during the different modes of HIV-1 acquisition remains unclear. Studies aim to elucidate the source of the acquired virus because strategies to prevent acquisition may have differential efficacy against the different modes of transmission. In this review, I will detail some of the challenges in identifying the source of the transmitted virus, genotypic and phenotypic differences among cell-free compared with cell-associated HIV-1, and implications on the efficacy for prevention strategies.

  7. Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Michael K; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Abrahams, Vikki M; Fikrig, Erol; Guller, Seth

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have linked antenatal infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) with major adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, including microcephaly. There is a growing consensus for the existence of a congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Previous studies have indicated that non-placental macrophages play a key role in the replication of dengue virus (DENV), a closely related flavivirus. As the placenta provides the conduit for vertical transmission of certain viruses, and placental Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal-placental macrophages located adjacent to fetal capillaries, it is not surprising that several recent studies have examined infection of HBCs by ZIKV. In this review, we describe congenital abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection, the role of HBCs in the placental response to infection, and evidence for the susceptibility of HBCs to ZIKV infection. We conclude that HBCs may contribute to the spread of ZIKV in placenta and promote vertical transmission of ZIKV, ultimately compromising fetal and neonatal development and function. Current evidence strongly suggests that further studies are warranted to dissect the specific molecular mechanism through which ZIKV infects HBCs and its potential impact on the development of CZS.

  8. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  9. Severe Thrombocytopenia after Zika Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Boyer Chammard, Timothée; Schepers, Kinda; Breurec, Sébastien; Messiaen, Thierry; Destrem, Anne-Laure; Mahevas, Matthieu; Soulillou, Adrien; Janaud, Ludovic; Curlier, Elodie; Herrmann-Storck, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia during or after the course of Zika virus infection has been rarely reported. We report 7 cases of severe thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic signs and symptoms in Guadeloupe after infection with this virus. Clinical course and laboratory findings strongly suggest a causal link between Zika virus infection and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. PMID:27997330

  10. Severe Thrombocytopenia after Zika Virus Infection, Guadeloupe, 2016.

    PubMed

    Boyer Chammard, Timothée; Schepers, Kinda; Breurec, Sébastien; Messiaen, Thierry; Destrem, Anne-Laure; Mahevas, Matthieu; Soulillou, Adrien; Janaud, Ludovic; Curlier, Elodie; Herrmann-Storck, Cécile; Hoen, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia during or after the course of Zika virus infection has been rarely reported. We report 7 cases of severe thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic signs and symptoms in Guadeloupe after infection with this virus. Clinical course and laboratory findings strongly suggest a causal link between Zika virus infection and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.

  11. Hepatitis B virus infection in multitransfused haemophiliacs.

    PubMed Central

    Nebbia, G; Moroni, G A; Simoni, L; Belli, M; Carnelli, V

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 44 haemophilic children, all in a treatment programme with factor concentrates, was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence, characteristics, and evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Twenty four children (55%) (group I) showed signs of HBV infection, while 20 (45%) (group II) did not. Age at onset of treatment, number of infusions, and total amount of concentrate received did not show significant differences between the two groups. In group I only four children (16%) had symptomatic acute hepatitis. Chronic liver disease was present in nine patients (38% of infected children). The early age of infection would seem to be an important factor for predicting chronic evolution. Evidence of delta infection in three children with severe liver disease seemed to confirm the high pathogenicity of this agent. Because of the risks associated with chronic HBV infection a careful follow up of patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen is mandatory. PMID:3089179

  12. Zika Virus Infection Associated With Severe Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Tyler M; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Bello-Pagán, Melissa I; Rivera, Aidsa; Pastula, Daniel M; Salinas, Jorge L; Martínez Mendez, Jose H; Méndez, Mónica; Powers, Ann M; Waterman, Stephen; Rivera-García, Brenda

    2016-11-01

    We report two patients that developed severe thrombocytopenia after Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The first patient had 1000 platelets/μL and died after multiple hemorrhages. The second patient had 2000 platelets/μL, had melena and ecchymoses, and recovered after receiving intravenous immunoglobulin. ZIKV may be associated with immune-mediated severe thrombocytopenia.

  13. Infection of Plants by Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry; Maratos, Marina; Farabaugh, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Provides three exercises that introduce high school and college students to a common strain of the tobacco mosaic virus and the study of some basic biological processes. Activities involve inoculation of plants and observing and recording symptom development in infected plants. (DDR)

  14. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710

  15. The neurobiology of varicella zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gilden, D.; Mahalingam, R.; Nagel, M. A.; Pugazhenthi, S.; Cohrs, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic herpesvirus that infects nearly all humans. Primary infection usually causes chickenpox (varicella), after which virus becomes latent in cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Although VZV cannot be isolated from human ganglia, nucleic acid hybridization and, later, polymerase chain reaction proved that VZV is latent in ganglia. Declining VZV-specific host immunity decades after primary infection allows virus to reactivate spontaneously, resulting in shingles (zoster) characterized by pain and rash restricted to 1-3 dermatomes. Multiple other serious neurological and ocular disorders also result from VZV reactivation. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the clinical and pathological complications of neurological and ocular disease produced by VZV reactivation, molecular aspects of VZV latency, VZV virology and VZV-specific immunity, the role of apoptosis in VZV-induced cell death, and the development of an animal model provided by simian varicella virus infection of monkeys. PMID:21342215

  16. Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Kim, Okjin

    2011-12-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination revealed uterine adenocarcinoma that had metastasized to the omentum, resulting in thickening and the formation of inflammatory lesions. Based on the histopathological findings, this case was diagnosed as a uterine adenocarcinoma with abdominal metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

  17. Tuberculosis, AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in a large city

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Nanci Michele; de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB), AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in the municipality of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2001 – 2009. A historical trend study, it uses secondary data from the Tuberculosis Surveillance Database of the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and the São Paulo State STD-AIDS Center of Excellence and Training. It included new cases of TB, AIDS, and of tuberculosis-AIDS reported in the municipality of Campinas. A decrease in cases of TB until 2007 was observed, with an increase in 2008 and 2009. There was a general reduction in AIDS from 2007, but with an increase among men aged 60 or over, in the years 2007 to 2009. For tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection, the tendency was to reduce. The proportion of HIV tests not undertaken, among patients with tuberculosis, was high (27.5%). This scenario shows the need for integration of the databanks into the planning and control activities. PMID:22990163

  18. Development of a Sensitive DNA Assay for the AIDS Virus, HTLV-III/LAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-19

    lylphadenopathy syndrome, acquired immuno- deficiency disease syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC) (including night sweats, fever, diarrhea, weight loss, oral ... candidiasis ), or AIDS (including neurological disease, opportunistic infections, or malignancies) (1). A signifi- cant number of infected individuals

  19. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  20. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  1. Immunobiology of Ebola and Lassa virus infections.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph B; Marzi, Andrea; Safronetz, David; Robertson, Shelly J; Feldmann, Heinz; Best, Sonja M

    2017-03-01

    Two of the most important contemporary emerging viruses that affect human health in Africa are Ebola virus (EBOV) and Lassa virus (LASV). The 2013-2016 West African outbreak of EBOV was responsible for more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. LASV is constantly emerging in these and surrounding West African countries, with an estimate of more than 500,000 cases of Lassa fever, and approximately 5,000 deaths, annually. Both EBOV and LASV are zoonotic, and human infection often results in a severe haemorrhagic fever in both cases. However, the contribution of specific immune responses to disease differs between EBOV and LASV. This Review examines innate and adaptive immune responses to these viruses with the goal of delineating responses that are associated with protective versus pathogenic outcomes.

  2. [Musculoskeletal disorders in HIV-infected patients.National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA)].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal disorders, their diagnosis and treatment to the scientific community and the professionals in charge of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These recommendations have been agreed by a panel of experts from the National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA). The group have reviewed the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort studies and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented at conferences. Three levels of evidence have been defined according to the sources of data: level A, randomized controlled trials; level B, cohort or case-control; and level C, descriptive studies and expert opinion. Based on this evidence, the authors have decided to recommend, consider or not recommend for each situation. The decrease in bone mineral density is common in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, especially during the first year (from 2 to 4%), with a subsequent partial recovery. A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is recommended in patients over 50 years old with HIV infection, history of bone fractures and/or risk factors. Treatment with bisphosphonates has been shown to be effective. Osteoarticular infections are more frequent than in the non-infected population. The level of immunosuppression, risk practice, and antiretroviral treatment should be considered for a proper diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Laboratory and imaging procedures recommended for the study of musculoskeletal processes in HIV infected subjects are the same as in the general population. Osteonecrosis and decreased bone mineral density are the most frequent alterations in children. An early diagnosis of bone disorders is needed. The influence of modifiable risk factors must be avoided and initiate treatment when necessary. Bisphosphonates have been effective in osteoporosis.

  3. Update on oral herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

    2014-04-01

    Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs.

  4. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  5. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Gómez, Roberto S; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-08-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is by far the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) worldwide in infants and children younger than 2 years. The overwhelming number of hospitalizations due to hRSV-induced ALRTI each year is due, at least in part, to the lack of licensed vaccines against this virus. Thus, hRSV infection is considered a major public health problem and economic burden in most countries. The lung pathology developed in hRSV-infected individuals is characterized by an exacerbated proinflammatory and unbalanced Th2-type immune response. In addition to the adverse effects in airway tissues, hRSV infection can also cause neurologic manifestations in the host, such as seizures and encephalopathy. Although the origins of these extrapulmonary symptoms remain unclear, studies with patients suffering from neurological alterations suggest an involvement of the inflammatory response against hRSV. Furthermore, hRSV has evolved numerous mechanisms to modulate and evade the immune response in the host. Several studies have focused on elucidating the interactions between hRSV virulence factors and the host immune system, to rationally design new vaccines and therapies against this virus. Here, we discuss about the infection, pathology, and immune response triggered by hRSV in the host.

  6. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Model for Designing HIV/AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Janet K.; Sanou, Missa P.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) discovered in 1986 is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats. FIV is classified into five subtypes (A–E), and all subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants have been identified throughout the world. A commercial FIV vaccine, consisting of inactivated subtype-A and –D viruses (Fel-O-Vax FIV, Fort Dodge Animal Health), was released in the United States in 2002. The United States Department of Agriculture approved the commercial release of Fel-O-Vax FIV based on two efficacy trials using 105 laboratory cats and a major safety trial performed on 689 pet cats. The prototype and commercial FIV vaccines had broad prophylactic efficacy against global FIV subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants. The mechanisms of cross-subtype efficacy are attributed to FIV-specific T-cell immunity. Findings from these studies are being used to define the prophylactic epitopes needed for an HIV-1 vaccine for humans. PMID:20210778

  7. Chikungunya Virus Infection: An Update on Joint Manifestations and Management

    PubMed Central

    Krutikov, Maria; Manson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sophisticated diagnostics has enabled the discovery of previously unknown arthropod-borne viruses like Chikungunya. This infection has become increasingly prevalent in the last 10 years across the Indian Ocean and has been brought to media attention by a recent outbreak in the Caribbean. The outbreak has been aided by a drastic rise in air travel, allowing infected individuals to transport the virus to previously unaffected regions. In addition, a recently documented viral mutation has allowed its transmission by the Aedes albopictus mosquito, therefore facilitating outbreaks in Southern Europe and the USA. The duration and extent of the arthritis seen peri- and post infection has become a topic of academic interest. Although published data are largely observational, there has been a definite increase in original research focusing on this. Symptoms can persist for years, particularly in older patients with pre-existing medical conditions. The etiology is still not fully understood, but viral persistence and immune activation within synovial fluid have been shown in mouse models. There have been no prospective clinical trials of treatment in humans; however, animal trials are in process. The mainstay of treatment remains anti-inflammatories and steroids where necessary. The clinical presentation seems to mimic common rheumatological conditions like rheumatoid arthritis; therefore recent recommendations suggest the use disease-modifying agents as a common practice for the specific syndrome. This review uses recent published data and draws on our own clinical experience to provide an overview of joint complications of Chikungunya infection. PMID:27824550

  8. The relationship between personality traits and AIDS in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of <0.05. The average of innovativeness variables (M:74.12), harm avoidance (M: 65.17), reward dependence (M:50.030), and self-directedness (M:35.02) in case group in comparison with control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS.

  9. [Impact of HIV infection and AIDS on dental practice].

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, A M

    1990-11-01

    Describing the results of a study on the impact of HIV on practitional dentistry, the author finds out a considerable uncertainty of knowledge among elder practitioners. While 62% are willing to treat HIV-infected persons, a big part of the participants is looking on AIDS as an occupational risk. Regarding infection control procedures, the results show a limited compliance with the generally accepted recommendations.

  10. Impacts of allergic airway inflammation on lung pathology in a mouse model of influenza A virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akira; Ohara, Yuki; Takahashi, Kenta; Sato, Yuko; Ainai, Akira; Nagata, Noriyo; Tashiro, Masato; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    asthmatic host and may aid the development of strategies to improve treatments and outcomes for asthmatics harboring influenza virus infection. PMID:28245238

  11. Slower evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasispecies during progression to AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, E L; Pan, H; Sheppard, H W; Wolpert, D; Neumann, A U; Korber, B; Mullins, J I

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) quasispecies at the envelope gene was studied from the time of infection in 11 men who experienced different rates of CD4+ cell count decline and 6 men with unknown dates of infection by using DNA heteroduplex mobility assays. Quasispecies were genetically homogeneous near the time of seroconversion. Subsequently, slower proviral genetic diversification and higher plasma viremia correlated with rapid CD4+ cell count decline. Except for the fastest progressors to AIDS, highly diverse quasispecies developed in all subjects within 3 to 4 years. High quasispecies diversity was then maintained for years until again becoming more homogeneous in a subset of late-stage AIDS patients. Individuals who maintained high CD4+ cell counts showed continuous genetic turnover of their complex proviral quasispecies, while more closely related sets of variants were found in longitudinal samples of severely immunocompromised patients. The limited number of variants that grew out in short-term PBMC cocultures were rare in the uncultured proviral quasispecies of healthy, long-term infected individuals but more common in vivo in patients with low CD4+ cell counts. The slower evolution of HIV-1 observed during rapid progression to AIDS and in advanced patients may reflect ineffective host-mediated selection pressures on replicating quasispecies. PMID:9311829

  12. Bacterial Respiratory Infections Complicating Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii, remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens most prevalent in those infected with HIV, other than M. tuberculosis, represent the primary focus of the current review with particular emphasis on the pneumococcus, the leading cause of mortality due to HIV infection in the developed world. Additional themes include (1) risk factors; (2) the predisposing effects of HIV-mediated suppression on pulmonary host defenses, possibly intensified by smoking; (3) clinical and laboratory diagnosis, encompassing assessment of disease severity and outcome; and (4) antibiotic therapy. The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, including an overview of the rationale underpinning the current "prime-boost" immunization strategy based on sequential administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23.

  13. [Hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol].

    PubMed

    Campollo, Octavio

    2002-10-01

    It was thought that HCV infection was very frequent among alcoholics; some even though that this disease affected nearly 35% of this group. Now there seems to be a consensus among the main investigator groups that the correlation of hepatitis C and alcohol increases the risk of complications, cirrhosis and liver cancer included. Moreover, it's now certain that among patients with HCV infection, alcohol consumption increases the risk of death from live diseases during the first 10 years of the disease. Alcoholism is also considered a predisposing factor for HCV infection, but not for hepatitis B virus infection. Prospective studies about post-transfusional hepatitis C showed the risk of cirrhosis increases from 7.8 to 31.1 times if the patient consumed significant amounts of alcohol (> 80 g a day). One of the recommendations for every patient with HCV infection is to abstain from drinking alcohol.

  14. Avian influenza: mixed infections and missing viruses.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, LeAnn L; Kelly, Terra R; Plancarte, Magdalena; Schobel, Seth; Lin, Xudong; Dugan, Vivien G; Wentworth, David E; Boyce, Walter M

    2013-08-05

    A high prevalence and diversity of avian influenza (AI) viruses were detected in a population of wild mallards sampled during summer 2011 in California, providing an opportunity to compare results obtained before and after virus culture. We tested cloacal swab samples prior to culture by matrix real-time PCR, and by amplifying and sequencing a 640bp portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Each sample was also inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs, and full genome sequences were determined for cultured viruses. While low matrix Ct values were a good predictor of virus isolation from eggs, samples with high or undetectable Ct values also yielded isolates. Furthermore, a single passage in eggs altered the occurrence and detection of viral strains, and mixed infections (different HA subtypes) were detected less frequently after culture. There is no gold standard or perfect reference comparison for surveillance of unknown viruses, and true negatives are difficult to distinguish from false negatives. This study showed that sequencing samples prior to culture increases the detection of mixed infections and enhances the identification of viral strains and sequences that may have changed or even disappeared during culture.

  15. Vaccine and antiviral strategies against infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, M A; Kendall, O; Gilmore, N

    1988-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been clearly associated with a variety of new illnesses, including profound immunodeficiency (acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]), wasting syndromes (formerly termed AIDS-related complex [ARC]) and neurologic syndromes, including neuropathy, myelopathy and encephalopathy (often termed subacute encephalitis or AIDS dementia complex). HIV-1 preferentially infects T lymphocytes by binding to a membrane receptor protein, CD4, associated with helper function. The virus can also attack macrophages and, possibly, other cells such as neuronal cells, colonic epithelial cells and B lymphocytes. Infection of macrophages or monocytes may be involved in neurologic disease. Knowledge about HIV-1 has rapidly increased, and investigators have characterized its structure, ways in which it infects cells, replicates and is cytopathic for certain cells, and how the immune system responds to it. The ideal vaccine would prevent adsorption of the virus into the cell, but it is difficult to develop stable resistance because the virus has many antigenic patterns and mutates frequently. The results of vaccine trials in animals have not been promising, but work is being done with monoclonal antibodies. Antiviral therapies being investigated include those to prevent virus binding and entry, to inhibit reverse transcription, to inhibit the virus's life cycle and to restore immune competence in immunocompromised patients. PMID:3282628

  16. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started.

  17. Unusual Necrotizing Encephalitis in Raccoons and Skunks Concurrently Infected With Canine Distemper Virus and Sarcocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Kubiski, S V; Sisó, S; Church, M E; Cartoceti, A N; Barr, B; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Canine distemper virus commonly infects free-ranging, terrestrial mesopredators throughout the United States. Due to the immunosuppressive effects of the virus, concurrent opportunistic infections are also common. Among these, secondary systemic protozoal infections have been described in a number of species. We report an unusual presentation of necrotizing encephalitis associated withSarcocystissp in four raccoons and one skunk concurrently infected with canine distemper virus. Lesions were characterized by variably sized necrotizing cavitations composed of abundant mineral admixed with inflammatory cells and protozoa.Sarcocystissp was confirmed via immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody toSarcocystis neurona The pathologic changes are similar to lesions in human AIDS patients infected withToxoplasma gondii.

  18. Farmyard pox: parapox virus infection in man.

    PubMed

    Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D

    1983-06-01

    Inasmuch as orf, milker's nodules and bovine papular stomatitis pox are clinically identical in man and are induced by currently indistinguishable parapox viruses, we propose a new generic term 'farmyard pox' for these diseases. This affords the clinician a diagnosis based on a common set of clinical and electron microscopic findings rather than one based on an uncertain or even misleading history. A case in point is reported in which the history failed to reveal a specific animal source of the virus, but electron microscopy confirmed the presence of parapox infection.

  19. [AIDS Study Group/Spanish AIDS Consensus Plan Document on sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major public health problem. Considering their high morbidity and potential short and long term after effects, physicians must have enough knowledge on the management of these infections for a correct prevention, diagnosis and treatment. HIV infection is associated with STI, not only because they share route of transmission, but also because they lead to an increased risk of HIV transmission. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines, for the evaluation, management and prevention of STI in HIV-infected patients, from a panel of experts in HIV, dermatologists, proctologic surgeons, and microbiologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan (PNS).

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; McGill, J L; Pillatzki, A E; Palmer, M V; Ackermann, M R

    2014-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by organisms such as Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni, resulting in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Even in cases where animals do not succumb to bovine respiratory disease complex, there can be long-term losses in production performance. This includes reductions in feed efficiency and rate of gain in the feedlot, as well as reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity in the breeding herd. As a result, economic costs to the cattle industry from bovine respiratory disease have been estimated to approach $1 billion annually due to death losses, reduced performance, and costs of vaccinations and treatment modalities. Human and bovine RSV are closely related viruses with similarities in histopathologic lesions and mechanisms of immune modulation induced following infection. Therefore, where appropriate, we provide comparisons between RSV infections in humans and cattle. This review article discusses key aspects of RSV infection of cattle, including epidemiology and strain variability, clinical signs and diagnosis, experimental infection, gross and microscopic lesions, innate and adaptive immune responses, and vaccination strategies.

  1. Changing clinical scenario in Chandipura virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sudeep, A.B.; Gurav, Y.K.; Bondre, V.P.

    2016-01-01

    Chandipura virus (CHPV) (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae) garnered global attention as an emerging neurotropic pathogen inflicting high mortality in children within 24 h of commencement of symptoms. The 2003-2004 outbreaks in Central India witnessed case fatality rates ranging from 56-75 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat with typical encephalitic symptoms. Due to the acute sickness and rapid deterioration, the precise mechanism of action of the virus is still unknown. Recent studies have shown increased expression of CHPV phosphoprotein upto 6 h post infection (PI) demonstrating CHPV replication in neuronal cells and the rapid destruction of the cells by apoptosis shed light on the probable mechanism of rapid death in children. Phlebotomine sandflies are implicated as vectors due to their predominance in endemic areas, repeated virus isolations and their ability to transmit the virus by transovarial and venereal routes. Significant contributions have been made in the development of diagnostics and prophylactics, vaccines and antivirals. Two candidate vaccines, viz. a recombinant vaccine and a killed vaccine and siRNAs targeting P and M proteins have been developed and are awaiting clinical trials. Rhabdomyosarcoma and Phlebotomus papatasi cell lines as well as embryonated chicken eggs have been found useful in virus isolation and propagation. Despite these advancements, CHPV has been a major concern in Central India and warrants immediate attention from virologists, neurologists, paediatricians and the government for containing the virus. PMID:27748295

  2. Estimating infectivity rates and attack windows for two viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Noe, D A; Wu, J; Bailer, A J; Wright, S E

    2012-12-01

    Cells exist in an environment in which they are simultaneously exposed to a number of viral challenges. In some cases, infection by one virus may preclude infection by other viruses. Under the assumption of independent times until infection by two viruses, a procedure is presented to estimate the infectivity rates along with the time window during which a cell might be susceptible to infection by multiple viruses. A test for equal infectivity rates is proposed and interval estimates of parameters are derived. Additional hypothesis tests of potential interest are also presented. The operating characteristics of these tests and the estimation procedure are explored in simulation studies.

  3. Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Redfield, D C; Richman, D D; Oxman, M N; Kronenberg, L H

    1981-01-01

    Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays. PMID:6265375

  4. Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

    1981-06-01

    Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

  5. The HIV/AIDS pandemic: new ways of preventing infection in men.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    2004-01-01

    Nelson Mandela has recently said that HIV/AIDS is the greatest health crisis in human history. At the end of 2001, UNAIDS estimated that there were 40 million people living with the infection, with 5 million new cases, and 3 million deaths per year. About half the infected individuals are men, and heterosexual intercourse is the commonest route of infection. Although condoms remain the first line of defence, they are unpopular in parts of Africa, where the pandemic is worst, so an alternative is needed. Post-coital penile hygiene has received little attention. Wiping the glans penis and inner foreskin immediately after intercourse with an acidic solution like lemon or lime juice, or even vinegar, should immediately kill the virus and might prevent infection; clinical trials are urgently needed. Several studies in Africa and India have now conclusively demonstrated a 2-7-fold protective effect of male circumcision against HIV infection. Circumcision removes the inner foreskin and the frenulum, which are the prime sites of HIV entry into the penis. Since male circumcision also protects men from human papilloma virus infection, and their wives from cervical carcinoma, the procedure should be encouraged in developed and developing countries.

  6. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. While investigating virus-invertebrate host interactions we found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), were unable to infect certain Lepido...

  7. Human papilloma virus infection and psoriasis: Did human papilloma virus infection trigger psoriasis?

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sonia P.; Gulhane, Sachin; Pandey, Neha; Bisne, Esha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease known to be triggered by streptococcal and HIV infections. However, human papilloma virus infection (HPV) as a triggering factor for the development of psoriasis has not been reported yet. We, hereby report a case of plaque type with inverse psoriasis which probably could have been triggered by genital warts (HPV infection) and discuss the possible pathomechanisms for their coexistence and its management. PMID:26692619

  8. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  9. Myeloradiculopathy associated with chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bank, Anna M; Batra, Ayush; Colorado, Rene A; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is endemic to parts of Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and more recently the Caribbean. Patients typically present with fever, rash, and arthralgias, though neurologic symptoms, primarily encephalitis, have been described. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman who was clinically diagnosed with CHIKV while traveling in the Dominican Republic and presented 10 days later with left lower extremity weakness, a corresponding enhancing thoracic spinal cord lesion, and positive CHIKV serologies. She initially responded to corticosteroids, followed by relapsing symptoms and gradual clinical improvement. The time lapse between acute CHIKV infection and the onset of myelopathic sequelae suggests an immune-mediated phenomenon rather than direct activity of the virus itself. Chikungunya virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of myelopathy in endemic areas. The progression of symptoms despite corticosteroid administration suggests more aggressive immunomodulatory therapies may be warranted at disease onset.

  10. Pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kohla, M; Bonacini, M

    2006-06-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single stranded RNA virus. In 60-80% of patients, it is able to escape innate and adaptive immune surveillance. Thus it establishes itself as an agent of chronic hepatitis. Cytotoxic lymphocytes then contribute to liver injury in an attempt to eradicate the virus. On the other hand, strong multispecific T-lymphocyte reaction against HCV proteins is associated with viral clearance. Both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte functions are important to effect this outcome. In chronic infection, genetic and environmental factors determine the progression of inflammation and fibrosis in individual patients. Of these factors, age, gender, race and alcohol use are the most established ones. The development of hepatocellular carcinoma is mainly restricted to patients with cirrhosis.

  11. [A NEW PANDEMIC: ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Bourée, Patrice

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus is a flavivirus isolated in non human primates in 1647, then in humans 1954 (Uganda). It emerged on Micronesia (island af Yap) in 2007, then in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, in South America (mostly in Brazil and Colombia) in 2015 and in French West Indies in 2016. It is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Zika virus infection is symptomatic in only 20% of cases and clinical presentation is associated with mild illness. But several neurological complications are reported (as Guillain-Barré syndrome: 48 cases in French Polynesia) and congenital malformations (microcephaly). Laboratory diagnosis is based on virus isolation by PCR. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available against the Zika virs. Prevention is based on measures of protection from mosquitoes bites.

  12. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, G.; Gilson, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of almost all cases of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (NANBH). HCV is an RNA virus, unrelated to the hepatitis viruses, A, B, D, or E; it was first identified in 1989. Although most infections become chronic, and it may lead to chronic liver disease, most patients with HCV infection are asymptomatic. The predominant modes of transmission are by blood, blood products, or other parenteral exposure, particularly injecting drug use. More contentious is the role of sexual transmission, although evidence for this was provided by studies of NANBH. OBJECTIVE: This review considers the evidence for sexual transmission, and the types of studies used to estimate the rate of transmission and the factors that may influence it. METHOD: A Medline search using the keywords hepatitis C, sex, transmission, and prevalence in MeSH and free text. References in papers were searched, and some unpublished data identified. References were further selected to illustrate different methodologies. FINDINGS: Evidence for sexual transmission is provided by several types of study including prevalence studies in groups at risk of other STDs, investigation of cases identified from surveillance reports, and cross sectional and longitudinal partner studies. Many studies are limited by their small size, the sensitivity and specificity of early assays, lack of controls, or the difficulty of excluding other routes of transmission. One prospective cohort study reported an incidence of 12 per 1000 person years in the sexual partners of HCV infected patients. 1-3% of partners of HCV infected patients are found to be infected in cross sectional studies. Co-infection with HIV, duration of the relationship, or chronic liver disease may be independent cofactors increasing the risk of transmission. A meta-analysis of selected studies may be informative, and further larger prospective studies are required. There is a small but definite risk

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Results: HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. Conclusion: HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients. PMID:27830031

  14. Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Kilian; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Encke, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Acute and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a serious health problem worldwide, however, there has been advancement in the treatment of HCV infection due to standard treatment using pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The literature indicates that therapy for HCV is becoming more individualized. In addition to considering genotype and viral RNA levels before treatment, achievement of an early virologic response (EVR) and a rapid virologic response (RVR) is now possible during therapy. Moreover, problem patients, such as non-responders, relapsers, HIV or HBV co-infected patients, patients with liver cirrhosis, and pre- or post-liver transplantation patients are an increasing fraction of the patients requiring treatment. This article reviews the literature regarding standard treatments and problem patients with acute and chronic HCV infection. It also includes discussion on contraindications and side effects of treatment with interferon and ribavirin, as well as new drug development. PMID:17461488

  15. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Miriam J

    2007-01-01

    Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected an estimated 130 million people, most of whom are chronically infected. HCV-infected people serve as a reservoir for transmission to others and are at risk for developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been estimated that HCV accounts for 27% of cirrhosis and 25% of HCC worldwide. HCV infection has likely been endemic in many populations for centuries. However, the wave of increased HCV-related morbidity and mortality that we are now facing is the result of an unprecedented increase in the spread of HCV during the 20th century. Two 20th century events appear to be responsible for this increase; the widespread availability of injectable therapies and the illicit use of injectable drugs. PMID:17552026

  16. Determine the Infectivity of Neurotropic Viruses by the Oral Route.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Four street strains of rabiesvirus were tested for their ability to infect weanling mice via the oral route. Two strains isolated from vampire bats ...brown fat of a naturally infected insectivorous bat did not induce rabies in mice fed infected brain tissue. Attempts were made to induce oral...virus was also studied. A strain of SLE virus isolated from the blood of a naturally infected bat produced encephalitis in mice fed virus laden brain tissue. (Author)

  17. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bellentani, S; Miglioli, L; Bedogni, G; Crocè, L S; Tiribelli, C

    2005-03-01

    Although a lot of novel information and data on the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are available worldwide, the majority of these information are often fragmentary and sometimes contradictory. This review tries to highlight all the data available on the prevalence (i.e. the number of cases present in a known population), the risk factors, the natural history and the incidence (i.e. the number of new cases that occur every year) of HCV infection in the world, and particularly in Italy.

  18. Diagnostic tools for Toscana virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cusi, Maria Grazia; Savellini, Gianni Gori

    2011-07-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV; Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an important etiological agent of acute meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Mediterranean countries. Laboratory diagnosis has been carried out in serological studies using ELISA, immunofluorescence and/or neutralization tests that are not influenced by the virus viability; however, in the acute phase of the infection, nucleic acid amplification techniques are the methods of choice to diagnose viral meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid samples. Molecular methods are rapid and sensitive and, unlike traditional methods, such as virus isolation by cell culture, they are not influenced by the viability of the virus in the clinical specimen; however, the RNA integrity is crucial for the success of these methods. Real-time PCR is the most important molecular method used in laboratories worldwide, since it is less time-consuming and it reduces the risk of contamination. Therefore, a sensitive real-time PCR has been developed for diagnosis of suspected cases of TOSV infection either autochthonous and/or imported, since a new lineage of TOSV, divergent from the Italian prototype, has recently been reported in Spain.

  19. Chaperones in hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; French, Samuel W

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 3% of the world population or more than 185 million people worldwide. Each year, an estimated 350000-500000 deaths occur worldwide due to HCV-associated diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis worldwide. HCV is an enveloped RNA virus classified in the genus Hepacivirus in the Flaviviridae family. The HCV viral life cycle in a cell can be divided into six phases: (1) binding and internalization; (2) cytoplasmic release and uncoating; (3) viral polyprotein translation and processing; (4) RNA genome replication; (5) encapsidation (packaging) and assembly; and (6) virus morphogenesis (maturation) and secretion. Many host factors are involved in the HCV life cycle. Chaperones are an important group of host cytoprotective molecules that coordinate numerous cellular processes including protein folding, multimeric protein assembly, protein trafficking, and protein degradation. All phases of the viral life cycle require chaperone activity and the interaction of viral proteins with chaperones. This review will present our current knowledge and understanding of the role of chaperones in the HCV life cycle. Analysis of chaperones in HCV infection will provide further insights into viral/host interactions and potential therapeutic targets for both HCV and other viruses. PMID:26783419

  20. Physicians' perception of personal risk of HIV infection and AIDS through occupational exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, K M; Eakin, J M; Skinner, H A; Kelner, M; Shapiro, M

    1990-01-01

    Physicians' response to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is poorly understood and often attributed to fear of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through occupational exposure. We surveyed 268 physicians from three geographic regions in North American with different specialties and responsibilities for HIV-positive patients. An important difference was found between the published risk and the physicians' perceived risk of infection after a single occupational exposure. Almost half of the respondents stated that they feared contracting AIDS more than other diseases. The physicians who perceived themselves to be at high physical risk were more likely than the others to report that AIDS had changed the way they interact with their patients (r = 0.26, p less than 0.001). No relation was found between the perception of physical risk and the number of HIV-infected patients (r = -0.07, p = 0.15). However, the perception of social risk showed a small inverse correlation (r = -0.15, p less than 0.02), in which the physicians with more HIV-infected patients reported less concern about negative social consequences. The physicians who perceived themselves to be at high personal risk were more likely than the others to report that surgeons have the right to refuse patients who do not wish to undergo HIV antibody testing (r = -0.16, p less than 0.01 for physical risk; r = -0.29, p less than 0.001 for social risk). Multiple regression analyses indicated that physicians' perception of physical risk was not related to age or sex but was modestly related to income source. The perception of social risk was related to sex and income source. Physicians' perception of personal risk is a crucial, yet often unacknowledged, component of the fight against AIDS. Our findings suggest that lack of attention to this issue is seriously compromising initiatives designed to facilitate physician participation in AIDS care. PMID:2207904

  1. Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection and Neuropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Olagnier, David; Muscolini, Michela; Coyne, Carolyn B; Diamond, Michael S; Hiscott, John

    2016-08-01

    A spotlight has been focused on the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) because of its epidemic outbreak in Brazil and Latin America, as well as the severe neurological manifestations of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with infection. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on ZIKV-host interactions, including new mechanistic insight concerning the basis of ZIKV-induced neuropathogenesis.

  2. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Janke, B H

    2014-03-01

    Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.

  3. Development of therapeutics for treatment of Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoyang; Ying, Tianlei; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-02-01

    Ebola virus infection can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD). Patients usually show severe symptoms, and the fatality rate can reach up to 90%. No licensed medicine is available. In this review, development of therapeutics for treatment of Ebola virus infection and EVD will be discussed.

  4. Vaccinia virus infections in martial arts gym, Maryland, USA, 2008.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Christine M; Blythe, David; Li, Yu; Reddy, Ramani; Jordan, Carol; Edwards, Cindy; Adams, Celia; Conners, Holly; Rasa, Catherine; Wilby, Sue; Russell, Jamaal; Russo, Kelly S; Somsel, Patricia; Wiedbrauk, Danny L; Dougherty, Cindy; Allen, Christopher; Frace, Mike; Emerson, Ginny; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Braden, Zachary; Abel, Jason; Davidson, Whitni; Reynolds, Mary; Damon, Inger K

    2011-04-01

    Vaccinia virus is an orthopoxvirus used in the live vaccine against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infections can be transmissible and can cause severe complications in those with weakened immune systems. We report on a cluster of 4 cases of vaccinia virus infection in Maryland, USA, likely acquired at a martial arts gym.

  5. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  6. Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.

    PubMed

    Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H

    1999-03-01

    Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts /=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

  8. Methods for assessing feline immunodeficiency virus infection, infectivity and purification.

    PubMed

    Ammersbach, Melanie; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2011-10-15

    Infection of cats with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) recapitulates many aspects of infection of humans with HIV, including highly activated but ineffectual immune responses. Infected hosts remain seropositive for life, and detection of antibodies is the mainstay of diagnosis. However, to quantify virus for research or prognosis, viral proteins, nucleic acids or enzymes, are typically measured by ELISA, PCR or activity, respectively. While such assays are in wide use, they do not distinguish whole, infectious viral particles from defective or disrupted viruses. Titers of infectious viral particles may be estimated from tissue culture infectious doses or by enumerating cell-associated viral proteins, viral transcriptional activity or formation of syncytia. To analyze the viral proteome and the incorporation of host components into viral envelopes, pure lentiviral preparations are required. Methods for purifying lentiviruses include ultracentrifugation to separate particles by size, mass and/or density; chromatography to separate particles by charge, affinity or size; and additional removal of extraviral proteins and exosomes through subtilisin digestion or immunoaffinity. This article reviews advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to purification of lentiviruses with special reference to suitability for FIV, and highlights effects of purification on immune responses and immune assays.

  9. West Nile Virus: Biology, Transmission, and Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Conway, Michael J.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: West Nile Virus was introduced into the Western Hemisphere during the late summer of 1999 and has been causing significant and sometimes severe human diseases since that time. This article briefly touches upon the biology of the virus and provides a comprehensive review regarding recent discoveries about virus transmission, virus acquisition, and human infection and disease. PMID:23034323

  10. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Lombardi, S; Poli, A; Garzelli, C; Matteucci, D; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Malvaldi, G; Tozzini, F

    1995-01-01

    The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies. PMID:7704896

  11. Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-08-01

    The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating.

  12. Adaptation and Study of AIDS Viruses in Animal and Cell Culture Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-30

    category one, e.g , Friend Murine -6- Leukemia Virus (FMuLV), Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV), and the Macaque Type D SAIDS retrovirus (SRV) have been...10). One other animal lentivirus, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), has had some utility in the study of protective immunity and in screening...et al. (58) transplanted RNA mumps virus infected human HeLa cells, or RNA vesicular stomatitis virus-infected hamster BHK cells into nude mice

  13. AIDS as a zoonosis? Confusion over the origin of the virus and the origin of the epidemics.

    PubMed

    Marx, Preston A; Apetrei, Cristian; Drucker, Ernest

    2004-10-01

    Based on findings demonstrating the simian ancestry of HIV, AIDS has been reported to be a zoonosis. However, this theory has never been proved and must seriously be questioned. Several arguments show that HIV-AIDS is not a zoonosis. (i) If AIDS were a zoonosis, there must be evidence of AIDS being directly acquired from an animal species, as is rabies, a disease that is directly acquired from animals. (ii) Despite long-term and frequent human exposure to SIV-infected monkeys in Africa, only 11 cross-species transmission events are known, and only four of these have resulted in significant human-to-human transmission, generating HIV-1 groups M and O and HIV-2 groups A and B. The closest relatives of SIVcpz (HIV-1 group N) and of SIVsm (HIV-2 groups C-H) are extremely rare, with only six HIV-1 group N-infected patients and only single individuals known to be infected by HIV-2 groups C-H. SIV, while capable of cross-species transmission, is thus poorly adapted for disease and epidemic spread. If AIDS were a zoonosis that is capable of significant human-to-human spread, there would be a plethora of founder subtypes and groups. (iii) Human exposure to SIV is thousands of years old, but AIDS emerged only in the 20th century. If AIDS were a zoonosis that spread into the human population, it would have spread to the West during slave trade. (iv) Experimental transmission of SIVs to different species of monkeys is often well controlled by the new host, showing that the virus and not the disease is transmitted. Therefore, we conclude that cross-species transmission of SIV does not in itself constitute the basis for a zoonosis. Transmission per se is not the major requirement for the generation of the AIDS epidemic. All HIVs do derive from simian species, but AIDS does not qualify as a zoonosis and this explanation cannot in itself account for the origin of AIDS epidemic. It is important to distinguish AIDS from true zoonoses (e.g. rabies) because research is needed to

  14. Human Jamestown canyon virus infection --- Montana, 2009.

    PubMed

    2011-05-27

    Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen belonging to the California serogroup of bunyaviruses. Although JCV is widely distributed throughout temperate North America, reports of human JCV infection in the United States are rare. This is the first report of human JCV infection detected in Montana, one of only 15 cases reported in the United States since 2004, when JCV became reportable. On May 26, 2009, a man aged 51 years with no travel history outside of Montana went to a local emergency department immediately following onset of fever, severe frontal headache, dizziness, left-sided numbness, and tingling. His blood pressure was elevated. Stroke was ruled out, oxygen was administered, medication was prescribed for hypertension, and the patient was sent home. One week later, the patient visited his primary-care physician complaining of continued neurologic symptoms consistent with acute febrile encephalitis and recent mosquito bites. Although West Nile virus (WNV) disease was diagnosed based on detection of WNV-immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies, subsequent testing indicated that the WNV antibodies were from a past infection and that his illness was caused by JCV. The final diagnosis of JCV infection was based on positive JCV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results and a fourfold rise in paired sample JCV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titers. This finding represents a previously unrecognized risk for JCV infection in Montana; clinicians should consider JCV infection when assessing patients for suspected arboviral infections.

  15. Peripheral Leukocyte Migration in Ferrets in Response to Infection with Seasonal Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyang; York, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand inflammation associated with influenza virus infection, we measured cell trafficking, via flow cytometry, to various tissues in the ferret model following infection with an A(H3N2) human seasonal influenza virus (A/Perth/16/2009). Changes in immune cells were observed in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and spleen, as well as lymph nodes associated with the site of infection or distant from the respiratory system. Nevertheless clinical symptoms were mild, with circulating leukocytes exhibiting rapid, dynamic, and profound changes in response to infection. Each of the biological compartments examined responded differently to influenza infection. Two days after infection, when infected ferrets showed peak fever, a marked, transient lymphopenia and granulocytosis were apparent in all infected animals. Both draining and distal lymph nodes demonstrated significant accumulation of T cells, B cells, and granulocytes at days 2 and 5 post-infection. CD8+ T cells significantly increased in spleen at days 2 and 5 post-infection; CD4+ T cells, B cells and granulocytes significantly increased at day 5. We interpret our findings as showing that lymphocytes exit the peripheral blood and differentially home to lymph nodes and tissues based on cell type and proximity to the site of infection. Monitoring leukocyte homing and trafficking will aid in providing a more detailed view of the inflammatory impact of influenza virus infection. PMID:27315117

  16. Peripheral Leukocyte Migration in Ferrets in Response to Infection with Seasonal Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Music, Nedzad; Reber, Adrian J; Kim, Jin Hyang; York, Ian A

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand inflammation associated with influenza virus infection, we measured cell trafficking, via flow cytometry, to various tissues in the ferret model following infection with an A(H3N2) human seasonal influenza virus (A/Perth/16/2009). Changes in immune cells were observed in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and spleen, as well as lymph nodes associated with the site of infection or distant from the respiratory system. Nevertheless clinical symptoms were mild, with circulating leukocytes exhibiting rapid, dynamic, and profound changes in response to infection. Each of the biological compartments examined responded differently to influenza infection. Two days after infection, when infected ferrets showed peak fever, a marked, transient lymphopenia and granulocytosis were apparent in all infected animals. Both draining and distal lymph nodes demonstrated significant accumulation of T cells, B cells, and granulocytes at days 2 and 5 post-infection. CD8+ T cells significantly increased in spleen at days 2 and 5 post-infection; CD4+ T cells, B cells and granulocytes significantly increased at day 5. We interpret our findings as showing that lymphocytes exit the peripheral blood and differentially home to lymph nodes and tissues based on cell type and proximity to the site of infection. Monitoring leukocyte homing and trafficking will aid in providing a more detailed view of the inflammatory impact of influenza virus infection.

  17. Avian influenza virus infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2006-01-01

    Seroepidemiologic and virologic studies since 1889 suggested that human influenza pandemics were caused by H1, H2, and H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses. If not for the 1997 avian A/H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong of China, subtype H2 is the likely candidate for the next pandemic. However, unlike previous poultry outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza due to H5 that were controlled by depopulation with or without vaccination, the presently circulating A/H5N1 genotype Z virus has since been spreading from Southern China to other parts of the world. Migratory birds and, less likely, bird trafficking are believed to be globalizing the avian influenza A/H5N1 epidemic in poultry. More than 200 human cases of avian influenza virus infection due to A/H5, A/H7, and A/H9 subtypes mainly as a result of poultry-to-human transmission have been reported with a > 50% case fatality rate for A/H5N1 infections. A mutant or reassortant virus capable of efficient human-to-human transmission could trigger another influenza pandemic. The recent isolation of this virus in extrapulmonary sites of human diseases suggests that the high fatality of this infection may be more than just the result of a cytokine storm triggered by the pulmonary disease. The emergence of resistance to adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) and recently oseltamivir while H5N1 vaccines are still at the developmental stage of phase I clinical trial are causes for grave concern. Moreover, the to-be pandemic strain may have little cross immunogenicity to the presently tested vaccine strain. The relative importance and usefulness of airborne, droplet, or contact precautions in infection control are still uncertain. Laboratory-acquired avian influenza H7N7 has been reported, and the laboratory strains of human influenza H2N2 could also be the cause of another pandemic. The control of this impending disaster requires more research in addition to national and international preparedness at various levels. The

  18. [Diagnosis and treatment of ocular viral infections in AIDS patients].

    PubMed

    Guex-Crosier, Y

    1998-11-01

    Ocular complication of AIDS are seen in about 75% of patients. Viral infections are predominant and can involve either external segment in the eye (Herpes type 8 in Kaposi sarcoma, molluscum contagiosum, Herpes simplex and zoster), or the posterior segment of the eye (CMV retinitis). The introduction of a Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) which associates two reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one antiprotease has changed the evolution of AIDS. The decrease of onset of CMV retinitis in AIDS patient is one of the best exemple. For the first time it was possible to stop the maintenance therapy against CMV retinitis in patients that have a sufficient increase in CD4+ cells and they did not present any relapse of CMV retinitis. But an increase of ocular inflammation can be observed with the onset of HAART such as uveitis or cystoid macular edema.

  19. Management of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Park, Wanju; Yang, Jin Hyang; You, Kwang Soo

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 2 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHBV) in the United States and are at risk for long-term consequences such as cirrhosis, liver decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Less than 10 years ago, there was no treatment of CHBV infection, but now, new drugs have recently been approved and there is considerable new knowledge about the treatment of CHBV infection. Recently, consensus guidelines for the management of hepatitis B virus infection have been released by the National Institutes of Health and the American Medical Association, addressing the selection of patients and drugs for treatments. Determining what constitutes best practices to manage patients with CHBV is challenging and requires nurses and nurse practitioners to acquire and maintain up-to-date knowledge to understand recently approved drugs and disease management. Nurses and nurse practitioners should know how to identify patients who need treatment and how to educate, counsel, and monitor treatment adherence and side effects; these skills are crucially important. The goal of this article is to provide nurses with the most current consensus guidelines for the management of CHBV infection and their application in nursing practice to optimize treatment to enhance patient outcomes.

  20. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wintachai, Phitchayapak; Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Ramphan, Suwipa; Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Wikan, Nitwara; Ubol, Sukathida; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Smith, Duncan R.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, and development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. Andrographolide is derived from Andrographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of andrographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. Andrographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection and reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 μM without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition and RNA transfection studies showed that andrographolide affected CHIKV replication and the activity of andrographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that andrographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent. PMID:26384169

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... if you touch a surface that has the virus on it, like a doorknob, and then touch ...

  2. KINETIC PROFILE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION IN THREE RAT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Influenza infection is a respiratory disease of viral origin that can cause major epidemics in man. The influenza virus infects and damages epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and causes pneumonia. Lung lesions of mice infected with influenza virus resembl...

  3. [Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection].

    PubMed

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-25

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future.

  4. HIV/AIDS and Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/languages/hivaidsandinfections.html Other topics A-Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All HIV/AIDS and Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Karen (Sgaw Karen) Nepali (नेपाली) Somali ( ...

  5. Hepatitis B virus infection in immigrant populations

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Macera, Margherita; Sagnelli, Caterina; Zampino, Rosa; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide, with nearly 350 million people chronically infected and 600000 deaths per year due to acute liver failure occurring during acute hepatitis or, more frequently, in HBV-related liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Ongoing immigration from countries with a high HBV endemicity to those with a low HBV endemicity warrants particular attention to prevent the spread of HBV infection to the native population. This review article analyzes the epidemiology and virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in immigrant populations and in their host countries, and suggests prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of this infection. Among the immigrants from different geographical areas, those from South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa show the highest prevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, in accordance with the high endemicity of the countries of origin. The molecular characteristics of HBV infection in immigrants reflect those of the geographical areas of origin: HBV genotype A and D predominate in immigrants from Eastern Europe, B and C in those from Asia and genotype E in those from Africa. The literature data on the clinical course and treatment of HBsAg-positive immigrants are scanty. The management of HBV infection in immigrant populations is difficult and requires expert personnel and dedicated structures for their assistance. The social services, voluntary operators and cultural mediators are essential to achieve optimized psychological and clinical intervention. PMID:26730274

  6. Herpes virus infection of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Among the human herpes viruses, three are neurotropic and capable of producing severe neurological abnormalities: herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Both the acute, primary infection and the reactivation from the site of latent infection, the dorsal sensory ganglia, are associated with severe human morbidity and mortality. The peripheral nervous system is one of the major loci affected by these viruses. The present review details the virology and molecular biology underlying the human infection. This is followed by detailed description of the symtomatology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, course, therapy, and prognosis of disorders of the peripheral nervous system caused by these viruses.

  7. [The lungs in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection].

    PubMed

    Barić, D; Vrkić, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a case of two patients who were admitted to the Zadar hospital and according to clinical symptoms directed to the Department of Lung Diseases. Both patients were temporarily employed abroad. It has been established that they were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). One of the patients has been moved to the Department of Infectious Diseases and later to Zagreb, while the other has returned abroad. On admission to the hospital of the Zadar Medical Center none of them answered the question about being engaged in risky behavior. In 1990 there were 699 registered patients hospitalized and 745 registered in the protocol of the Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Lung Diseases. 0.069% of patients were HIV-1-infected. In 1991, there were 520 hospitalized and 453 outpatients, whereas 0.102% were HIV-1-infected and registered subjects. It must be pointed out that these are only numbers of registration and not subjects, because there were patients who were examined or hospitalized twice or more times during the corresponding calendar year. The aim of this study was to point to a new differentially-diagnostic problem present especially at the Department of Lung Diseases after AIDS has become part of our reality. There still remains a problem in regard to detection of HIV-1 seropositivity in patients at departments with opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Bell, Susan Givens

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the effects of maternal Zika virus infection on the newborn continues to evolve. First discovered in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, the world became more aware of the virus in 2015, with reports of hundreds of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian newborns whose mothers reported symptoms related to Zika viral infection during pregnancy. This article reviews the current guidelines for laboratory evaluation of newborns with possible congenital Zika virus infection.

  9. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland.

    PubMed

    Putkuri, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-05-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001-2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children.

  10. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001–2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children. PMID:27088268

  11. Non-cytomegalovirus ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Drye, Lea; Vaidya, Vijay; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A; Lyon, Alice T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design Multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with AIDS Methods Medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were performed at enrollment and every 6 months subsequently. Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes. Results At enrollment, 37 non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections were diagnosed: 16 patients, herpetic retinitis; 11 patients, toxoplasmic retinitis; and 10 patients, choroiditis. During the follow-up period, the estimated incidences (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of these were: herpetic retinitis, 0.007/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 0.0004, 0.039); toxoplasmic retinitis, 0.007/100 PY (95% CI 0.004, 0.039); and choroiditis 0.014/100 PY (95% CI 0.0025, 0.050). The mortality rates appeared higher among those patients with newly diagnosed or incident herpetic retinitis and choroiditis (rates=21.7 deaths/100 PY [P=0.02] and 12.8 deaths/100 PY [P=0.04]) respectively, than that for patients with AIDS without an ocular opportunistic infection (4.1 deaths/100 PY); Toxoplasmic retinitis did not appear to be associated with greater mortality (6.4/100 PY, P=0.47). Eyes with newly-diagnosed herpetic retinitis appeared to have a poor visual prognosis with high rates of visual impairment (37.9/100 PY) and blindness (17.5/100 PY), whereas those outcomes in eyes with choroiditis appeared to be lower (2.3/100 PY and 0/100 PY, respectively). Conclusions Although uncommon, non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections may be associated with high rates of visual loss and/or mortality. PMID:23068916

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jie; Liao, Jinhu; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinjun; Wang, Jianye; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-08-30

    Cattle are the natural hosts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which causes mucosal disease, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, and reproductive problems in cattle. However, BVDV can also infect goats, sheep, deer, and pigs. The prevalence of BVDV infection in pig herds has substantially increased in the last several years, causing increased economic losses to the global pig breeding industry. This article is a summary of BVDV infections in pigs, including a historical overview, clinical signs, pathology, source of infection, genetic characteristics, impacts of porcine BVDV infection for diagnosis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), differentiation of infection with CSFV and BVDV, and future prospects of porcine BVDV infection.

  13. Immunological alterations in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Calvaruso, Vincenza; Craxì, Antonio

    2013-12-21

    A higher prevalence of immunological processes has recently been reported in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, focusing the attention of physicians and researchers on the close association between HCV and immune disorders. HCV lymphotropism represents the most important step in the pathogenesis of virus-related immunological diseases and experimental, virologic, and clinical evidence has demonstrated a trigger role for HCV both in systemic autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, hemolytic anemia and severe thrombocytopenia, and in organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune hepatitis, thyroid disorders and diabetes. This review will outline the principal aspects of such HCV-induced immunological alterations, focusing on the prevalence of these less characterized HCV extrahepatic manifestations.

  14. Neurological manifestations of Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) transmitted mainly by Aedes mosquitoes. The virus was restricted to the African continent until its spread to south-east Asia in the 1980’s, the Micronesia in 2007, the French Polynesia in 2013 and, more recently in the Americas in 2015, where, up to date, the World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated about 3-4 million total cases of ZIKV infection. During outbreaks in the French Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015, respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological complications of ZIKV disease, chiefly an upsurge in Guillain-Barré syndrome, which coincided with ZIKV outbreaks. On the other hand, the emergence of ZIKV in Brazil has been associated with a striking increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly in fetus and newborns, twenty times higher than in that reported in previous years. While investigations are currently assessing whether there is an actual association between neurological complications and ZIKV infections, the evidence was enough worrisome for WHO to declare a public health emergency of international concern. Here we present an updated review addressing what is currently known about the possible association between ZIKV infection and the development of severe neurological disorders. PMID:27878100

  15. Phosphatidylinositol inhibits respiratory syncytial virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Mari; Kandasamy, Pitchaimani; Nagashima, Yoji; Fickes, Rachel; Murphy, Robert C.; Voelker, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nearly all children under age 2, and reinfection occurs throughout life, seriously impacting adults with chronic pulmonary diseases. Recent data demonstrate that the anionic pulmonary surfactant lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) exerts a potent antiviral effect against RSV in vitro and in vivo. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is also an anionic pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, and we tested its antiviral activity. PI liposomes completely suppress interleukin-8 production from BEAS2B epithelial cells challenged with RSV. The presence of PI during viral challenge in vitro reduces infection by a factor of >103. PI binds RSV with high affinity, preventing virus attachment to epithelial cells. Intranasal inoculation with PI along with RSV in mice reduces the viral burden 30-fold, eliminates the influx of inflammatory cells, and reduces tissue histopathology. Pharmacological doses of PI persist for >6 h in mouse lung. Pretreatment of mice with PI at 2 h prior to viral infection effectively suppresses inflammation and reduces the viral burden by 85%. These data demonstrate that PI has potent antiviral properties, a long residence time in the extracellular bronchoalveolar compartment, and a significant prophylaxis window. The findings demonstrate PG and PI have complementary roles as intrinsic, innate immune antiviral mediators in the lung. PMID:25561461

  16. Vaccines for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M

    2006-02-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) can have serious medical consequences. Although antiviral medications can suppress symptomatic disease, asymptomatic shedding and transmission, they neither cure nor alter the natural history of HSV infections. Manipulation of the immune response is one potential method to decrease disease burden. Current research on prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approaches is discussed in this review, with a focus on compounds that have entered clinical trials or that display novel compositions or proposed mechanisms of action. One such vaccine is an alum and monophosphoryl lipid A-adjuvanted subunit glycoprotein D2 vaccine that has demonstrated activity in the prevention of HSV-2 infection and disease in HSV-uninfected women in a phase III clinical trial. Further confirmatory clinical trials of this vaccine are currently underway. Other vaccine formats also in development include attenuated live or replication-incompetent HSV-2 strains and technologies that target virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses.

  17. Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Fletcher, C V; Moye, J; Stiehm, E R; Meyer, W A; Nemo, G J; Mathieson, B J; Hirsch, G; Sapan, C V; Cummins, L M; Jimenez, E; O'Neill, E; Kovacs, A; Stek, A

    1997-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and safety of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were evaluated in the first 28 maternal-infant pairs enrolled in a randomized, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-controlled trial of HIVIG maternal-infant HIV transmission prophylaxis. Using 200 mg/kg, mean half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) in women were 15 days and 72 mL/kg, respectively, after one and 32 days and 154 mL/kg after three monthly infusions, with stable 4 mL/kg/day clearance. Transplacental passage occurred. Newborn single-dose half-life, Vd, and clearance were 30 days, 143 mL/kg, and 4 mL/kg/day, respectively. HIVIG rapidly cleared maternal serum immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were stable. Mild to moderate adverse clinical effects occurred in 2 of 103 maternal and 2 of 25 infant infusions. No adverse hematologic, blood chemistry, or immunologic effects were seen. HIVIG is well-tolerated in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, clears antigenemia, crosses the placenta, and exhibits pharmacokinetics similar to those of other immunoglobulin preparations.

  18. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

  19. Effects in calves of mixed infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus and several other bovine viruses.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, G; Ferrari, M; Traldi, V; Tartaglione, E

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify whether a mixed infection in calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and other bovine viruses, such as bovid herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4), parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, would influence the pathogenesis of the BVDV infection sufficiently to result in the typical form of mucosal disease being produced. Accordingly, two experiments were undertaken. In one experiment calves were first infected with BVDV and subsequently with BHV-4 and IBR virus, respectively. The second experiment consisted in a simultaneous infection of calves with BVDV and PI-3 virus or BVDV and IBR virus. From the first experiment it seems that BVDV infection can be reactivated in calves by BHV-4 and IBR virus. Evidence of this is that BVDV, at least the cytopathic (CP) strain, was recovered from calves following superinfection. Moreover, following such superinfection the calves showed signs which could most likely be ascribed to the pathogenetic activity of BVDV. Superinfection, especially by IBR virus, created a more severe clinical response in calves that were initially infected with CP BVDV, than in those previously given the non-cytopathic (NCP) biotype of the virus. Simultaneous infection with PI-3 virus did not seem to modify to any significant extent the pathogenesis of the experimentally induced BVDV infection whereas a severe clinical response was observed in calves when simultaneous infection was made with BVDV and IBR virus.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Blokzijl, M L

    1988-03-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with considerable morbidity in infants and children. It is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which can be transmitted vertically from mother to infant early in pregnancy. Transmission might also occur via breast milk. Although the exact transmission rate of HIV from mother to infant is not known, HIV can become a major threat to child survival. This threat is already present in Africa where high seroprevalences have been reported among infants and young children. Transmission via blood products is decreasing due to reliable methods of screening donors for HIV antibody. Where these tests are not available, parenteral transmission will increase the incidence of HIV infection. The clinical picture of HIV infection in children presents with failure to thrive, pulmonary interstitial pneumonitis, hepatosplenomegaly and recurrent bacterial infections. These are common manifestations of diseases prevalent in children in Africa where malnutrition and recurrent parasitic infections already cause immunosuppression. Recognition of the syndrome is therefore difficult. There is no available cure for HIV infection. Supportive treatment and relief of pain and suffering are the only means of management at present. Prevention of spread of the illness to infants and young children is therefore of paramount importance.

  1. Update on occult hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays. However, real-time PCR is a more reliable method than PCR. OBI is a great issue for the public health problem and a challenge for the clinical entity worldwide. The persistence of OBI may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With regard to OBI complications, the screening of HBV DNA by the highly sensitive molecular means should be implemented for: (1) patients with a previous history of chronic or acute HBV infection; (2) patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus; (3) patients undergoing chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy; (4) recipients of organ transplant; (5) blood donors; (6) organ transplant donors; (7) thalassemia and hemophilia patients; (8) health care workers; (9) patients with liver related disease (cryptogenic); (10) hemodialysis patients; (11) patients undergoing lamivudine or interferon therapy; and (12) children in time of HBV vaccination especially in highly endemic areas of HBV. Active HBV vaccination should be implemented for the close relatives of patients who are negative for OBI markers. Thus, the goal of this review is to evaluate the rate of OBI with a focus on status of high risk groups in different regions of the world. PMID:27818588

  2. Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geraldine

    2017-01-11

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success. This is, at least in part, due to the lack of animal models that fully recapitulate the pathogenesis of hRSV infection in humans. This review summarises the strengths and limitations of animal models of hRSV, which include those in which hRSV is used to infect non-human mammalian hosts, and those in which non-human pneumoviruses, such as bovine (b)RSV and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) are studied in their natural host. Apart from chimpanzees, other non-human primates (NHP) are only semi-permissive for hRSV replication and experimental infection with large doses of virus result in little or no clinical signs of disease, and generally only mild pulmonary pathology. Other animal models such as cotton rats, mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, hamsters, chinchillas, and neonatal lambs are also only semi-permissive for hRSV. Nevertheless, mice and cotton rats have been of value in the development of monoclonal antibody prophylaxis for infants at high risk of severe hRSV infection and have provided insights into mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of hRSV. However, the extent to which they predict hRSV vaccine efficacy and safety is unclear and several hRSV vaccine candidates that are completely protective in rodent models are poorly effective in chimpanzees and other NHP, such as African Green monkeys. Furthermore

  3. Emerging drugs for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Wieslawa; Openshaw, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was discovered > 40 years ago, treatment remains largely supportive. There are no safe and effective vaccines or specific treatments other than prophylaxis with passive antibody therapy (palivizumab). However, there are good reasons to think that the scene may soon change. As the pace of development of anti-viral drugs accelerates and optimism over vaccines increases, novel therapies are set to make a major impact in the management of this very common infection. The use and effect of such interventions are not easy to anticipate, but could ultimately include the interruption of RSV's transmission resulting in profound changes to the impact of RSV on human health.

  4. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  5. Predictors of progression to AIDS and mortality post-HIV infection: a long-term retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Molaeipoor, Leila; Mohraz, Minoo; Mahjub, Hossein; Ardekani, Maryam Taghizadeh; Mirzapour, Pegah; Golchehregan, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand the prognostic factors influencing the disease progression and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a high-middle-income country. This registry-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Tehran from April 2004 to March 2014. We enrolled 2473 HIV-infected patients who had a medical record in Behavioral Diseases Counseling Centers. The outcomes of interest were the estimation of time: (1) from HIV diagnosis to AIDS progression and (2) from AIDS to AIDS-related death. The 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year probability of disease progression from HIV diagnosis to AIDS was 45.0%, 69.9%, and 90.4%, and that of AIDS-related death was 17.2%, 30.3%, and 39.2%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that AIDS progression was significantly associated with male sex (P = 0.022), an increase in age (P = 0.001), low educational levels (P = 0.001), and a decreased level of CD4 cell count (P = 0.001). Furthermore, the AIDS-related mortality was significantly associated with male sex (P = 0.010), tuberculosis coinfection (P = 0.001), and antiretroviral therapy (P = 0.001). The results of this study indicated that progression to AIDS and AIDS-related death is affected by several modifiable and non-modifiable predictors. We indicated that a substantial proportion of the HIV-positive people were unaware of their status and were diagnosed very late. This hidden source of HIV infection had the opportunity to transmit the infection to other people.

  6. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-10-14

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia.

  7. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia. PMID:26478663

  8. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network.

    PubMed

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein-protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFbeta pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins.

  9. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network

    PubMed Central

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein–protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFβ pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins. PMID:18985028

  10. Secondary bacterial infections in influenza virus infection pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amber M; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is often complicated by bacterial pathogens that colonize the nasopharynx and invade the middle ear and/or lung epithelium. Incidence and pathogenicity of influenza-bacterial coinfections are multifactorial processes that involve various pathogenic virulence factors and host responses with distinct site- and strain-specific differences. Animal models and kinetic models have improved our understanding of how influenza viruses interact with their bacterial co-pathogens and the accompanying immune responses. Data from these models indicate that considerable alterations in epithelial surfaces and aberrant immune responses lead to severe inflammation, a key driver of bacterial acquisition and infection severity following influenza. However, further experimental and analytical studies are essential to determining the full mechanistic spectrum of different viral and bacterial strains and species and to finding new ways to prevent and treat influenza-associated bacterial coinfections. Here, we review recent advances regarding transmission and disease potential of influenza-associated bacterial infections and discuss the current gaps in knowledge.

  11. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Virus Infection Spreading in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Bocharov, Gennady; Meyerhans, Andreas; Bessonov, Nickolai; Trofimchuk, Sergei; Volpert, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Virus spreading in tissues is determined by virus transport, virus multiplication in host cells and the virus-induced immune response. Cytotoxic T cells remove infected cells with a rate determined by the infection level. The intensity of the immune response has a bell-shaped dependence on the concentration of virus, i.e., it increases at low and decays at high infection levels. A combination of these effects and a time delay in the immune response determine the development of virus infection in tissues like spleen or lymph nodes. The mathematical model described in this work consists of reaction-diffusion equations with a delay. It shows that the different regimes of infection spreading like the establishment of a low level infection, a high level infection or a transition between both are determined by the initial virus load and by the intensity of the immune response. The dynamics of the model solutions include simple and composed waves, and periodic and aperiodic oscillations. The results of analytical and numerical studies of the model provide a systematic basis for a quantitative understanding and interpretation of the determinants of the infection process in target organs and tissues from the image-derived data as well as of the spatiotemporal mechanisms of viral disease pathogenesis, and have direct implications for a biopsy-based medical testing of the chronic infection processes caused by viruses, e.g. HIV, HCV and HBV.

  12. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Virus Infection Spreading in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Meyerhans, Andreas; Bessonov, Nickolai; Trofimchuk, Sergei; Volpert, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Virus spreading in tissues is determined by virus transport, virus multiplication in host cells and the virus-induced immune response. Cytotoxic T cells remove infected cells with a rate determined by the infection level. The intensity of the immune response has a bell-shaped dependence on the concentration of virus, i.e., it increases at low and decays at high infection levels. A combination of these effects and a time delay in the immune response determine the development of virus infection in tissues like spleen or lymph nodes. The mathematical model described in this work consists of reaction-diffusion equations with a delay. It shows that the different regimes of infection spreading like the establishment of a low level infection, a high level infection or a transition between both are determined by the initial virus load and by the intensity of the immune response. The dynamics of the model solutions include simple and composed waves, and periodic and aperiodic oscillations. The results of analytical and numerical studies of the model provide a systematic basis for a quantitative understanding and interpretation of the determinants of the infection process in target organs and tissues from the image-derived data as well as of the spatiotemporal mechanisms of viral disease pathogenesis, and have direct implications for a biopsy-based medical testing of the chronic infection processes caused by viruses, e.g. HIV, HCV and HBV. PMID:27997613

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus env gene evolution in experimentally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Kraase, Martin; Sloan, Richard; Klein, Dieter; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Linda; Biek, Roman; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), an immunosuppressive lentivirus found in cats worldwide, is studied to illuminate mechanisms of lentiviral pathogenesis and to identify key components of protective immunity. During replication, lentiviruses accumulate errors of nucleotide mis-incorporation due to the low-fidelity of reverse transcriptase and recombination between viral variants, resulting in the emergence of a complex viral "quasispecies". In patients infected with HIV-1, env sequences may vary by up to 10% and the detection of quasispecies with greater heterogeneity is associated with higher viral loads and reduced CD4+ T cell numbers [1], indicating that transmission of more complex quasispecies may lead to disease progression. However, little is known about how FIV evolves as disease progresses, or why some cats develop AIDS rapidly while disease progression is slow in others. The aim of this study was to determine whether disease progression may be governed by viral evolution and to examine the diversity of viral variants emerging following infection with an infectious molecular clone. The FIV env gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein (Env) was examined at early (12 weeks) and late (322 weeks) stages of FIV infection in two groups of cats infected experimentally with the FIV-GL8 molecular clone. Viral variants were detected within quasispecies in cats in the late stages of FIV infection that contained differing amino acid compositions in several variable loops of Env, some of which were identified as determinants of receptor usage and resistance to neutralization. Therefore these results indicate that the FIV env gene evolves during the course of infection, giving rise to variants that resist neutralization and likely lead to disease progression.

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-09-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world.

  15. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection of the central nervous system: a preliminary in situ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, M.H.; Eskin, T.A.; Benn, S.; Angerer, R.C.; Angerer, L.M.

    1986-11-07

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are subject to a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Recent evidence implicates the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) in the pathogenesis of some of these illnesses, although the cells infected by the virus have yet to be identified. Using in situ hybridization, the authors examined brain tissue from two patients with AIDS encephalopathy for the presence of HTLV-III RNA. In both cases, viral RNA was detected and concentrated in, though not limited to, the white matter. The CNS cells most frequently infected included macrophages, pleomorphic microglia, and multinucleated giant cells. Less frequently, cells morphologically consistent with astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and rarely neurons were also infected. The findings strengthen the association of HTLV-III with the pathogenesis of AIDS encephalopathy. In situ hybridization can be applied to routinely prepared biopsy tissue in the diagnosis of HTLV-III infection of the CNS.

  16. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M.; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26110586

  17. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    PubMed

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  18. Peptide inhibitors against herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Tarallo, Rossella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Emilia; Cantisani, Marco; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2013-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a significant human pathogen causing mucocutaneous lesions primarily in the oral or genital mucosa. Although acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogs provide successful treatment, HSV remains highly prevalent worldwide and is a major cofactor for the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. Encephalitis, meningitis, and blinding keratitis are among the most severe diseases caused by HSV. ACV resistance poses an important problem for immunocompromised patients and highlights the need for new safe and effective agents; therefore, the development of novel strategies to eradicate HSV is a global public health priority. Despite the continued global epidemic of HSV and extensive research, there have been few major breakthroughs in the treatment or prevention of the virus since the introduction of ACV in the 1980s. A therapeutic strategy at the moment not fully addressed is the use of small peptide molecules. These can be either modeled on viral proteins or derived from antimicrobial peptides. Any peptide that interrupts protein-protein or viral protein-host cell membrane interactions is potentially a novel antiviral drug and may be a useful tool for elucidating the mechanisms of viral entry. This review summarizes current knowledge and strategies in the development of synthetic and natural peptides to inhibit HSV infectivity.

  19. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... No. FDA-2013-D-0589] Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral Drugs... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  20. Prevention of AIDS and living together with an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Fahik, F T; Reichert, M C; Gabriel, R; Marin, H F

    1995-01-01

    In Brazil, approximately 45 thousand cases had been reported until the end of 1993, with an estimated 50% underreport. According to the Ministry of Health, until the year 2,000 from 2 to 8 million Brazilians citizens will be infected with HIV. The basic aspect of the educational campaigns regarding AIDS does not refer only to information on forms of transmission and prevention measures, but also attempts to fight against the mystification and the enormous resistance of the public to definitely accept the fact that transmission does not occur by simple means such as having a drink from the same glass, independently of its socioeconomic and cultural level. In addition to the lack of information, prejudice and discrimination appear strongly rooted in the population to the point of a tendency of social and effective rejection of the HIV-infected patient. Fighting against prejudice, against which there is also no vaccine, is a task as gigantic as fighting against the virus. For both, investments in education of and information to the population in general, is very important. Development of a software which would fulfill the function of explaining, and providing the correct information about AIDS, would be extremely valuable for any part of the society and could also be used as a complementary element by health professionals. The objective was to develop an interactive software in order to demonstrate prevention measures and universal precaution in AIDS; to inform about the necessary care to people that are living together an HIV-infected patient. To develop this software with animation and elucidating text regarding AIDS for the general population, we are using the Storyboard live to be run in Windows environment.

  1. Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Romero, E; Galindo, P; Bravo, J A; Osorio, J M; Pérez, A; Baca, Y; Ferreira, C; Asensio, C; Osuna, A

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the main cause of liver disease after renal transplantation. Most patients have seroconverted on dialysis to positive RNA. The viral load increases during immunosuppressive therapy. The risk of developing chronic liver disease is related to the histopathologic findings, duration and severity of the disease, immunosuppression, and transplantation time. Hepatitis C virus infection can predict onset, of proteinuria and diabetes. We studied 868 patients who received renal transplants between (1987 and 2006), of whom 18.7% were seropositive for HCV. We observed a higher rate of HCV-seropositive patients related to the duration of hemodialysis therapy. Of the HCV seropositive patients, 77% had received renal allografts before 1998. There was no difference between the sexes; however, the HCV positive patients were younger. Polymerase chain reaction tests results were positive in 91.6% of the patients with HCV antibodies. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among HCV positive patients, as was as the persistence of proteinuria. Cryoglobulins were positive in 30.8%. The incidence of acute rejection episodes in the first year was similar between groups. Of the HCV-positive patients, 80.2% were treated with cyclosporine, most patients continued this therapy throughout the study. We observed no significant difference in mortality end graft survival rate between the two groups. However, renal function differed significantly at some points during the evolution of the clinical course. Renal transplantation is still the best treatment option in patients with chronic renal disease.

  3. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.

  4. Immune responses of patients to orf virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yirrell, D L; Vestey, J P; Norval, M

    1994-04-01

    Orf is a disease of sheep and goats which is caused by a parapox virus. It can be transmitted to humans, and is considered an occupational hazard by those handling sheep. In this paper we present the first report of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to naturally acquired orf virus infection in humans. Lymphoproliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients to an orf virus antigen were vigorous soon after infection, but rapidly declined. Orf virus antibody levels, detected by ELISA, were shown to rise during infection. Western blot analysis confirmed this, and demonstrated that the antibody produced in response to the infection was directed against the 40-kDa viral surface tubule protein. Where direct comparisons were possible, the immune response of humans to orf virus infection was similar to that previously reported for sheep. Evidence was obtained suggesting that prior exposure to vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccination) provided no protection from subsequent orf virus infection. In addition, orf virus infection did not enhance immune responses to vaccinia virus antigens.

  5. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in leucocytes in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Lie-Injo, L E; Volberding, P; Golden, J A; Herrera, A R

    1985-01-01

    Earlier reported findings of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in white blood cells of patients with hepatoma, and in a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, led to the examination of HBV DNA in a series of twenty three patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including nine with opportunistic infections and fourteen with Kaposi's sarcoma, by Southern blot hybridization method, using 32P labelled HBV DNA specific probe obtained by nick translation of HBV DNA cloned into plasmid pBR325. Four of the patients were found to be positive for HBV DNA or HBV related DNA in their leucocytes. The HBV DNA was found free or integrated in the leucocytes of the patients.

  6. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  7. First Imported Case of Zika Virus Infection into Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee-Chang; Park, Wan Beom; Kim, Uh Jin; Chun, June Young; Choi, Su-Jin; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Jung, Sook-In; Jee, Youngmee; Kim, Nam-Joong; Choi, Eun Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don

    2016-07-01

    Since Zika virus has been spreading rapidly in the Americas from 2015, the outbreak of Zika virus infection becomes a global health emergency because it can cause neurological complications and adverse fetal outcome including microcephaly. Here, we report clinical manifestations and virus isolation findings from a case of Zika virus infection imported from Brazil. The patient, 43-year-old Korean man, developed fever, myalgia, eyeball pain, and maculopapular rash, but not neurological manifestations. Zika virus was isolated from his semen, and reverse-transcriptase PCR was positive for the virus in the blood, urine, and saliva on the 7th day of the illness but was negative on the 21st day. He recovered spontaneously without any neurological complications. He is the first case of Zika virus infection in Korea imported from Brazil.

  8. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon Basin region, Peru, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S

    2013-11-01

    During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  9. Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jason C; Druce, Julian D; Leder, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

  10. Co-infections with Chikungunya and Dengue Viruses, Guatemala, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Signor, Leticia del Carmen Castillo; Williams, Christopher; Donis, Evelin; Cuevas, Luis E.; Adams, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    We screened serum samples referred to the national reference laboratory in Guatemala that were positive for chikungunya or dengue viruses in June 2015. Co-infection with both viruses was detected by reverse transcription PCR in 46 (32%) of 144 samples. Specimens should be tested for both arboviruses to detect co-infections. PMID:27767914

  11. Immunotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Birx, D L; Redfield, R R

    1993-08-01

    The immune response against HIV does not result in complete viral clearance. Recent interventions have focused on novel strategies to modify human anti-HIV immunity. Active vaccination of patients with HIV infection (vaccine therapy) safely alters the immune repertoire against HIV. This unique approach will provide insight into the immunoregulatory consequences of HIV-specific innate and adaptive immune responses, and hopefully define the immunological Achilles heel of HIV. Once defined, researchers, aided by current biotechnological techniques, can rationally design future vaccines and immune based therapeutic products.

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus: co-infection and paediatric lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Le, Minh Nhat; Dinh Vu, Thiem; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Ai; Le, Huu Tho; Morimoto, Konosuke; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Dang, Duc Anh; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2013-08-01

    Comprehensive population-based data on the role of respiratory viruses in the development of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain unclear. We investigated the incidence and effect of single and multiple infections with respiratory viruses on the risk of LRTIs in Vietnam. Population-based prospective surveillance and a case-control study of hospitalised paediatric patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) were conducted from April 2007 through to March 2010. Healthy controls were randomly recruited from the same community. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and tested for 13 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCRs. 1992 hospitalised ARI episodes, including 397 (19.9%) with LRTIs, were enrolled. Incidence of hospitalised LRTIs among children aged <24 months was 2171.9 per 100 000 (95% CI 1947.9-2419.7). The majority of ARI cases (60.9%) were positive for at least one virus. Human rhinovirus (24.2%), respiratory syncytial virus (20.1%) and influenza A virus (12.0%) were the most common and 9.5% had multiple-viral infections. Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections independently increased the risk of LRTIs. Respiratory syncytial virus further increased the risk, when co-infected with human rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus-3 but not with influenza A virus. The case-control analysis revealed that respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus increased the risk of ARI hospitalisation but not human rhinovirus. Respiratory syncytial virus is the leading pathogen associated with risk of ARI hospitalisation and LRTIs in Vietnam.

  13. Viremia and Clinical Presentation in Nicaraguan Patients Infected With Zika Virus, Chikungunya Virus, and Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Gresh, Lionel; Vargas, Maria Jose; Ballesteros, Gabriela; Tellez, Yolanda; Soda, K. James; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Nuñez, Andrea; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) cocirculate in Nicaragua. In this study, we sought to compare the quantified viremia and clinical presentation of patients infected with 1 or more of these viruses. Methods. Acute-phase serum samples from 346 patients with a suspected arboviral illness were tested using a multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV. Viremia was quantitated for each detected virus, and clinical information from request forms submitted with each sample was recorded. Results. A total of 263 patients tested positive for 1 or more viruses: 192 patients tested positive for a single virus (monoinfections) and 71 patients tested positive for 2 or all 3 viruses (coinfections). Quantifiable viremia was lower in ZIKV infections compared with CHIKV or DENV (mean 4.70 vs 6.42 and 5.84 log10 copies/mL serum, respectively; P < .001 for both comparisons), and for each virus, mean viremia was significantly lower in coinfections than in monoinfections. Compared with patients with CHIKV or DENV, ZIKV patients were more likely to have a rash (P < .001) and less likely to be febrile (P < .05) or require hospitalization (P < .001). Among all patients, hospitalized cases had higher viremia than those who did not require hospitalization (7.1 vs 4.1 log10 copies/mL serum, respectively; P < .001). Conclusions. ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV result in similar clinical presentations, and coinfections may be relatively common. Our findings illustrate the need for accurate, multiplex diagnostics for patient care and epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:27578819

  14. Sleep patterns are disturbed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Prospéro-García, O; Herold, N; Phillips, T R; Elder, J H; Bloom, F E; Henriksen, S J

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sleep disturbances have been reported early in AIDS. Likewise, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a natural lentivirus pathogen of cats, produces a similar immunodeficiency syndrome with neurological sequelae. To identify the neurophysiological substrate of FIV infection in brain, pathogen-free cats were infected with the Maryland strain of FIV. Eight weeks after inoculation, all FIV-infected cats seroconverted and virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and in the mononuclear cells of peripheral blood. Ten to 12 months after the FIV inoculation, inoculated and control cats were surgically implanted with electrodes to record the sleep/wake cycle. These sleep recordings were obtained under conditions controlling for environmental variables and instrumental adaptation. FIV-infected cats spent 50% more time awake than the sham-inoculated controls and exhibited many more sleep/waking stage shifts--i.e., 40% more than controls. In addition, FIV-infected cats showed approximately 30% of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reduction compared to controls. The latency to sleep and REM sleep onset was also significantly delayed in FIV-infected cats. In addition, a remarkable increase in cortically recorded spindle activity (8-13 Hz) was observed during slow-wave sleep in some infected subjects, similar to changes described in HIV-infected humans. Moreover, infected cats exhibited no overt signs of systemic morbidity, such as hyperpyrexia or body weight loss. These results indicate that FIV-infected cats exhibit sleep abnormalities similar to the sleep disturbances previously described in AIDS patients and further support the feline preparation as a valuable animal model of HIV infection of the central nervous system. PMID:7809152

  15. [Liberation into the wild of wild felines--danger of the release of virus infections].

    PubMed

    Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Fehr, D; Leutenegger, C; Hartmann, M; Ossent, P; Grob, M; Elgizoli, M; Weilenmann, P

    1996-01-01

    There are several felidae amongst the numerous endangered species. Means of aiding survival are the reintroduction to the wild of animals bred under the auspices of man and their relocation from densely populated to thinly populated areas. It is unlikely that the dangers of such reintroduction or relocation projects have been examined sufficiently in respect to the risks of virus infections confronting individuals kept in zoos or similar situations. This report presents three examples to illustrate that accidental virus infections may be expected to occur when relocating and reintroducing wild cats. The first example is the reintroduction of captive snow leopards. Zoo bred snow leopards may be infected with FIV, a virus infection that is highly unlikely to occur in the original himalayan highlands of Tibet and China. A second example is of several cases of FIP that occurred in European wild cats bred in groups in captivity. The third example mentioned is the relocation of lions from East Africa where all the commonly known feline viruses are wide-spread to the Etosha National Park. In the latter, virus infections such as FIV, FCV and FPV do not occur. The indiscriminate relocation and reintroduction of the wild cats mentioned here harbours a potential of undesirable consequences.

  16. Natural killer cells in hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-fei; Wang, Wen-jing; Gao, Yue-qiu

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cells are a unique type of lymphocytes with cytotoxic capacity, and play important roles against tumors and infections. Recently, natural killer cells have been increasingly valued in their effects in hepatitis B virus infection. Since hepatitis B virus is not cytopathic, the subsequent antiviral immune responses of the host are responsible for sustaining the liver injury, which may result in cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Many studies have confirmed that natural killer cells participate in anti-hepatitis B virus responses both in the early phase after infection and in the chronic phase via cytolysis, degranulation, and cytokine secretion. However, natural killer cells play dichotomic roles: they exert antiviral and immunoregulatory functions whilst contribute to the pathogenesis of liver injury. Here, we review the roles of natural killer cells in hepatitis B virus infection, introducing novel therapeutic strategies for controlling hepatitis B virus infection via the modulation of natural killer cells.

  17. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  18. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nosocomial viral infections: III. Guidelines for prevention and control of exanthematous viruses, gastroenteritis viruses, picornaviruses, and uncommonly seen viruses.

    PubMed

    Valenti, W M; Hruska, J F; Menegus, M A; Freeburn, M J

    1981-01-01

    This communication is the third in a four-part series on nosocomial viral infections from the Strong Memorial Hospital. This third article discusses guidelines for prevention and control of exanthematous viruses, gastroenteritis, viruses, adenoviruses and the picornaviruses other than rhinoviruses. Several uncommonly seen viruses, such as the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Marburg, Ebola, and Lassa fever viruses, also are reviewed briefly.

  20. Diagnosis of Zika virus infection on a nanotechnology platform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Zhao, Su; Arulkumar, Shylaja; Wan, Hao; Sahoo, Malaya K; Abeynayake, Janaki; Waggoner, Jesse J; Hopes, Clay; Tang, Meijie; Dai, Hongjie

    2017-03-06

    We developed a multiplexed assay on a plasmonic-gold platform for measuring IgG and IgA antibodies and IgG avidity against both Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) infections. In contrast to IgM cross-reactivity, IgG and IgA antibodies against ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen were specific to ZIKV infection, and IgG avidity revealed recent ZIKV infection and past DENV-2 infection in patients in dengue-endemic regions. This assay could enable specific diagnosis of ZIKV infection over other flaviviral infections.

  1. Pathology of Lassa Virus Infection in the Rhesus Monkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    examined. Lassa fever ’- is an infectious, febrile disease nuclear cell infiltrates and mucosal hemorrhages. of man caused by Lassa virus (LASV), a member... virus titers, suggests that virus replication 1. Buckley, S. M., and Casals, J., 1973. Lassa fever , in the kidney parenchyma was unlikely. A few a new...A., 1973. Comparative pathology of phology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses . BDg. Lassa virus infection in monkeys, guinea pip, W.H.O., 52: 409-419

  2. Electron microscope evidence of virus infection in cultured marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Qu, Ling-Yun

    2000-09-01

    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder ( Kareius bicoloratus).

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus can productively infect cultured human glial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng-Mayer, C; Rutka, J T; Rosenblum, M L; McHugh, T; Stites, D P; Levy, J A

    1987-05-01

    Six isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) showed differences in their ability to productively infect glioma-derived cell lines and early-passage human brain cell cultures. Susceptibility to HIV infection correlated well with the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. The CD4 molecule was expressed on some, but not all, of the brain-derived cells; however, no correlation was observed between CD4 protein expression and susceptibility to virus infection. The results show that HIV can productively infect human brain cells, particularly those of glial origin, and suggest that these cell types in the brain can harbor the virus.

  4. Bone health and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Jason J; Manlangit, Kristine; Squires, Kathleen E

    2013-06-01

    Low bone mineral density is common among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and studies reporting increased fracture rates in this patient population are emerging. The causes of low bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and fractures in persons with HIV are likely multifactorial, involving traditional risk factors, HIV infection, and exposure to antiretroviral treatment. Specific antiretrovirals such as tenofovir may cause a greater loss of bone mineral density compared with other agents and have recently been linked to an increased risk for fracture. As a result, recent treatment guidelines suggest that clinicians consider avoiding tenofovir as initial therapy in postmenopausal women. Evaluating bone mineral density and vitamin D status in persons with HIV may be important steps in identifying those requiring pharmacotherapy; however, the appropriate timing for bone mineral density and vitamin D screening is uncertain, as is the appropriate method of replacing vitamin D in HIV-positive patients who are deficient. Further study is necessary to definitively determine the approach to evaluating bone health and managing low bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency in patients with HIV infection.

  5. Neuralgic amyotrophy and hepatitis E virus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, Jeroen J.J.; Madden, Richie G.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Hunter, Jeremy G.; Reimerink, Johan H.J.; Bendall, Richard P.; Pas, Suzan D.; Ellis, Vic; van Alfen, Nens; Beynon, Laura; Southwell, Lucy; McLean, Brendan; Jacobs, Bart C.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between an acute preceding hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), and if so, whether patients with HEV-related NA differ from patients without an associated HEV infection. Methods: HEV testing was conducted in a retrospective cohort of 28 Cornish patients with NA (2011–2013) and a prospective cohort of 38 consecutive Dutch patients with NA (2004–2007). Acute-phase serum samples were analyzed for the presence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG and HEV RNA (quantitative real-time PCR). Results: Five cases (10.6%) of acute hepatitis E infection were identified in a total group of 47 patients with NA of whom serum samples were available. In 4 patients, HEV RNA was detected in serum samples taken at presentation. All patients with HEV-associated NA had clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of bilateral brachial plexus involvement. Anti-HEV IgM positivity was not related to age, sex, disease severity, disease course, or outcome. Conclusions: Acute hepatitis E is found in 10% of patients with NA from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Further research is required to investigate the role of HEV in NA in other geographical locations and to determine pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:24401685

  6. Infection with a plant virus modifies vector feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Candice A.; Walker, Gregory P.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Vector infection by some animal-infecting parasites results in altered feeding that enhances transmission. Modification of vector behavior is of broad adaptive significance, as parasite fitness relies on passage to a new host, and vector feeding is nearly always essential for transmission. Although several plant viruses infect their insect vectors, we have shown that vector infection by a plant virus alters feeding behavior. Here we show that infection with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), type member of the only plant-infecting genus in the Bunyaviridae, alters the feeding behavior of its thrips vector, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Male thrips infected with TSWV fed more than uninfected males, with the frequency of all feeding behaviors increasing by up to threefold, thus increasing the probability of virus inoculation. Importantly, infected males made almost three times more noningestion probes (probes in which they salivate, but leave cells largely undamaged) compared with uninfected males. A functional cell is requisite for TSWV infection and cell-to-cell movement; thus, this behavior is most likely to establish virus infection. Some animal-infecting members of the Bunyaviridae (La Crosse virus and Rift Valley fever virus) also cause increased biting rates in infected vectors. Concomitantly, these data support the hypothesis that capacity to modify vector feeding behavior is a conserved trait among plant- and animal-infecting members of the Bunyaviridae that evolved as a mechanism to enhance virus transmission. Our results underscore the evolutionary importance of vector behavioral modification to diverse parasites with host ranges spanning both plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:21606372

  7. Limiting influenza virus, HIV and dengue virus infection by targeting viral proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Nicholas S.; Moshkina, Natasha; Fenouil, Romain; Gardner, Thomas J.; Aguirre, Sebastian; Shah, Priya S.; Zhao, Nan; Manganaro, Lara; Hultquist, Judd; Noel, Justine; Sachs, David; Hamilton, Jennifer; Leon, Paul E.; Chawdury, Amit; Tripathy, Shashank; Melegari, Camilla; Campisi, Laura; Hai, Rong; Metreveli, Giorgi; Gamarnik, Andrea V.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Simon, Viviana; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Krogan, Nevan; Mulder, Lubbertus C.F.; van Bakel, Harm; Tortorella, Domenico; Taunton, Jack; Palese, Peter; Marazzi, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are obligate parasites as they require the machinery of the host cell to replicate. Inhibition of host factors co-opted during active infection is a strategy to suppress viral replication and a potential pan antiviral therapy. To define the cellular proteins and processes required for a virus during infection is thus crucial to understanding the mechanisms of virally induced disease. In this report, we generated fully infectious tagged influenza viruses and used infection-based proteomics to identify pivotal arms of cellular signaling required for influenza virus growth and infectivity. Using mathematical modeling, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches, we revealed that modulation of Sec61-mediated cotranslational translocation selectively impaired glycoprotein proteostasis of influenza as well as HIV and dengue viruses, and led to inhibition of viral growth and infectivity. Thus, by studying virus-human protein-protein interactions in the context of active replication we have identified targetable host factors for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies. PMID:26789921

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in illicit-drug solutions used intravenously retains infectivity.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Aleksei F; Selimova, Ludmila M; Khanina, Tatyana A; Zverev, Sergey Y; Pokrovsky, Vadim V; Weber, Jonathan N; Bobkov, Eugene N; Rylkov, Andrey V

    2005-04-01

    The stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain IIIB in drug solutions was studied. The data demonstrate that HIV-1 infectivity can be retained in drug solutions (e.g. , heroin, "Khanka," and "Vint") for long periods of time. This fact must be taken into account when designing health education programs for the prevention of HIV and AIDS in Eastern Europe.

  9. Nutritional status in patients with HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stambullian, Marcela; Feliu, Susana; Slobodianik, Nora H

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of adults with HIV infection or with AIDS through the use of biochemical parameters. The study was performed on 43 patients (19 HIV+ and 24 AIDS patients), between 26 and 44 years of age, from low and medium socioeconomic status, with access to health care services; 35 patients were under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment. Body weight and height were determined, and the Body Mass Index calculated (kg/m2). Blood samples were collected from fasting patients. Plasma cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL), triacylglycerol, total protein, apolipoproteins A-I and B, albumin, transthyretin, retinol binding protein, and ceruloplasmin concentrations were determined. Plasma levels of zinc, copper, and selenium were determined in a haemolysis-free sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed with the Student's t-test. AIDS patients showed changes in biochemical parameters, particularly an increase in fibrinogen and a trend to decreased transthyretin levels. These findings stress the importance of the inclusion of functional biochemical parameters in the periodic evaluation of these patients. This would allow an early assessment of the need for appropriate nutritional support, implemented along with the specific retroviral treatment. This would aim at delaying the progression of the disease, and might improve the prospects of survival and quality of life.

  10. Epidemiological and Virological Characterization of Influenza B Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Sivan; Drori, Yaron; Micheli, Michal; Friedman, Nehemya; Orzitzer, Sara; Bassal, Ravit; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Shohat, Tamar; Mendelson, Ella; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal

    2016-01-01

    While influenza A viruses comprise a heterogeneous group of clinically relevant influenza viruses, influenza B viruses form a more homogeneous cluster, divided mainly into two lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. This divergence has complicated seasonal influenza vaccine design, which traditionally contained two seasonal influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain. We examined the distribution of the two influenza B virus lineages in Israel, between 2011–2014, in hospitalized and in non-hospitalized (community) influenza B virus-infected patients. We showed that influenza B virus infections can lead to hospitalization and demonstrated that during some winter seasons, both influenza B virus lineages circulated simultaneously in Israel. We further show that the influenza B virus Yamagata lineage was dominant, circulating in the county in the last few years of the study period, consistent with the anti-Yamagata influenza B virus antibodies detected in the serum samples of affected individuals residing in Israel in the year 2014. Interestingly, we found that elderly people were particularly vulnerable to Yamagata lineage influenza B virus infections. PMID:27533045

  11. New drug treatments for HIV infection and AIDS. A review following the Seventh International Conference on AIDS, Florence 16-21 June 1991.

    PubMed

    Venning, G R; Scott, G M

    1992-03-01

    1. OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the status of clinical development of zidovudine and new drugs for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections. 2. METHOD--A critical review of the clinical trial reports and assessment of the design and methodology of the therapeutic trials. Evaluation of the drugs being tested and of the specific difficulties in testing drugs in AIDS. 3. CONCLUSIONS--Drugs are being tested in a unique climate of public opinion characterised by (1) fast track criteria for regulatory approval (2) parallel track (compassionate release) of new drugs before adequate determination of safety and efficacy (3) resistance to the use of placebos in controlled trials.

  12. TIM-1 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Cell Attachment and Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Qiao, Luhua; Hou, Zhouhua; Luo, Guangxiang

    2017-01-15

    Human TIM and TAM family proteins were recently found to serve as phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors which promote infections by many different viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Zika virus. In the present study, we provide substantial evidence demonstrating that TIM-1 is important for efficient infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The knockdown of TIM-1 expression significantly reduced HCV infection but not HCV RNA replication. Likewise, TIM-1 knockout in Huh-7.5 cells remarkably lowered HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. More significantly, the impairment of HCV infection in the TIM-1 knockout cells could be restored completely by ectopic expression of TIM-1 but not TIM-3 or TIM-4. Additionally, HCV infection and cell attachment were inhibited by PS but not by phosphatidylcholine (PC), demonstrating that TIM-1-mediated enhancement of HCV infection is PS dependent. The exposure of PS on the HCV envelope was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of HCV particles with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TIM-1 promotes HCV infection by serving as an attachment receptor for binding to PS exposed on the HCV envelope.

  13. Sofosbuvir treatment and hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masato; Kanda, Tatsuo; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Shin; Arai, Makoto; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious problem worldwide. The use of interferon-based therapy has made HCV eradication challenging. The recent appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed HCV therapy. Combining the use of DAAs with peginterferon and ribavirin has improved treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the combination of different orally administered DAAs has enabled interferon-free therapy with much higher efficacy and safety. In particular, sofosbuvir, a nucleotide-based NS5B inhibitor, prevents HCV RNA synthesis by acting as a “chain terminator”. Treatment with sofosbuvir has attained an extremely high rate of sustained virologic response. The current review summarizes the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir therapy. PMID:26839641

  14. Transcriptional Profiling of the Immune Response to Marburg Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Judy; Caballero, Ignacio S.; Garamszegi, Sara; Malhotra, Shikha; Lin, Kenny; Hensley, Lisa; Goff, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marburg virus is a genetically simple RNA virus that causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. The mechanism of pathogenesis of the infection is not well understood, but it is well accepted that pathogenesis is appreciably driven by a hyperactive immune response. To better understand the overall response to Marburg virus challenge, we undertook a transcriptomic analysis of immune cells circulating in the blood following aerosol exposure of rhesus macaques to a lethal dose of Marburg virus. Using two-color microarrays, we analyzed the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were collected throughout the course of infection from 1 to 9 days postexposure, representing the full course of the infection. The response followed a 3-stage induction (early infection, 1 to 3 days postexposure; midinfection, 5 days postexposure; late infection, 7 to 9 days postexposure) that was led by a robust innate immune response. The host response to aerosolized Marburg virus was evident at 1 day postexposure. Analysis of cytokine transcripts that were overexpressed during infection indicated that previously unanalyzed cytokines are likely induced in response to exposure to Marburg virus and further suggested that the early immune response is skewed toward a Th2 response that would hamper the development of an effective antiviral immune response early in disease. Late infection events included the upregulation of coagulation-associated factors. These findings demonstrate very early host responses to Marburg virus infection and provide a rich data set for identification of factors expressed throughout the course of infection that can be investigated as markers of infection and targets for therapy. IMPORTANCE Marburg virus causes a severe infection that is associated with high mortality and hemorrhage. The disease is associated with an immune response that contributes to the lethality of the disease. In this study, we investigated how the

  15. HIV infection and AIDS in the public health and health care systems: the role of law and litigation.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Webber, D W

    1998-04-08

    The AIDS Litigation Project has reviewed nearly 600 reported cases involving individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the federal and state courts in the United States between 1991 and 1997. Cases were identified through a federal and 50-state computer and library search. An important subset of litigation relates to HIV/AIDS in the public health and health care systems, since the law affects health care institutions and professionals, patients, and public health policy in America. This subset of HIV/AIDS litigation includes testing and reporting; privacy, the duty to warn, and the right to know; physician standards of care in prevention and treatment; and discrimination and access to health care. In broad terms, the review demonstrates a reliance on voluntary testing and protection of patient privacy through HIV-specific statutes and the common law. Negligence with potential civil and criminal liability has been alleged in cases of erroneous or missed diagnosis of HIV infection. In the first AIDS case to be considered by the Supreme Court, the Court will decide whether patients with asymptomatic HIV infection are protected under the Americans With Disabilities Act. Considerable progress has been made, both socially and legally, during the first 2 decades of the epidemic, but much still needs to be accomplished to protect privacy, prevent discrimination, and promote tolerance.

  16. Susceptibility of mouse macrophage J774 to dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Altamirano, María M B; Sánchez-García, F Javier; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Aguilar-Carmona, Israel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the J774 mouse macrophage cell line could be used as an in vitro model for dengue virus infection (DENV). After 3 days, infection in J774 cells was assessed by detecting dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NSP-1) production either by dot blot or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) of saponine-permeabilized J774 cells and then confirmed by RT-PCR (171 bp product, corresponding to the DENV-2 core). Based on the presence of NSP-1 in infected but not in non-infected cells by both IFA and dot blot, as well as the amplification of a 171-bp DENV-2-specific RT-PCR product exclusively in the infected cells, the J774 cell line was found to be permissive for dengue virus infection. As far as we know, this is the first report that the J774 mouse macrophage cell line is infected with dengue virus and, thus, that it can be used as an alternative in vitro model for dengue virus infection studies. This finding could help to further elucidate the mechanisms involved in dengue virus infection and pathogenesis.

  17. Cucumber Necrosis Virus Recruits Cellular Heat Shock Protein 70 Homologs at Several Stages of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Syed Benazir

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, we have found that CNV co-opts HSP70 family homologs to facilitate several aspects of the infection process such as viral RNA, coat protein and virus accumulation. Chloroplast targeting of the CNV CP is also facilitated, which may aid in CNV suppression of host defense responses. Several viruses have been shown to induce HSP70 during infection and others to utilize HSP70 for specific aspects of infection such as replication, assembly, and disassembly. We speculate that HSP70 may play multiple roles in the infection processes of many viruses. PMID:26719261

  18. Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR. PMID:24904547

  19. Frog virus 3-like infections in aquatic amphibian communities.

    PubMed

    Duffus, A L J; Pauli, B D; Wozney, K; Brunetti, C R; Berrill, M

    2008-01-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses, are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), and they have been associated with infectious diseases that may be contributing to amphibian population declines. We examined the mode of transmission of an FV3-like virus, and potential hosts and reservoirs of the virus in a local amphibian community. Using the polymerase chain reaction to detect infected animals, we found an FV3-like virus in south-central Ontario, Canada, amphibian communities, where it infects sympatric amphibian species, including ranid and hylid tadpoles (Rana sylvatica, Hyla versicolor, and Pseudacris spp.), larval salamanders (Ambystoma spp.), and adult eastern-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). The high prevalence of FV3-like infections in caudate larvae suggests that salamanders are likely to be both hosts and reservoirs. In laboratory FV3 challenges of R. sylvatica, the rate of infection was dependent on the amount of virus to which the animals were exposed. In addition, although vertical transmission was suspected, horizontal transmission through exposure to infected pond water is the most likely route of infection in tadpoles. Based on our observations, a simple model of FV3/FV3-like virus transmission postulates that, in aquatic amphibian communities, transmission of the virus occurs between anuran and urodele species, with ambystomatid salamanders the most likely reservoir for the ranavirus in our study.

  20. Computer-aided codon-pairs deoptimization of the major envelope GP5 gene attenuates porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Zhao; Opriessnig, Tanja; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Zhou, Lei; Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian; Yang, Hanchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic attenuated virus engineering (SAVE) is an emerging technology that enables rapid attenuation of viruses. In this study, by using SAVE we demonstrated rapid attenuation of an arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The major envelope GP5 gene of PRRSV was codon-pair deoptimized aided by a computer algorithm. The codon-pair deoptimized virus, designated as SAVE5 with a deoptimized GP5 gene, was successfully rescued in vitro. The SAVE5 virus replicated at a lower level in vitro with a significant decrease of GP5 protein expression compared to the wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus. Pigs experimentally infected with the SAVE5 virus had significantly lower viremia level up to 14 days post-infection as well as significantly reduced gross and histological lung lesions when compared to wild-type PRRSV VR2385 virus-infected pigs, indicating the attenuation of the SAVE5 virus. This study proved the feasibility of rapidly attenuating PRRSV by SAVE.

  1. Adaptation and Study of AIDS Viruses in Animal and Cell Culture Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-28

    experimentation. II. BACKGROUND OF PREVIOUS WORK Murine leukemia (MuLV) and feline immunodeficiency (FIV) virus models have been extensively studied2,3 and are...or vesicular stomatitis virus infected hamster BHK cells into nude mice. Tumors were produced, but at decreased size and incidence when infected with

  2. Exosomes in human semen restrict HIV-1 transmission by vaginal cells and block intravaginal replication of LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus complex

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Marisa N.; Jones, Philip H.; Okeoma, Chioma M.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles secreted by diverse cell types. Exosomes from healthy human semen have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication and to impair progeny virus infectivity. In this study, we examined the ability of healthy human semen exosomes to restrict HIV-1 and LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus transmission in three different model systems. We show that vaginal cells internalize exosomes with concomitant transfer of functional mRNA. Semen exosomes blocked the spread of HIV-1 from vaginal epithelial cells to target cells in our cell-to-cell infection model and suppressed transmission of HIV-1 across the vaginal epithelial barrier in our trans-well model. Our in vivo model shows that human semen exosomes restrict intravaginal transmission and propagation of murine AIDS virus. Our study highlights an antiretroviral role for semen exosomes that may be harnessed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25880110

  3. Serum Vpr regulates productive infection and latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; MacGregor, R R; Weiner, D B

    1994-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals, the vast majority of infected peripheral blood cells and lymph node cells may be latently or nonproductively infected. The vpr open reading frame of HIV-1 encodes a 15-kDa virion-associated protein, Vpr. The vpr gene has been shown to increase virus replication in T cells and monocyte/macrophages in vitro. We have previously reported that vpr expression in various tumor lines leads to growth inhibition and differentiation, indicating that Vpr may function as a regulator of cellular permissiveness to HIV replication. Here we show that Vpr protein is present in significant amounts in the serum of AIDS patients. Purified serum Vpr activated virus expression from five latently infected cell lines, U1, OM.10.1, ACH-2, J1.1, and LL58. Serum Vpr also activated virus expression from resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected individuals. Together, these findings implicate serum Vpr in the activation of HIV replication in vivo and in the control of latency. Anti-Vpr antibodies inhibited Vpr activity, suggesting that humoral immunity modulates Vpr activity in vivo. These results have broad implications for the virus life cycle and for the prospective control of HIV replication and pathogenesis. Images PMID:7971975

  4. Serum Vpr regulates productive infection and latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; MacGregor, R R; Weiner, D B

    1994-11-08

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals, the vast majority of infected peripheral blood cells and lymph node cells may be latently or nonproductively infected. The vpr open reading frame of HIV-1 encodes a 15-kDa virion-associated protein, Vpr. The vpr gene has been shown to increase virus replication in T cells and monocyte/macrophages in vitro. We have previously reported that vpr expression in various tumor lines leads to growth inhibition and differentiation, indicating that Vpr may function as a regulator of cellular permissiveness to HIV replication. Here we show that Vpr protein is present in significant amounts in the serum of AIDS patients. Purified serum Vpr activated virus expression from five latently infected cell lines, U1, OM.10.1, ACH-2, J1.1, and LL58. Serum Vpr also activated virus expression from resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected individuals. Together, these findings implicate serum Vpr in the activation of HIV replication in vivo and in the control of latency. Anti-Vpr antibodies inhibited Vpr activity, suggesting that humoral immunity modulates Vpr activity in vivo. These results have broad implications for the virus life cycle and for the prospective control of HIV replication and pathogenesis.

  5. Inactivated- or killed-virus HIV/AIDS vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Haynes W

    2005-06-01

    Inactivated or "killed" virus (KV) is a "classical" approach that has produced safe and effective human and veterinary vaccines but has received relatively little attention in the effort to develop an HIV/AIDS vaccine. Initially, KV and rgp120 subunit vaccines were the two most obvious approaches but, unfortunately, rgp120 has not been efficacious and the KV approach has been limited by a variety of scientific, technical, and sociological factors. For example, when responses to cellular antigens, present on SIV grown in human cells, proved to be largely responsible for efficacy, the KV approach was widely discounted. Similarly, when lab-adapted HIV-1 appeared to lose envelope glycoprotein during preparation (not the case for primary isolates), this was viewed as a fundamental barrier to the KV concept. Also, a preference for "safer", genetically-engineered vaccines, and emphasis on cellular immunity, have left KV low on the priority list for funding agencies and investigators. The recent suggestion that "native" trimeric gp120 displays conserved conformational neutralization epitopes, along with the failure of rgp120, and difficulties in raising strong cellular responses with DNA or vectored vaccines, has restored some interest in the KV concept. In the past 15 years, several groups have initiated pre-clinical development of KV candidates for SIV or HIV and promising, albeit limited, information has been produced. In this chapter we discuss the rationale (including pros and cons) for producing and testing killed-HIV vaccines, the prospects for success, the nature and scope of research needed to test the KV concept, what has been learned to date, and what remains undone.

  6. Immune inhibition of virus release from herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Mushi, E Z; Whitney, J E

    By treatment of herpes simplex virus-infected cells with virus antiserum with or without complement, the yield of infectious extracellular virus was significantly reduced. This was shown to be due to an immune alteration of the cell membrane which inhibited release of virus particles from the infected cells and not due to neutralization; both type-common and type-specific antigens of herpes simplex virus were involved. The phenomenon was also evident with antisera directed against cell determinants. The experimental findings are presented and their significance in the immunological defense mechanisms of the body and in viral immunotherapy is discussed.

  7. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection.

  8. [An epidemiological and immunological study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the southern area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Cervero, M; Medina Asensio, J; Rubio, R; Costa, J R

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics and immunological parameters are characterized in different groups of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients infected by HIV, and the prognostic markers of survival in patients diagnosed of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was carried out in 312 patients from June 1984 to March 1989. The most common risk group was intravenous drug addicts (IVDA) 80.9%. We observed that during the last years there was an increase in the number of cases of heterosexual transmission. Through follow up, 17.6% of patients developed acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). The incidence rate for AIDS was higher amongst homosexuals than IVDA (35.4/14.6). Esophageal candidiasis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were the AIDS indicators most frequently encountered. Once the study period was over, with a follow up of 19.3 +/- 3.4 months, the probability of survival after 12 months was 70 +/- 0.07% and after 24 months was 42% +/- 0.09%. The risk group (homosexuals), the appearance of a neoplasia as the first diagnosis of AIDS, and the immunological parameters (CD3 less than 500, CD4 less than 400, CD4/CD8 ratio less than 0.5 and total lymphocyte count of less than 1700 were the markers with worst prognosis which correlated with survival rates (p less than 0.01). We confirmed that when comparing immunologic parameters amongst HIV infection groups, IgA levels were higher (p less than 0.05); the total number of lymphocytes, the number of helper lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were lower (p less than 0.01) in IV and AIDS group with respect to group II and III, in patients with AIDS with respect to group IV-non-AIDS and in those who died with relation to AIDS.

  9. A case of consecutive infection with Zika virus and Chikungunya virus in Bora Bora, French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Nakayama, Eri; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-02-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infection have similar endemic areas and clinical manifestations. We report a case of CHIK at 1 year after a ZIKV infection in Bora Bora (French Polynesia), which we diagnosed based on IgM to the CHIK virus and neutralizing antibodies to ZIKV.

  10. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  11. Genetic strategy to prevent influenza virus infections in animals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhu; Chen, Steve C-Y; Stern, Patrick; Scott, Benjamin B; Lois, Carlos

    2008-02-15

    The natural reservoirs of influenza viruses are aquatic birds. After adaptation, avian viruses can acquire the ability to infect humans and cause severe disease. Because domestic poultry serves as a key link between the natural reservoir of influenza viruses and epidemics and pandemics in human populations, an effective measure to control influenza would be to eliminate or reduce influenza virus infection in domestic poultry. The development and distribution of influenza-resistant poultry represents a proactive strategy for controlling the origin of influenza epidemics and pandemics in both poultry and human populations. Recent developments in RNA interference and transgenesis in birds should facilitate the development of influenza-resistant poultry.

  12. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, D S; Willey, R L; Sato, H; Chang, L J; Blumenthal, R; Martin, M A

    1993-01-01

    Tissue culture infections of CD4-positive human T cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proceed in three stages: (i) a period following the initiation of an infection during which no detectable virus is produced; (ii) a phase in which a sharp increase followed by a peak of released progeny virions can be measured; and (iii) a final period when virus production declines. In this study, we have derived equations describing the kinetics of HIV-1 accumulation in cell culture supernatants during multiple rounds of infection. Our analyses indicated that the critical parameter affecting the kinetics of HIV-1 infection is the infection rate constant k = Inn/ti, where n is the number of infectious virions produced by one cell (about 10(2)) and ti is the time required for one complete cycle of virus infection (typically 3 to 4 days). Of particular note was our finding that the infectivity of HIV-1 during cell-to-cell transmission is 10(2) to 10(3) times greater than the infectivity of cell-free virus stocks, the inocula commonly used to initiate tissue culture infections. We also demonstrated that the slow infection kinetics of an HIV-1 tat mutant is not due to a longer replication time but reflects the small number of infectious particles produced per cycle. PMID:8445728

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C molecular phylogeny: consensus sequence for an AIDS vaccine design?

    PubMed

    Novitsky, V; Smith, U R; Gilbert, P; McLane, M F; Chigwedere, P; Williamson, C; Ndung'u, T; Klein, I; Chang, S Y; Peter, T; Thior, I; Foley, B T; Gaolekwe, S; Rybak, N; Gaseitsiwe, S; Vannberg, F; Marlink, R; Lee, T H; Essex, M

    2002-06-01

    An evolving dominance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C (HIV-1C) in the AIDS epidemic has been associated with a high prevalence of HIV-1C infection in the southern African countries and with an expanding epidemic in India and China. Understanding the molecular phylogeny and genetic diversity of HIV-1C viruses may be important for the design and evaluation of an HIV vaccine for ultimate use in the developing world. In this study we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships (i) between 73 non-recombinant HIV-1C near-full-length genome sequences, including 51 isolates from Botswana; (ii) between HIV-1C consensus sequences that represent different geographic subsets; and (iii) between specific isolates and consensus sequences. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of 73 near-full-length genomes, 16 "lineages" (a term that is used hereafter for discussion purposes and does not imply taxonomic standing) were identified within HIV-1C. The lineages were supported by high bootstrap values in maximum-parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses and were confirmed by the maximum-likelihood method. The nucleotide diversity between the 73 HIV-1C isolates (mean value of 8.93%; range, 2.9 to 11.7%) was significantly higher than the diversity of the samples to the consensus sequence (mean value of 4.86%; range, 3.3 to 7.2%, P < 0.0001). The translated amino acid distances to the consensus sequence were significantly lower than distances between samples within all HIV-1C proteins. The consensus sequences of HIV-1C proteins accompanied by amino acid frequencies were presented (that of Gag is presented in this work; those of Pol, Vif, Vpr, Tat, Rev, Vpu, Env, and Nef are presented elsewhere [http://www.aids.harvard.edu/lab_research/concensus_sequence.htm]). Additionally, in the promoter region three NF-kappa B sites (GGGRNNYYCC) were identified within the consensus sequences of the entire set or any subset of HIV-1C isolates. This study suggests that the consensus sequence

  14. Management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection and exposure.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are rare but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in diagnostic modalities to identify these infants, as well as the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy, have revolutionised the management of affected infants. This review will summarise the epidemiology of neonatal HSV infections and discuss the management of infants with HSV exposure and infection.

  15. Regulatory T Cells in Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses that establish chronic persistent infection by effectively escaping the host immune response and can cause immune-mediated liver injury. It has recently become apparent that regulatory T (Treg) cells, specifically CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, modulate viral diseases by suppressing antiviral immune responses and regulating inflammatory host injury. The roles of Treg cells in HBV and HCV infections range from suppressing antiviral T cell responses to protecting the liver from immune-mediated damage. This review describes Treg cells and subpopulations and focuses on the roles of these cells in HBV and HCV infections. PMID:28035208

  16. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  17. Vaccinia and other viruses with available vaccines show marked homology with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein: the prospect of using existing vaccines to stem the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Carter, C J Chris

    2012-04-01

    Cross-reactive immunity occurs when infection with or vaccination against one virus protects against another related family member. A search for homologues of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein revealed that it is composed of thousands of intercalating and overlapping viral matches of pentapeptide or longer gapped consensi, belonging to over 70% of the currently sequenced virome, infecting all kingdoms from bacteria to man. It was also highly homologous to proteins from the Visna/Maedi and other ovine viruses, while other proteins (nef/tat/gag/pol) were homologous to proteins from the equine infectious anaemia virus and HTLV-2/HTLV-3 viruses. This phenomenon suggests that horizontal gene transfer from coinfecting RNA and DNA viruses to retroviruses is extensive, providing a route for the subsequent insertion of non-retroviral genes into human and other genomes via retroviral integration. This homology includes all viruses for which vaccines already exist. Cross-reactive immunity may be operative in AIDS, as Vaccinia vaccination decreases viral replication in HIV-1 infected patients' cells, for the CCR5 tropic form. Measles, Dengue virus, or GB virus C infections also decrease the HIV-1 viral load. A resumption of Vaccinia/smallpox vaccination might be expected to have a significant effect on the AIDS pandemic, and a careful study of the potential uses of other existing viral and bacterial vaccines merits close attention. This phenomenon may also be relevant to other recalcitrant viruses, bacteria, and parasites for which no vaccine exists and the armory of existing vaccines may have a role to play in diseases other than those for which they were designed.

  18. The needs of AIDS-infected individuals in rural China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun Luke; Trout, Shirley K; Lu, Katarina; Creswell, John W

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to describe the needs and present the voices of 21 AIDS-infected individuals who contracted the disease through the selling of blood in rural China. Data sources included interviews, field notes, and letters. Three themes emerged: living in a vicious circle, awakening from the dead end, and escaping the vicious circle through education. Education emerged as an overarching theme and was identified as the catalyst that would either keep the families of those affected trapped in the vicious circle or rescue them from it. Findings are explained within the theoretical contexts of social capital, motivation theory, and Confucius's philosophy on education. The authors discuss implications for researchers, educators, relief workers, human service workers, policy makers, and human rights advocates. They conclude with suggestions for further study.

  19. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Melody E.; Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV sero-prevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS defining conditions: lymphandenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters and elevated liver enzymes and serum proteins. Spleen and lymph node laparoscopic biopsies from free-ranging FIVple infected lions (N=8) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodefieciency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca). PMID:19464039

  20. Pathological manifestations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in wild African lions.

    PubMed

    Roelke, Melody E; Brown, Meredith A; Troyer, Jennifer L; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L; Alexander, Kathleen A; Klein, Lin; Martelli, Paolo; Krishnasamy, Karthiyani; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-07-20

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple-infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV seroprevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple-negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple-infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS-defining conditions: lymphadenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters, depressed serum albumin, and elevated liver enzymes and gamma globulin. Spleen and lymph node biopsies from free-ranging FIVple-infected lions (N=9) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodeficiency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca).

  1. Prevalence of Hepatitis Virus Infections in an Institution for Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Bradley A.; Vazquez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 1,235 residents of Sonoma Developmental Center found 3 residents had hepatitis C virus infections, and 633 had past or current hepatitis B virus infections. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection rose rapidly with longer residence in institutions. Hepatitis A virus infection had occurred in 494 residents. (Contains…

  2. Infective substructures of measles virus from acutely and persistently infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rozenblatt, S; Koch, T; Pinhasi, O; Bratosin, S

    1979-01-01

    Ribonucleoprotein from cells acutely or persistently infected with measles virus were shown to be infectious by the calcium phosphate technique. Very little or no infectivity was obtained when calcium phosphate precipitation was omitted. Electron microscopy showed that the majority of ribonucleoprotein structures isolated from acutely infected cells were folded, whereas those from persistently infected cells were linear in appearance. Images PMID:120450

  3. A computer-based surveillance system for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chew, S K; Snodgrass, I

    1995-04-01

    The first case of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was detected in Singapore in 1985 and the first case of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1986. Since then, the number of infections had increased. By the end of 1993, there were 222 residents with HIV infection, including 75 cases of AIDS. In view of the rapidly increasing magnitude of HIV infection, a microcomputer-based surveillance system was designed and developed in 1992 to better monitor epidemiological trends of HIV infection in Singapore. OBJECTIVE--The objective was to define a composite model of a successful HIV and AIDS registry that included: (a) patient data forms, (b) patient's contact data forms, (c) data analysis, and (d) report generation. METHODOLOGY--An IBM-compatible desk-top microcomputer was used for the project. The main software used for computer programming and data analysis were DBase IV (Version 1.5) and Epi Info (Version 5.0), respectively. Security features were incorporated into the programme to ensure confidentiality of information and that only authorized personnel could gain access to the programme. MAIN FINDINGS--The system functioned as the National HIV Notification Registry and was able to track notifications, analyse data and enabled prompt dissemination of information. The system was also linked to another database system for tuberculosis to enhance surveillance of both HIV infection and tuberculosis. CONCLUSION--The authors believe that this system would enhance surveillance and provide timely information for national AIDS control programmes. However, the effectiveness of this computer-based surveillance system is dependent on an established notification structure with notifications of sufficient completeness for both HIV infection and AIDS.

  4. [Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of Chilean patients].

    PubMed

    Vial, P A; Ferreccio, C; Abarca, K; Ortiz, E; Noriega, M; Pérez, C; Labarca, J; Torres, M; Ferrés, M; González, C; Acuña, G

    1996-05-01

    We characterized clinical manifestations and the risk to develop AIDS in a cohort of 32 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus without AIDS A multivariate analysis was performed to determine association between the progression of infection and control variables (socioeconomic level, age, sex and sexual preferences) and causal variables (psycho-social changes, significant clinical events, stress scoring and sexual activity). The cumulative AIDS incidence, defined as a CD4 lymphocyte count below 200 cells/cm3 was 50% at 6.5 years and 82% at 8 years. Using clinical criteria to define AIDS, 50% developed the disease at 8 years of follow up. Among studied factors, only age (faster progression at higher age) and time of evolution were associated with progression in stages before AIDS, the most frequent diseases were acute diarrhea, sexual transmission diseases, oral candidiasis, sinusitis and varicella zoster infections. The reduction; of CD4 lymphocytes-below 200 cells/cm3 always preceded the symptoms of the disease. Two patients have remained more than eight years without clinical or immunological deterioration.

  5. Studying NK cell responses to ectromelia virus infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Min; Sigal, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe methods for the in vivo study of antiviral NK cell responses using the mouse Orthopoxvirus ectromelia virus as a model, the agent of mousepox. The methods include those specific for the preparation and use of ectromelia virus such as the production of virus stocks in tissue culture and in live mice, the purification of virus stocks, the titration of virus stocks and virus loads in organs, and the infection of mice. The chapter also includes methods for the specific study of NK cell responses in infected mice such as the preparation of organs (lymph nodes, spleen, and liver) for analysis, the study of NK cell responses by flow cytometry, the adoptive transfer of NK cells, the measurement of NK cell cytolytic activity ex vivo and in vivo, and the determination of NK cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine loading or by dilution of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE).

  6. Effect of GB virus C co-infection on response to generic HAART in African patients with HIV-1 clade C infection.

    PubMed

    Mosam, Anisa; Sathar, Mahomed A; Dawood, Halima; Cassol, Edana; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Coovadia, Hoosen M

    2007-06-19

    In 38 African AIDS patients initiating generic HAART, GB virus C (GBV-C) RNA-positive patients retained GBV-C viraemia during 52 weeks of HAART, had a faster decline in HIV viral load (P = 0.03), fewer opportunistic infections (14.3 versus 50%, P = 0.18), and suffered no serious adverse events (none versus 61%, P = 0.008) compared with patients without GBV-C. GBV-C co-infection may be associated with a beneficial effect on African AIDS patients treated with generic HAART.

  7. Association of the HLA-B*52 allele with non-progression to AIDS in Brazilian HIV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S L M; de Sá, N B R; Campos, D P; Coelho, A B; Guimarães, M L; Leite, T C N F; Veloso, V G; Morgado, M G

    2014-04-01

    Several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles are associated with the susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection and/or AIDS progression. Of these, the HLA-B alleles are considered the strongest genetic determinant of disease outcome. We evaluated the influence of the HLA-B alleles on AIDS progression among HIV-1-positive individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who were categorized as rapid progressors (RPs), typical progressors (TPs) or long-term non-progressors (LTNPs). In this study, significant differences in HLA-B allele frequencies were observed among the three progression groups for the B*48, B*49 and B*52 alleles. After controlling for other factors associated with AIDS progression, the presence of the B*52 allele was shown to be a significant protective factor (hazard ratio (HR) 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.90) P<0.03). Although no direct association was observed between the presence of the B*27 or B*57 allele and the LTNP profile compared with the TP or RP groups, the adjusted model confirmed that these alleles are protective factors against AIDS progression (HR 0.62 (95% CI 0.38-0.99) P<0.05), as previously described. These data corroborate the existence of significant differences in HLA-B allele frequencies among the distinct AIDS progression profiles and further elucidate the role of HLA alleles in the outcome of HIV infections in diverse populations.

  8. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. PMID:26556361

  9. The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection.

    PubMed

    Harkness, J W

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, current ideas concerning the epidemiology of BVD virus infection are reviewed briefly, together with its possible economic implications. The different types of control strategies are considered. Problems associated with vaccination are discussed.

  10. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karyn N

    2015-11-04

    Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

  11. Alcohol use disorder and its impact on chronic hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Daniel; Sanvisens, Arantza; Bolao, Ferran; Rivas, Inmaculada; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently co-occur. AUD is associated with greater exposure to HCV infection, increased HCV infection persistence, and more extensive liver damage due to interactions between AUD and HCV on immune responses, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Although AUD and HCV infection are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, HCV antiviral therapy is less commonly prescribed in individuals with both conditions. AUD is also common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which negatively impacts proper HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and liver disease. In addition, AUD and HCV infection are also frequent within a proportion of patients with HIV infection, which negatively impacts liver disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding pathological interactions of AUD with hepatitis C infection, HIV infection, and HCV/HIV co-infection, as well as relating to AUD treatment interventions in these individuals. PMID:27872681

  12. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Kilham Rat Virus Infection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, James F.; Hetrick, Frank M.

    1970-01-01

    The Kilham rat virus (RV) was found to produce mortality in newborn rats after intracerebral, intravenous, or subcutaneous administration of virus. Both infectious virus and viral hemagglutinins were detected in a variety of tissues and in the blood and urine of experimentally infected rats. Contact control rats housed with infected littermates did not develop disease but did produce antibody to RV. Horizontal virus transmission was also evidenced by the seroconversion of antibody-negative mothers whose litters were infected with RV. The level of maternal antibody was found to be the determining factor in the susceptibility or refractiveness of newborn rats to RV infection. If the mother had no detectable hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody titer (less than 10) or a low antibody titer (10 or 20), her offspring were highly susceptible to RV. However, the litters of rats with HI titers of 40 or greater were afforded protection when challenged with RV; the higher the maternal antibody level the more solid was the protection conferred. Vertical transmission of RV was also demonstrated. Litters born of mothers infected with RV several days before delivery died within 7 to 9 days of a disease identical to that seen in infected newborns and virus was recovered from a variety of tissues. Results of mother-litter exchange experiments also indicated vertical transmission (rather than transmission through milk) occurs, since litters of infected mothers developed the disease when nursed by normal mothers, whereas litters of normal mothers remained normal although they were nursed by infected mothers. PMID:16557835

  13. [Immune response in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection].

    PubMed

    Chalupa, P; Holub, M; Davidová, A; Arientová, S; Beran, O

    2015-10-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is regulated by the host immunity and several metabolic factors affecting liver metabolism, including oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Both innate and adaptive immunity play an important role in HCV infection. Cytotoxic lymphocytes have a crucial role in viral eradication or viral persistence. Major cause of viral persistence during HCV infection could be the development of a weak antiviral immune response to the viral antigens, with corresponding inability to eradicate infected cells.

  14. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  15. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  16. Zucchini tigre mosaic virus infection of cucurbits in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini tigre mosaic virus (ZTMV) was identified infecting cucurbits in Florida in 2002 and again in 2015. This is the first report of ZTMV in the U.S. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants, and research and regulatory scientists....

  17. Influenza virus infection in guinea pigs raised as livestock, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Grado, Victor H; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

  18. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  19. West Nile virus infections in humans--focus on Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus causing to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild infection, to severe, and often fatal, infection of the central nervous system. The present review aims to describe the main clinical characteristics of the disease, to provide the recent epidemiological data, including those from the recent outbreaks in Greece, and to discuss the environmental factors which might play a role in the virus emergence and its wider dispersal.

  20. Correlation between Virus Replication and Antibody Responses in Macaques following Infection with Pandemic Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Gerrit; Dekking, Liesbeth; Mortier, Daniëlla; Nieuwenhuis, Ivonne G.; van Heteren, Melanie; Kuipers, Harmjan; Remarque, Edmond J.; Radošević, Katarina; Bogers, Willy M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus infection of nonhuman primates is a well-established animal model for studying pathogenesis and for evaluating prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies. However, usually a standard dose is used for the infection, and there is no information on the relation between challenge dose and virus replication or the induction of immune responses. Such information is also very scarce for humans and largely confined to evaluation of attenuated virus strains. Here, we have compared the effect of a commonly used dose (4 × 106 50% tissue culture infective doses) versus a 100-fold-higher dose, administered by intrabronchial installation, to two groups of 6 cynomolgus macaques. Animals infected with the high virus dose showed more fever and had higher peak levels of gamma interferon in the blood. However, virus replication in the trachea was not significantly different between the groups, although in 2 out of 6 animals from the high-dose group it was present at higher levels and for a longer duration. The virus-specific antibody response was not significantly different between the groups. However, antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralization, and hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers correlated with cumulative virus production in the trachea. In conclusion, using influenza virus infection in cynomolgus macaques as a model, we demonstrated a relationship between the level of virus production upon infection and induction of functional antibody responses against the virus. IMPORTANCE There is only very limited information on the effect of virus inoculation dose on the level of virus production and the induction of adaptive immune responses in humans or nonhuman primates. We found only a marginal and variable effect of virus dose on virus production in the trachea but a significant effect on body temperature. The induction of functional antibody responses, including virus neutralization titer, hemagglutination inhibition

  1. Easy and Rapid Detection of Mumps Virus by Live Fluorescent Visualization of Virus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Shibahara, Nona; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kishikawa, Akiko; Fukushima, Keijo; Takano, Maiko; Suzuki, Fumie; Wada, Hirohisa; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Minami, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mumps viruses show diverse cytopathic effects (CPEs) of infected cells and viral plaque formation (no CPE or no plaque formation in some cases) depending on the viral strain, highlighting the difficulty in mumps laboratory studies. In our previous study, a new sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac), was developed for visualization of sialidase activity. BTP3-Neu5Ac can easily and rapidly perform histochemical fluorescent visualization of influenza viruses and virus-infected cells without an antiviral antibody and cell fixation. In the present study, the potential utility of BTP3-Neu5Ac for rapid detection of mumps virus was demonstrated. BTP3-Neu5Ac could visualize dot-blotted mumps virus, virus-infected cells, and plaques (plaques should be called focuses due to staining of infected cells in this study), even if a CPE was not observed. Furthermore, virus cultivation was possible by direct pick-up from a fluorescent focus. In conventional methods, visible appearance of the CPE and focuses often requires more than 6 days after infection, but the new method with BTP3-Neu5Ac clearly visualized infected cells after 2 days and focuses after 4 days. The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is a precise, easy, and rapid assay for confirmation and titration of mumps virus. PMID:26629699

  2. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

    PubMed

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most-promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses a single filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). Importantly, a single injection of blended rVSV-based filovirus vaccines was shown to completely protect nonhuman primates against Marburg virus and 3 different species of Ebola virus. These rVSV-based vaccines have also shown utility when administered as a postexposure treatment against filovirus infections, and a rVSV-based Ebola virus vaccine was recently used to treat a potential laboratory exposure. Here, we review the history of rVSV-based vaccines and pivotal animal studies showing their utility in combating Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

  3. A noninfectious simian/human immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine that protects macaques against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh K; Liu, Zhenqian; Sheffer, Darlene; Mackay, Glenn A; Smith, Marilyn; Dhillon, Sukhbir; Hegde, Ramakrishna; Jia, Fenglan; Adany, Istvan; Narayan, Opendra

    2005-03-01

    Simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(KU2) replicates with extremely high titers in macaques. In order to determine whether the DNA of the viral genome could be used as a vaccine if the DNA were rendered noninfectious, we deleted the reverse transcriptase gene from SHIVKU2 and inserted this DNA (DeltartSHIVKU2) into a plasmid that was then used to test gene expression and immunogenicity. Transfection of Jurkat and human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK 293) cells with the DNA resulted in production of all of the major viral proteins and their precursors and transient export of a large quantity of the Gag p27 into the supernatant fluid. As expected, no infectious virus was produced in these cultures. Four macaques were injected intradermally with 2 mg of the DNA at 0, 8, and 18 weeks. The animals developed neutralizing antibodies and low enzyme-linked immunospot assay (E-SPOT) titers against SHIVKU2. These four animals and two unvaccinated control animals were then challenged with heterologous SHIV89.6P administered into their rectums. The two control animals developed viral RNA titers exceeding 10(6) copies/ml of plasma, and these titers were accompanied by the loss of CD4+ T cells by 2 weeks after challenge. The two control animals died at weeks 8 and 16, respectively. All four of the immunized animals became infected with the challenge virus but developed lower titers of viral RNA in plasma than the control animals, and the titers decreased over time in three of the four macaques. The fourth animal remained viremic and died at week 47. Whereas the control animals failed to develop E-SPOT responses, all four of the immunized animals developed anamnestic E-SPOT responses after challenge. The animal that died developed the highest E-SPOT response and was the only one that produced neutralizing antibodies against the challenge virus. These results established that noninfectious DNA of pathogenic SHIV could be used as a vaccine to prevent AIDS, even though the

  4. Experimental St. Louis encephalitis virus infection of sloths and cormorants.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Kramer, L D; Peralta, P H

    1983-07-01

    Experimental infection of 11 Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths with St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus produced detectable viremias of seven to 27 (median 13) days duration and maximum titers of 2.7 to 6.5 (median 5.1) log10 median suckling mouse intracranial lethal doses (SMicLD50) per ml. Experimental SLE viremia onset was delayed and maximum titer depressed in two sloths concurrently infected with naturally acquired viruses. SLE viremias in four experimentally inoculated cormorants Phalacrocorax olivaceus were shorter, and of equal or lower titer, than in sloths. Colonized Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were infected by feeding on sloths circulating at least 4.8 log10 SMicLD50 of SLE virus per ml, and subsequently transmitted the infection to mice and chicks. An uninoculated baby Bradypus became infected by contact transmission from its mother. The antibody response of sloths to SLE virus was slow, being undetectable until several weeks post-inoculation. However, both sloth species developed high and long-lasting neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. The complement-fixation antibody response in Bradypus was lower and slower to develop than in Choloepus. Sloths with naturally acquired SLE virus antibody did not become detectably viremic after experimental inoculation. Neither sloths nor cormorants become overly ill from SLE virus infection.

  5. Cell-to-cell infection by HIV contributes over half of virus infection.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Shingo; Takeuchi, Junko S; Nakaoka, Shinji; Mammano, Fabrizio; Clavel, François; Inaba, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Misawa, Naoko; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2015-10-06

    Cell-to-cell viral infection, in which viruses spread through contact of infected cell with surrounding uninfected cells, has been considered as a critical mode of virus infection. However, since it is technically difficult to experimentally discriminate the two modes of viral infection, namely cell-free infection and cell-to-cell infection, the quantitative information that underlies cell-to-cell infection has yet to be elucidated, and its impact on virus spread remains unclear. To address this fundamental question in virology, we quantitatively analyzed the dynamics of cell-to-cell and cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections through experimental-mathematical investigation. Our analyses demonstrated that the cell-to-cell infection mode accounts for approximately 60% of viral infection, and this infection mode shortens the generation time of viruses by 0.9 times and increases the viral fitness by 3.9 times. Our results suggest that even a complete block of the cell-free infection would provide only a limited impact on HIV-1 spread.

  6. [Diagnostic and treatment difficulties in patients with HIV and AIDS infections; the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration].

    PubMed

    Apostol, S; Colţan, G; Balş, M

    2000-01-01

    At present, the immunodeficiency syndrome has became pandemic. In these conditions, every doctor, no matter his profile, will have to carry out patients with AIDS. This multisystemic disease goes beyond the limits of a single medical discipline, presenting a lot of clinical manifestations. In ophthalmology, the infection with immunodeficiency virus has a lot of clinical aspects. In the beginning stages, the ocular manifestations are nonspecific, often being the prime symptoms of the general infection. In time, the disease is advancing and the opportunistic infections are becoming very frequent. In the latest stages of the diseases, one can see ocular complications, recurrences of the retinitis and also accidents caused or related with therapy. We have formulated an algorithm of diagnosis, together with some elements of etiology, extremely important for the ocular determinations of the systemic disease. We have presented some general idea about the points, the aim and the principles of the antiretroviral treatment and about the monitoring activity of the disease. We have also presented an algorithm for the initiation of the treatment. As a conclusion, we notice the significance of a close cooperation between doctors, for the diagnostic and also for the therapeutical activity.

  7. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  8. Co-infection and disease severity of Ohio Maize dwarf mosaic virus and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two major maize viruses have been reported in the United States: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV). These viruses co-occur in regions where maize is grown such that co-infections are likely. Co-infection of different strains of MCDV is also observed frequently...

  9. First case of imported Zika virus infection in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

  10. Infect one, infect all: Zulu youth response to the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leclerc-Madlala, S

    1997-06-01

    The province of KwaZulu-Natal leads South Africa in HIV/AIDS infection, with over two-thirds of the currently estimated 1.8 million cases. Recent studies show that the spread of HIV is accelerating, especially among young people under the age of 25. For Zulu township youth, HIV infection has come to be accepted as a new and inevitable part of growing up. Ongoing political violence and high levels of crime characterize the townships, from which has emerged a youth culture where young people who suspect they may be infected with HIV will avoid a definite diagnosis while at the same time seek to spread the infection as widely as possible. This response to the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic is examined against the cultural ethos of ubuntu and the strategies once used by youth to forge solidarity in their struggle against the former white regime. The social impact of this response, which may include increasing rape incidence, is discussed.

  11. Attenuation of Dengue Virus Infection by Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated siRNA Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-09

    Pharmingen) for 7 days prior to infection with DEN. Blocking dengue virus infection in vitro 1 × 105 Vero cells or DCs were seeded into six-well tissue...essential for dengue pathogenesis in the human host. In this study, we also utilized peripheral blood iDCs as a cell model to test our AAV system. Similar to...attenu- ate DEN infection. List of abbreviations AAV, adeno-associated virus; DCs, dendritic cells ; DEN, dengue virus; DHF/DSS, dengue hemorrhagic fever

  12. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys.

  13. Persistent infection of macaques with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J T; Halloran, M; Lord, C I; Watson, A; Ranchalis, J; Fung, M; Letvin, N L; Sodroski, J G

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) containing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat, rev, env, and, in some cases, vpu genes were inoculated into eight cynomolgus monkeys. Viruses could be consistently recovered from the CD8-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes of all eight animals for at least 2 months. After this time, virus isolation varied among the animals, with viruses continuing to be isolated from some animals beyond 600 days after inoculation. The level of viral RNA in plasma during acute infection and the frequency of virus isolation after the initial 2-month period were higher for the Vpu-positive viruses. All of the animals remained clinically healthy, and the absolute numbers of CD4-positive lymphocytes were stable. Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 were generated at high titers in animals exhibiting the greatest consistency of virus isolation. Strain-specific HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies were initially elicited, and then more broadly neutralizing antibodies were elicited. env sequences from two viruses isolated more than a year after infection were analyzed. In the Vpu-negative SHIV, for which virus loads were lower, a small amount of env variation, which did not correspond to that found in natural HIV-1 variants, was observed. By contrast, in the Vpu-positive virus, which was consistently isolated from the host animal, extensive variation of the envelope glycoproteins in the defined variable gp120 regions was observed. Escape from neutralization by CD4 binding site monoclonal antibodies was observed for the viruses with the latter envelope glycoproteins, and the mechanism of escape appears to involve decreased binding of the antibody to the monomeric gp120 glycoproteins. The consistency with which SHIV infection of cynomolgus monkeys is initiated and the similarities in the neutralizing antibody response to SHIV and HIV-1 support the utility of this model system for the study of HIV-1 prophylaxis. PMID

  14. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  15. Frequent simian foamy virus infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-Er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W; Yee, JoAnn L; Ely, John J; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E; Folks, Thomas M; Heneine, Walid

    2004-03-01

    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of these zoonotic infections are not fully defined. Surveillance for simian retroviruses at three research centers and two zoos identified no SIV, SRV, or STLV infection in 187 participants. However, 10 of 187 persons (5.3%) tested positive for SFV antibodies by Western blot (WB) analysis. Eight of the 10 were males, and 3 of the 10 worked at zoos. SFV integrase gene (int) and gag sequences were PCR amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes available from 9 of the 10 persons. Phylogenetic analysis showed SFV infection originating from chimpanzees (n = 8) and baboons (n = 1). SFV seropositivity for periods of 8 to 26 years (median, 22 years) was documented for six workers for whom archived serum samples were available, demonstrating long-standing SFV infection. All 10 persons reported general good health, and secondary transmission of SFV was not observed in three wives available for WB and PCR testing. Additional phylogenetic analysis of int and gag sequences provided the first direct evidence identifying the source chimpanzees of the SFV infection in two workers. This study documents more frequent infection with SFV than with other simian retroviruses in persons working with NHPs and provides important information on the natural history and species origin of these infections. Our data highlight the importance of studies to better define the public health implications of zoonotic SFV infections.

  16. Frequent Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Yee, JoAnn L.; Ely, John J.; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E.; Folks, Thomas M.; Heneine, Walid

    2004-01-01

    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of these zoonotic infections are not fully defined. Surveillance for simian retroviruses at three research centers and two zoos identified no SIV, SRV, or STLV infection in 187 participants. However, 10 of 187 persons (5.3%) tested positive for SFV antibodies by Western blot (WB) analysis. Eight of the 10 were males, and 3 of the 10 worked at zoos. SFV integrase gene (int) and gag sequences were PCR amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes available from 9 of the 10 persons. Phylogenetic analysis showed SFV infection originating from chimpanzees (n = 8) and baboons (n = 1). SFV seropositivity for periods of 8 to 26 years (median, 22 years) was documented for six workers for whom archived serum samples were available, demonstrating long-standing SFV infection. All 10 persons reported general good health, and secondary transmission of SFV was not observed in three wives available for WB and PCR testing. Additional phylogenetic analysis of int and gag sequences provided the first direct evidence identifying the source chimpanzees of the SFV infection in two workers. This study documents more frequent infection with SFV than with other simian retroviruses in persons working with NHPs and provides important information on the natural history and species origin of these infections. Our data highlight the importance of studies to better define the public health implications of zoonotic SFV infections. PMID:14990698

  17. Evaluation and management of the patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, M J

    2001-07-01

    The emerging presence of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection in the United States has been the focus of much attention among health care providers and the general population. Among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there has been a dramatic increase in hepatitis C disease. During the 1980s and early 1990s, hepatitis C was viewed as a disease for which little could be done, both because of ineffective treatment and the severity and lack of adequate treatments for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) itself. Treatment with interferon had poor effect on hepatitis C in the co-infected population, especially for those with advanced immunosuppression. The regimen was difficult to tolerate even with dose reductions. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and effective treatment and prophylaxis for opportunistic infections, a substantial portion of HIV-infected patients are living long enough to have their health compromised by hepatic failure or hepatocellular carcinoma owing to hepatitis C, rather than by AIDS-related illness. New treatments are available for hepatitis C, with preliminary research yielding promising results. The role of these medications in managing HIV/HCV co-infection is currently under study, with implications for many. Health care providers are increasingly faced with the challenges of caring for people infected with the hepatitis C virus, and the growing number of individuals co-infected with hepatitis C and HIV. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of hepatitis C, especially in the presence of HIV infection, and to detail the recognition and management of the care of this emerging population.

  18. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  19. Reduced Risk of Disease During Postsecondary Dengue Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Olkowski, Sandra; Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Stoddard, Steven T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Antibodies induced by infection with any 1 of 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1–4) may influence the clinical outcome of subsequent heterologous infections. To quantify potential cross-protective effects, we estimated disease risk as a function of DENV infection, using data from longitudinal studies performed from September 2006 through February 2011 in Iquitos, Peru, during periods of DENV-3 and DENV-4 transmission. Methods. DENV infections before and during the study period were determined by analysis of serial serum samples with virus neutralization tests. Third and fourth infections were classified as postsecondary infections. Dengue fever cases were detected by door-to-door surveillance for acute febrile illness. Results. Among susceptible participants, 39% (420/1077) and 53% (1595/2997) seroconverted to DENV-3 and DENV-4, respectively. Disease was detected in 7% of DENV-3 infections and 10% of DENV-4 infections. Disease during postsecondary infections was reduced by 93% for DENV-3 and 64% for DENV-4, compared with primary and secondary infections. Despite lower disease rates, postsecondary infections constituted a significant proportion of apparent infections (14% [for DENV-3 infections], 45% [for DENV-4 infections]). Conclusions. Preexisting heterotypic antibodies markedly reduced but did not eliminate the risk of disease in this study population. These results improve understanding of how preinfection history can be associated with dengue outcomes and DENV transmission dynamics. PMID:23776195

  20. Characteristics of Mild Dengue Virus Infection in Thai Children

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, In-Kyu; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Hermann, Laura; Buddhari, Darunee; Scott, Thomas W.; Jarman, Richard G.; Aldstadt, Jared; Nisalak, Ananda; Thammapalo, Suwich; Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Mammen, Mammen P.; Green, Sharone; Gibbons, Robert V.; Endy, Timothy P.; Rothman, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    A four-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study in rural Thailand was conducted to characterize the clinical spectrum of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Symptomatic DENV infections in the cohort were detected by active school absence–based surveillance that triggered cluster investigations around ill cohort children. Data from 189 cohort children with symptomatic DENV infection and 126 contact children in the clusters with DENV infection were analyzed. Of infected contacts, only 19% were asymptomatic; 81% were symptomatic, but only 65.9% reported fever. Symptom-based case definitions were unreliable for diagnosis. Symptomatic infections in contacts were milder with lower DENV RNA levels than the cohort. Infections in contacts with fever history were more likely to have detectable DENV RNA than infections without fever history. Mild infections identified by cluster investigations account for a major proportion of all DENV infections. These findings are relevant for disease burden assessments, transmission modeling, and determination of vaccine impact. PMID:24127167

  1. Comparative characterization of transfection- and infection-derived simian immunodeficiency virus challenge stocks for in vivo nonhuman primate studies.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Scarlotta, Matthew; Newman, Laura; Reid, Carolyn; Parodi, Laura M; Roser, James D; Oswald, Kelli; Marx, Preston A; Miller, Christopher J; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Barouch, Dan H; Pal, Ranajit; Piatak, Michael; Chertova, Elena; Giavedoni, Luis D; O'Connor, David H; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Keele, Brandon F

    2013-04-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) stocks for in vivo nonhuman primate models of AIDS are typically generated by transfection of 293T cells with molecularly cloned viral genomes or by expansion in productively infected T cells. Although titers of stocks are determined for infectivity in vitro prior to in vivo inoculation, virus production methods may differentially affect stock features that are not routinely analyzed but may impact in vivo infectivity, mucosal transmissibility, and early infection events. We performed a detailed analysis of nine SIV stocks, comprising five infection-derived SIVmac251 viral swarm stocks and paired infection- and transfected-293T-cell-derived stocks of both SIVmac239 and SIVmac766. Representative stocks were evaluated for (i) virus content, (ii) infectious titer, (iii) sequence diversity and polymorphism frequency by single-genome amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, (iv) virion-associated Env content, and (v) cytokine and chemokine content by 36-plex Luminex analysis. Regardless of production method, all stocks had comparable particle/infectivity ratios, with the transfected-293T stocks possessing the highest overall virus content and infectivity titers despite containing markedly lower levels of virion-associated Env than infection-derived viruses. Transfected-293T stocks also contained fewer and lower levels of cytokines and chemokines than infection-derived stocks, which had elevated levels of multiple analytes, with substantial variability among stocks. Sequencing of the infection-derived SIVmac251 stocks revealed variable levels of viral diversity between stocks, with evidence of stock-specific selection and expansion of unique viral lineages. These analyses suggest that there may be underappreciated features of SIV in vivo challenge stocks with the potential to impact early infection events, which may merit consideration when selecting virus stocks for in vivo studies.

  2. Gene-based vaccination with a mismatched envelope protects against simian immunodeficiency virus infection in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Flatz, Lukas; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lingshu; Foulds, Kathryn E; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Shi, Wei; Bao, Saran; Todd, John-Paul; Asmal, Mohammed; Shen, Ling; Donaldson, Mitzi; Schmidt, Stephen D; Gall, Jason G D; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Letvin, Norman L; Rao, Srinivas; Mascola, John R; Roederer, Mario; Nabel, Gary J

    2012-08-01

    The RV144 trial demonstrated that an experimental AIDS vaccine can prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans. Because of its limited efficacy, further understanding of the mechanisms of preventive AIDS vaccines remains a priority, and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of lentiviral infection provide an opportunity to define immunogens, vectors, and correlates of immunity. In this study, we show that prime-boost vaccination with a mismatched SIV envelope (Env) gene, derived from simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239, prevents infection by SIVsmE660 intrarectally. Analysis of different gene-based prime-boost immunization regimens revealed that recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) prime followed by replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) boost elicited robust CD4 and CD8 T-cell and humoral immune responses. This vaccine protected against infection after repetitive mucosal challenge with efficacies of 82% per exposure and 62% cumulatively. No effect was seen on viremia in infected vaccinated monkeys compared to controls. Protection correlated with the presence of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge viruses tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data indicate that a vaccine expressing a mismatched Env gene alone can prevent SIV infection in NHPs and identifies an immune correlate that may guide immunogen selection and immune monitoring for clinical efficacy trials.

  3. The Role of Virus Infection in Deregulating the Cytokine Response to Secondary Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Divya; Petes, Carlene; Gee, Katrina; Basta, Sameh

    2015-12-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are produced by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) after infection to stimulate T helper (Th) cells, linking innate and adaptive immunity. Virus infections can deregulate the proinflammatory cytokine response like tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-2, making the host more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. Studies using various viruses such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, influenza A virus, and human immunodeficiency virus have revealed several intriguing mechanisms that account for the increased susceptibility to several prevalent bacterial infections. In particular, type I interferons induced during a virus infection have been observed to play a role in suppressing the production of some key antibacterial proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-23 and IL-17. Other suppressive mechanisms as a result of cytokine deregulation by viral infections include reduced function of immune cells such as DC, macrophage, natural killer, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells leading to impaired clearance of secondary bacterial infections. In this study, we highlight some of the immune mechanisms that become deregulated by viral infections, and can thus become defective during secondary bacterial infections.

  4. Animal Models of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Randy E.; Durbin, Russell K.; Durbin, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    The study of human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis and immunity has been hampered by its exquisite host specificity, and the difficulties encountered in adapting this virus to a murine host. The reasons for this obstacle are not well understood, but appear to reflect, at least in part, the inability of the virus to block the interferon response in any but the human host. This review addresses some of the issues encountered in mouse models of respiratory syncytial virus infection, and describes the advantages and disadvantages of alternative model systems. PMID:26176495

  5. Experimental Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection of the Bovine

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Thomas E.; Johnson, Karl M.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of four dairy cows (Bos taurus) were infected subcutaneously with the epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEE) strains MF-8 and San Pelayo, respectively. Animals experienced no clinical illness, but all developed significant neutropenia. Virus was recovered once each from the blood of three animals but did not exceed 102.2 SMICLD50 (Suckling mouse intracerebral lethal dose50)/ml. Specific neutralizing antibodies appeared in the serum of all animals, but there were no significant differences in titers against different naturally occurring VEE subtypes. Dairy cattle thus appear to play no role in virus transmission during VEE epizootics but may serve as retrospective immunological sentinels of virus activity. PMID:4564396

  6. Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Randy E; Durbin, Russell K; Durbin, Joan E

    2015-08-01

    The study of human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis and immunity has been hampered by its exquisite host specificity, and the difficulties encountered in adapting this virus to a murine host. The reasons for this obstacle are not well understood, but appear to reflect, at least in part, the inability of the virus to block the interferon response in any but the human host. This review addresses some of the issues encountered in mouse models of respiratory syncytial virus infection, and describes the advantages and disadvantages of alternative model systems.

  7. Opportunistic intruders: how viruses orchestrate ER functions to infect cells

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Corey Nathaniel; Tsai, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Viruses subvert the functions of their host cells to replicate and form new viral progeny. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been identified as a central organelle that governs the intracellular interplay between viruses and hosts. In this Review, we analyse how viruses from vastly different families converge on this unique intracellular organelle during infection, co-opting some of the endogenous functions of the ER to promote distinct steps of the viral life cycle from entry and replication to assembly and egress. The ER can act as the common denominator during infection for diverse virus families, thereby providing a shared principle that underlies the apparent complexity of relationships between viruses and host cells. As a plethora of information illuminating the molecular and cellular basis of virus–ER interactions has become available, these insights may lead to the development of crucial therapeutic agents. PMID:27265768

  8. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiqiang . E-mail: zhiqiang_zhang@merck.com; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-05-10

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection.

  9. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection by ginsenosides

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Alberto J.; Kelvin, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause mild to severe respiratory infections in humans. Due to efficient means of transmission, the viruses infect human population on a large scale. Apart from vaccines, antiviral drugs are used to control infection; neuraminidase inhibitors are thought to be the first choice of treatment, particularly for severe cases. Rapidly evolving and emerging influenza viruses with increased frequency of viral resistance to these drugs stress the need to explore novel antiviral compounds. In this study, we investigated antiviral activity of ginseng extract and ginsenosides, the ginseng-derived triterpene and saponin compounds, against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that treatment of mice with ginsenosides protected the animals from lethal 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection and lowered viral titers in animal lungs. Mechanistic studies revealed that ginsenosides interact with viral hemagglutinin protein and prevent the attachment of virus with α 2–3’ sialic acid receptors present on host cell surfaces. The interference in the viral attachment process subsequently minimizes viral entry into the cells and decreases the severity of the viral infection. We also describe that sugar moieties present in ginsenosides are indispensible for their attachment with viral HA protein. On the basis of our observations, we can say that ginsenosides are promising candidates for the development of antiviral drugs for influenza viruses. PMID:28187149

  10. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries.

  11. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  12. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  13. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  14. Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Anna; Theocharopoulos, George; Dougas, Georgios; Athanasiou, Maria; Detsis, Marios; Baka, Agoritsa; Lytras, Theodoros; Mellou, Kassiani; Bonovas, Stefanos; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2011-01-01

    During 2010, an outbreak of West Nile virus infection occurred in Greece. A total of 197 patients with neuroinvasive disease were reported, of whom 33 (17%) died. Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors. PMID:22000357

  15. [Immunosuppression in dogs and pigs infected with canine distemper virus].

    PubMed

    Sereda, A D; Nogina, I V

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppression manifesting itself as leukopenia and a considerably lower lymphocyte proliferative response to T- and B-cell mitogens develops in pigs and dogs within 2-3 weeks after intramuscular or oral infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). CDV antigens are detectable in the oral secretions of the animals within 2-2.5 week after infection.

  16. Evidence of Apis cerana sacbrood virus infection in Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most serious threats to Apis cerana but is much less destructive to Apis mellifera. In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana and A. mellifera were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species-barrier of SBV infection. In order to clarify whe...

  17. Leading edge analysis of transcriptomic changes during pseudorabies virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight RNA samples taken from the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) of pigs that were either infected or non-infected with a feral isolate of porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) were used to investigate changes in gene expression related to the pathogen. The RNA was processed into fastq files for each...

  18. ROLE OF MONOCYTES IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ROLE OF MONOCYTES IN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION.
    Joleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker, National Health and Environmental Effects Research
    Laboratory, US EPA, Research Traingle Park, NC USA.

    RSV infection in airway epithelial cells (EC) results i...

  19. ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION; VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND FOETAL CONGENITAL ANOMALIES.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family that includes Dengue, West Nile, and Yellow Fever among others. Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in Zika forest of Uganda. It is a vector borne disease, which has been sporadically reported mostly from Africa, Pacific islands and Southeast Asia since its discovery. ZIKV infection presents as a mild illness with symptoms lasting for several days to a week after the bite of an infected mosquito. Majority of the patients have low grade fever, rash, headaches, joints pain, myalgia, and flu like symptoms. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to ZIKV infection and serious congenital anomalies can occur in foetus through trans-placental transmission. The gestation at which infection is acquired is important. Zika virus infection acquired in early pregnancy poses greater risk. There is no evidence so far about transmission through breast milk. Foetal microcephaly, Gillian Barre syndrome and other neurological and autoimmune syndromes have been reported in areas where Zika outbreaks have occurred. As infection is usually very mild no specific treatment is required. Pregnant women may be advised to take rest, get plenty of fluids. For fever and pain they can take antipyretics like paracetamol. So far no specific drugs or vaccines are available against Zika Virus Infection so prevention is the mainstay against this diseases. As ZIKV infection is a vector borne disease, prevention can be a multi-pronged strategy. These entail vector control interventions, personal protection, environmental sanitation and health education among others.

  20. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Erica Weinstein; Chen, Yanping; Message, Dejair; Pettis, Jeff; Evans, Jay D

    2008-09-01

    This work describes the first molecular-genetic evidence for viruses in Brazilian honey bee samples. Three different bee viruses, Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Deformed wing virus (DWV) were identified during a screening of RNAs from 1920 individual adult bees collected in a region of southeastern Brazil that has recently shown unusual bee declines. ABPV was detected in 27.1% of colony samples, while BQCV and DWV were found in 37% and 20.3%, respectively. These levels are substantially lower than the frequencies found for these viruses in surveys from other parts of the world. We also developed and validated a multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of ABPV, BQCV, and DWV in Brazil.

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected Gambians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, while both HIV and HBV are endemic in this area. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV virus in HIV-infected subjects in the Gambia. Methods Plasma samples from HIV infected patients (190 individuals with clinically defined AIDS and 382 individuals without AIDS) were tested retrospectively for the presence of HBV sero-markers and for serum HBV DNA, screened for HCV infection by testing for anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA. Results HBsAg prevalence in HIV-positive individuals is 12.2%. HIV/HBV co-infected individuals with CD4 count of <200 cells uL-1 have a higher HBV DNA viral load than patients with higher CD4 count (log 4.0 vs. log 2.0 DNA copies/ml, p < 0.05). Males (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2) were more likely to be HBsAg positive than female. HCV seroprevalence was 0.9% in HIV-positive individuals. Conclusion The prevalence of HBsAg carriage in HIV- infected Gambians is similar to that obtained in the general population. However co-infected individuals with reduced CD4 levels, indicative of AIDS had higher prevalence of HBeAg retention and elevated HBV DNA levels compared to non-AIDS patients with higher CD4 count. PMID:20843322

  2. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection and Progression to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Rathore, Anurag; Vidyant, Sanjukta; Kakkar, Kavita; Dhole, Tapan N.

    2012-01-01

    A multitude of host genetic factors plays a crucial role in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS, which is highly variable among individuals and populations. This review focuses on the chemokine-receptor and chemokine genes, which were extensively studied because of their role as HIV co-receptor or co-receptor competitor and influences the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals. PMID:22377730

  3. Viral infections of the lower respiratory tract: old viruses, new viruses, and the role of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pavia, Andrew T

    2011-05-01

    Viral infections of the lower respiratory tract cause an enormous disease burden in children, and the role of respiratory viruses in serious lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in older adults is increasingly appreciated. Although viruses are responsible for a large proportion LRTIs, antibiotics are often prescribed. New diagnostic platforms have the potential to detect a wider range of established and newly discovered viruses with greater sensitivity. This will create additional challenges. Although it is clear that influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus are important causes of pneumonia, the role of rhinoviruses and some of the newly described viruses, including human coronaviruses and bocavirus, is harder to determine. Better diagnostic tests that establish the cause of LRTIs in children have the potential to both reduce overall antibiotic use and to improve the targeted use of antibiotics. In addition, rapid identification of viral infections can help control nosocomial transmission.

  4. Mechanism of Cytotoxicity of the AIDS Virus, HTLV-III/LAV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    replication. Cold Spring Harbor RNA Tumor Virus Meeting, May, 1987. 2. Ratner L, Polmar SH, Paul N, Ruddle NH. Cytotoxic factors secreted by cells infected...HIV-l R and F gene products. Cold Spring Harbor RNA Tumor Virus Meeting, May, 1988. 6. Ranter L and Niederman T. Analysis of the function of the HIV-l...Ratner L. Limited sequence heterogeneity between lympocyte- and monocyte-tropic HIV-I isolates. Cold Spring Harbor RNA Tumor Virus Meeting. 1989. 21 24

  5. Epstein–Barr Virus: Diseases Linked to Infection and Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Hem C.; Pei, Yonggang; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered in 1964, and was the first known human tumor virus now shown to be associated with a vast number of human diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand infection, propagation, and transformation in various cell types linked to human diseases. However, a comprehensive lens through which virus infection, reactivation and transformation of infected host cells can be visualized is yet to be formally established and will need much further investigation. Several human cell types infected by EBV have been linked to associated diseases. However, whether these are a direct result of EBV infection or indirectly due to contributions by additional infectious agents will need to be fully investigated. Therefore, a thorough examination of infection, reactivation, and cell transformation induced by EBV will provide a more detailed view of its contributions that drive pathogenesis. This undoubtedly expand our knowledge of the biology of EBV infection and the signaling activities of targeted cellular factors dysregulated on infection. Furthermore, these insights may lead to identification of therapeutic targets and agents for clinical interventions. Here, we review the spectrum of EBV-associated diseases, the role of the encoded latent antigens, and the switch to latency or lytic replication which occurs in EBV infected cells. Furthermore, we describe the cellular processes and critical factors which contribute to cell transformation. We also describe the fate of B-cells and epithelial cells after EBV infection and the expected consequences which contribute to establishment of viral-associated pathologies. PMID:27826287

  6. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leis, A. Arturo; Stokic, Dobrivoje S.

    2012-01-01

    The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis) to four limbs (quadriparesis), with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis), motor axons (polyradiculitis), and peripheral nerves [Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), brachial plexopathy]. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides an explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long-term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neuropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms). Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies). Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal reports

  7. AIDS and the lung. 1--AIDS, aprons, and elbow grease: preventing the nosocomial spread of human immunodeficiency virus and associated organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, P J; Collins, J V

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) other than by direct inoculation or sexual contact is extremely rare. HIV has, however, been found on fibreoptic bronchoscopes used on patients with AIDS and there is a clear theoretical risk of transmission by bronchoscopy. Applied experiments have underlined the importance of cleaning equipment thoroughly and have shown the limitations of disinfection. Infection control policies should be revised to meet the following four basic requirements: (1) all precautions should apply to all patients alike--that is, whether infectious or not; (2) equipment should be cleaned thoroughly in detergent immediately after use to remove body secretions and reduce contamination; (3) staff who may be exposed to body secretions should wear simple barrier clothing routinely; and (4) contaminated bronchoscopes should be disinfected for 20 minutes in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde after cleaning. PMID:2688178

  8. Epidemiological features and economical importance of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections.

    PubMed

    Houe, H

    1999-01-01

    Infections with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are widespread throughout the world. Although the prevalence of infection varies among surveys, the infection tends to be endemic in many populations, reaching a maximum level of 1-2% of the cattle being persistently infected (PI) and 60-85% of the cattle being antibody positive. Persistently infected cattle are the main source for transmission of the virus. However, acutely infected cattle as well as other ruminants, either acutely or persistently infected, may transmit the virus. Transmission is most efficient by direct contact. However, as infections have been observed in closed, non-pasturing herds, other transmission routes seem likely to have some practical importance. Differences in BVDV prevalence among regions or introduction of virus in herds previously free of BVDV are often associated with particular epidemiological determinants such as cattle population density, animal trade and pasturing practices. However, on a few occasions there have been no obvious explanations for infection of individual herds. Estimates of economic losses due to BVDV infection vary depending on the immune status of the population and the pathogenicity of the infecting virus strains. Introduction of the infection into a totally susceptible population invariably causes extensive losses until a state of equilibrium is reached. Infection with highly virulent BVDV strains causing severe clinical signs and death after acute infection gives rise to substantial economical losses. At an estimated annual incidence of acute infections of 34%, the total annual losses were estimated as US$ 20 million per million calvings when modeling the losses due to a low-virulent BVDV strain. At the same incidence of infection, the losses due to a high-virulent BVDV strain were estimated as US$ 57 million per million calvings. Low-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum losses at an incidence of 45%, whereas high-virulent BVDV infections caused maximum

  9. Virus Enrichment for Single Virus Infection by Using 3D Insulator Based Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-01-01

    We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v = 10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921

  10. THE INFECTION OF MICE WITH SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1935-01-01

    The experiments confirm the earlier observation of Andrewes, Laidlaw and Smith that the swine influenza virus is pathogenic for white mice when administered intranasally. Two field strains of the swine influenza virus were found to differ in their initial pathogenicity for mice. One strain was apparently fully pathogenic even in its 1st mouse passage while the other required 2 or 3 mouse passages to acquire full virulence for this species. Both strains, however, were initially infectious for mice, without the necessity of intervening ferret passages. There is no evidence that bacteria play any significant rôle in the mouse disease though essential in that of swine, and fatal pneumonias can be produced in mice by pure virus infections. Mice surviving the virus disease are immune to reinfection for at least a month. In mice the disease is not contagious though it is notably so in swine. The virus, while regularly producing fatal pneumonias when administered intranasally to mice, appears to be completely innocuous when given subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. Prolonged serial passage of the virus in mice does not influence its infectivity or virulence for swine or ferrets. It is a stable virus so far as its infectivity is concerned, and can be transferred at will from any one of its three known susceptible hosts to any other. In discussing these facts the stability of the swine influenza virus has been contrasted with the apparent instability of freshly isolated strains of the human influenza virus. Though the mouse is an un-natural host for the virus it is, nevertheless, useful for the study of those aspects of swine influenza which have to do with the virus only. PMID:19870434

  11. Innate immune control and regulation of influenza virus infections

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Jodi; Heusel, Jonathan W.; Legge, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are critical for the control and clearance of influenza A virus (IAV) infection. However, in recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that innate immune cells, including natural killer cells, alveolar macrophages (aMφ), and dendritic cells (DC) are essential following IAV infection in the direct control of viral replication or in the induction and regulation of virus-specific adaptive immune responses. This review will discuss the role of these innate immune cells following IAV infection, with a particular focus on DC and their ability to induce and regulate the adaptive IAV-specific immune response. PMID:19643736

  12. Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Prenatal Zika Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Sanín-Blair, José Enrique; Gutiérrez-Márquez, Carolina; Herrera, Diego A; Vossough, Arastoo

    2017-03-14

    Brain lesions and malformations have been described on ultrasonography of prenatal Zika infection; however, there are scarce reports about fetal magnetic resonance (MR) findings. We report 3 cases of fetuses with confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection evaluated by ultrasound and fetal MR. Various morphometric measurements were assessed and brain maturation was calculated with the fetal total maturation score. Fetuses with prenatal Zika virus infection showed retardation in brain maturation indexes evaluated by fetal MR. Brain calcifications were demonstrated by neurosonography in all cases, while fetal MR characterized the specific type of cortical development malformation.

  13. Persistent infection of rabbits with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pifat, D Y; Ennis, W H; Ward, J M; Oberste, M S; Gonda, M A

    1992-01-01

    Chronic infection of rabbits was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV)-infected cells. Ten BIV-infected animals were monitored serologically for up to 2 years. Results of serologic and virus rescue assays indicated that all animals became infected and demonstrated a rapid and sustained BIV-specific humoral response. BIV was rescued by cocultivation from spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood leukocytes of infected animals. Viral DNA in immune tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of BIV sequences. These data and specific immunohistochemical staining of mononuclear cells of the spleen for BIV antigen suggest that the infection is targeted to immune system cells. Images PMID:1318416

  14. Immune Modulation in Primary Vaccinia virus Zoonotic Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Juliana Assis Silva; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Quinan, Bárbara Resende; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Mota, Bruno Eduardo Fernandes; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Côrrea-Oliveira, Rodrigo; da Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the WHO celebrated the 30th anniversary of the smallpox eradication. Ironically, infections caused by viruses related to smallpox are being increasingly reported worldwide, including Monkeypox, Cowpox, and Vaccinia virus (VACV). Little is known about the human immunological responses elicited during acute infections caused by orthopoxviruses. We have followed VACV zoonotic outbreaks taking place in Brazil and analyzed cellular immune responses in patients acutely infected by VACV. Results indicated that these patients show a biased immune modulation when compared to noninfected controls. Amounts of B cells are low and less activated in infected patients. Although present, T CD4+ cells are also less activated when compared to noninfected individuals, and so are monocytes/macrophages. Similar results were obtained when Balb/C mice were experimentally infected with a VACV sample isolated during the zoonotic outbreaks. Taking together, the data suggest that zoonotic VACVs modulate specific immune cell compartments during an acute infection in humans. PMID:22229039

  15. Autophagy Stimulation Abrogates Herpes simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a double-stranded DNA virus that causes life-long infections. HSV-1 infections may lead to herpetic stromal keratitis that may advance to corneal blindness. HSV-1 infections can also cause fatal conditions, such as herpes encephalitis, or neonatal disease. A major virulence mechanism of HSV-1 is the control of autophagy, an innate immune defense strategy that could otherwise degrade viral particles. Here, to investigate a new mechanism for antiviral therapy, we tested the effect of various autophagy inducers (physiological and pharmacological) on infection. Autophagy stimulation was confirmed to significantly suppress HSV-1 infection in various cell types, without affecting cell viability. This study establishes the importance of autophagy for regulating HSV-1 infection, and provides a proof-of-principle evidence for a novel antiviral mechanism. PMID:25856282

  16. Assessment of the utilization of a state AIDS/STD hotline by persons with and without HIV infection and their information needs.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Zdravko P; Marcus, Steven M; Jennis, Thelma; Ruck, Bruce; Rego, German

    2005-10-01

    A large number of AIDS/sexually transmitted disease (STD) helplines provide support to people seeking information how to avoid infection with HIV or how to deal with the infection if they have already contracted it. Nevertheless, limited knowledge is available about how such helplines are being utilized by different segments of the population and what the main concerns of the people calling the helplines are. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of the State AIDS/STD Hotline in New Jersey and describe the information needs of its callers. Callers were categorized as either having HIV or being free of the virus based on their self-reported HIV status. A cross-sectional design was then used combining caller information from the New Jersey AIDS/STD Hotline with data from the state health department on the number of people living with HIV in each county in New Jersey. The utilization rate of the New Jersey AIDS/STD Hotline was significantly higher among persons with HIV infection compared to the utilization rate among persons who were either free of the virus or unaware of their HIV status. The callers infected with HIV differed significantly from the rest of the callers in terms of the type of information they requested. While callers who had the infection were most likely to ask about treatment options, financial assistance, and support groups, the rest of the callers were more likely to inquire about testing site location and prevention information.

  17. Immune inhibition of virus release from herpes simplex virus-infected cells by human sera.

    PubMed

    Shariff, D M; Hallworth, J; Desperbasques, M; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    Human sera contain antibody (IVR antibody) which will inhibit the release of herpes simplex virus type 1 from virus-infected cells. This antibody activity was removed by adsorption of sera with virus-infected cell extract. There was a positive correlation between IVR and neutralizing antibody activity, particularly when measured by augmented neutralization test; measurement of IVR antibody was equally as sensitive as measurement of neutralizing antibody by augmented neutralization test. IVR antibody levels provided indication of a history of recurrent herpes labialis, the pattern of antibody response following primary herpetic infection, and indication of response to Skinner herpes vaccine in human subjects. It is suggested that consideration should be given to measurement of IVR antibody in both clinical and epidemiological studies of herpes and other virus infections.

  18. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  19. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  20. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection.

    PubMed

    Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2015-10-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130-170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  1. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  2. West Nile virus infection decreases fecundity of Culex tarsalis females.

    PubMed

    Styer, Linda M; Meola, Mark A; Kramer, Laura D

    2007-11-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) persistently infects many mosquito tissues, and it has been associated with cytopathological changes in midgut muscles and salivary glands. However, the effects of WNV infection on mosquito fitness (survival and reproduction) are not known. We conducted a life table study of individually housed female Culex tarsalis Coquillett. After an initial bloodmeal from a WNV-infected or uninfected chicken, mosquitoes were provided sucrose and offered weekly opportunities to feed on a hanging blood drop. WNV transmission status was determined by testing the remaining blood drop for virus after mosquito feeding. Dead mosquitoes and eggs were collected daily. Mosquito legs and bodies were tested for WNV, and eggs were counted and allowed to hatch. Two replicates of this experiment were performed, with a total of 62 mosquitoes that fed on a WNV-infected chicken (of which 21 became infected) and 43 mosquitoes that fed on an uninfected chicken. Fecundity of WNV-infected mosquitoes was significantly lower than that of uninfected mosquitoes, especially during the first oviposition. WNV infection was associated with smaller egg rafts, whereas increasing wing length and WNV titer in the legs had a positive effect on egg raft size. Additionally, infected mosquitoes had lower egg hatch rates than did uninfected mosquitoes. There were no significant differences in survival between infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Blood feeding rates were higher in infected mosquitoes than in uninfected mosquitoes. A small amount of virus (average, 378; range, 5-5000 plaque-forming units) was transmitted to the blood drops fed upon by infected mosquitoes. Although WNV infection negatively impacts mosquito reproduction, facets of mosquito biology that are critical to virus transmission success were either not affected (survival) or changed in such a way as to result in enhanced vectorial capacity (blood feeding).

  3. Molecular mimicry in virus infection: crossreaction of measles virus phosphoprotein or of herpes simplex virus protein with human intermediate filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, R S; Oldstone, M B; Wroblewska, Z; Frankel, M E; Koprowski, H

    1983-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that the phosphoprotein of measles virus and a protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 crossreact with an intermediate filament protein of human cells. This intermediate filament protein, probably vimentin, has a molecular weight of 52,000, whereas the molecular weights of the measles viral phosphoprotein and the herpes virus protein are 70,000 and 146,000, respectively. Crossreactivity was shown by immunofluorescent staining of infected and uninfected cells and by immunoblotting. The monoclonal antibody against measles virus phosphoprotein did not react with herpes simplex virus protein and vice versa, indicating that these monoclonal antibodies recognize different antigenic determinants on the intermediate filament molecule. The significance of these results in explaining the appearance of autoantibodies during virus infections in humans is discussed. Images PMID:6300911

  4. Characterisation of three novel giant viruses reveals huge diversity among viruses infecting Prymnesiales (Haptophyta).

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Torill Vik; Bratbak, Gunnar; Larsen, Aud; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Egge, Elianne S; Edvardsen, Bente; Eikrem, Wenche; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne

    2015-02-01

    We have isolated three novel lytic dsDNA-viruses from Raunefjorden (Norway) that are putative members of the Mimiviridae family, namely Haptolina ericina virus RF02 (HeV RF02), Prymnesium kappa virus RF01 (PkV RF01), and Prymnesium kappa virus RF02 (PkV RF02). Each of the novel haptophyte viruses challenges the common conceptions of algal viruses with respect to host range, phylogenetic affiliation and size. PkV RF01 has a capsid of ~310 nm and is the largest algal virus particle ever reported while PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 were able to infect different species, even belonging to different genera. Moreover, PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 infected the same hosts, but phylogenetic analysis placed them in different groups. Our results reveal large variation among viruses infecting closely related microalgae, and challenge the common conception that algal viruses have narrow host range, and phylogeny reflecting their host affiliation.

  5. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Plays a Role in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Moushimi; Keck, Forrest; Lindquist, Michael; Voss, Kelsey; Scavone, Lauren; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Roberts, Brian; Bailey, Charles; Schmaljohn, Connie; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses have been implicated in utilizing or modulating the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) to enhance viral multiplication and/or to sustain a persistent infection. The mosquito-borne Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the Togaviridae family and is an important biodefense pathogen and select agent. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapies for VEEV infections; therefore, it is imperative to identify novel targets for therapeutic development. We hypothesized that a functional UPS is required for efficient VEEV multiplication. We have shown that at non-toxic concentrations Bortezomib, a FDA-approved inhibitor of the proteasome, proved to be a potent inhibitor of VEEV multiplication in the human astrocytoma cell line U87MG. Bortezomib inhibited the virulent Trinidad donkey (TrD) strain and the attenuated TC-83 strain of VEEV. Additional studies with virulent strains of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) demonstrated that Bortezomib is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the New World alphaviruses. Time-of-addition assays showed that Bortezomib was an effective inhibitor of viral multiplication even when the drug was introduced many hours post exposure to the virus. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the VEEV capsid protein is ubiquitinated in infected cells, which was validated by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent studies revealed that capsid is ubiquitinated on K48 during early stages of infection which was affected by Bortezomib treatment. This study will aid future investigations in identifying host proteins as potential broad spectrum therapeutic targets for treating alphavirus infections. PMID:25927990

  6. The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a role in venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Moushimi; Keck, Forrest; Lindquist, Michael; Voss, Kelsey; Scavone, Lauren; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Roberts, Brian; Bailey, Charles; Schmaljohn, Connie; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses have been implicated in utilizing or modulating the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) to enhance viral multiplication and/or to sustain a persistent infection. The mosquito-borne Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the Togaviridae family and is an important biodefense pathogen and select agent. There are currently no approved vaccines or therapies for VEEV infections; therefore, it is imperative to identify novel targets for therapeutic development. We hypothesized that a functional UPS is required for efficient VEEV multiplication. We have shown that at non-toxic concentrations Bortezomib, a FDA-approved inhibitor of the proteasome, proved to be a potent inhibitor of VEEV multiplication in the human astrocytoma cell line U87MG. Bortezomib inhibited the virulent Trinidad donkey (TrD) strain and the attenuated TC-83 strain of VEEV. Additional studies with virulent strains of Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) demonstrated that Bortezomib is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the New World alphaviruses. Time-of-addition assays showed that Bortezomib was an effective inhibitor of viral multiplication even when the drug was introduced many hours post exposure to the virus. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the VEEV capsid protein is ubiquitinated in infected cells, which was validated by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequent studies revealed that capsid is ubiquitinated on K48 during early stages of infection which was affected by Bortezomib treatment. This study will aid future investigations in identifying host proteins as potential broad spectrum therapeutic targets for treating alphavirus infections.

  7. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  8. Diversity of Viruses Infecting the Green Microalga Ostreococcus lucimarinus

    PubMed Central

    Derelle, Evelyne; Monier, Adam; Cooke, Richard; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The functional diversity of eukaryotic viruses infecting a single host strain from seawater samples originating from distant marine locations is unknown. To estimate this diversity, we used lysis plaque assays to detect viruses that infect the widespread species Ostreococcus lucimarinus, which is found in coastal and mesotrophic systems, and O. tauri, which was isolated from coastal and lagoon sites from the northwest Mediterranean Sea. Detection of viral lytic activities against O. tauri was not observed using seawater from most sites, except those close to the area where the host strain was isolated. In contrast, the more cosmopolitan O. lucimarinus species recovered viruses from locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Six new O. lucimarinus viruses (OlVs) then were characterized and their genomes sequenced. Two subgroups of OlVs were distinguished based on their genetic distances and on the inversion of a central 32-kb-long DNA fragment, but overall their genomes displayed a high level of synteny. The two groups did not correspond to proximity of isolation sites, and the phylogenetic distance between these subgroups was higher than the distances observed among viruses infecting O. tauri. Our study demonstrates that viruses originating from very distant sites are able to infect the same algal host strain and can be more diverse than those infecting different species of the same genus. Finally, distinctive features and evolutionary distances between these different viral subgroups does not appear to be linked to biogeography of the viral isolates. IMPORTANCE Marine eukaryotic phytoplankton virus diversity has yet to be addressed, and more specifically, it is unclear whether diversity is connected to geographical distance and whether differential infection and lysis patterns exist among such viruses that infect the same host strain. Here, we assessed the genetic distance of geographically segregated viruses that infect the

  9. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  10. Antiviral activity of lanatoside C against dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yan Yi; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Chen, Huixin; Seng, Eng Khuan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2014-11-01

    Dengue infection poses a serious threat globally due to its recent rapid spread and rise in incidence. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or effective antiviral drug for dengue virus infection. In response to the urgent need for the development of an effective antiviral for dengue virus, the US Drug Collection library was screened in this study to identify compounds with anti-dengue activities. Lanatoside C, an FDA approved cardiac glycoside was identified as a candidate anti-dengue compound. Our data revealed that lanatoside C has an IC50 of 0.19μM for dengue virus infection in HuH-7 cells. Dose-dependent reduction in dengue viral RNA and viral proteins synthesis were also observed upon treatment with increasing concentrations of lanatoside C. Time of addition study indicated that lanatoside C inhibits the early processes of the dengue virus replication cycle. Furthermore, lanatoside C can effectively inhibit all four serotypes of dengue virus, flavivirus Kunjin, alphavirus Chikungunya and Sindbis virus as well as the human enterovirus 71. These findings suggest that lanatoside C possesses broad spectrum antiviral activity against several groups of positive-sense RNA viruses.

  11. Quantification of airborne African swine fever virus after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Weesendorp, E; Quak, S; Stegeman, J A; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-08-30

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim was to validate an air sampling technique for ASF virus (ASFV) that could be used to detect and quantify virus excreted in the air after experimental infection of pigs. In an animal experiment with the Brazil'78, the Malta'78 and Netherlands'86 isolates, air samples were collected at several time points. For validation of the air sampling technique, ASFV was aerosolised in an isolator, and air samples were obtained using the MD8 air scan device, which was shown to be suitable to detect ASFV. The half-life of ASFV in the air was on average 19 min when analysed by PCR, and on average 14 min when analysed by virus titration. In rooms with infected pigs, viral DNA with titres up to 10(3.2) median tissue culture infective dose equivalents (TCID50eq.)/m(3) could be detected in air samples from day 4 post-inoculation (dpi 4) until the end of the experiments, at dpi 70. In conclusion, this study shows that pigs infected with ASFV will excrete virus in the air, particularly during acute disease. This study provides the first available parameters to model airborne transmission of ASFV.

  12. Infection of Dendritic Cells by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, N.; Kunz, S.; McGavern, D.

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise the major antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of the host, uniquely programmed to stimulate immunologically naïve T lymphocytes. Viruses that can target and disorder the function of these cells enjoy a selective advantage. The cellular receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), Lassa fever virus (LFV), and several other arenaviruses is α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Among cells of the immune system, CD11c+ and DEC-205+ DCs primarily and preferentially express α-DG. By selection, strains and variants of LCMV generated as quasi-species that bind α-DG with high affinity replicate in the majority of CD11c+ and DEC-205+ (>75%) DCs, causing a generalized immunosuppression, and establish a persistent infection. In contrast, viral strains and variants that bind with low affinity to α-DG display minimal replication in CD11c+ and DEC-205+ DCs (<10%), rarely replicate in the white pulp, and generate a robust anti-LCMV CTL response that clears the virus infection. Hence, receptor-virus interaction on DCs in vivo is an essential step in the initiation of virus-induced immunosuppression and viral persistence. Investigation into the mechanism of how virus-infected DCs cause immunosuppression reveals loss of MHC class II surface expression and costimulatory molecules on surface of such DCs. As a consequence DCs are unable to act as APCs, initiate immune responses, and have a defect in migration into the T cell area. These data indicate that LCMV infection influences DC maturation and migration, leading to decreased T cell stimulatory capacity of DCs, events essential for the initiation of immune responses. Because several other viruses known to cause immunosuppression (HIV, measles) interact with DCs, the observations noted here are likely a common selective mechanism by which viruses also are able to evade the host s immune system. PMID:12797446

  13. Infection of cells by Sindbis virus at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Gongbo; Hernandez, Raquel; Weninger, Keith; Brown, Dennis T. . E-mail: dennis_brown@ncsu.edu

    2007-06-05

    Sindbis virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae genus Alphavirus infects a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate cells. The initial steps of Sindbis virus infection involve attachment, penetration and uncoating. Two different pathways of infection have been proposed for Alphaviruses. One proposed mechanism involves receptor mediated virion endocytosis followed by membrane fusion triggered by endosome acidification. This virus-host membrane fusion model, well established by influenza virus, has been applied to other unrelated membrane-containing viruses including Alphaviruses. The other mechanism proposes direct penetration of the cell plasma membrane by the virus glycoproteins in the absence of membrane fusion. This alternate model is supported by both ultrastructural [Paredes, A.M., Ferreira, D., Horton, M., Saad, A., Tsuruta, H., Johnston, R., Klimstra, W., Ryman, K., Hernandez, R., Chiu, W., Brown, D.T., 2004. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion. Virology 324(2), 373-386] and biochemical [Koschinski, A., Wengler, G., Wengler, G., and Repp, H., 2005. Rare earth ions block the ion pores generated by the class II fusion proteins of alphaviruses and allow analysis of the biological functions of these pores. J. Gen. Virol. 86(Pt. 12), 3311-3320] studies. We have examined the ability of Sindbis virus to infect Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cells at temperatures which block endocytosis. We have found that under these conditions Sindbis virus infects cells in a temperature- and time-dependent fashion.

  14. [Economic consequences of an infection with the bovine diarrhea virus (BVD virus) in 15 dairy farms].

    PubMed

    Wentink, G H; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1990-11-15

    In outbreaks of disease with the bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus), the economic loss to fourteen dairy farms was determined on the basis of the amount of loss per dairy cow. The patients included cases of abortion, stillbirths, delivery of calves showing lesions, lesions of the feet, mucosal disease and animals persistently infected with BVD virus. BVD virus was isolated from several cases of disease on all farms. It was not possible, however, directly to examine all individuals for the presence of the virus. The amount of loss caused by BVD virus was Dfl. 136,- per average dairy cow. The amount varied between individual farms from Dfl. 42,- to Dfl. 285,- per dairy cow.

  15. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time. PMID:27721694

  16. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-10-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  17. Respiratory virus infections among children in South China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Qiong; Lin, Guang-Yu; Cai, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Chuang-Xing; Chen, Pai-Zhen; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Jin-Chun; Lu, Xue-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Acute respiratory tract infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality with a worldwide disease burden. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of children with viral-induced acute respiratory tract infection, in Southern China. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from 1,980 pediatric patients with suspected acute respiratory tract infection, and 82 samples from healthy subject controls were collected for routine examination at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, from October 2007 to August 2011. Specimens were tested by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). At least one or more viruses were detected from 1,087 samples (54.9%). These included laboratory confirmations for 446 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 386 influenza virus A (FluA), 315 human rhinovirus (HRV), 135 human bocavirus (HBoV), 119 Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3), 82 Parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1), 66 adenovirus (ADV), 53 WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), 52 human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and 29 influenza virus B (FluB) samples. Samples from healthy subjects were negative for any virus. Of the patients with positive specimens, 107 (9.8%) were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Co-infection with at least two of the viral pathogens under study was observed in 325 of the 1,980 patients (16.4% of the total number of cases). These findings may help in the diagnosis of viral infections of the respiratory tract in children, and help to consider current and potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, and further respiratory complications.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus immunoglobulin in persons with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, C V; Goodroad, B K; Cummins, L M; Henry, K; Balfour, H H; Rhame, F S

    1997-01-01

    Hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is an intravenous immunoglobulin prepared from HIV-infected asymptomatic donors with a CD4 cell count greater than 400 cells/microl and a high titer of antibody to HIV-1 p24 protein. Twelve persons with AIDS received four doses of HMG (two at 50 mg/kg of body weight and then two at 200 mg/kg) every 28 days. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated by measurement of anti-p24 antibody. HIVIG was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. Three subjects who were not receiving Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis developed PCP. The mean value for HIVIG clearance was 3.02 ml/kg/day at 50 mg/kg and 3.65 ml/kg/day at 200 mg/kg (P = 0.027); the mean trough antibody titers (reciprocal units) were 1,442 and 4,428, respectively. This study indicates that high titers of anti-p24 antibody can be maintained with a monthly administration schedule of HIVIG and that short-term safety is acceptable. Comparisons to evaluate the therapeutic potential of HIVIG are justified. PMID:9210687

  19. Occult hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Carreño, Vicente; Bartolomé, Javier; Castillo, Inmaculada; Quiroga, Juan Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Occult HBV infection is a well-recognised clinical entity characterised by the detection of HBV-DNA in serum and/or in liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV infection has been described not only in patients who have resolved an acute or chronic HBV infection but also in patients without any serological markers of a past HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in patients with chronic HCV infection may induce more severe liver disease and lower response rate to interferon treatment. The existence of occult HCV infections has been also reported more recently. Occult HCV infection is characterised by the presence of HCV-RNA in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the absence of detectable serum HCV-RNA. Occult HCV infection may occur under two different clinical situations: in hepatitis C antibody-(anti-HCV) negative and serum HCV-RNA-negative patients with abnormal liver function tests and in anti-HCV-positive patients who have no detectable serum HCV-RNA and who have normal liver enzymes. The clinical relevance of occult HCV infections is still under investigation.

  20. [Infections with human immunodeficiency viruses. Part II: Antiretroviral drugs, therapeutic options, and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2011-07-01

    Infections with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV- 1) lead to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in the establishment of a wide range of severe opportunistic infections. Since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) into the treatment of HIV infections, in many cases a delayed appearance of AIDS-defining diseases is achievable. Life expectancy of antiretrovirally treated HIV-infected people applying HAART could be considerably extended and now resembles that of several other chronic diseases. For the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection, an adjunction with three antiretroviral agents is generally used. In most cases, the application of two nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) together with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), a protease inhibitor (PI) or an integrase inhibitor (II) is recommended. Before and during antiretroviral treatment, antiretroviral drug resistances, individual tolerance profiles and the needs of the individual patient, as well as several interactions with other drugs have to be considered. Diagnostics of HIV infection is based upon the proof of specific antibodies.

  1. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever virus infection: I. Susceptibility of mice to recombinant Lassa Gp/LCMV chimeric virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew M; Cruite, Justin; Welch, Megan J; Sullivan, Brian; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2013-08-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is a BSL-4 restricted agent. To allow study of infection by LASV under BSL-2 conditions, we generated a recombinant virus in which the LASV glycoprotein (Gp) was placed on the backbone of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Cl13 nucleoprotein, Z and polymerase genes (rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp). The recombinant virus displayed high tropism for dendritic cells following in vitro or in vivo infection. Inoculation of immunocompetent adults resulted in an acute infection, generation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells and clearance of the infection. Inoculation of newborn mice with rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp resulted in a life-long persistent infection. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of rLCMV Cl13/LASV Gp immune memory cells into such persistently infected mice failed to purge virus but, in contrast, cleared virus from mice persistently infected with wt LCMV Cl13.

  2. Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-09-01

    Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

  3. Suppression of influenza virus infection by the orf virus isolated in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    LIN, Fong-Yuan; TSENG, Yeu-Yang; CHAN, Kun-Wei; KUO, Shu-Ting; YANG, Cheng-Hsiung; WANG, Chi-Young; TAKASU, Masaki; HSU, Wei-Li; WONG, Min-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Orf virus (ORFV), a member of parapoxvirus, is an enveloped virus with genome of double-stranded DNA. ORFV causes contagious pustular dermatitis or contagious ecthyma in sheep and goats worldwide. In general, detection of viral DNA and observing ORFV virion in tissues of afflicted animals are two methods commonly used for diagnosis of orf infection; however, isolation of the ORFV in cell culture using virus-containing tissue as inoculum is known to be difficult. In this work, the ORFV (Hoping strain) isolated in central Taiwan was successfully grown in cell culture. We further examined the biochemical characteristic of our isolate, including viral genotyping, viral mRNA and protein expression. By electron microscopy, one unique form of viral particle from ORFV infected cellular lysate was demonstrated in the negative-stained field. Moreover, immunomodulating and anti-influenza virus properties of this ORFV were investigated. ORFV stimulated human monocytes (THP-1) secreting proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α. And, pre-treatment of ORFV-infected cell medium prevents A549 cells from subsequent type A influenza virus (IAV) infection. Similarly, mice infected with ORFV via both intramuscular and subcutaneous routes at two days prior to IAV infection significantly decreased the replication of IAV. In summary, the results of a current study indicated our Hoping strain harbors the immune modulator property; with such a bio-adjuvanticity, we further proved that pre-exposure of ORFV protects animals from subsequent IAV infection. PMID:25855509

  4. RNA tumor viruses, oncogenes, human cancer and AIDS: On the frontiers of understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanski, P.; Hager, J.C.; Rich, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 31 papers divided into six sections. The section headings are: Molecular Genetics of the RNA Tumor Viruses, Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences in Human Cells, Molecular Biology of Human Cancers, HTLV/LAV, T-Cell Leukemia and AIDS, Experimental Model Systems for the Study of Human Neoplasia and Related Diseases, and Perspectives.

  5. Living with the AIDS Virus: A Representative Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jennifer; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1990-01-01

    Uses human sciences, multilevel, hermeneutic approach to study life experiences of 21-year-old male who had tested positive for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome virus but who was asymptomatic. Demonstrates uses of systematic, personological procedure for examining these experiences and alerts practitioners to central psychological themes that…

  6. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Mexican human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Gutierrez-Escolano, Fernanda; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Gomez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier; Lira, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1+/ hepatitis B surface antigen negative (HBsAg)- patients from Mexico. METHODS: We investigated the presence of OHBI in 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was analyzed using nested PCR to amplify the Core (C) region and by real-time PCR to amplify a region of the S and X genes. The possible associations between the variables and OHBI were investigated using Pearson’s χ2 and/or Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of OHBI was 49% among the group of 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients studied. The presence of OHBI was significantly associated with the HIV-1 RNA viral load [odds ratio (OR) = 8.75; P = 0.001; 95%CI: 2.26-33.79] and with HIV-antiretroviral treatment with drugs that interfere with HBV replication (lamivudine, tenofovir or emtricitabine) (OR = 0.25; P = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.08-1.05). CONCLUSION: The OHBI frequency is high among 49 Mexican HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients and it was more frequent in patients with detectable HIV RNA, and less frequent in patients who are undergoing HIV-ARV treatment with drugs active against HBV. PMID:25309083

  7. Epidemiology and clinical features of HIV infection/AIDS in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, June Myung; Cho, Goon Jae; Hong, Sung Kwan; Chang, Kyung Hee; Chung, Joo Sup; Choi, Young Hwa; Song, Young Goo; Huh, Aejung; Yeom, Joon Sup; Lee, Kkot Sil; Choi, Jun Yong

    2003-06-30

    HIV infection/AIDS shows characteristic epidemiological and clinical patterns according to the region, country, and race. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of HIV infection/ AIDS in Korea was investigated by retrospectively analyzing the medical records of 176 HIV-infected persons who visited two major referral hospitals of AIDS in Korea from 1985 to April 2000. The most common transmission route was heterosexual contact (52.3%), followed by homosexual contact (23.9%). Among the opportunistic diseases, candidiasis was the most prevalent (21.6%), followed by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (15.9%), tuberculosis (12.5%), and CMV infection (9.1%). The most common initial AIDS-defining opportunistic disease was tuberculosis (33.3%). The most common causes of death were tuberculosis (25.7%) and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (25.7%). This study describes the epidemiological and clinical patterns of HIV infection/AIDS in Korea, which not only enables us to accurately understand HIV infection/ AIDS in this country, but eventually to aid in establishing effective preventive measures and treatment guidelines in Korea.

  8. Cellular automata approach for the dynamics of HIV infection under antiretroviral therapies: The role of the virus diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Ramón E. R.; de Figueirêdo, Pedro Hugo; Coutinho, Sérgio

    2013-10-01

    We study a cellular automata model to test the timing of antiretroviral therapy strategies for the dynamics of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We focus on the role of virus diffusion when its population is included in previous cellular automata model that describes the dynamics of the lymphocytes cells population during infection. This inclusion allows us to consider the spread of infection by the virus-cell interaction, beyond that which occurs by cell-cell contagion. The results show an acceleration of the infectious process in the absence of treatment, but show better efficiency in reducing the risk of the onset of AIDS when combined antiretroviral therapies are used even with drugs of low effectiveness. Comparison of results with clinical data supports the conclusions of this study.

  9. Deep sequencing in the management of hepatitis virus infections.

    PubMed

    Quer, Josep; Rodríguez-Frias, Francisco; Gregori, Josep; Tabernero, David; Soria, Maria Eugenia; García-Cehic, Damir; Homs, Maria; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa María; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2016-12-28

    The hepatitis viruses represent a major public health problem worldwide. Procedures for characterization of the genomic composition of their populations, accurate diagnosis, identification of multiple infections, and information on inhibitor-escape mutants for treatment decisions are needed. Deep sequencing methodologies are extremely useful for these viruses since they replicate as complex and dynamic quasispecies swarms whose complexity and mutant composition are biologically relevant traits. Population complexity is a major challenge for disease prevention and control, but also an opportunity to distinguish among related but phenotypically distinct variants that might anticipate disease progression and treatment outcome. Detailed characterization of mutant spectra should permit choosing better treatment options, given the increasing number of new antiviral inhibitors available. In the present review we briefly summarize our experience on the use of deep sequencing for the management of hepatitis virus infections, particularly for hepatitis B and C viruses, and outline some possible new applications of deep sequencing for these important human pathogens.

  10. Zika virus infections: An overview of current scenario.

    PubMed

    Dasti, Javid Iqbal

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered more than half a century ago, recently it has gained unprecedented attention by the global health community. Until 2007, only 14 cases of human ZIKV infections were reported around the globe, while during the current outbreak, estimated cases mounted to approximately 1.5 million in Brazil alone, the virus was disseminated to wider South-American territories and travel-associated ZIKV infections were reported in USA, Europe and recently in China. ZIKV infections remain asymptomatic in approximately 80% of the individuals, and no anti-viral treatments were recommended. Yet, neurological complications associated with the infections, such as infant microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome are major cause of the concern. Although, based on small numbers of cases, existing evidence strongly supports an exclusive link of viral infection and observed neurological complications. However, much work remains to assign exact numbers of complications caused by ZIKV. Regarding its structural attributes ZIKV shows remarkable resemblance with dengue virus and West-Nile virus. Despite, genomes of different ZIKV strains have already been decoded; role of the viral components in infection process and particularly pathogenesis of the disease remain widely unclear. In vulnerable areas, most viable strategy to ensure public health safety is vector control and enhanced public awareness about the transmission of the disease.

  11. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection. PMID:27330680

  12. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  13. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-06-18

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection.

  14. Novel clinical features of recurrent human respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    PubMed

    Yui, Ikuko; Fujino, Motoko; Sawada, Akihito; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-09-01

    Children and elderly individuals are often infected easily and repeatedly with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV); however, the features of recurrent infection in the same individual are defined poorly. To clarify the clinical significance of repeated HRSV infections in relation to subgroup epidemiology, this study performed prospective and longitudinal analyses in children with lower respiratory tract infections over 20 consecutive epidemics between 1985 and 2005 at a pediatric outpatient clinic in Kawasaki, Japan. HRSV infections were confirmed by 2 types of reverse-transcription PCR. Samples obtained from patients with repeated infections were subjected to sequence analysis and cloning analysis. A total of 1,312 lower respiratory tract infections observed in 1,010 patients were diagnosed as HRSV infections. Repeated HRSV infections occurred in 208 of the 1,010 patients. Analysis of the patients with repeated infections revealed that children were often infected multiple times even within a single short epidemic. Some patients were re-infected with strains having the same or virtually identical N gene sequences. In patients infected more than 4 times, cloning analysis revealed more frequent dual infections with both subgroups (23.8%). The HRSV-A subgroup caused subsequent homologous infections more frequently than did HRSV-B; furthermore, HRSV-A infections provided no protection from a second homologous infection. In contrast, HRSV-B infections offered significant protection against a second homologous infection. Statistical analysis revealed alleviation of symptoms with a reduced rate of dyspnoeic attacks only in the group re-infected with homologous HRSV-A strains. Thus, this study elucidates new clinical features of recurrent HRSV infection.

  15. Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Claudia R.; Price, Sarah L.; Forsyth, Ellen R.; Pin, Julia N.; Shirk, Erin N.; Bullock, Brandon T.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Gellerup, Dane; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Gama, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a lifelong infection because of latent viral reservoirs in infected patients. The contribution of CD4+ T cells to infection and disease progression has been extensively studied. However, during early HIV infection, macrophages in brain and other tissues are infected and contribute to tissue-specific diseases, such as encephalitis and dementia in brain and pneumonia in lung. The extent of infection of monocytes and macrophages has not been rigorously assessed with assays comparable to those used to study infection of CD4+ T cells and to evaluate the number of CD4+ T cells that harbor infectious viral genomes. To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells in vivo, we developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA) based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals in whom the infection is suppressed by ART. Myeloid cells expressing CD11b were serially diluted and cocultured with susceptible cells to amplify virus. T cell receptor β RNA was measured as a control to assess the potential contribution of CD4+ T cells in the assay. Virus production in the supernatant was quantitated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Productively infected myeloid cells were detected in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, spleen, and brain, demonstrating that these cells persist throughout SIV infection and have the potential to contribute to the viral reservoir during ART. IMPORTANCE Infection of CD4+ T cells and their role as latent reservoirs have been rigorously assessed; however, the frequency of productively infected monocytes and macrophages in vivo has not been similarly studied. Myeloid cells, unlike lymphocytes, are resistant to the cytopathic effects of HIV. Moreover, tissue

  16. Infection of influenza virus neuraminidase-vaccinated mice with homologous influenza virus leads to strong protection against heterologous influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    He, Biao; Chang, Haiyan; Liu, Zhihua; Huang, Chaoyang; Liu, Xueying; Zheng, Dan; Fang, Fang; Sun, Bing; Chen, Ze

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza pandemics. Here, we studied the protective effect against heterologous influenza viruses, including A/reassortant/NYMC X-179A (pH1N1), A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1), A/Chicken/Jiangsu/7/2002 (H9N2) and A/Guizhou/54/89×A/PR/8/34 (A/Guizhou-X) (H3N2), in mice first vaccinated with a DNA vaccine of haemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) of A/PR/8/34 (PR8) and then infected with the homologous virus. We showed that PR8 HA or NA vaccination both protected mice against a lethal dose of the homologous virus; PR8 HA or NA DNA vaccination and then PR8 infection in mice offered poor or excellent protection, respectively, against a second, heterologous influenza virus challenge. In addition, before the second heterologous influenza infection, the highest antibody level against nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M1 and M2) proteins was found in the PR8 NA-vaccinated and PR8-infected group. The level of induced cellular immunity against NP and M1 showed a trend consistent with that seen in antibody levels. However, PR8 HA+NA vaccination and then PR8 infection resulted in limited protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge. Results of the present study demonstrated that infection of the homologous influenza virus in mice already immunized with a NA vaccine could provide excellent protection against subsequent infection of a heterologous influenza virus. These findings suggested that NA, a major antigen of influenza virus, could be an important candidate antigen for universal influenza vaccines.

  17. Poverty, gender inequities, and women's risk of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Dunbar, Megan S; Minnis, Alexandra M; Medlin, Carol A; Gerdts, Caitlin E; Padian, Nancy S

    2008-01-01

    Entrenched economic and gender inequities together are driving a globally expanding, increasingly female, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. To date, significant population-level declines in HIV transmission have not been observed, at least in part because most approaches to prevention have presumed a degree of individual control in decision making that does not speak to the reality of women's and girls' circumstances in many parts of the world. Such efforts have paid insufficient attention to critical characteristics of the risk environment, most notably poverty and gender power inequities. Even fewer interventions have addressed specific mechanisms through which these inequities engender risky sexual practices that result in women's disproportionately increased vulnerabilities to HIV infection. This article focuses on identifying those mechanisms, or structural pathways, that stem from the interactions between poverty and entrenched gender inequities and recommending strategies to address and potentially modify those pathways. We highlight four such structural pathways to HIV risk, all of which could be transformed: (1) lack of access to critical information and health services for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, (2) limited access to formal education and skill development, (3) intimate partner violence, and (4) the negative consequences of migration prompted by insufficient economic resources. We argue for interventions that enhance women's access to education, training, employment, and HIV/STI prevention information and tools; minimize migration; and by working with men and communities, at the same time reduce women's poverty and promote gender-equitable norms. In conclusion, we identify challenges in developing and evaluating strategies to address these structural pathways.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in acute canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bathen-Noethen, A; Stein, V M; Puff, C; Baumgaertner, W; Tipold, A

    2008-09-01

    Demyelination is the prominent histopathological hallmark in the acute stage of canine distemper virus infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is an important diagnostic tool in human beings to determine demyelination in the brain, for example in multiple sclerosis. Five young dogs with clinically suspected canine distemper virus infection were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Hyperintense lesions and loss of contrast between grey and white matter were detected in T2-weighted images in the cerebellum and/or in the brainstem of three dogs, which correlated with demyelination demonstrated in histopathological examination. Furthermore, increased signal intensities in T2-weighted images were seen in the temporal lobe of four dogs with no evidence of demyelination. Magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a sensitive tool for the visualisation of in vivo myelination defects in dogs with acute canine distemper virus infection. Postictal oedema and accumulation of antigen positive cells have to be considered an important differential diagnosis.

  19. Pneumonia Virus of Mice Severe Respiratory Virus Infection in a Natural Host

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM; family Paramyxoviridae, genus Pneumovirus) is a natural mouse pathogen that is closely related to the human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses. Among the prominent features of this infection, robust replication of PVM takes place in bronchial epithelial cells in response to a minimal virus inoculum. Virus replication in situ results in local production of proinflammatory cytokines (MIP-1α, MIP-2, MCP-1 and IFNγ) and granulocyte recruitment to the lung. If left unchecked, PVM infection and the ensuing inflammatory response ultimately lead to pulmonary edema, respiratory compromise and death. In this review, we consider the recent studies using the PVM model that have provided important insights into the role of the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of severe respiratory virus infection. We also highlight several works that have elucidated acquired immune responses to this pathogen, including T cell responses and the development of humoral immunity. Finally, we consider several immunomodulatory strategies that have been used successfully to reduce morbidity and mortality when administered to PVM infected, symptomatic mice, and thus hold promise as realistic therapeutic strategies for severe respiratory virus infections in human subjects. PMID:18471897

  20. Targeting Viral Proteostasis Limits Influenza Virus, HIV, and Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Nicholas S; Moshkina, Natasha; Fenouil, Romain; Gardner, Thomas J; Aguirre, Sebastian; Shah, Priya S; Zhao, Nan; Manganaro, Lara; Hultquist, Judd F; Noel, Justine; Sachs, David; Sachs, David H; Hamilton, Jennifer; Leon, Paul E; Chawdury, Amit; Tripathi, Shashank; Melegari, Camilla; Campisi, Laura; Hai, Rong; Metreveli, Giorgi; Gamarnik, Andrea V; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Simon, Viviana; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Krogan, Nevan J; Mulder, Lubbertus C F; van Bakel, Harm; Tortorella, Domenico; Taunton, Jack; Palese, Peter; Marazzi, Ivan

    2016-01-19

    Viruses are obligate parasites and thus require the machinery of the host cell to replicate. Inhibition of host factors co-opted during active infection is a strategy hosts use to suppress viral replication and a potential pan-antiviral therapy. To define the cellular proteins and processes required for a virus during infection is thus crucial to understanding the mechanisms of virally induced disease. In this report, we generated fully infectious tagged influenza viruses and used infection-based proteomics to identify pivotal arms of cellular signaling required for influenza virus growth and infectivity. Using mathematical modeling and genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we revealed that modulation of Sec61-mediated cotranslational translocation selectively impaired glycoprotein proteostasis of influenza as well as HIV and dengue viruses and led to inhibition of viral growth and infectivity. Thus, by studying virus-human protein-protein interactions in the context of active replication, we have identified targetable host factors for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.

  1. Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M

    2007-08-22

    Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus.

  2. Plasmodium Infection Promotes Genomic Instability and AID Dependent B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Robbiani, Davide F.; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Feldhahn, Niklas; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Callen, Elsa; Wang, Qiao; Jankovic, Mila; Silva, Israel T.; Rommel, Philipp C.; Bosque, David; Eisenreich, Tom; Nussenzweig, André; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chronic infection with Plasmodium falciparum was epidemiologically associated with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma, a mature B cell cancer characterized by chromosome translocation between the c-myc oncogene and Igh, over 50 years ago. Whether infection promotes B cell lymphoma, and if so by what mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the relationship between parasitic disease and lymphomagenesis we used Plasmodium chabaudi (Pc) to produce chronic malaria infection in mice. Pc induces prolonged expansion of germinal centers (GCs), unique compartments where B cells undergo rapid clonal expansion and express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a DNA mutator. GC B cells elicited during Pc infection suffer widespread DNA damage leading to chromosome translocations. Although infection does not change the overall rate, it modifies lymphomagenesis to favor mature B cell lymphomas that are AID dependent and show chromosome translocations. Thus, malaria infection favors mature B cell cancers by eliciting protracted AID expression in GC B cells. PMID:26276629

  3. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. Methods We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. Findings We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. Conclusion An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs. PMID:27516635

  4. Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eileen; Whitmore, Suzanne; Glynn, Kathleen M; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitsch, Andrew; McKenna, Matthew T

    2008-12-05

    For adults and adolescents (i.e., persons aged >/=13 years), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection classification system and the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been revised and combined into a single case definition for HIV infection. In addition, the HIV infection case definition for children aged <13 years and the AIDS case definition for children aged 18 months to <13 years have been revised. No changes have been made to the HIV infection classification system, the 24 AIDS-defining conditions for children aged <13 years, or the AIDS case definition for children aged <18 months. These case definitions are intended for public health surveillance only and not as a guide for clinical diagnosis. Public health surveillance data are used primarily for monitoring the HIV epidemic and for planning on a population level, not for making clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS using the 2008 surveillance case definitions, effective immediately.

  5. Immunology and Pathology of Arena Virus Infections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    adapted PIC strain, adPIC , and the GP avirulent prototype PIC strain PIC3739. adPIC replicated jto higher titers than PIC3739 in macrophages infected in...bioactivity levels increased in the serum of adPIC but not PIC3739 infected GPs. Spleen TNF activity rose during the first week after infection by both... adPIC infected GP (day 11) showed augmented ,TNF production after LPS stimulation as compared with PIC3739 infected or uninfected cells. ,We now theorize

  6. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Moni A; Kareem, Kehinde T; Nsa, Imade Y; D'A Hughes, Jackies

    2007-01-01

    Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT86D- 719 and TVU 76) were mechanically inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), Bean southern mosaic virus (SBMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV) singly, as well as in all possible combinations at 10, 20 and 30 days after planting (DAP). Samples of leaves or stems were collected at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation (DAI) and analyzed for relative virus concentration by Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay. All the cultivars and lines {CVS/L} were susceptible to the viruses but the commercial CVS showed more severe symptoms and had relatively higher viral concentration. In single virus infections, CABMV which induced the most severe symptoms had absorbance values (at 405 nm) of 0.11 to 0.46 while SBMV and CMeV which induced moderate symptoms had virus titre of 0.74 to 1.99 and 0.11 to 0.90 respectively. Plants inoculated 10 DAP had significantly higher virus concentration than those inoculated 30 DAP. In mixed infections involving CABMV (10 DAP) apical necrosis and death were observed in commercial cultivars "Olo 11" and "White". Enhancement of CMeV titers were observed in plants infected with CMeV + CABMV. Multiple viral infections of cowpeas may result in complete yield loss, hence, the availability of seeds of cultivars with a high level of multiple virus resistance is recommended as a means of control. PMID:17900355

  7. Argonaute 2 Suppresses Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Kuwata, Ryusei; Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo

    2017-01-24

    There are three main innate immune mechanisms against viruses in mosquitoes. Infection with the flavivirus dengue virus is controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) and the JAK-STAT and Toll signaling pathways. This study showed that another flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), did not invade the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti and that this may be a result of the innate immune resistance to the virus. Argonaute 2 (Ago2) plays a critical role in the RNAi pathway. To understand the mechanism of JEV resistance, we focused on Ago2 as a possible target of JEV. Here, we show that the expression of MyD88 (a mediator of Toll signaling) and Ago2 mRNAs was induced by JEV in the salivary glands of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes and that Ago2, JAK, and domeless (DOME) mRNAs were induced by JEV in the bodies of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Double-stranded (ds) Ago2 RNA enhanced JEV infection, and the virus was detected in salivary glands by immunofluorescence assay. In contrast, MyD88 dsRNA had no effect on JEV infection. These data suggest that Ago2 plays a crucial role in mediating the innate immune response of Ae. aegypti to JEV in a manner similar to that employed by dengue virus.

  8. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Meret E; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-02-24

    Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JEV in pigs not only to the CNS but also for secondary lymphoid tissue, in particular the tonsils with the overall highest viral loads, was observed. In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. This was also well beyond the clinical and viremic phase. These results are of significance for the pathogenesis of JEV, and call for further experimental studies focusing on the cellular source and duration of virus replication in pigs.

  9. First study of different insect cells to triatoma virus infection.

    PubMed

    Susevich, María Laura; Marti, Gerardo Aníbal; Metz, Germán Ernesto; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    The use of viruses for biological control is a new option to be considered. The family Dicistroviridae, which affects only invertebrates, is one of the families that have been proposed for this purpose. The Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, affects triatomine transmitters of Chagas disease, which is endemic in Latin America but also expanding its worldwide distribution. To this end, we attempted virus replication in Diptera, Aedes albopictus (clone C6/36) and Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (SF9, SF21) and High Five (H5) cell lines. The methodologies used were transfection process, direct inoculation (purified virus), and inoculation of purified virus with trypsin. Results were confirmed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, RT-PCR, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. According to the results obtained, further analysis of susceptibility/infection of H5 cells to TrV required to be studied.

  10. Neurologic Complications of Influenza B Virus Infection in Adults, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Corneliu P; Florescu, Simin A; Lupulescu, Emilia; Zaharia, Mihaela; Tardei, Gratiela; Lazar, Mihaela; Ceausu, Emanoil; Ruta, Simona M

    2017-04-01

    We characterized influenza B virus-related neurologic manifestations in an unusually high number of hospitalized adults at a tertiary care facility in Romania during the 2014-15 influenza epidemic season. Of 32 patients with a confirmed laboratory diagnosis of influenza B virus infection, neurologic complications developed in 7 adults (median age 31 years). These complications were clinically diagnosed as confirmed encephalitis (4 patients), possible encephalitis (2 patients), and cerebellar ataxia (1 patient). Two of the patients died. Virus sequencing identified influenza virus B (Yam)-lineage clade 3, which is representative of the B/Phuket/3073/2013 strain, in 4 patients. None of the patients had been vaccinated against influenza. These results suggest that influenza B virus can cause a severe clinical course and should be considered as an etiologic factor for encephalitis.

  11. Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.

    PubMed

    Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Feitosa, Ian M L; Horovitz, Dafne D G; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Pessoa, André; Doriqui, Maria Juliana R; Neri, Joao Ivanildo; Neto, Joao Monteiro de Pina; Wanderley, Hector Y C; Cernach, Mirlene; El-Husny, Antonette S; Pone, Marcos V S; Serao, Cassio L C; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa V

    2016-01-29

    In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ≥2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear

  12. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ochieng, Caroline; Ahenda, Petronella; Vittor, Amy Y.; Nyoka, Raymond; Gikunju, Stella; Wachira, Cyrus; Waiboci, Lilian; Umuro, Mamo; Kim, Andrea A.; Nderitu, Leonard; Juma, Bonventure; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.; Fields, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively). For DENV and RVFV, the participant’s province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV. PMID:26177451

  13. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. METHODS Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939) and 37% (68/184) in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1%) reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others. Availability of

  14. Measles virus induces persistent infection by autoregulation of viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Tomomitsu; Kwon, Hyun-Jeong; Honda, Tomoyuki; Sato, Hiroki; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2016-01-01

    Natural infection with measles virus (MV) establishes lifelong immunity. Persistent infection with MV is likely involved in this phenomenon, as non-replicating protein antigens never induce such long-term immunity. Although MV establishes stable persistent infection in vitro and possibly in vivo, the mechanism by which this occurs is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that MV changes the infection mode from lytic to non-lytic and evades the innate immune response to establish persistent infection without viral genome mutation. We found that, in the persistent phase, the viral RNA level declined with the termination of interferon production and cell death. Our analysis of viral protein dynamics shows that during the establishment of persistent infection, the nucleoprotein level was sustained while the phosphoprotein and large protein levels declined. The ectopic expression of nucleoprotein suppressed viral replication, indicating that viral replication is self-regulated by nucleoprotein accumulation during persistent infection. The persistently infected cells were able to produce interferon in response to poly I:C stimulation, suggesting that MV does not interfere with host interferon responses in persistent infection. Our results may provide mechanistic insight into the persistent infection of this cytopathic RNA virus that induces lifelong immunity. PMID:27883010

  15. Consequence of Maternal Zika Virus Infection: A Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Niaz, Kamal; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-10-18

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis , possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development. Google scholar was used as the major search engine for research and review articles, up to July, 2016. Search terms such as "ZIKV", "ZIKV infection", "ZIKV serotypes", "treatment of ZIKV infection", "co-infection with zika virus", "flavivirus", "microcephaly and zika", "birth defects and Zika", as well as "ZIKV vaccine" were used. ZIKV has been detected in several body fluids such as saliva, semen, blood, and amniotic fluid. This reveals the possibility of sexual and mother to child transmission. The ability of the virus to cross the placental barrier and the blood brain barrier (BBB) has been associated with birth defects such as microcephaly, ocular defects, and Guillian Barre syndrome (GBS). Preventive measures can reduce the spread and risk of the infection. Available treatments only target symptoms while vaccines are still under development. Birth defects are associated with ZIKV infection in pregnant women; hence the need for development of standard treatments, employment of strict preventive measures and development of effective vaccines.

  16. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Don B; Duraffour, Sophie; Rozelle, Daniel K; Hehnly, Heidi; Sharma, Rita; Sparks, Michael E; West, Cara C; Chen, Ying; Moresco, James J; Andrei, Graciela; Connor, John H; Conte, Darryl; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E; Marshall, William L; Yates, John R; Silverman, Neal; Mello, Craig C

    2014-01-01

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. We found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are completely restricted in their replication after entry into Lepidopteran cells. This restriction is overcome when cells are co-infected with vaccinia virus (VACV), a vertebrate DNA virus. Using RNAi screening, we show that Lepidopteran RNAi, Nuclear Factor-κB, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways restrict RNA virus infection. Surprisingly, a highly conserved, uncharacterized VACV protein, A51R, can partially overcome this virus restriction. We show that A51R is also critical for VACV replication in vertebrate cells and for pathogenesis in mice. Interestingly, A51R colocalizes with, and stabilizes, host microtubules and also associates with ubiquitin. We show that A51R promotes viral protein stability, possibly by preventing ubiquitin-dependent targeting of viral proteins for destruction. Importantly, our studies reveal exciting new opportunities to study virus-host interactions in experimentally-tractable Lepidopteran systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02910.001 PMID:24966209

  17. Aerosol Stability and Respiratory Infectivity of Lassa Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    diVaIlabLjjo, Cd, /1 ------- t I- 2 Lassa virus , an arenavirus , is endemic in western Africa and causes a severe generalized hemorrhagic disease in human...guinea pigs to infection with Lassa virus (P. B. Jahrling et al., manuscript in preparation) and other arenaviruses (8) when the virus is presented by...Prog. Mod. Viral. 18:111-126. 4. Fabiyi. A. 1976. Lassa fever ( arenaviruses ) as a public health problem. Bull. PAHO. 100335-337. 5. Guyton. A. C. 1947

  18. Emerging concepts in immunity to hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hugo R

    2013-10-01

    Since the discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by molecular cloning almost a quarter of a century ago, unprecedented at the time because the virus had never been grown in cell culture or detected serologically, there have been impressive strides in many facets of our understanding of the natural history of the disease, the viral life cycle, the pathogenesis, and antiviral therapy. It is apparent that the virus has developed multiple strategies to evade immune surveillance and eradication. This Review covers what we currently understand of the temporal and spatial immunological changes within the human innate and adaptive host immune responses that ultimately determine the outcomes of HCV infection.

  19. Influenza A virus infection complicated by fatal myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nolte, K B; Alakija, P; Oty, G; Shaw, M W; Subbarao, K; Guarner, J; Shieh, W J; Dawson, J E; Morken, T; Cox, N J; Zaki, S R

    2000-12-01

    Influenza virus typically causes a febrile respiratory illness, but it can present with a variety of other clinical manifestations. We report a fatal case of myocarditis associated with influenza A infection. A previously healthy 11-year-old girl had malaise and fever for approximately 1 week before a sudden, witnessed fatal collapse at home. Autopsy revealed a pericardial effusion, a mixed lymphocytic and neutrophilic myocarditis, a mild lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, focal bronchial/bronchiolar mucosal necrosis, and histologic changes consistent with asthma. Infection with influenza A (H3N2) was confirmed by virus isolation from a postmortem nasopharyngeal swab. Attempts to isolate virus from heart and lung tissue were unsuccessful. Immunohistochemical tests directed against influenza A antigens and in situ hybridization for influenza A genetic material demonstrated positive staining in bronchial epithelial cells, whereas heart sections were negative. Sudden death is a rare complication of influenza and may be caused by myocarditis. Forensic pathologists should be aware that postmortem nasopharyngeal swabs for viral culture and immunohistochemical or in situ hybridization procedures on lung tissue might be necessary to achieve a diagnosis. Because neither culturable virus nor influenza viral antigen could be identified in heart tissue, the pathogenesis of influenza myocarditis in this case is unlikely to be the result of direct infection of myocardium by the virus. The risk factors for developing myocarditis during an influenza infection are unknown.

  20. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  1. Epidemic polyarthritis (Ross River) virus infection in the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L; Gubler, D J; Bennett, P H

    1981-11-01

    An epidemic of Ross River virus infection occurred in the Cook Islands early in 1980 and affected the majority of the inhabitants of Rarotonga, the most populated island in the group. This represents the easternmost extension of the virus which, until 1979, was believed limited to Australia, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. The clinical manifestations of Ross River disease, predominantly polyarthritis, did not differ significantly from those observed previously in Australia. However, unlike the experience in Australia, where Ross River virus has never been isolated from a patient with polyarthritis, the agent was recovered from the serum of one-half of approximately 100 such patients with serologically proven infections. It is not known if this latter observation is the result of a change in the virus, the different virus isolation technique employed, or other factors. It was found that the incubation period of the disease could be as short as 3 days--much less than previously suspected. Ross River virus was isolated from six pools of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes collected in nature and it appeared that this species was the most probable vector on Rarotonga. In view of the widespread distribution of Ae. polynesiensis on islands, in the eastern Pacific it would not be surprising if Ross River virus occurs in other previously unaffected areas in the future.

  2. Insights into Head-Tailed Viruses Infecting Extremely Halophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Pietilä, Maija K.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Extremophilic archaea, both hyperthermophiles and halophiles, dominate in habitats where rather harsh conditions are encountered. Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. Although approximately half of the isolated archaeal viruses belong to the latter group, no three-dimensional virion structures of these head-tailed viruses are available. Thus, rigorous comparisons with bacteriophages are not yet warranted. In the present study, we determined the genome sequences of two of such viruses of halophiles and solved their capsid structures by cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. We show that these viruses are inactivated, yet remain intact, at low salinity and that their infectivity is regained when high salinity is restored. This enabled us to determine their three-dimensional capsid structures at low salinity to a ∼10-Å resolution. The genetic and structural data showed that both viruses belong to the same T-number class, but one of them has enlarged its capsid to accommodate a larger genome than typically associated with a T=7 capsid by inserting an additional protein into the capsid lattice. PMID:23283946

  3. Gene-based immunotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dropulic, Boro; June, Carl H

    2006-06-01

    More than 40 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and a successful vaccine is at least a decade away. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy prolongs life, the maintenance of viral latency requires life-long treatment and results in cumulative toxicities and viral escape mutants. Gene therapy offers the promise to cure or prevent progressive HIV infection by interfering with HIV replication and CD4+ cell decline long term in the absence of chronic chemotherapy, and approximately 2 million HIV-infected individuals live in settings where there is sufficient infrastructure to support its application with current technology. Although the development of HIV/AIDS gene therapy has been slow, progress in a number of areas is evident, so that studies to date have significantly advanced the field of gene-based immunotherapy. Advances have helped to define a series of ongoing and planned trials that may shed light on potential mechanisms for the successful clinical gene therapy of HIV.

  4. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  5. A case of Mayaro virus infection imported from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Llagonne-Barets, Marion; Icard, Vinca; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Prat, Christine; Perpoint, Thomas; André, Patrice; Ramière, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of arboviruses is a rising problem in several areas in the world. Here we report a case of Mayaro virus infection that was diagnosed in a French citizen presenting a dengue-like syndrome with prolonged arthralgia following a travel in French Guiana. Diagnosis was based on serological testing, a newly developed specific RT-PCR and sequencing. The real incidence of this viral infection among travelers is poorly known but this case is the first reported in a European area where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are established, which underscores the necessity to determine the vector competence of the European strain of this mosquito species for Mayaro virus.

  6. [Vaccination and serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infection].

    PubMed

    Salmeron Garcia, F; Echevarria Mayo, J M

    1990-01-01

    As a result of the Decree regulating the use of the Hepatitis B vaccination having been repealed, the usefulness of the study of infection markers for said virus prior to vaccination has been reviewed. The significance of the presence of isolated infection markers (surface antigen and antibodies as opposed to the surface antigens and those of the core of the Hepatitis B virus), and a sequential type study is discussed. It is considered that vaccination must be recommended whenever it is not possible to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of the surface antigen and antibodies as opposed to the core antigen or said antibodies and those corresponding to the surface antigen.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Looking for Interferon Free Regimens

    PubMed Central

    González-Moreno, J.; Payeras-Cifre, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments of new drugs' combinations are changing the treatment paradigm in hepatitis C virus infection. Due to the side effect profile of pegylated interferons, interferon-sparing regimens have become the main target in chronic hepatitis C treatment research. Recent proofs of concept studies have suggested that cure of chronic hepatitis C can be achieved without interferon. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the clinical results recently reported for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with interferon-free regimens, focusing on the most promising new compounds and combinations. PMID:23710151

  8. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  9. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  10. We Are All Affected: Considering the Recovery of HIV/AIDS Infected and Affected Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carla

    2008-01-01

    This essay acknowledges that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has created entire communities for whom loss has become a common and a shared experience. As a result of this impact of HIV/AIDS, several questions surface. However, the one question upon which this essay focuses is, "What type of environment is required for children infected and affected by…

  11. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense hepatitis C virus-infected cells, produce interferon, and inhibit infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ken; Asabe, Shinichi; Wieland, Stefan; Garaigorta, Urtzi; Gastaminza, Pablo; Isogawa, Masanori; Chisari, Francis V

    2010-04-20

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that infects >170 million people worldwide and causes acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite its ability to block the innate host response in infected hepatocyte cell lines in vitro, HCV induces a strong type 1 interferon (IFN) response in the infected liver. The source of IFN in vivo and how it is induced are currently undefined. Here we report that HCV-infected cells trigger a robust IFN response in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) by a mechanism that requires active viral replication, direct cell-cell contact, and Toll-like receptor 7 signaling, and we show that the activated pDC supernatant inhibits HCV infection in an IFN receptor-dependent manner. Importantly, the same events are triggered by HCV subgenomic replicon cells but not by free virus particles, suggesting the existence of a novel cell-cell RNA transfer process whereby HCV-infected cells can activate pDCs to produce IFN without infecting them. These results may explain how HCV induces IFN production in the liver, and they reveal a heretofore unsuspected aspect of the innate host response to viruses that can subvert the classical sensing machinery in the cells they infect, and do not infect or directly activate pDCs.

  12. IL-23 in Infections, Inflammation, Autoimmunity and Cancer: Possible Role in HIV-1 and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Gutti, Tanuja

    2011-01-01

    The growing family of interleukin (IL)-12-like cytokines produced by activated macrophages and dendritic cells became the important players in the control of infections, development of inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. However, the role of one of them—heterodimer IL-23, which consists of IL12p40 and the unique p19 subunit in HIV-1 infection pathogenesis and progression to AIDS, represent special interest. We overviewed findings of IL-23 involvement in control of peripheral bacterial pathogens and opportunistic infection, central nervous system (CNS) viral infections and autoimmune disorders, and tumorogenesis, which potentially could be applicable to HIV-1 and AIDS. PMID:21947740

  13. [Treatment with doxycycline and nifuroxazide of Isospora belli infection in AIDS].

    PubMed

    Meyohas, M C; Capella, F; Poirot, J L; Lecomte, I; Binet, D; Eliaszewicz, M; Frottier, J

    1990-06-01

    Isospora belli infection is the most frequent coccidiosis after cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. Chronic watery diarrhea is observed. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended treatment. Four AIDS patients were intolerant to this drug and were treated with doxycycline and nifuroxazide. Three patients were cured. Two patients died of other infections. The two last patients relapsed and were treated again with long term doxycycline. No relapse occurred during the following twelve months.

  14. Adaptive immune response during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Larrubia, Juan Ramón; Moreno-Cubero, Elia; Lokhande, Megha Uttam; García-Garzón, Silvia; Lázaro, Alicia; Miquel, Joaquín; Perna, Cristian; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo

    2014-04-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 170 million people worldwide and it is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic virus able to persist in a great percentage of infected hosts due to its ability to escape from the immune control. Liver damage and disease progression during HCV infection are driven by both viral and host factors. Specifically, adaptive immune response carries out an essential task in controlling non-cytopathic viruses because of its ability to recognize infected cells and to destroy them by cytopathic mechanisms and to eliminate the virus by non-cytolytic machinery. HCV is able to impair this response by several means such as developing escape mutations in neutralizing antibodies and in T cell receptor viral epitope recognition sites and inducing HCV-specific cytotoxic T cell anergy and deletion. To impair HCV-specific T cell reactivity, HCV affects effector T cell regulation by modulating T helper and Treg response and by impairing the balance between positive and negative co-stimulatory molecules and between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. In this review, the role of adaptive immune response in controlling HCV infection and the HCV mechanisms to evade this response are reviewed.

  15. Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: still remains a controversy.

    PubMed

    Vidimliski, Pavlina Dzekova; Nikolov, Igor; Geshkovska, Nadica Matevska; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Rostaing, Lionel; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C. The viral replication in the liver cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells was present in all clinical presentations of occult hepatitis C. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells represent an extra-hepatic site of HCV replication. The reason why HCV RNA was not detectable in the serum of patients with occult hepatitis C, could be the low number of circulating viral particles not detectable by the diagnostic tests with low sensitivity. It is uncertain whether occult hepatitis C is a different clinical entity or just a form of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system.

  16. [Potential neurocognitive consequences of infection by human respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Flores, Juan Carlos; Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra; Jara, Crlstlna; Peña, Marcela; Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Rodrigo; Iturriaga, Carolina; Kalergis, Alexis M; Borzutzky, Arturo

    2016-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among pediatric population. Immune response is poor and unable to establish a long term effective protection against this virus. Of particular interest has been the description of extrapulmonary manifestations of RSV infection in liver, kidney, endocrine system, heart and brain, associated to infection of peripheral blood. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies in animals have suggested long term neurocognitive impairment due to a direct damage from the virus. This was prevented in rats by a recombinant BCG vaccine expressing a nucleoprotein N of RSV that produces an effective immune response against the virus, not allowing its dissemination to the CNS. These findings in animal models highlight the importance of conducting more specific studies in children affected with severe infection by RSV. Therefore, our group is currently conducting an assessment of the possible long-term cognitive impairment in children under 2 years. The results of this study could be a strong argument to continue looking for an effective method for protecting against RSV infection.

  17. The heat shock response restricts virus infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Merkling, Sarah H.; Overheul, Gijs J.; van Mierlo, Joël T.; Arends, Daan; Gilissen, Christian; van Rij, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defence against pathogens and is essential for survival of the infected host. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an emerging model to study viral pathogenesis, yet antiviral defence responses remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the heat shock response, a cellular mechanism that prevents proteotoxicity, as a component of the antiviral immune response in Drosophila. Transcriptome analyses of Drosophila S2 cells and adult flies revealed strong induction of the heat shoc