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Sample records for aids-related health behavior

  1. Decision-making orientation and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Hispanic, African-American, and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Warheit, G J; Duncan, R C

    1993-05-01

    How adolescents' personal sense of directedness (i.e., peer, parent, or self-directed orientation) affects the decision-making processes of adolescent students regarding AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and skills (KABBS) is examined. The sample consisted of 10th-grade students in 8 public high schools (N = 2,515) in Dade County (greater Miami), Florida. The findings showed that decision-making orientation and directedness was a significant predictor of AIDS-related KABBS of adolescents. Overall, the level of AIDS-related KABBS that were associated with low risk was found significantly more often among self-directed students and least often among peer-directed students. The findings of this study suggest that future preadult health-risk research should incorporate the concept of differences of information processing across adolescents. PMID:8500453

  2. AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

  3. Changing HIV and AIDS-Related Behavior: Promising Approaches at the Individual, Group, and Community Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinhardt, Lance S.

    2005-01-01

    In this special issue, six groups of clinician-researchers focusing on HIV and AIDS-related behavior present their most recent intervention strategies. The articles included represent interventions for a range of target behaviors, including sexual activity, injection drug use, and HIV medication adherence. The interventions described were designed…

  4. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  5. Acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior among African American women.

    PubMed

    Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.

  6. Exploring AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female Mexican migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R

    1998-05-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.

  7. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27668289

  8. Orphanhood by AIDS-Related Causes and Child Mental Health: A Developmental Psychopathology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Jardin, Charles; Marais, Lochner; Boivin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework. Results showed that the immediate and longterm effects of AIDS orphanhood are moderated by a number of important risk and protective factors that may serve as strategic targets for intervention. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Evolution of college students' AIDS-related behavioral responses, attitudes, knowledge, and fear.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J D; Misovich, S J

    1990-01-01

    Data were collected (a) to document extant levels of AIDS-risk behavior, AIDS-preventive behavior, AIDS-knowledge, and attitudes toward prevention among college students, (b) to assess the evolution from 1986 to 1988 of college students' behavioral and attitudinal responses to the AIDS epidemic, and (c) to document changes over time in college students' knowledge about AIDS. Although students' current levels of AIDS-knowledge were found to be relatively high, and their attitudes toward prevention were in the neutral range, actual preventive behavior was low, and unsafe sexual practices were high. Concerning changes in these dimensions across time, data using comparable samples of undergraduates in 1986, 1987, and 1988 indicated that there were substantial increases in knowledge about AIDS, in the favorability of attitudes toward certain "safer-sex" behaviors (e.g., discussing "safer sex"), and in the utilization of relevant informational resources. Students' perceptions of others' vulnerability to AIDS (but not their own vulnerability), had also increased. However, at the same time, students reported a decrease in the safety of their sexual behaviors. Numbers of sexual partners, likelihood of being in an intimate (sexual) relationship, and unsafe sexual practices have all increased since 1986. Finally, evidence suggested that alcohol may play a significant role in students' AIDS-risk behavior. PMID:2288814

  10. A study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behaviors among female sex workers in Shanghai China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P < 0.05). The percentage of FSWs who reported having experiences in commercial sexual services without the use of condoms was 33.6%. Condom slippage or breakage was reported as having occurred at least once by 51.2% of the FSWs. FSWs from suburban areas were found to more often engage in high-risk behaviors, including oral and anal sex, than those from downtown areas (P < 0.001). Many of the FSWs (65.7%) reported having non-client sexual partners (most were identified as boyfriends or husbands); however, condom usage with these partners were lower (34.3%). Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the

  11. Drug users' AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors before and after AIDS education sessions.

    PubMed Central

    Dengelegi, L; Weber, J; Torquato, S

    1990-01-01

    The investigators interviewed 100 drug users in a detoxification facility before and after they received information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The drug users already had a considerable amount of information about AIDS and HIV transmission modes before they received the information. However, 79 percent of them reported never having used condoms. Fifty percent of intravenous drug users acknowledged having shared needles during the previous year. Subjects exhibited psychological denial in appraising the riskiness of their personal sexual and needle-sharing behaviors, which they rated as less risky than those activities in general. Following their participation in an AIDS and HIV education program, their knowledge concerning modes of transmission and disease progression increased. Subjects became more aware of their personal risk for HIV infection, and their faith in condom effectiveness and their intent to use them increased. Intravenous drug users reported increased determination to stop their drug use. The results suggest that AIDS education efforts can be useful in programs to help prevent HIV transmission among drug users. PMID:2120728

  12. AIDS and Health Insurance: An OTA Survey. AIDS-Related Issues Staff Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Jill

    The United States Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) conducted a study designed to provide a view of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in the context of other routine tests required by health insurers. The study was undertaken to collect basic information on underwriting practices and the use of medical screening by health insurers and…

  13. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access. PMID:25840048

  15. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access.

  16. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  17. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Mass Communication Programs to Change HIV/AIDS-Related Behaviors in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane T.; O'Reilly, Kevin; Denison, Julie; Anhang, Rebecca; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This review systematically examined the effectiveness of 24 mass media interventions on changing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The intervention studies were published from 1990 through 2004, reported data from developing countries and compared outcomes using (i) pre- and post-intervention data, (ii)…

  18. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  19. AIDS-related dementia and competency to stand trial: a potential abuse of the forensic mental health system?

    PubMed

    Perlin, M L; Dvoskin, J A

    1990-01-01

    Public health officials, hospital administrators, forensic directors, jail wardens, judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys must confront the issue: how should cases of individuals with AIDS dementia be treated when they are found to be permanently incompetent to stand trial? Although charges are sometimes dismissed in advanced cases of dementia, the more common pattern involves placement of the defendant in a public facility while awaiting trial. The refusal of some state facilities to accept these patients raises a host of legal, moral, and medical questions that virtually every urban state's forensic system will have to consider in the near future.

  20. Behavioral Health & Performance

    NASA Video Gallery

    Summary of the Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group’s work including an overview of astronaut selection, behavioral health services provided to astronauts, the psychological aspects o...

  1. Aids-Related Cancers in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2014-07-01

    Thank you Professor Zichichi for inviting me to give a talk about AIDS-related cancers in Africa. Let me begin by congratulating the team that organized the 46th Session of the Erice International Seminar Series, whose theme is THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM. I also congratulate the scientists from 38 countries who are attending these seminars. They are perpetuating the principle of SCIENCE WITHOUT SECRETS in the true spirit espoused by Archimedes, Galileo, and Fermi. It is a wonderful honor for me to be here to shed some light on the health impacts of the HIV epidemic in the area of cancer...

  2. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS.

  3. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25086143

  4. Is there a legacy of the U.S. Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee in HIV/AIDS-related beliefs among heterosexual African-Americans and Latinos?

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M; Coles, Courtney N; Cochran, Susan D

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the US Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee is sometime cited as a principal reason for the relatively low participation rates seen among racial/ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans, in biomedical research. However, only a few studies have actually explored this possibility. We use data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 510 African-Americans and 253 Latinos, age 18 to 45 years, to investigate associations between knowledge of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee and endorsement of HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. All respondents were drawn from an area of low-income, predominantly race-segregated inner city households in Los Angeles. Results indicate that African Americans were significantly more likely than Latinos to endorse HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. Further, African Americans were more aware of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee (SST). Nevertheless, 72% of African Americans and 94% of Latinos reported that they have never heard of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. Further, while awareness of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee was a significant predictor of endorsing HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories, results suggest that other factors may be more important in accounting for low biomedical and behavioral study participation rates. PMID:23308036

  5. Radio station acceptance of AIDS-related advertising messages.

    PubMed

    Rotfeld, H J; Abernethy, A M

    1991-06-01

    Survey responses were received from the managers of 630 radio stations, who reported which type of AIDS-related commercials or public service announcements they are willing to accept for broadcast. The authors examine whether the public interest can outweigh fear of offending audience segments and discuss ways health education planners can increase acceptance of AIDS-related commercials. For planning a public health campaign, both the number and types of stations that will accept various public health messages are important if the messages are to reach high risk demographic groups. PMID:10111400

  6. Forms of Safety and Their Impact on Health: An Exploration of HIV/AIDS-Related Risk and Resilience Among Trans Women in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Wagner, Glenn J; Nehme, Simon; Aunon, Frances; Khouri, Danielle; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Using minority stress theory, the authors investigated risk behaviors of transgender women (trans women) in Lebanon. Using semistructured interviews, the authors explored six areas: relationships with family and friends; openness about gender and sexuality; experiences with stigma; sexual behavior; attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV testing; and perceived HIV-related norms among transgender peers. Participants voiced the importance of different forms of safety: social/emotional, physical, sexual, and financial. Strategies for obtaining safety were negotiated differently depending on social, behavioral, and structural factors in the environment. In this article, we provide study findings from the perspectives of trans women, their exposure to stigma, and the necessary navigation of environments characterized by transphobia.

  7. Forms of Safety and Their Impact on Health: An Exploration of HIV/AIDS-Related Risk and Resilience Among Trans Women in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, RACHEL L.; WAGNER, GLENN J.; NEHME, SIMON; AUNON, FRANCES; KHOURI, DANIELLE; MOKHBAT, JACQUES

    2016-01-01

    Using minority stress theory, the authors investigated risk behaviors of transgender women (trans women) in Lebanon. Using semistructured interviews, the authors explored six areas: relationships with family and friends; openness about gender and sexuality; experiences with stigma; sexual behavior; attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV testing; and perceived HIV-related norms among transgender peers. Participants voiced the importance of different forms of safety: social/emotional, physical, sexual, and financial. Strategies for obtaining safety were negotiated differently depending on social, behavioral, and structural factors in the environment. In this article, we provide study findings from the perspectives of trans women, their exposure to stigma, and the necessary navigation of environments characterized by transphobia. PMID:24588138

  8. Gender differentials on the health consequences of care-giving to people with AIDS-related illness among older informal carers in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Madise, Nyovani; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2011-12-01

    Informal caregivers, most often older people, provide valuable care and support for people ill due to AIDS, especially in poor-resource settings with inadequate health care systems and limited access to antiretroviral therapy. The negative health consequences associated with care-giving may vary depending on various factors that act to mediate the extent of the effects on the caregiver. This paper investigates the association between care-giving and poor health among older carers to people living with AIDS, and examines potential within-gender differences in reporting poor health. Data from 1429 men and women aged 50 years or older living in two slum areas of Nairobi are used to compare AIDS-caregivers with other caregivers and non-caregivers based on self-reported health using the World Health Organization disability assessment (WHODAS) score and the presence of a severe health problem. Women AIDS-caregivers reported higher disability scores for mobility and the lowest scores in self-care and life activities domains while men AIDS-caregivers reported higher scores in all domains (except interpersonal interaction) compared with other caregivers and non-caregivers. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the association of providing care with health outcomes while controlling for other confounders. Consistently across all the health measures, no significant differences were observed between female AIDS-caregivers and female non-caregivers. Male AIDS-caregivers were however significantly more likely to report disability and having a severe health problem compared with male non-caregivers. This finding highlights a gendered variation in outcome and is possibly an indication of the differences in care-giving gender-role expectations and coping strategies. This study highlights the relatively neglected role of older men as caregivers and recommends comprehensive interventions to mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS on caregivers that embrace men as well as women.

  9. Focus On Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Long stigmatized, behavioral health conditions are finally becoming a focal point not just for policy makers but also in public discussions about the well-being of the United States. This is in part because of a rising opioid epidemic; the concentration of people with mental illnesses in prisons and jails; and a greater appreciation of the toll taken by depression and other mental disorders on individuals, families, and the economy. The United States spends more on mental health and addiction than on any other medical condition, including heart disease, trauma, and cancer. Within this spending, there's been a shift toward outpatient and other types of community treatment and away from inpatient care. Meanwhile, the Affordable Care Act has made it possible for more people with serious mental illnesses to obtain care, but treatment rates for racial and ethnic minorities still trail those of whites. PMID:27269009

  10. Risk perceptions and health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Rebecca; Klein, William M

    2015-01-01

    Risk perceptions – or an individual’s perceived susceptibility to a threat – are a key component of many health behavior change theories. Risk perceptions are often targeted in health behavior change interventions, and recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that interventions that successfully engage and change risk perceptions produce subsequent increases in health behaviors. Here, we review recent literature on risk perceptions and health behavior, including research on the formation of risk perceptions, types of risk perceptions (including deliberative, affective, and experiential), accuracy of risk perceptions, and associations and interactions among types of risk perceptions. Taken together, existing research suggests that disease risk perceptions are a critical determinant of health behavior, although the nature of the association among risk perceptions and health behavior may depend on the profile of different types of risk perceptions and the accuracy of such perceptions. PMID:26258160

  11. Bibliography on AIDS-related bereavement and grief.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, J P; Handley, P R

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on AIDS-related bereavement and grief was compiled to address a steadily increasing population: survivors of persons who have died of AIDS. Bibliographical entries were located by searching printed indexes, including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Hospital Literature Index, Index Medicus, International Nursing Index, Psychological Abstracts, Social Science Index, Social Work Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Databases searched included ERIC (Department of Education), Med-Line (National Library of Medicine), and Psych-Lit (American Psychological Association). References cited at the end of each work were also checked. This bibliography includes publications of studies using the survey method of social research and the case-study approach. It also includes experiences of professionals personally affected by the loss of someone to AIDS, and informational articles and chapters. To be included in this bibliography the work must have dealt exclusively or largely with the topic of AIDS-related bereavement and grief, or it must have addressed some aspect of it not previously covered anywhere in the literature. The topic of AIDS-related bereavement and grief refers to the loss of someone to (or with, as is the case with suicide) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and its psychological, emotional, physical, and social effects on the survivor(s). This bibliography does not include publications that deal with related topics such as thanatology, anticipatory grief and mourning, and mortality rates and trends. This work is meant to serve as a resource for professionals in a variety of fields (e.g., nursing, pastoral care, mental health, and social work) involved in social research, bereavement counseling, ministry, and group intervention. It can be useful as a literature search for students in a variety of disciplines and for the AIDS-bereaved themselves. The bibliography is accompanied by an overview of the current

  12. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  13. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  14. Gene Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-29

    AIDS-Related Burkitt Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Plasmablastic Lymphoma; AIDS-Related Primary Effusion Lymphoma; HIV Infection; AIDS Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  15. Socioeconomic Disparities in Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Denney, Justin T.

    2011-01-01

    The inverse relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and unhealthy behaviors such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition have been well demonstrated empirically but encompass diverse underlying causal mechanisms. These mechanisms have special theoretical importance because disparities in health behaviors, unlike disparities in many other components of health, involve something more than the ability to use income to purchase good health. Based on a review of broad literatures in sociology, economics, and public health, we classify explanations of higher smoking, lower exercise, poorer diet, and excess weight among low-SES persons into nine broad groups that specify related but conceptually distinct mechanisms. The lack of clear support for any one explanation suggests that the literature on SES disparities in health and health behaviors can do more to design studies that better test for the importance of the varied mechanisms. PMID:21909182

  16. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  17. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  18. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  19. Health Behaviors of Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Sonia A.; Missel, Amanda L.; Waltje, Andrea H.; Ronis, David L.; Fowler, Karen E.; Hong, OiSaeng

    2013-01-01

    RESEARCH ABSTRACT Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators in construction) may be at particular risk for heart disease and cancer related to their exposure to environmental dust and smoking, the sedentary nature of their job, and long hours of exposure to the sun. The aim of this study was to characterize the health behaviors of Operating Engineers. This cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of Operating Engineers (N = 498) used validated instruments to measure smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, sleep, and sun exposure. Univariate and bivariate analyses to detect differences by age were conducted. The sample scored significantly worse on all five health behaviors compared to population norms. Those who were older were less likely to smoke and chew tobacco and more likely to eat fruits and vegetables. Many were interested in services to improve their health behaviors. Health behavior interventions are needed and wanted by Operating Engineers. PMID:21688764

  20. Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    Helping You Choose Quality Behavioral Health Care Selecting quality behavioral health care services for yourself, a relative or friend requires special thought and attention. The Joint Commission on ...

  1. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  2. Behavioral health: the propaedeutic requirement.

    PubMed

    Brady, Joseph V

    2005-06-01

    Concern about the behavioral effects of spaceflight can be traced back a half century to the earliest preparatory bioastronautics experiments in the mid-1 950s. A central focus of the first primate suborbital flights, as well as the orbital chimpanzee pretest flights of Project Mercury, was the effects of such stressful ventures on the learned performances of these space behavioral health pioneers. The hiatus in spaceflight behavioral health experimental investments that followed these early initiatives began with the advent of the 'human astronaut' era of the mid-1960s, and has dominated the last several decades. Contemporary concerns in this regard have most recently been articulated by a turn-of-the-century Committee of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, providing a visionary view of space medicine during travel beyond Earth orbit. This 2-yr study focused on those most complex behavioral health interactions involving humans in extreme, isolated, and confined microsocieties-areas that have not received the necessary level of attention. The evident behavioral health issues raised by the prospect of long-duration exploratory missions beyond Earth orbit, including performance and general living conditions, recovery and support systems, and the screening, selection, and training of candidate participants are reviewed and discussed.

  3. Behavioral health electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Ted; Barrows, Erik

    2008-03-01

    The electronic medical record (EMR) will be an important part of the future of medical practice. Behavioral health treatment demands certain additions to the capabilities of a standard general medical EMR. The current focus on the quality management and financial aspects of the EMR are only initial examples of what this tool can do. It is important for behavioral health practitioners to understand that they must embrace this innovation and mold it into a product that serves their needs and the needs of their patients. An efficient and effective EMR will greatly assist the overall clinical enterprise in a number of important areas. PMID:18295041

  4. Evaluating AIDS-Related Social Skills in Anglo and Latino Adolescents: Focus on Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Werner, Cynthia A.; Kelley, Norma J.; Sipan, Carol L.; Burkham, Susan M.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assessment of AIDS-related social skills (measured by role play) in Anglo and Latino Adolescents (N=383) and explores ethnic and gender differences on these skills. Results indicate that anxiety and nonverbal behavior are generalized response classes that transcend specific social skills, suggesting the importance of measuring…

  5. Symposium on Dental Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W., Ed.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This document presents papers, critiques, and comments from a symposium which assessed the current status of preventive dental behavior. The field was divided into the following three major areas: (a) mass media programs, (b) school health programs, and (c) effect of the private practitioner. Each author was asked to review the literature, provide…

  6. Health Instruction Packages: Behavioral Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Dianne Dee; And Others

    These four learning modules present text and exercises designed to help allied health students understand various elements of positive interaction with people. The first module, "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" by Dianne Mackey, defines human needs, presents Maslow's theories, and helps the learner identify behaviors that reflect the presence of…

  7. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  8. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  9. AIDS-related apprehensions among nursing students of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Lal, P; Ingle, G K; Gulati, N

    1999-12-01

    Students from a nursing school of Delhi were surveyed anonymously using a self-administered questionnaire to explore various AIDS-related apprehensions and their possible reasons. The observations revealed that, majority of the students and their families/friends feared that these students were at risk of contracting HIV infection while providing routine patient care. A large number of students also opined that they would feel uncomfortable while talking, hugging, shaking hands, and sharing a room with an HIV positive person. The main reasons for their apprehensions were unsatisfactory anti-AIDS campaigning by the government, non-availability of sufficient protective measures in the health care settings, inadequate professional education related to prevention of HIV infection, and increase in HIV transmission following false sense of security due to excessive condom promotion. Findings of the study imply imparting factual knowledge addressing the concerns and removing misconceptions which influence attitudes and willingness of the nursing students to provide care to the HIV positives/AIDS patients, facts regarding efficacy of various preventive measures, and provision of counselling services in the event of exposure. PMID:10937297

  10. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services. METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26538100

  11. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  12. Protective factors in adolescent health behavior.

    PubMed

    Jessor, R; Turbin, M S; Costa, F M

    1998-09-01

    The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors--healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use--was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In addition, in cross-sectional analyses, protection was shown to moderate risk. Key proximal protective factors are value on health, perceived effects of health-compromising behavior, and parents who model health behavior. Key distal protective factors are positive orientation to school, friends who model conventional behavior, involvement in prosocial activities, and church attendance. The findings suggest the importance of individual differences on a dimension of conventionality-unconventionality. Strengthening both proximal and distal protective factors may help to promote healthful behaviors in adolescence. PMID:9781412

  13. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Barnett, Marie; Werk, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors. PMID:27417484

  14. US Supreme Court allows limits on AIDS-related insurance benefits.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    In a ruling issued on 10 January 2000 with respect to Doe v Mutual of Omaha Insurance, the US Supreme Court refused to review a lower-court decision allowing an insurance company to limit health-care benefits for AIDS-related claims to less than one-tenth of what it pays under the same policies for expenses related to other illnesses. The lower court had ruled that anti-discrimination legislation does not apply to insurance policies.

  15. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and…

  16. The Measurement of Health Behavior Change: The Health Behavior Risk Factor Prevalence Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Mary; And Others

    This paper addresses some issues concerning the use of written instruments for measuring health behavior change. A description is given of the Health Behavior Risk Factor Prevalence Survey which was developed to identify group members' risk-taking behaviors. This instrument was used to measure the health behaviors of a group of employees in the…

  17. Social disparities, communication inequalities, and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes in India.

    PubMed

    Ackerson, Leland K; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-10-01

    Promoting awareness, increasing knowledge, and eliminating stigma is important for stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS. The relation of social determinants and communication inequalities with HIV/AIDS-related cognitive processes has not been studied previously in India. Gender-stratified Poisson regression models of 123,459 women and 73,908 men in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey were used to calculate relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals for these associations. Results indicated that there are significant inequalities in mass media use among different social classes. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about prevention and transmission of AIDS and negatively associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma. These associations attenuated when use of various mass media types were added to the models with television showing the strongest effect. Mass media may be helpful in reducing social disparities in HIV/AIDS outcomes.

  18. Predictors of Health Behavior from a Behavior-Analytic Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkimer, John C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discovers a high correlation between positive emotional states, supportive self talk, and specific healthy behaviors in college students. The correlated health behaviors were vigorous exercise, mild exercise, seat belts, and avoidance of alcohol and junk food. Considers the impact of negative self talk on the avoidance of negative behavior. (MJP)

  19. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  20. Health behavior as goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J R; Gentle, P

    1988-12-01

    The perceived relationship of different health-related activities to a number of goals, including that of staying healthy, was examined by means of a postal questionnaire completed by 403 members of the general public. Other questions concerned subjects' own health behavior, intentions for behavior change, and vulnerability to specific conditions. The results showed that the extent to which subjects would value and engage in different behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising, eating, and relaxing) was related to how far such behaviors were seen to facilitate the attainment of different goals. However, the value subjects placed on "staying healthy" was at best a partial predictor of their health habits and intentions.

  1. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  2. Health Risk Behaviors and Academic Achievement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009 † Health-Risk Behaviors Percentage of U.S. high school students who engaged in each risk behavior, by type of grades mostly earned A’s B’s C’s D’s/F’s Unintentional Injury and Violence-Related Behaviors Rarely or never wore a seat ...

  3. Health literacy and women's health-related behaviors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N

    2012-04-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food expiration dates, and monitoring physical changes) in women and to test whether the association is mediated by health knowledge. A national sample of 1,754 female adults in Taiwan was included in the study. Result showed that health literacy was positively and independently related to checking food expiration dates and monitoring physical changes, and that health literacy was not related to physical checkup and Pap smear screening. Interestingly, women with high health literacy were more likely to be a current smoker. Study findings suggest that efforts to improve health promotion behaviors in women should consider health literacy as an important factor and that the effect of health literacy on health prevention behaviors may vary by women's access to care. PMID:21742948

  4. The behavioral economics of health and health care.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    People often make decisions in health care that are not in their best interest, ranging from failing to enroll in health insurance to which they are entitled, to engaging in extremely harmful behaviors. Traditional economic theory provides a limited tool kit for improving behavior because it assumes that people make decisions in a rational way, have the mental capacity to deal with huge amounts of information and choice, and have tastes endemic to them and not open to manipulation. Melding economics with psychology, behavioral economics acknowledges that people often do not act rationally in the economic sense. It therefore offers a potentially richer set of tools than provided by traditional economic theory to understand and influence behaviors. Only recently, however, has it been applied to health care. This article provides an overview of behavioral economics, reviews some of its contributions, and shows how it can be used in health care to improve people's decisions and health.

  5. HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes and recent HIV testing among Beijing men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yanming; He, Xiong; Li, Chunmei; Raymond, H. F.; McFarland, Willi; Sun, Jiangping; Pan, Stephen W.; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H.; Xiao, Yan; Ruan, Yuhua; Jia, Yujiang

    2014-01-01

    The study was to assess the correlates for recent HIV testing and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study probed demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV testing, and prevention services. Of 500 participants, 39.3% recently received a test for HIV. Recent testing was independently associated with expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes, more male sex partners, no female sexual partners and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. Expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with recent testing, younger age, and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. This study revealed that HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes were common and inversely associated with recent HIV testing. Low levels of testing highlighted the urgent needs to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination and expand HIV testing among Beijing MSM. PMID:22350831

  6. Health seeking behaviors of African Americans: implications for health administration.

    PubMed

    Hewins-Maroney, Barbara; Schumaker, Alice; Williams, Ethel

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in health care and good health between African Americans and other populations while established in the literature are traditionally based on socioeconomic measures of race, income, age, and education (Bailey, 2000; Lillie-Blanton, Brodie, Rowland, Altman and McIntosh, 2000; Ren and Amick, 1996; Watson, 2001; Weinick, Zuvekas, and Cohen, 2000). This study broadens the scope by exploring how sociocultural (poverty, racism, prejudice, and discrimination) and psychosocial factors (perceived health status, the lack of personal efficacy in contributing to decisions about health care. feelings of helplessness, and the lack of trust in the health care providers) relate to health-seeking behaviors of African Americans (Bailey, 1991; Ren and Amick, 1996, Watson, 2001). Interviews were conducted with 111 African American adult patients at a community health center, focusing on health-seeking behaviors, and sociocultural and psychosocial factors. Results suggest that when these negative factors are removed, the health seeking behaviors of African Americans closely mirror the behaviors of the majority population. Subjects did not view themselves in poorer health, fail to seek medical attention when needed, or distrust their primary health care providers. In general, fears associated with health care were attributed to illness rather than health care providers, although a weak linkage was found between patient self-esteem and fear or dislike of future treatment by physicians (adj R2= .362, S.E. =15, F=21, sig. <.001). The study highlights the need for further study in two areas: cultural competency of health care providers, especially those from Asia and Africa who are often assigned to community health centers, and the impact of an accessible community health center on the health seeking behaviors and health status of predominately African American communities.

  7. Health Behavior, Health Education, Health Service Utilization and Compliance with Health Regimes: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, J. R.; Hughes, Howard

    This bibliography includes references from major articles, Index Medicus (1972- 1977), and Psychological Abstracts (1967-1977). The material is arranged under four major headings--health behavior, health education, health services utilization, and compliance with health regimes. It will be of interest to persons working in medical settings and…

  8. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.

  9. Health beliefs and health behaviors of physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Glazer-Waldman, H R; Hart, J P; LeVeau, B F

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the health beliefs and health behaviors of physical therapists. A survey questionnaire was sent to a 10% random sample of the physical therapists on the Texas licensure list for 1984, and 234 responses (69%) were used in the data analysis. The respondents tended to have positive health beliefs and good health behaviors in terms of a healthy life style. These findings have implications for physical therapists as role models for encouraging good health habits in their patients.

  10. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  11. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  12. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  13. Fundamental mechanisms of managed behavioral health care.

    PubMed

    Mihalik, G; Scherer, M

    1998-01-01

    Making sense of managed behavioral health care organizations (MBHOs) is difficult as they rapidly evolve in response to payer, member, legislative, and market demands. This article describes the basic mechanisms involved in managed behavioral health care's evolution, including the nature of carve-out organizations, carved-in services, the array of payment mechanisms between payer and MBHO, and between MBHO and mental health care providers. Additionally, types of delivery systems and mechanisms used to control utilization are outlined in the context of continuing health care change.

  14. HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ulasi, Chijioke I; Preko, Peter O; Baidoo, Joseph A.; Bayard, Budry; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Curtis M; Jolly, Pauline E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 104 adults from the four sub-districts in Kumasi was conducted. Results Four stigma constructs, employment-based discrimination, screening and identification of HIV positive people, revelation of HIV status and social contact stigma were determined based on reliability measures from responses to the questionnaire. Regression analysis showed that participants with higher educational attainment were more likely to favor policies denying employment to PLWHA (p<0.05), but disapproved of revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Muslims were more likely than Christians to agree with identifying PLWHA (p<0.05) and more likely to advocate revealing HIV sero-status (p<0.05). Males were more likely to favor revealing HIV status (p<0.05). Employed persons were more likely to have social contact with PLWHA (p<0.05). Conclusions These findings are useful in guiding the design of interventions against HIV/AIDS-related stigma in Kumasi. PMID:18632302

  15. Innovation in behavioral health workforce education.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Maria J; Morris, John A; Hoge, Michael A

    2004-11-01

    This article describes an effort to promote improvement in the quality and relevance of behavioral health workforce education by identifying and disseminating information on innovative training efforts. A national call for nominations was issued, seeking innovations in the education of behavioral health providers, consumers, and family members. A review committee evaluated each nomination on four dimensions: novelty, significance, transferability, and effectiveness. Nineteen innovations were selected for recognition, all of which are briefly described.

  16. Work stress and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.

  17. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care. PMID:19395894

  18. College Student Adjustment and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between student adjustment theory and college student health behaviors. Specifically, this research examined first-year freshmen college student physical activity and nutrition behaviors and impact on adjustment to college (N = 37,564). The design for this study was a non-experimental "ex post facto"…

  19. Hypertension Education: Impact on Parent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Peter; Portnoy, Barry

    This study sought to determine the effects of a high blood pressure education program for sixth graders on the preventive hypertension health attitudes and behaviors of their parents. Attention was focused on the role of students ("significant others") in affecting parental attitude and behavior changes relating to the three risk factors of…

  20. Effect of media use on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.

  1. Health Knowledge and Behavior Four Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottes, Christine R.

    This document reports on a study to analyze the success of a revised health/wellness course at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania). The research focused on two questions: (1) what increased knowledge and behavioral change students report once they have completed their health course; and (2) after a period of time, what students will say about the…

  2. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  3. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  4. Health Status, Personal Definition of Health, and Health Behavior Choice in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Norma J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among health status, personal definition of health, and health behavior choice in the elderly. Self-assessed health status was measured using a modified Cantril Ladder, personal definition of health was measured using the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS), and health behavior…

  5. Can health care organizations improve health behavior and treatment adherence?

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G

    2014-04-01

    Many Americans are failing to engage in both the behaviors that prevent and those that effectively manage chronic health conditions, including pulmonary disorders, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and cancer. Expectations that health care providers are responsible for changing patients' health behaviors often do not stand up against the realities of clinical care that include large patient loads, limited time, increasing co-pays, and restricted access. Organizations and systems that might share a stake in changing health behavior include employers, insurance payers, health care delivery systems, and public sector programs. However, although the costs of unhealthy behaviors are evident, financial resources to address the problem are not readily available. For most health care organizations, the return on investment for developing behavior change programs appears highest when addressing treatment adherence and disease self-management, and lowest when promoting healthy lifestyles. Organizational strategies to improve adherence are identified in 4 categories: patient access, provider training and support, incentives, and information technology. Strategies in all 4 categories are currently under investigation in ongoing studies and have the potential to improve self-management of many chronic health conditions.

  6. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  7. Behavioral health leadership: new directions in occupational mental health.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.

  8. Management of behavioral health provider networks in private health plans.

    PubMed

    Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M; Reif, Sharon; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    We explored the techniques used by private health plans or by their contracted managed behavioral healthcare organizations (MBHOs) to maintain networks of behavioral health providers. In particular, we focused on differences by health plans' product types (health maintenance organization, point-of-service plan, or preferred provider organization) and contracting arrangements (MBHO contracts, comprehensive contracts, or no contracts). More than 94% of products selected providers using credentialing standards, particular specialists, or geographic coverage. To retain providers viewed as high quality, 54% offer reduced administrative burden and 44% higher fees. Only 16% reported steerage to a core group of highest-quality providers and few reported an annual bonus or guaranteed volume of referrals. Some standard activities are common, but some health plans are adopting other approaches to retain higher-quality providers.

  9. Gender and AIDS-related psychosocial processes: a study of perceived susceptibility, social distance, and homophobia.

    PubMed

    Schieman, S

    1998-06-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have accumulated evidence that suggests six main factors are associated with AIDS-related risk reduction behavior: (a) perceived susceptibility (Dolcini et al., 1995; van der Plight & Richard, 1994); (b) attitudes toward condoms (Catania et al., 1994; Maticka-Tynadale, 1991); (c) personally knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (Joseph et al., 1987); (d) perceived peer norms about risk-reduction (Maticka-Tyndale, 1991); (e) previous sexual activity (Joseph et al., 1987); and (f) self-efficacy (Aspinwall, Kemeny, Taylor, & Schneider, 1991; van der Plight & Richard, 1994). Furthermore, there is some suggestion that the epidemiology and sociocultural constructions of the disease has led to considerable gender, racial, and class differences in awareness of AIDS, perception of HIV threat, and HIV-relevant behavior (Cohan & Atwood, 1994; Dolcini et al., 1995; Gillies, 1994). PMID:9642424

  10. Behavioral Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Services Locator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agencies Behavioral Health Agencies Informational Websites Self-Help, Peer Support, and Consumer Groups Self-Help Groups (Addiction) Peer Support (Mental Health) Mental Health Consumer Assistance Consumer ...

  11. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  12. Effects of Smoking on Non-AIDS-Related Morbidity in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Daniel K.; Kaner, Robert J.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has many adverse health consequences. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection smoke at very high rates, and many of the comorbidities associated with smoking in the general population are more prevalent in this population. It is likely that a combination of higher smoking rates along with an altered response to cigarette smoke throughout the body in persons with HIV infection leads to increased rates of the known conditions related to smoking. Several AIDS-defining conditions associated with smoking have been reviewed elsewhere. This review aims to summarize the data on non-AIDS-related health consequences of smoking in the HIV-infected population and explore evidence for the potential compounding effects on chronic systemic inflammation due to HIV infection and smoking. PMID:23572487

  13. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    PubMed

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  14. The AIDS-related activities of religious leaders in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    TRINTAPOLI, J.

    2010-01-01

    The AIDS-related activities of religious leaders in Africa extend far beyond preaching about sexual mortality. This study aims to quantify the involvement of religious leaders in the fight against AIDS and to identify key predictors of the types of prevention strategies they promote. Using data from a random sample of Christian and Muslim leaders in Malawi, I use logistic regression to predict six types of AIDS activities, which correspond to three distinct types: formal messages (i.e., preaching), pragmatic interventions (monitoring the sexual behaviour of members and advising divorce to avoid infection), and the promotion of biomedical prevention strategies (promoting condom use and testing for HIV). Preaching about AIDS is the most common prevention activity, and promoting condom use is the least; sizable proportions of clergy promote testing and engage in pragmatic interventions. Denominational patterns in the type of engagement are weak and inconsistent. However, inquiries into the motivation for leaders' activities show that discussions with members about AIDS is the most consistent predictor, suggesting that religious leaders' engagement with HIV prevention is primarily a demand-driven phenomenon. PMID:20552476

  15. Targeting of AIDS related encephalopathy using phenylalanine anchored lipidic nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Anil; Jain, Ankit; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Sanjay K

    2015-07-01

    Transport of the anti-HIV agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prerequisite to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related encephalopathy. In the present study, we explored facilitated transport of efavirenz (EFV, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) across BBB using phenylalanine anchored solid lipid nanoparticles (PA-SLN). PA (amino acid micro-nutrient) was used as a ligand which facilitated carrier mediated transport (CMT) via l-amino acid transporter i.e. LAT1 to traverse BBB. PA was coupled to SLN via amide linkage using carbodiimide chemistry and coupling was confirmed by comparative infrared spectroscopic analysis. SLNs (SLN and PA-SLN) were nanometric in size (around 150nm) and possessed good entrapment efficiency (around 70%). In vitro drug release revealed controlled release pattern for more than 24h. In vivo studies showed 2-3-folds and 7-8-folds accumulation of PA-SLN in brain as compared to SLN and EFV, respectively. Further, transcytosis studies confirmed capability of PA-SLN to cross BBB i.e. 10-fold higher transcytosis potential as compared to EFV. Fluorescence microscopic imaging reassured enhanced brain localization of PA-SLN. Thus, PA-SLN improved the EFV bioavailability and maintained therapeutic levels in the brain for an extended period of time that can result in significant eradication of the viral load therein. Such nutrient mediated drug targeting could bring forth advances in biocompatible and biodegradable drug delivery systems. PMID:25988279

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction among nursing students in southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Farotimi, Adekunbi A; Nwozichi, Chinomso Ugochukwu; Ojediran, Tolulope D

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the reported obstacles to the achievement of universal access to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention, treatment, care, and support programs includes stigma and discrimination from health workers, particularly nurses. Since nursing students would become future practising nurses and are most likely exposed to caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PL WHA) during their training, it is of great importance to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses toward the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used. A total of 150 nursing students were selected using the simple random sampling technique of fish bowl method with replacement. Data were obtained using a self-administered (33-item) validated questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of student nurses with regard to HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination reduction strategies. Reliability of the tool was tested using Cronbach alpha (R) yielding a reliability value of 0.72. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages. Results: Majority (76.0%) of the respondents were females and 82.7% were married. Respondents were found to have high knowledge (94.0%) of strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. Also, 64% had moderate discriminatory attitude, 74% engaged in low discriminatory practice, while 26% engaged in high discriminatory practice. Conclusions: Student nurses had adequate knowledge about strategies for reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination; negative discriminatory attitude toward PLWHA and some form of discriminatory practices exist in participants’ training schools. It is, therefore, recommended that an educational package on reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination be developed and implemented for the participants. PMID:26793257

  17. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  18. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  19. Health behavior and religiosity among Israeli Jews.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, Amir; Tamir, Dov

    2007-10-01

    Research findings have shown the protective effect of religiosity --among both Christians and Israeli Jews--in terms of morbidity and mortality. To explore the relationship between religiosity and health behavior as a possible explanation for these findings we conducted 3056 telephone interviews, representing the Israeli adult urban Jewish population. Health status, health behavior, frequency of medical checkups, and eating habits were measured. Logistic regressions were used to estimate the religiosity gradient on health behavior, controlling for other personal characteristics. We found a lower prevalence of stress and smoking among religious persons; we also found that religious women exercise less than secular women and that religious people--both men and women--are more obese than their secular counterparts. While no religiosity gradient was found with relation to the frequency of blood pressure, cholesterol and dental checkups, religious women are less likely to undergo breast examinations and mammography. Finally, religious people generally follow a healthier dietary regime, consuming less meat, dairy products and coffee, and much more fish. The lower smoking rates, lower levels of stress, and the healthier dietary regime are consistent with the previously shown longer life expectancy of religious people; however, obesity might become a risk factor in this community.

  20. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  1. Understanding and Addressing AIDS-Related Stigma: From Anthropological Theory to Clinical Practice in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored. PMID:15623859

  2. Understanding and addressing AIDS-related stigma: from anthropological theory to clinical practice in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Farmer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these claims as well as literature from anthropology, sociology, and public health. Preliminary data from research in rural Haiti suggest that the introduction of quality HIV care can lead to a rapid reduction in stigma, with resulting increased uptake of testing. Rather than stigma, logistic and economic barriers determine who will access such services. Implications for scale-up of integrated AIDS prevention and care are explored.

  3. Health Care Seeking Behavior in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Begashaw, Bayu; Tessema, Fasil; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural and urban populations have disparate socio-demographic and economic characteristics, which have an influence on equity and their health seeking behavior. We examined and compared the health care seeking behavior for perceived morbidity between urban and rural households in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Analytic cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural households living in Esera district of Southwest Ethiopia. A random sample of 388 head of households (126 urban and 262 rural) were selected. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection with face-to-face interview. In addition to descriptive methods, binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with health seeking behavior at p value of less than 0.05. Results Of the sample household heads, 377 (97.2%) (119 urban and 258 rural) were successfully interviewed. Among these, 58.4% (95% CI, 53.3–63.3%) of the households sought care from modern health care that was lower among rural (48.1%) than urban (80.7%) households. The prevalence of self-treatment was 35.3% in urban and 46.1% in rural households. Among the factors considered for modern health care utilization, higher monthly income (AOR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.04–15.4), perceived severity of disease (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8), acute duration of disease (AOR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.4–33.3) and short distance from health facilities (AOR, 3; 95% CI, 1.2–8.4) among rural and being married (AOR, 11.3; 95% CI, 1.2–110.2) and perceived severity of disease (AOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1–10.9) among urban households showed statistically significant association. Conclusions The general health seeking behavior of households on perceived morbidity was satisfactory but lower in rural compared to urban households. Self-medication was also widely practiced in the study area. The findings signal the need to work more on accessibility and promotion of healthcare seeking behavior especially among rural households

  4. Incarceration, Maternal Hardship, and Perinatal Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora M.; Wildeman, Christopher; Lee, Hedwig; Gjelsvik, Annie; Valera, Pamela A.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental incarceration is associated with mental and physical health problems in children, yet little research directly tests mechanisms through which parental incarceration could imperil child health. We hypothesized that the incarceration of a woman or her romantic partner in the year before birth constituted an additional hardship for already-disadvantaged women, and that these additionally vulnerable women were less likely to engage in positive perinatal health behaviors important to infant and early childhood development. Methods We analyzed 2006-2010 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) to assess the association between incarceration in the year prior to the birth of a child and perinatal maternal hardships and behaviors. Results Women reporting incarceration of themselves or their partners in the year before birth of a child had 0.86 the odds (95% CI .78-.95) of beginning prenatal care in the first trimester compared to women not reporting incarceration. They were nearly twice as likely to report partner abuse and were significantly more likely to rely on WIC and/or Medicaid for assistance during pregnancy. These associations persist after controlling for socioeconomic measures and other stressors, including homelessness and job loss. Conclusions Incarceration of a woman or her partner in the year before birth is associated with higher odds of maternal hardship and poorer perinatal health behaviors. The unprecedented scale of incarceration in the U.S. simultaneously presents an underutilized public health opportunity and constitutes a social determinant of health that may contribute to disparities in early childhood development. PMID:24615355

  5. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  6. Understanding Differences in Health Behaviors by Education

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David M.; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Using a variety of data sets from two countries, we examine possible explanations for the relationship between education and health behaviors, known as the education gradient. We show that income, health insurance, and family background can account for about 30 percent of the gradient. Knowledge and measures of cognitive ability explain an additional 30 percent. Social networks account for another 10 percent. Our proxies for discounting, risk aversion, or the value of future do not account for any of the education gradient, and neither do personality factors such as a sense of control of oneself or over one’s life. PMID:19963292

  7. Television and young Hispanic children's health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C M

    2000-01-01

    Television viewing patterns in preschool age Hispanic children were studied in order to explore the role of TV in the establishment of early childhood health behaviors. The television viewing habits and patterns of children and parents and parental coviewing, regulation, and encouragement practices were examined. Using the dimensions of regulation and encouragement, four parental typologies were established: laissez-faire, restrictive, promotive, and selective. Children in this study watched television 3-4 hours a day, half of which consisted of viewing adult shows. This amount of time is significantly higher than the guideline of less than 2 hours a day suggested by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Relationships between television viewing, injury behaviors, risk taking, and acculturation were established and implications for primary care, school, and community health care nursing are discussed. PMID:12026392

  8. Workforce competencies in behavioral health: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Paris, Manuel; Adger, Hoover; Collins, Frank L; Finn, Cherry V; Fricks, Larry; Gill, Kenneth J; Haber, Judith; Hansen, Marsali; Ida, D J; Kaplan, Linda; Northey, William F; O'Connell, Maria J; Rosen, Anita L; Taintor, Zebulon; Tondora, Janis; Young, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    Competency-based training approaches are being used more in healthcare to guide curriculum content and ensure accountability and outcomes in the educational process. This article provides an overview of the state of competency development in the field of behavioral health. Specifically, it identifies the groups and organizations that have conducted and supported this work, summarizes their progress in defining and assessing competencies, and discusses both the obstacles and future directions for such initiatives. A major purpose of this article is to provide a compendium of current competency efforts so that these might inform and enhance ongoing competency development in the varied behavioral health disciplines and specialties. These varied resources may also be useful in identifying the core competencies that are common to the multiple disciplines and specialties.

  9. Forms and determinants of migration and HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border.

    PubMed

    Infante, Cesar; Aggleton, Peter; Pridmore, Pat

    2009-12-01

    In this study we examined the origins and consequences of HIV/AIDS-related stigma on the Mexican-Guatemalan border. To explore these issues, an inductive/deductive approach was taken. Data were collected using qualitative methods including nonparticipant observation, in-depth interviews, and informal conversation. Informants included Central American immigrants, locals, and contextual key informants. Findings reveal that gender, social class, and race/ ethnicity function as key determinants of HIV/AIDS-related stigma, but serve also as the basis around which migration-related stigma is constructed within this particular context. These issues need to be taken into account in addressing the vulnerability of mobile populations, as well as the stigma attached to migration and HIV/AIDS. To be effective, responses should be based in the social and contextual realities faced by migrants and mobile populations, and be part of a more general process of empowerment that improves their legal, social, economic, and health status. PMID:19949216

  10. Theory's role in shaping behavioral health research for population health.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C

    2015-11-26

    The careful application of theory often is used in the behavioral health field to enhance our understanding of how the world currently works. But theory also can help us visualize what the world can become, particularly through its potential impacts on population-wide health. Applying a multi-level ecological perspective can help in expanding the field's focus upward toward the population at large. While ecological frameworks have become increasingly popular, arguably such perspectives have fallen short of their potential to actively bridge conceptual constructs and, by extension, intervention approaches, across different levels of population impact. Theoretical and conceptual perspectives that explicitly span levels of impact offer arguably the greatest potential for achieving scientific insights that may in turn produce the largest population health effects. Examples of such "bridging" approaches include theories and models that span behavioral + micro-environment, behavioral + social/cultural, and social + physical environment constructs. Several recommendations are presented related to opportunities for leveraging theories to attain the greatest impact in the population health science field. These include applying the evidence obtained from person-level theories to inform methods for positively impacting the behaviors of community gatekeepers and decision-makers for greater population change and reach; leveraging the potential of residents as "citizen scientists"--a resource for enacting behavioral health changes at the individual, environmental, and policy levels; using empirical observations and theory in equal parts to build more robust, relevant, and solution-oriented behavior change programs; exploring moderators and mediators of change at levels of impact that go beyond the individual; and considering the circumstances in which applying conceptual methods that embrace a "complexity" as opposed to "causality" perspective may lead to more

  11. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  12. Neighborhood Context and Youth Cardiovascular Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine the relationships between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and cardiovascular health behaviors among youths and whether neighborhood characteristics are associated with such behaviors independently of individual characteristics. Methods. Linear models determined the effects of individual and neighborhood characteristics (SES, social disorganization, racial/ethnic minority concentration, urbanization) on dietary habits, physical activity, and smoking among 8165 youths aged 12 to 21 years. Results. Low SES was associated with poorer dietary habits, less physical activity, and higher odds of smoking. After adjustment for SES, Black race was associated with poorer dietary habits and lower odds of smoking. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with healthier dietary habits, lower levels of physical activity, and lower odds of smoking than non-Hispanic ethnicity. Low neighborhood SES and high neighborhood social disorganization were independently associated with poorer dietary habits, while high neighborhood Hispanic concentration and urbanicity were associated with healthier dietary habits. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with physical activity or smoking. Conclusions. Changes in neighborhood social structures and policies that reduce social inequalities may enhance cardiovascular health behaviors. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:428–436) PMID:11867325

  13. Preventive Health Behaviors Among Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We examined differential preventive health behavior among grandmothers who recently began raising a grandchild, grandmothers raising a grandchild for at least 2 years, and grandmothers not raising a grandchild. Methods Data came from the 2000, 2002, and 2004 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. We ran multivariate logistic regression models to assess receipt of influenza vaccination, cholesterol screening, monthly breast self-exam, mammography, and Papanicolaou (Pap) tests among grandmothers aged 50 to 75. Results Grandmothers who recently began raising a grandchild were significantly less likely to report influenza vaccination and cholesterol screening than grandmothers not raising grandchildren, even after we controlled for increased emotional and financial strains within the household. We also observed this association for Pap tests, although this finding was only marginally significant. Grandmothers who had been raising a grandchild for at least 2 years were significantly more likely to report influenza vaccination and monthly breast self-exam than grandmothers not raising grandchildren. Discussion The enhancement of preventive behavior seen among long-term grandparent caregivers does not fully offset the suppression of preventive behavior during the transition into care; support groups should target a range of interventions toward the promotion of healthy behavior among new grandparent caregivers. PMID:18818451

  14. Health-risk behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2011-01-01

    The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Health behaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development.

  15. The Louisiana emergency department behavioral health challenge.

    PubMed

    Griffies, W Scott; Collins, William J; Adams, Arwen E

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina uncovered and exaggerated Louisiana's behavioral health crisis. Patients with mental illness are backlogged in emergency rooms across the state, unable to access inpatient psychiatric treatment. Post-Katrina, part of the department of psychiatry of the Louisiana State University (LSU) New Orleans was displaced to Huey P. Long Medical Center (HPLMC) in Pineville, Louisiana. While displaced, LSU wrote a grant to develop a psychiatric emergency room service at HPLMC and in the process experienced a number of barriers to optimal behavioral healthcare in the emergency department (ED). The ED plays an essential role in our state's system of care for the mentally ill. However, EDs throughout the nation traditionally have not had the provisions necessary for optimal behavioral healthcare. In this article, we will address barriers to implementing proper provisions for sound behavioral healthcare in the ED. We will outline an affordable and available mental health personnel infrastructure that integrates with the ED's medical model of care, and improves quality of care of the mentally ill and the functional level of the ED, as well as the morale and job satisfaction of ED healthcare providers. PMID:18220095

  16. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Candida; de Leeuw, Sarah; Griffiths, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1) facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2) the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1) factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2) the need for social support; (3) pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4) access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population. PMID:24895667

  17. Understanding internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigmas in the Dominican Republic: a short report.

    PubMed

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR's most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF), and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR = 1.60; p < .05), PSC (OR = 3.68; p < .001), and PSF (OR = 1.60; p < .01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the DR.

  18. Understanding Internalized HIV/AIDS-Related Stigmas in the Dominican Republic: A Short Report

    PubMed Central

    Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR’s most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF) and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR=1.60; p<0.05), PSC (OR=3.68; p<0.001), and PSF (OR=1.60; p<0.01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic. PMID:26466239

  19. Measuring HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma across South Africa: A Versatile and Multidimensional Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward A.; Miller, Jacqueline A.; Newsome, Valerie; Sofolahan, Yewande A.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma is critical in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Although national campaigns and prevention programs have been implemented across South Africa to address this critical concern, assessing the impact of these initiatives is difficult as it requires that measurement of HIV/AIDS-related stigma is uniform and comparable…

  20. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  1. Health Behaviors of Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Tangney, Christy; Schiffer, Linda; Arroyo, Claudia; Kim, Yoonsang; Campbell, Richard; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Breen, Kathleen; Kinahan, Karen E.; Dilley, Kim; Henderson, Tara; Korenblit, Allen D.; Seligman, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data suggest that childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are comparable to the general population on many lifestyle parameters. However, little is known about minority CCSs. This cross-sectional study describes and compares the body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors of African-American, Hispanic and White survivors to each other and to non-cancer controls. Methods Participants included 452 adult CCS (150 African-American, 152 Hispanic, 150 white) recruited through four childhood cancer treating institutions and 375 ethnically-matched non-cancer controls (125 in each racial/ethnic group) recruited via targeted digit dial. All participants completed a 2-hour in-person interview. Results Survivors and non-cancer controls reported similar health behaviors. Within survivors, smoking and physical activity were similar across racial/ethnic groups. African-American and Hispanic survivors reported lower daily alcohol use than whites, but consumed unhealthy diets and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions This unique study highlights that many minority CCSs exhibit lifestyle profiles that contribute to increased risk for chronic diseases and late effects. Recommendations for behavior changes must consider the social and cultural context in which minority survivors may live. PMID:25564774

  2. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  3. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  4. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A.; Johnson, Heather M.; Vanness, David J.; Young, Henry N.; Kreling, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant’s home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05). We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure

  5. Diabetes, Diet-Health Behavior, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Sven; Schroeter, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    High-quality diets play an important role in diabetes prevention. Appropriate dietary adherence can improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, and thus contribute to lifestyle improvement. However, previous research suggests that dietary adherence is arguably among the most difficult cornerstones of diabetes management. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate whether and to what extent individuals diagnosed with diabetes show significant differences in diet quality [healthy eating index (HEI)] compared to healthy individuals, (2) to quantify whether and to what extent diabetics experience significantly higher outcomes of body mass index (BMI), and (3) to estimate whether and to what extent dietary supplementation impacts diabetes patient’s diet quality and/or BMI outcomes. We use data from the 2007–2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The NHANES is the primary, randomized, and nationally representative survey used to assess the health and nutritional status in the U.S. We apply propensity score matching (PSM) to account for selection bias and endogeneity between self-reported diet and health behavir (treatment) and BMI outcomes. We control for an individual’s BMI as to capture the impact of past dietary behavior in its impact on HEI. Matching results suggest that regular dietary supplement consumption is associated with significant lower BMI outcomes of almost 1 kg/m2. The close relationship between diabetes and obesity has been at the center of the diet-health policy debate across Canada and the U.S. Knowledge about this linkage may help to improve the understanding of the factors that impact dietary choices and their overall health outcomes, which may lead to a more efficient and effective promotion of dietary guidelines, healthy food choices, and targeted consumer health and lifestyle policies. PMID:25852643

  6. Diabetes, diet-health behavior, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sven; Schroeter, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    High-quality diets play an important role in diabetes prevention. Appropriate dietary adherence can improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, and thus contribute to lifestyle improvement. However, previous research suggests that dietary adherence is arguably among the most difficult cornerstones of diabetes management. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate whether and to what extent individuals diagnosed with diabetes show significant differences in diet quality [healthy eating index (HEI)] compared to healthy individuals, (2) to quantify whether and to what extent diabetics experience significantly higher outcomes of body mass index (BMI), and (3) to estimate whether and to what extent dietary supplementation impacts diabetes patient's diet quality and/or BMI outcomes. We use data from the 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The NHANES is the primary, randomized, and nationally representative survey used to assess the health and nutritional status in the U.S. We apply propensity score matching (PSM) to account for selection bias and endogeneity between self-reported diet and health behavir (treatment) and BMI outcomes. We control for an individual's BMI as to capture the impact of past dietary behavior in its impact on HEI. Matching results suggest that regular dietary supplement consumption is associated with significant lower BMI outcomes of almost 1 kg/m(2). The close relationship between diabetes and obesity has been at the center of the diet-health policy debate across Canada and the U.S. Knowledge about this linkage may help to improve the understanding of the factors that impact dietary choices and their overall health outcomes, which may lead to a more efficient and effective promotion of dietary guidelines, healthy food choices, and targeted consumer health and lifestyle policies.

  7. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of Its Applications to Health-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godin, Gaston; Kok, Gerjo

    1996-01-01

    The literature review discussed here located 56 studies examining 87 behaviors that predicted future health-related behaviors using the theory of planned behavior. About 41% of variance in intentions and 34% of variance in future behavior were explained by the theory. Perceived behavioral control explained 11.5% of variance in behavior above…

  8. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Short, Susan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied “social determinants” approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity. PMID:26213711

  9. Changing Health Behavior in Youth: Plus 40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Kammermann, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    For those in health education, the year 1969 marked the debut of "School Health Review," the forerunner to the current "American Journal of Health Education." The inaugural issue of "School Health Review," in September of 1969 included the article, "Changing Health behavior in Youth," by Dr. Godfrey M. Hochbaum. This article reviews the 1969…

  10. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  11. Behavioral economics and health policy: understanding Medicaid's failure.

    PubMed

    Richman, Barak D

    2005-03-01

    This Article employs a behavioral economic analysis to understand why Medicaid has failed to improve the health outcomes of its beneficiaries. It begins with a formal economic model of health care consumption and then systematically incorporates a survey of psychosocial variables to formulate explanations for persistent health disparities. This methodology suggests that consulting the literature in health psychology and intertemporal decision theory--empirical sources generally excluded from orthodox economic analysis--provides valuable material to explain certain findings in health econometrics. More significantly, the lessons from this behavioral economic approach generate useful policy considerations for Medicaid policymakers, who largely have neglected psychosocial variables in implementing a health insurance program that rests chiefly on orthodox economic assumptions. The Article's chief contributions include an expansion of the behavioral economic approach to include a host of variables in health psychology, a behavioral refinement of empirical health economics, a behavioral critique of Medicaid policy, and a menu of suggested Medicaid reforms.

  12. Health Promotion and Risk Behaviors among Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…

  13. AIDS-related reasons for gay men's adoption of celibacy.

    PubMed

    Siegel, K; Raveis, V H

    1993-01-01

    Since it was first recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could be sexually transmitted, celibacy has been advocated by some as the only unequivocally effective adaptation for avoiding the risk of infection. Others, however, have countered that few will be willing to be celibate and, further, that such behavior may have adverse psychosocial consequences. As part of a qualitative study of gay men's sexual decision-making in the context of the AIDS/HIV epidemic, we identified a subsample of respondents who had adopted celibacy for varying periods of time as an adaptation to the threat of AIDS/HIV infection. A content analysis of these men's interviews revealed 5 principal themes relating their reasons for choosing celibacy.

  14. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  15. Immune reconstitution syndrome presenting as probable AIDS-related lymphoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report an unusual case of HIV-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, presenting as suspected AIDS-related lymphoma. Symptoms, initial investigations including fine-needle biopsy and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan were highly compatible with high grade AIDS-related lymphoma, however subsequently IRIS was diagnosed. We discuss pitfalls in the interpretation of diagnostic results in ARL versus IRIS. PMID:21955517

  16. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of. PMID:26923156

  17. Accuracy of Parents' Perceptions of Their College Student Children's Health and Health Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Carma L.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Baxter, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared parents' perceptions of their college student children's health and health risk behaviors with the college students' own reports. One hundred sixty-four parent-college student child dyads completed questionnaires regarding the students' health, illness status, and health risk behaviors. Parents tended to be overoptimistic…

  18. Community Dental Health Promotion for Children: Integrating Applied Behavior Analysis and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Kathryn D.; Geller, E. Scott

    1987-01-01

    The article examines community dental health promotion for children in terms of factors impacting children's dental health (water fluoridation, dental health education, behavior change strategies, use of dental services, and dental phobias). Proposed is a large scale behavior change approach to public dental health which integrates applied…

  19. Maintenance of health behavior change in preventive cardiology. Internalization and self-regulation of new behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bellg, Albert J

    2003-01-01

    Long-term health behavior maintenance remains a challenge for patients and health behavior interventionists. Resource-intensive systems of external reinforcement and behavioral cues can support behavior maintenance; an alternative approach is to promote patient internalization and self-regulation of health behaviors. Based in part on organismic internalization theory, self-determination theory, and the experience of patients successful at maintaining health behaviors, the health behavior internalization model (HBIM) is proposed to describe motivational factors associated with internalization processes and hypothesizes that integrated internalization may be associated with long-term health behavior maintenance. The HBIM identifies four self-needs (ownership, self-determination, security, and support) and four behavior-related needs (preference, context, competence, and coping) as motivating health behavior internalization. Behavior change strategies promoting integrated internalization are identified from self-determination theory, motivational interviewing, and transtheoretical model interventions. Other health behavior change constructs are reviewed in relation to internalization processes, and potential limits to the model are discussed.

  20. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  1. Linking family economic pressure and supportive parenting to adolescent health behaviors: two developmental pathways leading to health promoting and health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S

    2014-07-01

    Adolescent health behaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways.

  2. Determinants of Consumer eHealth Information Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sandefer, Ryan H; Westra, Bonnie L; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access.

  3. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  4. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  5. Informed-Consent Issues with Adolescent Health Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, R. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…

  6. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  7. Physicians' beliefs about the importance of 25 health promoting behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Sobal, J; Valente, C M; Muncie, H L; Levine, D M; Deforge, B R

    1985-01-01

    A mail survey of 1,040 primary care physicians in Maryland examined their beliefs about the importance of 25 behaviors for promoting the health of the average person. Physician consensus existed across specialties in rating most health behaviors as very important and few as very unimportant. Eliminating smoking was most important and taking vitamin supplements least important. PMID:4061718

  8. Lifestyle and Clinical Health Behaviors and PSA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia; McFall, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical health behaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical health behaviors…

  9. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  10. Associations between Number of Lifetime Partners and Other Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Roberta J.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between health behaviors and lifetime sexual partners. Data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey indicated that having two or more lifetime partners related to infrequent seatbelt use, driving after drinking, fighting, considering suicide, and using certain substances. Significant sex interactions…

  11. Health plans' disease management programs: extending across the medical and behavioral health spectrum?

    PubMed

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Although the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health and depression program characteristics are highly variable.

  12. Psychosocial correlates of health-promoting and health-impairing behaviors in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Melissa V; Lobel, Marci; Cannella, Dolores T

    2014-09-01

    Behaviors during pregnancy including eating, exercise, cigarette smoking, and other substance use affect the health of a pregnant woman and her fetus. However, little is known about what influences pregnant women to engage in these health behaviors. Based upon relevant theory, we hypothesized that because health-promoting behaviors require continuous efforts that may depend upon a reliable, stable set of resources, intrapersonal traits, namely self-esteem and optimism, would be associated with the practice of health-promoting behaviors during pregnancy. In addition, we hypothesized that variables reactive to the more immediate context, pregnancy-specific stress and perceived control over pregnancy, would be associated with the practice of health-impairing behaviors. We distinguished health-promoting and health-impairing behaviors in a diverse sample of 165 pregnant women and investigated whether such behaviors are associated with distinct psychosocial factors. Results supported study hypotheses and provide evidence that even after controlling for maternal age, income, body mass index, and gestation, a stable, self-relevant disposition, self-esteem, is associated with the practice of health-promoting behaviors in pregnancy whereas pregnancy-specific stress, a situationally-evoked factor, is associated with the practice of health-impairing prenatal behaviors. Perceived control over pregnancy, which may reflect stable disposition and situational perceptions, was associated with health-promoting and health-impairing behaviors. PMID:25078858

  13. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  14. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  15. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    PubMed

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  16. Social Relationships and Health Behavior Across Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Crosnoe, Robert; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Sociological theory and research point to the importance of social relationships in affecting health behavior. This work tends to focus on specific stages of the life course, with a division between research on childhood/adolescent and adult populations. Yet recent advances demonstrate that early life course experiences shape health outcomes well into adulthood. We synthesize disparate bodies of research on social ties and health behavior throughout the life course, with attention to explaining how various social ties influence health behaviors at different life stages and how these processes accumulate and reverberate throughout the life course. PMID:21921974

  17. Antecedents of Philanthropic Behavior of Health Care Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Siti Noormi; Ismail, Maimunah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose a conceptual model of philanthropic behavior of volunteers in the health care sector. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on an extensive review of past research on philanthropic behavior. To conduct the literature review, keywords such as philanthropy, philanthropic behavior, giving, donating,…

  18. Financing results and value in behavioral health services.

    PubMed

    2003-11-01

    Current changes require that behavioral health care leaders understand how public and private financing mechanisms interact and how, now more than ever, behavioral health care leadership must span multiple systems and financing streams. Understanding how financing mechanisms work, what they create, and what they cause is essential if we are to make the most of increasingly limited and increasingly complex resource streams in today's health care market. This article explores a different paradigm of what adds value to publicly funded behavioral health care systems, and provides the framework for the American College of Mental Health Administration's call to behavioral health care administrators to take a new approach to the considerations behind funding decisions and payment mechanisms. PMID:14756194

  19. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C.

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  20. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  1. HIV-K: an integrative knowledge base for semantic integration of AIDS-related malignancy data and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Ramos, A; Saltz, Joel; Lechowicz, Mary Jo

    2010-01-01

    Technological innovations such as web services and collaborative Grid platforms like caGrid can create opportunities to converge the worlds of health care and clinical research, by facilitating access and integration of HIV-related malignancy clinical and outcomes data at more sophisticated, semantic levels. At the same time, large numbers of randomized clinical trial and outcomes data on AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) have been produced during the last few years. There is still much work to do, though, on obtaining clear conclusions from the integration of such information. This is a white paper on work in progress from Emory University's HIV/AIDS related malignancy data integrative knowledge base project (HIV-K). We are working to increase the understanding of available clinical trial data and outcomes of ADM such as lymphoma, as well as nADM such as anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or liver cancer. Our hypothesis is that, by creating prototypes of tools for semantics-enabled integrative knowledge bases for HIV/AIDS-related malignancy data, we will facilitate the identification of patterns and potential new overall evidence, as well as the linking of integrated data and results to registries of interest.

  2. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  3. Health Status and Leisure Behavior of Sexual Assault Victims: Educational Opportunities for Health and Leisure Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others

    The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…

  4. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  5. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  6. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  7. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  8. Behavioral Systems Analysis in Health and Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Heather M.; Diener, Lori H.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a behavioral systems approach to improve operational performance in health and human service organizations. This article provides six performance truths that are relevant to any organization and a case study from a community mental health network of agencies. A comprehensive analysis, as described here, will help health and…

  9. Development of a Medicaid Behavioral Health Case-Mix Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John

    2009-01-01

    Many Medicaid programs have either fully or partially carved out mental health services. The evaluation of carve-out plans requires a case-mix model that accounts for differing health status across Medicaid managed care plans. This article develops a diagnosis-based case-mix adjustment system specific to Medicaid behavioral health care. Several…

  10. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  11. Wealth and Health Behavior: Testing the Concept of a Health Cost

    PubMed Central

    Galama, Titus J.

    2014-01-01

    Wealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by exploiting both inheritances and lottery winnings to test a theory of health behavior. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of unhealthy consumption. The health cost increases with wealth and the degree of unhealthiness, leading wealthier individuals to consume more healthy and moderately unhealthy, but fewer severely unhealthy goods. The empirical evidence presented suggests that differences in health costs may indeed partially explain behavioral differences, and ultimately health outcomes, between wealth groups. PMID:25530621

  12. Does the perception that God controls health outcomes matter for health behaviors?

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between God Locus of Health Control, health behaviors, and beliefs utilizing a cross-sectional online survey (N = 549). Results indicated that God Locus of Health Control was correlated with alcohol use, physical activity, perceived risk of chronic disease, and beliefs that poor health behaviors contribute to chronic disease (all p values < .05). Multiple regression analyses including covariates and other locus of control variables revealed that God Locus of Health Control was only an independent correlate of the belief that physical inactivity contributed to chronic disease. Insights from this study may be important for future faith-based health behavior change interventions.

  13. Investigating the Association of Health Literacy with Health Knowledge and Health Behavior Outcomes in a Sample of Urban Community College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate…

  14. Enhancing health knowledge, health beliefs, and health behavior in Poland through a health promoting television program series.

    PubMed

    Chew, Fiona; Palmer, Sushma; Slonska, Zofia; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a health promoting television program series on health knowledge and the key factors of the health belief model (HBM) that have led people to engage in healthy behavior (exercising, losing weight, changing eating habits, and not smoking/quitting smoking). Using data from a posttest comparison field study with 15) viewers and 146 nonviewers in Poland, we found that hierarchical regression analysis showed stronger support for the HBM factors of efficacy, susceptibility, seriousness, and salience in their contribution toward health behavior among television viewers compared with nonviewers. Cues to action variables (including television viewing) and health knowledge boosted efficacy among viewers. Without the advantage of receiving health information from the television series, nonviewers relied on their basic disease fears on one hand, and interest in good health on the other to take steps toward becoming healthier. A health promoting television series can increase health knowledge and enhance health beliefs, which in turn contribute to healthy behaviors. PMID:12166872

  15. ERISA preemption and its impact on behavioral health services.

    PubMed

    Simmons, P

    1997-06-01

    Recently, mental health parity provisions were passed and incorporated retroactively into the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (PL 104-191). Although limited, these provisions were instrumental in focusing national attention and debate on people's need for and right to behavioral health services. A handful of states have also passed parity provisions, but their full impact on the insurance market cannot be assessed. This is because a majority of plans are preempted from compliance with many state insurance mandates by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). ERISA is the primary obstacle to state behavioral health mandates, and it threatens the inclusion of behavioral health providers and settings in managed care plans integrating public and private healthcare systems. This article provides basic information on ERISA, its preemption clauses, and its impact on behavioral healthcare services.

  16. Public health and the science of behavior change.

    PubMed

    Willey, C; Laforge, R; Blais, L; Pallonen, U; Prochaska, J; Botelho, R

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the supposition that the efficacy and impact of public health interventions targeting behavioral and lifestyle factors can be improved by developing interventions that combine scientific advances in behavior change theory with advances in information technology. It is noted that programs of the public health revolution which began during the late 19th century have been based on biomedical theories to guide health promotion efforts for the purpose of increased public health impact. However, developments in behavior change research suggest that it is possible to incorporate behavior change theory into traditional large-scale public health intervention programs. It has been indicated that there is a need to align the field of health promotion and disease prevention with the science of behavior change for the development of theory-based intervention strategies for lifestyle change. The combination of advances in behavioral science and progress in information technologies provides a unique opportunity to enhance the efficacy, reach, and impact of the health promotion programs of the second public health revolution. PMID:12291162

  17. Special issue: Behavioral Economics and Health Annual Symposium.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The application of behavioral economics to health and health care has captured the imagination of policymakers across the political spectrum. The idea is that many people are irrational in predictable ways, and that this both contributes to unhealthy behaviors like smoking and holds one of the keys to changing those behaviors. Because health care costs continue to increase, and a substantial portion of costs are incurred because of unhealthy behaviors, employers and insurers have great interest in using financial incentives to change behaviors. However, it is in the details that complexity and controversies emerge. Who should the targets be, and what outcomes should be rewarded? How should incentives be structured, to maximize their effectiveness and minimize unintended consequences? In what situations should we be intervening to affect decisions by people who may prefer to be obese or to smoke, and in what situations should we accept their preferences? To begin to answer these questions, the Penn-CMU Roybal P30 Center on Behavioral Economics and Health held its first annual Behavioral Economics and Health Symposium on March 24-25, 2011 with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The symposium drew more than 50 researchers, scholars, and health professionals from a variety of disciplines, including medicine, public health, economics, law, management, marketing, and psychology. They heard perspectives on behavioral economics from public and private funders, the CEO of the University of Pennsylvania Health System, and the CEO of stickK.com, a start-up company that uses online, voluntary commitment contracts to help people achieve their goals. Participants formed eight working groups to review the current state-of-the-art in a variety of clinical contexts and to consider how behavioral economics could inform a research agenda to improve health. This Issue Brief summarizes the findings of these working groups and the symposium.

  18. Why Are There Social Gradients in Preventative Health Behavior? A Perspective from Behavioral Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Within affluent populations, there are marked socioeconomic gradients in health behavior, with people of lower socioeconomic position smoking more, exercising less, having poorer diets, complying less well with therapy, using medical services less, ignoring health and safety advice more, and being less health-conscious overall, than their more affluent peers. Whilst the proximate mechanisms underlying these behavioral differences have been investigated, the ultimate causes have not. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a theoretical model of why socioeconomic gradients in health behavior might be found. I conjecture that lower socioeconomic position is associated with greater exposure to extrinsic mortality risks (that is, risks that cannot be mitigated through behavior), and that health behavior competes for people's time and energy against other activities which contribute to their fitness. Under these two assumptions, the model shows that the optimal amount of health behavior to perform is indeed less for people of lower socioeconomic position. Conclusions/Significance The model predicts an exacerbatory dynamic of poverty, whereby the greater exposure of poor people to unavoidable harms engenders a disinvestment in health behavior, resulting in a final inequality in health outcomes which is greater than the initial inequality in material conditions. I discuss the assumptions of the model, and its implications for strategies for the reduction of health inequalities. PMID:20967214

  19. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2012-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools – accountability measures and payment designs – to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs. PMID:23188486

  20. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE HEALTH: UNPRECEDENTED OPORTUNITIES FOR BEHAVIOR ANALYSTS

    PubMed Central

    KURTI, ALLISON N.; DALLERY, JESSE

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070

  1. Development of a Health Information Technology Acceptance Model Using Consumers’ Health Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers’ intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. Objective To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers’ behavioral intention of using HIT. Methods This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model’s explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers’ behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers’ use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers’ attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers’ health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Conclusions An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health

  2. Health seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Small, Maria; Frederic, Rikerdy; Joseph, Gabriel; Bateau, Reginald; Kershaw, Trace

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further knowledge of health care seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti. Eighty-two pregnant women were interviewed to assess care seeking behaviors during pregnancy, satisfaction with services, reliance on social networks, and management of pregnancy-related illness. Twenty-five percent reported not seeking care in the formal health sector for a pregnancy-related illness; 32% delayed seeking care. Women relied primarily on their husbands and mothers for health care advice during pregnancy and times of illness, and coped with illness by lying down. Strategies for improving awareness and health care access are discussed. PMID:17060181

  3. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices. PMID:26165522

  4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  5. Community health workers for patients with medical and behavioral health needs - Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Laderman, Mara; Mate, Kedar

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral health integration efforts often focus on the formal health care infrastructure. We performed a non-systematic literature review and expert interviews to identify community-based interventions for patients with medical and behavioral health needs. Community Health Workers (CHWs) are the dominant intervention to support patients outside of the clinic. These interventions do not always optimally meet patients' needs. Organizations should consider the challenges and benefits of CHWs for patients with medical and behavioral health needs. We outline two challenges to successful CHW programs for this population, propose two design considerations for community-based integration, and suggest how quality improvement methods might help with both challenges. PMID:27637818

  6. College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

  7. Maternal health-seeking behavior: the role of financing and organization of health services in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour

    2013-05-30

    This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's health system has shaped maternal health-seeking behavior of women in the district. The paper employs a qualitative case study technique to build a complex and holistic picture, and report detailed views of the women in their natural setting. A purposeful sampling technique is applied to select 16 women in the district for this study. Through face-to-face interviews and group discussions with the selected women, comprehensive and in-depth information on health- seeking behavior and health outcomes are elicited for the analysis. The study highlights that characteristics embedded in decentralization and provision of free maternal health care influence health-seeking behavior. Particularly, the use of antenatal care has increased after the delivery exemption policy in Ghana. Interestingly, the study also reveals certain social structures, which influence women's attitude towards their decisions and choices of health facilities.

  8. The Relationship of Depression to Health Risk Behaviors and Health Perceptions in Korean College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Oksoo

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…

  9. Behavioral health and disasters: looking to the future.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2015-01-01

    Along with other manmade and natural disasters, oil spills produce profound and long-term impacts on the behavioral health of their survivors. Although previous and ongoing research has focused on producing evidence of the breadth and depth of these impacts, future efforts must begin to translate this evidence into developing and implementing policies, programs, and practices that effectively contribute to their prevention and mitigation. Drawing upon a conceptual framework of the behavioral health impacts of oil spills developed from data collected in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, this paper examines potential interventions designed to prevent or mitigate biopsychosocial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal impacts on behavioral health. Future efforts to translate behavioral health research into effective practice will require the formation and maintenance of academic-community partnerships for the purpose of building resilience to these impacts and providing targeted services to those most vulnerable to their long-term consequences. PMID:24443145

  10. Behavioral Health and Disasters: Looking to the Future

    PubMed Central

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Along with other manmade and natural disasters, oil spills produce profound and long-term impacts on the behavioral health of their survivors. While previous and ongoing research has focused on producing evidence of the breadth and depth of these impacts, future efforts must begin to translate this evidence into developing and implementing policies, programs and practices that effectively contribute to their prevention and mitigation. Drawing upon a conceptual framework of the behavioral health impacts of oil spills developed from data collected in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, this paper examines potential interventions designed to prevent or mitigate biopsychosocial, interpersonal and intrapersonal impacts on behavioral health. Future efforts to translate behavioral health research into effective practice will require the formation and maintenance of academic-community partnerships for the purpose of building resilience to these impacts and providing targeted services to those most vulnerable to their long-term consequences. PMID:24443145

  11. Behavioral Health's Challenge to Academic, Scientific, and Professional Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.

    1982-01-01

    Asserts that psychologists can contribute to a reduction in national health expenditures by focusing on such illness- and accident-causing behaviors as smoking, alcohol use, improper diet, and speeding and the nonuse of seat belts in cars. (GC)

  12. Behavioral health and disasters: looking to the future.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2015-01-01

    Along with other manmade and natural disasters, oil spills produce profound and long-term impacts on the behavioral health of their survivors. Although previous and ongoing research has focused on producing evidence of the breadth and depth of these impacts, future efforts must begin to translate this evidence into developing and implementing policies, programs, and practices that effectively contribute to their prevention and mitigation. Drawing upon a conceptual framework of the behavioral health impacts of oil spills developed from data collected in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, this paper examines potential interventions designed to prevent or mitigate biopsychosocial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal impacts on behavioral health. Future efforts to translate behavioral health research into effective practice will require the formation and maintenance of academic-community partnerships for the purpose of building resilience to these impacts and providing targeted services to those most vulnerable to their long-term consequences.

  13. NASA Human Research Program: Behavioral Health and Performance Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the performance errors associated with sleep loss, fatigue and psychomotor factors during manned space flight. Short and long term behavioral health factors are also addressed

  14. A behavior-analytic view of psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Follette, William C.; Bach, Patricia A.; Follette, Victoria M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper argues that a behavioral analysis of psychological health is useful and appropriate. Such an analysis will allow us to better evaluate intervention outcomes without resorting only to the assessment of pathological behavior, thus providing an alternative to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual system of conceptualizing behavior. The goals of such an analysis are to distinguish between people and outcomes using each term of the three-term contingency as a dimension to consider. A brief review of other efforts to define psychological health is provided. Laboratory approaches to a behavioral analysis of healthy behavior are presented along with shortcomings in our science that impede our analysis. Finally, we present some of the functional characteristics of psychological health that we value. PMID:22478160

  15. A New Frontier: Integrating Behavioral and Digital Technology to Promote Health Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Kurti, Allison; Erb, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Modifiable behavioral risk factors such as cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity contribute to over 40 % of premature deaths in the USA. Advances in digital and information technology are creating unprecedented opportunities for behavior analysts to assess and modify these risk factors. Technological advances include mobile devices, wearable sensors, biomarker detectors, and real-time access to therapeutic support via information technology. Integrating these advances with behavioral technology in the form of conceptually systematic principles and procedures could usher in a new generation of effective and scalable behavioral interventions targeting health behavior. In this selective review of the literature, we discuss how technological tools can assess and modify a range of antecedents and consequences of healthy and unhealthy behavior. We also describe practical, methodological, and conceptual advantages for behavior analysts that stem from the use of technology to assess and treat health behavior.

  16. Health Education and Behavior: Are School Health Educators in Denial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governali, Joseph F.; Hodges, Bonni C.; Videto, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    School health education has been and still is guided by a number of different and often competing philosophical orientations. The field seems to be moving toward a skills-based philosophy, but the adoption of this approach is taking place with little discussion or analysis in the professional health education literature. The purpose of this…

  17. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior change (HBC) refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i) hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii) hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL). In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted. PMID:26557333

  18. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  19. Behavioral Genetics and the Forensic Mental Health Provider: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Tracy D

    2015-10-01

    The area of behavioral genetics has sufficiently entered the area of forensic mental health work that providers should have some working knowledge of the strengths and limitations of these exciting technical advances. Using MAOA as an example, this essay reviews some of the recurring themes in forensic behavioral genetics and suggests additional ways in which the technology might be used in legal matters.

  20. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy

    PubMed Central

    van Leer, Eva; Hapner, Edie R.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, the TTM may be a useful way to conceptualize voice behavior change processes, including the patient’s readiness for change. The purpose of this paper is to apply the TTM to the voice therapy process to: (1) provide an organizing framework for understanding of behavior change in voice therapy, (2) explain how treatment adherence problems can arise, and (3) provide broad strategies to improve treatment adherence. Given the significant role of treatment adherence in treatment outcome, considering readiness for behavior change should be taken into account when planning treatment. Principles of health behavior change can aid speech pathologists in such understanding and estimating readiness for voice therapy. PMID:18082367

  1. Resiliency-Based Research and Adolescent Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Elizabeth; Tricker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Over the past fifty years, research on adolescents' behavior has focused primarily on risk factors. The study of resiliency and what buffers adolescents from engaging in harmful health behaviors has received much less attention. This risk-focused approach has included examining what is lacking in a youth's life that may contribute to that youth's…

  2. A preliminary survey of the health behaviors of community leaders.

    PubMed

    Li-Chun, Chang; I-Chuan, Li; Bi-Ying, Hsiao; Wan-En, Cheng; Shu-Feng, Lin

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the health behavior of a town ' s community leaders and other issues associated with that behavior. Structured questionnaires designed by the researchers were used to collect data at a meeting for the announcement of community building; they were filled out in the 10 or 20 minutes before the meeting began and 70 valid responses were received. The SPSS for Window version 10.0 software package was used for data analysis. The results of the study showed that the community leaders demonstrated higher standards of health-protective behaviors (i.e. elder/adult checkups, Pap smear exam and breast self-examination) than others living in the community. Variables such as gender, educational level, self-perceived health status, number of chronic illnesses were correlated with different types of dietary behavior. Subjects who were 40 years old and over, educated to junior high school or lower, who had performed less than one year of community service and were free of chronic illness engaged in relatively regular exercise. Subjects who had performed more than one year of community service were more likely to utilize the preventive services provided by national health insurance. It is recommended that public health nurses improve their cooperation with community leaders over providing health -related activities in order to promote better health behavior on the part of such leaders.

  3. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  4. Health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens

    PubMed Central

    Chisolm, Deena J.; Manganello, Jennifer A.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol expectancies are developed, in part, through exposure to health messages, the understanding of which may be influenced by health literacy. This study explores the relationships among health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens. Methods We studied alcohol use behaviors in the past six months in youths aged 14–19 recruited from two adolescent medicine clinics. We assessed covariate-adjusted bivariate relationships between HL, expectancies, and four measures of alcohol use and tested health literacy as a moderator of the relationship between expectancies and use. Results Of the 293 study teens, 45 percent reported use of alcohol in the past six months. Use behaviors were positively associated with higher health literacy and positive expectancies. Our moderation model suggested that health literacy moderates the relationship between expectancies and use, with the expectancy/use relationship being significantly stronger in higher literacy teens. Conclusion Findings suggest that health literacy can influence alcohol expectancies and behaviors. Practice implications: Health literacy should be explicitly considered in the design of alcohol prevention messages. PMID:25085549

  5. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  6. Motivation for Healthy Behavior: A Review of Health Promotion Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Sarah; Goodson, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Authors reviewed the theoretical history of the "motivation" construct, and its utilization within past/current health behavior research. Textbooks and review articles functioned as sources for the theoretical history review. Research published within a 10-year period (1993-2002) in four health promotion journals (all with impact factors greater…

  7. Behavioral Groups as Preventive Care in a Health Maintenance Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan; And Others

    This paper describes the use of a particular therapeutic modality--behavioral groups--in a relatively new delivery system called a Health Maintenance Organization. The program described, run under the George Washington University Health Plan, offers short-term structured groups designed to aid people at particularly difficult or vulnerable…

  8. Computer-Assisted Behavioral Health Counseling for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared computer-assisted behavioral health counseling intervention for high school students (N=45) with a health tip educational intervention (N=17) and an assessment only group (N=15). Found significant dietary improvement among computer-assisted counseling group and lesser improvement among two control groups. (Author/CM)

  9. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  10. Neighborhood Comparisons of Dog-Related Health Hazards and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Melinda

    1984-01-01

    Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…

  11. Mental Health Characteristics and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Adolescent School-Based Health Center Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Gorette; Geierstanger, Sara; Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…

  12. The Causal Effect of Education on Health: What is the Role of Health Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Brunello, Giorgio; Fort, Margherita; Schneeweis, Nicole; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the causal effect of education on health and the part of it that is attributable to health behaviors by distinguishing between short-run and long-run mediating effects: whereas, in the former, only behaviors in the immediate past are taken into account, in the latter, we consider the entire history of behaviors. We use two identification strategies: instrumental variables based on compulsory schooling reforms and a combined aggregation, differencing, and selection on an observables technique to address the endogeneity of both education and behaviors in the health production function. Using panel data for European countries, we find that education has a protective effect for European men and women aged 50+. We find that the mediating effects of health behaviors-measured by smoking, drinking, exercising, and the body mass index-account in the short run for around a quarter and in the long run for around a third of the entire effect of education on health.

  13. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention. PMID:26166008

  14. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  15. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  16. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  17. Health psychology meets behavioral economics: introduction to special issue.

    PubMed

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions.

  18. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  19. A national action plan for workforce development in behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy

    2009-07-01

    Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation.

  20. Psychometric evaluation of Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire: Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Wells, J N; Bush, H A; Marshall, D

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of a culturally sensitive and theory-based instrument: the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire. This instrument was translated into Spanish and back-translated at a third- to fourth-grade reading level. The pilot group consisted of 70 Hispanic women who attended a class at a local church. Subsequent to pilot testing, another 40 Hispanic women who attended a class at the local health department comprised the study sample. The participants responded to the 15-item questionnaire, which is formatted as a Likert scale. Content validity of the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire was determined by a panel of experts. A factor analysis of this instrument showed five separate dimensions accounting for 71.82% of the instrument's variance. The three major components of self-regulation theory (schema, coping, and appraisal criteria) were found clustered within the first three dimensions after three items were discarded. The Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire demonstrated an internal consistency reliability coefficient of .7172. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of this questionnaire warrant further research. The instrument may support a better understanding of the Hispanic woman's practice of breast health behavior. Eventually, the Breast Health Behavior Questionnaire may assist nurses in the formulation of culturally grounded interventions. PMID:11502042

  1. A Human Science View of Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2016-04-01

    An exclusively quantitative public health approach to substance use in Mexico is criticized here as being of limited use to nurses working as clinicians with persons, families, and communities struggling with this issue. Three human science-based studies from three different countries are discussed to serve as options for addressing this limitation.

  2. Systematic literature review of Internet interventions across health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Su-I; Charlery, Su-Anne Robyn; Roberson, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This review examines Internet interventions aiming to change health behaviors in the general population. Methods: Internet health interventions in the USA published between January 2005 and December 2013 were identified through Medline and CINAHL. Keywords used were (Internet or e-health or social media or web) paired with (intervention or program*). A total of 38 articles met all criteria and were reviewed. Results: Studies were analyzed by targeted health behavior interventions: tobacco (5), alcohol (4), weight loss (7), physical activity (PA) (7), nutrition (2), PA and nutrition combined (5), HIV or sexual health (4), and chronic diseases (4). Interventions ranged from one session to 24  weeks (average 6–12 weeks). Common strategies used, including web-based information, tailored feedback, weekly e-mails, goal setting, and self-assessment. Social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical models were the most commonly used frameworks. Recruitment strategies were typically media based varied by settings and populations. Except for the tobacco interventions, the majority studies yielded significant outcomes. Conclusion: This review provides updates and synthesized knowledge on the design and consistent effectiveness of Internet interventions across health behaviors. Results have implications for public health and healthcare professionals, as they play a key role in developing and delivering health promotion interventions as well as in assisting the communities and clients serviced obtaining evidence-based health information. PMID:25750795

  3. Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1993-07-01

    Four competing theories of health-protective behavior are reviewed: the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, protection motivation theory, and subjective expected utility theory. In spite of their commonalities, these models are seldom tested against one another. The review points out the similarities and differences among these theories and the data and analyses needed to compare them. In addition to describing the content of the models, their conceptualization of key variables, and the combinatorial rules used to make predictions, some general problems in theory development and testing for health behaviors are examined. The article's goal is to help investigators design studies that will clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these models, leading toward a better understanding of health behavior. PMID:8404807

  4. A systematic, integrated behavioral health response to disaster.

    PubMed

    Fojt, Diane F; Cohen, Martin D; Wagner, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The behavioral health aspects of disaster have not historically been addressed as a priority in emergency preparedness planning. The overwhelming evidence of significant to severe psychological consequences of disaster has remained in the shadows compared to the more widely televised dramatic physical destruction and trauma. However, the aftermath of September 11, as well as 2005's Hurricane Katrina and 2008's Hurricane Ike disasters reminded the country that the psychological footprint of disaster easily dwarfs the more visual physical footprint. Disaster behavioral health is now recognized as a major public health concern and a national issue that deserves a logical, systematic, proactive approach within the structure of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command Structure (ICS; Fojt, Cohen, Wagner 2008). With increased commitment, collaboration, and organization we can better utilize our qualified yet limited behavioral health resources, meeting the predictable needs of future disasters' survivors, communities, and responders.

  5. Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thyfault, John P; Du, Mengmeng; Kraus, William E; Levine, James A; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the findings and recommendations of the “Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and its Relationship to Health Outcomes” group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, and Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to establish sedentary behavior research priorities. Methods The discussion within our workshop lead to the formation of critical physiological research objectives related to sedentary behaviors, that if appropriately researched would greatly impact our overall understanding of human health and longevity. Results and Conclusions Primary questions are related to physiological “health outcomes” including the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on function of a number of critical physiological systems (aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle metabolism and function, telomeres/genetic stability, and cognitive function). The group also derived important recommendations related to the “central and peripheral mechanisms” that govern sedentary behavior and how energy balance has a role in mediating these processes. General recommendations for future sedentary physiology research efforts include that studies of sedentary behavior, including that of sitting time only, should focus on the physiological impact of a “lack of human movement” in contradistinction to the effects of physical movement and that new models or strategies for studying sedentary behavior induced adaptations and links to disease development are needed to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). PMID:25222820

  6. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary M

    2015-05-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain. PMID:25950651

  7. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L.; Smith, Michaela A.; White, Piran C. L.; Graham, Hilary M.

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain. PMID:25950651

  8. Effect of the Exclusion of Behavioral Health from Health Information Technology (HIT) Legislation on the Future of Integrated Health Care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Past research has shown abundant comorbidity between physical chronic health conditions and mental illness. The focal point of the conversation to reduce cost is better care coordination through the implementation of health information technology (HIT). At the policy level, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (HITECH Act) was implemented as a way to increase the implementation of HIT. However, behavioral health providers have been largely excluded from obtaining access to the funds provided by the HITECH Act. Without further intervention, disjointed care coordination between physical and behavioral health providers will continue.

  9. Health behaviors and demographic factors of chronic health conditions among elderly veteran men.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh V; Canfield, Julie; Wang, Kaipeng

    2016-04-01

    As male veterans age, there are unique opportunities for health-related prevention efforts to be introduced throughout the life cycle to ameliorate the effects of chronic health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, asthma, arthritis, and diabetes. This study analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2012) with a sample of 27,187 male veterans aged 65-84 years and 4,079 male veterans over 85 years of age. The study examined associations between behaviors, demographics, and five chronic health conditions with variables that included marital status, health insurance coverage, alcohol consumption, smoking history, and income levels. These associations varied between the two age groups, suggesting the need for intervention with veterans across their lifespans. Public health social workers could help veterans modify their health behaviors to prevent the occurrence or worsening of chronic health conditions over time and across the aging process. PMID:27123687

  10. Associations between diet and health behavior: results from the 1992 Rhode Island Behavioral Risk Factor Survey.

    PubMed

    Altekruse, S F; Timbo, B B; Headrick, M L; Klontz, K C

    1995-06-01

    The 1992 Rhode Island Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to assess self-reported health behaviors of consumers of finfish and raw shellfish. We hypothesized that consumers of finfish, foods considered to be healthy, were more likely than nonconsumers of finfish to partake in health-promoting behaviors. Similarly, we postulated that consumers of raw molluscan shellfish, foods linked to an elevated risk of acquiring various illnesses, were more likely than nonconsumers of raw-shellfish to partake in risk-taking behaviors. Finfish eaters were significantly more likely than abstainers to report recent exercise, efforts to lose weight, periodic monitoring of serum cholesterol, and not currently being smokers. Raw shellfish eaters were significantly more likely than abstainers to report recent acute and chronic alcohol consumption. The results suggest that inquiry into dietary patterns may be an avenue for exploring other health behaviors.

  11. Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Yasmin; Khuder, Sadik; Donabedian, Haig

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary. PMID:16916461

  12. Female-headed households contending with AIDS-related hardship in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Enid; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Williams, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Mainstream research and the popular media often equate female-headship with household vulnerability, crisis, and disorganization. Epidemic levels of HIV/AIDS in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa compound this portrait of hopelessness. In South Africa, the impact of HIV/AIDS on households depends on race, class, and place. As female-headed households increase in number, we need to better understand how female-heads in poor rural areas contend with AIDS related challenges. We analyze qualitative interviews with 16 female heads and the members of their households in a rural community to examine the response to AIDS-related illness, death, or caring for orphaned children. Our analysis examines female-heads' financial and social resources and how these resources buffer against hardship in households affected by AIDS. We find considerable heterogeneity among rural female-headed households and their access to resources to combat AIDS-related hardship. Our findings have important policy implications both in terms of identifying individual and household vulnerabilities as well as leveraging the potential for resilience for female-heads in rural South African communities. PMID:21292533

  13. Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care.

    PubMed

    McGough, Peter M; Bauer, Amy M; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C

    2016-04-01

    Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81-87). PMID:26348355

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  15. Longitudinal Evaluation of Peer Health Education on a College Campus: Impact on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sabina; Park, Yong S.; Israel, Tania; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the longitudinal impact of peer health education on the health behaviors of undergraduate students pertaining to alcohol and drug use, eating and nutrition, and sexual health. Participants: From fall 2003 to spring 2006, the authors annually administered a Web-based survey to a cohort of 2,000 randomly selected…

  16. Comparison of Health Status and Health Behaviors between Female Graduate and Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Irfan, Syed; Barton, Barbara; Vancour, Michele; Breny, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Graduate females represent a substantial and growing proportion of the college student population, yet health promotion research and programming has traditionally focused on undergraduates. This study compared health status and health behaviors of female graduate and undergraduate students at a public university in the northeastern U.S.…

  17. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  18. Research and Practice Opportunities at the Intersection of Health Education, Health Behavior, and Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Catharine; Bowen, Deborah J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners in health behavior and health education (HBHE) can play a pivotal leadership role in the integration of genomic advances to improve the public's health. The purpose of this article is to outline research and practice opportunities at the intersection of genomics and HBHE. We begin this article by briefly summarizing…

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: Are health risk behaviors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; McGeever, Kelly; Grubert, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors – smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking – are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998–2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23–45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9–14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help

  20. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  1. Maternal mental health in pregnancy and child behavior

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Veena A.; Lukose, Ammu; Srinivasan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal mental health research is a public health priority due to its impact on both maternal and child health. Despite the growing number of empirical studies in this area, particularly from developing countries, there is a paucity of synthetic review articles. Therefore, attempting to synthesize the existing literature in this area seems relevant to appraise the readers of the field's progress and to infer directions for future research. The present review aims to provide an overview of the literature on maternal mental health and its association with birth outcomes and child behavior. Specifically, the literature on mental health during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its influence on birth outcomes and child behavior have been reviewed. Further, a conceptual and methodological evaluation of the existing literature has been provided to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest directions for future research. PMID:22303046

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms During Childhood and Risky Adolescent Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Maeve E.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Wild, T. Cameron; Hoglund, Wendy L.G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child’s age 4–15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother–youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). RESULTS: Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. PMID:25535266

  3. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  4. Level of optimism and health behavior in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lipowski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Persons with an optimistic attitude do not give up despite obstacles and failures. Optimistic athletes compete more out of hope for success than out of fear of defeat. The purpose of my research was to determine if optimism also promotes good health behavior in athletes. Material/Methods In order to measure the role of optimism in shaping the health behavior of athletes, I examined a group of women (N=147) and men (N=385) who were currently in training for athletic competition. The control group consisted of women (N=262) and men (N=435) who were not and had never been competitive athletes. The “O-P” Attitude Questionnaire was used to measure optimism, while health behavior was measured with the Juczynski Health Behavior Inventory, which measures proper nutrition habits, preventive behavior, positive attitude, and healthy practices. Results The level of pessimism in these athletes was average. The female athletes were less pessimistic than the female controls. A similar, highly significant difference occurred between the male athletes and non-athletes. Gender did not differentiate the level of optimism in either group. Among the women, optimism correlated with healthy practices, such as daily sleep and recreation habits, or physical activity. The greater the pessimism increased, positive attitudes declined in the female controls, the female athletes, and the male controls. Conclusions The athletes displayed greater optimism than the controls. Among the women, optimism correlated with good health practices. PMID:22207118

  5. Health Literacy and Injury Prevention Behaviors Among Caregivers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Bronaugh, Andrea B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a leading cause of infant mortality. Purpose To examine the role of caregiver health literacy in infant injury prevention behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010–2012 from a randomized trial at four pediatric clinics was performed in 2012–2013. Caregiver health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Caregiver-reported adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended injury prevention behaviors was assessed across seven domains: (1) car seat position; (2) car seat use; (3) sleeping safety; (4) fire safety; (5) hot water safety; (6) fall prevention; and (7) firearm safety. Results Data were analyzed from 844 English and Spanish-speaking caregivers of 2-month-old children. Many caregivers were non-adherent with injury prevention guidelines, regardless of health literacy. Notably, 42.6% inappropriately placed their children in the prone position to sleep, and 88.6% did not have their hot water heater set <120°F. Eleven percent of caregivers were categorized as having low health literacy. Low caregiver health literacy, compared to adequate health literacy, was significantly associated with increased odds of caregiver non-adherence with recommended behaviors for car seat position (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.6, 7.1), and fire safety (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.02, 4.1) recommendations. Caregivers with low health literacy were less likely to be non-adherent to fall prevention recommendations (AOR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2, 0.9). Conclusions Non-adherence to injury prevention guidelines was common. Low caregiver health literacy was significantly associated with some injury prevention behaviors. Future interventions should consider the role of health literacy in promoting injury prevention. PMID:24745634

  6. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  7. Health literacy and nutrition behaviors among low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Katherine E; Messina, Lauren A; Munger, Ashley L; Grutzmacher, Stephanie K

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health literacy and nutrition behaviors using a low-income sample. Face-to-face surveys at 11 social services offices generated a convenience sample of 154 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-eligible adults. We assessed health literacy, fruit and vegetable intake, food label use, consumption of healthy foods, and demographic characteristics. Thirty seven percent of the sample had adequate health literacy as measured by the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Race and parenthood were significantly related to health literacy scores. Adequate health literacy, as measured by the NVS, was associated with frying chicken less often and eating the peels of fresh fruit more often. The findings suggest that health practitioners should ensure nutrition-related messages are accessible to all of their clients, especially those with the lowest health literacy levels. PMID:24212161

  8. Geophysical variables and human health and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, I.; Dimitrova, S.

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number of papers during the last years reveals an existence of effect of geophysical factors on human health. The subject of this paper is to present some results obtained confirming this effect and short review of some scientific opinions about mechanisms, according to which geomagnetic field (GMF) variations could influence on human. We have investigated the influence of geomagnetic disturbances on physiological parameters of healthy people as well as the relationship with dynamic of myocardial infarction. Although there are objective difficulties, investigations in that field will be extremely useful for protecting man from harmful effects of geophysical factors.

  9. The Effects of Parental Health Shocks on Adult Offspring Smoking Behavior and Self-Assessed Health.

    PubMed

    Darden, Michael; Gilleskie, Donna

    2016-08-01

    An important avenue for smoking deterrence may be through familial ties if adult smokers respond to parental health shocks. In this paper, we merge the Original Cohort and the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study to study how adult offspring smoking behavior and subjective health assessments vary with elder parent smoking behavior and health outcomes. These data allow us to model the smoking behavior of adult offspring over a 30-year period contemporaneously with parental behaviors and outcomes. We find strong 'like father, like son' and 'like mother, like daughter' correlations in smoking behavior. We find that adult offspring significantly curtail their own smoking following an own health shock; however, we find limited evidence that offspring smoking behavior is sensitive to parent health, with the notable exception that women significantly reduce both their smoking participation and intensity following a smoking-related cardiovascular event of a parent. We also model the subjective health assessment of adult offspring as a function of parent health, and we find that women report significantly worse health following the smoking-related death of a parent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy—having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet—has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. Methods The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. Results We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis

  11. African-American caregivers' breast health behavior.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Megumi; Pickard, Joseph G; Welch-Saleeby, Patricia; Johnson, Sharon

    2009-10-01

    This study utilizes a stress and coping framework which includes cognitive appraisal, personal and environmental resources, coping and stress to examine factors related to African-American caregivers' breast cancer screenings, including mammograms, clinical examinations and self-examinations. Using data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning Study, we performed separate logistic regressions for each type of breast cancer screening. Results reveal that having a regular doctor checkup (coping), care recipients having a cancer diagnosis (cognitive appraisal, and living in urban areas (environment resources) are associated with receiving a mammogram. Having greater income, having at least a high school degree (both personal resources) and having a regular doctor checkup (coping) are associated with receiving a clinical examination. Increased caregiver strain (stress), being 40 years old or older, social support (coping) and living in rural areas are associated with performing a self-examination. Targeting African-American caregivers, particularly in rural areas, for increased education on the importance of receiving breast cancer screenings is crucial to addressing health disparities. Making resources available, encouraging caregivers to get a clinical examination and a mammogram and directing public education toward caregivers are important points of intervention.

  12. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students.

  13. The health and health behaviors of a sample of African American pastors.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Evans, Rebecca

    2014-02-01

    There is growing concern for the health status of clergy in light of recent studies showing high rates of chronic health conditions and obesity. This manuscript examined the health and health behaviors of South Carolinian African Methodist Episcopal (AME) pastors (n = 40). A majority of pastors were overweight or obese (93%) with hypertension (68%); half had two or more chronic health conditions, 35% had high cholesterol, 30% arthritis, and 20% diabetes. On average, pastors had a waist circumference that put them at an increased risk for disease. Yet, with the exception of fruit and vegetable consumption (mean = 3.4 ± 4.0 cups/day), pastors generally engaged in positive health behaviors. Understanding where the greatest needs lie is the first step in developing programs that can improve pastor health, which may ultimately improve the health of their congregations.

  14. The fundamentals of workforce competency: implications for behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Tondora, Janis; Marrelli, Anne F

    2005-01-01

    Increasing attention is being directed to the competency of those who deliver healthcare in the United States. In behavioral health, there is growing recognition of the need to define, teach, and assess essential competencies. Since attention to this issue in behavioral health is relatively recent, there is much to be gained by learning from the principles, definitions, and conceptual models of competency that have been developed in other fields. This article outlines the forces that drive the current focus on competency of the healthcare workforce. Relevant history, principles, definitions, and models that have evolved through research and application in business and industry are reviewed. From this analysis, recommendations are offered to guide future work on competencies in behavioral health.

  15. Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356

  16. The effect of health value and ethnicity on the relationship between hardiness and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harris, Shanette M

    2004-04-01

    Associations among hardiness, health value, and health protective behaviors were examined as a function of ethnicity among 80 African American and 100 European American college students. The role of health value as moderator versus mediator in the hardiness-health behavior link was explored. Racial differences in correlations among hardiness, control, and commitment were found, with stronger relations for African American than European Americans. Moderate positive relations between hardiness, control, commitment, and health value for African American, as contrasted with weak relations between commitment and health value for European Americans, were also shown. A partial mediational effect for health value with personal distress and moderator effects for health value with personal distress and health habits were found for African American only. Race predicted hardiness variables, tobacco and alcohol use, personal distress, and health habits beyond what was accounted for by occupation and income. The ramifications of these data with regard to future studies on hardiness, health value, and health behaviors for African American are discussed.

  17. Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lämmle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bös, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. PMID:23863614

  18. Behavioral and health implications of civilian spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Wichman, Harvey A

    2005-06-01

    The current enthusiasm over the prospect of space tourism and the belief among many that such civilian spaceflight is imminent are characterized herein. There are many concerns about screening and certifying passengers for future spaceflight. Efforts by several organizations to propose such screening are cited. The problem with some of these proposals, which treat all types of spaceflight the same, is that they are so restrictive that too few people would be eligible for space travel to have a viable tourism industry. However, not all types of spaceflight are the same, so the distinctions between them need to be clarified. Of the five types of spaceflight described, one is proposed as the most likely to be the first significant phase of space tourism: long-term microgravity flight in low Earth orbit. But because of human problems with long-term exposure to microgravity, this phase requires rather conservative screening and extensive training. However, prior to discussing the passenger issues related to this early phase of space tourism, the reasons why Earth-like gravity, as well as microgravity, must be made available to spacefarers before space tourism can take place on a grand scale need to be explained. Finally, major passenger medical and behavioral issues of the first phase of orbital space tourism-long-term microgravity flight-are discussed.

  19. Behavioral and health implications of civilian spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Wichman, Harvey A

    2005-06-01

    The current enthusiasm over the prospect of space tourism and the belief among many that such civilian spaceflight is imminent are characterized herein. There are many concerns about screening and certifying passengers for future spaceflight. Efforts by several organizations to propose such screening are cited. The problem with some of these proposals, which treat all types of spaceflight the same, is that they are so restrictive that too few people would be eligible for space travel to have a viable tourism industry. However, not all types of spaceflight are the same, so the distinctions between them need to be clarified. Of the five types of spaceflight described, one is proposed as the most likely to be the first significant phase of space tourism: long-term microgravity flight in low Earth orbit. But because of human problems with long-term exposure to microgravity, this phase requires rather conservative screening and extensive training. However, prior to discussing the passenger issues related to this early phase of space tourism, the reasons why Earth-like gravity, as well as microgravity, must be made available to spacefarers before space tourism can take place on a grand scale need to be explained. Finally, major passenger medical and behavioral issues of the first phase of orbital space tourism-long-term microgravity flight-are discussed. PMID:15943209

  20. Behavioral Health Competence: An Exploration of Army Reserve Occupational Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Paul B.; DeCleene, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The behavioral health competence of Army Reserve Occupational Therapists (OT) was examined by electronic survey to determine current levels of competence and highlight pre-deployment training needs. Results indicated that while Army Reserve OTs report high levels of behavioral health competence, many questions regarding diagnosis, assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, intervention, and progress arose throughout deployment. OT’s often relied on skills from Level II fieldwork education and entry-level didactic education for competency. Perceived competencies may be compromised by curriculum changes in entry-level education, available fieldwork settings, and a lack of adequate training currently available prior to deployment. PMID:25368437

  1. Health and Oral Health Care Needs and Health Care-Seeking Behavior Among Homeless Injection Drug Users in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Lynn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Shiboski, Caroline; Kral, Alex H.

    2010-01-01

    Few existing studies have examined health and oral health needs and treatment-seeking behavior among the homeless and injection drug users (IDUs). This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of health and oral health care needs and treatment-seeking behaviors in homeless IDUs recruited in San Francisco, California, from 2003 to 2005 (N = 340). We examined sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, HIV status via oral fluid testing, physical health using the Short Form 12 Physical Component Score, self-reported needs for physical and oral health care, and the self-reported frequency of seeking medical and oral health care. The sample had a lower health status as compared to the general population and reported a frequent need for physical and oral health care. In bivariate analysis, being in methadone treatment was associated with care-seeking behavior. In addition, being enrolled in Medi-Cal, California’s state Medicaid program, was associated with greater odds of seeking physical and oral health care. Methamphetamine use was not associated with higher odds of needing oral health care as compared to people who reported using other illicit drugs. Homeless IDUs in San Francisco have a large burden of unmet health and oral health needs. Recent cuts in Medi-Cal’s adult dental coverage may result in a greater burden of oral health care which will need to be provided by emergency departments and neighborhood dental clinics. PMID:20945108

  2. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health.

  3. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  4. Editorial: 2nd Special Issue on behavior change, health, and health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 2nd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries that are trying to more effectively manage chronic health conditions. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behavior patterns such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. As such behavior change needs to be a key component of improving population health. There is also broad agreement that while these problems extend across socioeconomic strata, they are overrepresented among more economically disadvantaged populations and contribute directly to the growing problem of health disparities. Hence, behavior change represents an essential step in curtailing that unsettling problem as well. In this 2nd Special Issue, we devote considerable space to the current U.S. prescription opioid addiction epidemic, a crisis that was not addressed in the prior Special Issue. We also continue to devote attention to the two largest contributors to preventable disease and premature death, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity as well as risks of co-occurrence of these unhealthy behavior patterns. Across each of these topics we included contributions from highly accomplished policymakers and scientists to acquaint readers with recent accomplishments as well as remaining knowledge gaps and challenges to effectively managing these important chronic health problems. PMID:26257372

  5. Family matters: Influence of biology and behavior on oral health.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Jane A

    2007-03-01

    The family influences the oral health of other family members through biologic and behavioral factors and their interactions over the lifespan. Community and environmental factors also influence oral health. These factors are described and examples are provided. Ways are suggested to translate some of the research findings and incorporate family and contextual factors beyond what the individual in the dental chair presents into dental practice.

  6. Information seeking: a component of client decisions and health behavior.

    PubMed

    Lenz, E R

    1984-04-01

    The information-seeking patterns of clients have received little attention in nursing theory and research, but they are important antecedents of health-related decisions and behavior. The concept of information seeking is analyzed within the framework of a six-step process model. Inter-related dimensions of the information search process are identified and the impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes is postulated. Sociodemographic, experiential, personality, and contextual variables suggested by prior research to predict variation in search behavior are identified, and implications for nursing theory and research are discussed.

  7. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580

  8. African American caregiving grandmothers: results of an intervention to improve health indicators and health promotion behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Susan J; Whitley, Deborah M; Campos, Peter E

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve the health of grandmothers raising grandchildren. A pre- and post-test design was employed with 504 African American grandmother participants. The intervention included monthly home-based visitation by registered nurses (RNs) and social workers, participation in support groups and parenting classes, referrals for legal services, and early intervention services for children with special needs. The Health Risk Appraisal was used to assess health indicators and health promotion behaviors. A comparison of pre- and post-test scores indicated significant (p < .002) changes in the desired direction for a number of health indicators and health promotion behaviors, including blood pressure, annual routine cancer screenings, frequency of weekly exercise, and improved dietary intake, as well as participants' perception of their health and life satisfaction. No improvements were observed in the proportion of participants who were obese or overweight. PMID:23007422

  9. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review.

    PubMed

    Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists' involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580

  10. Associations between multiple health risk behaviors and mental health among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong-ling; Wang, Pei-gang; Qu, Geng-cong; Yuan, Shuai; Phongsavan, Philayrath; He, Qi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that health risk behaviors increase risks of premature morbidity and mortality, little is known about the multiple health risk behaviors in Chinese college students. Here, we investigated the prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors and its relation to mental health among Chinese college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to June 2012. The students reported their health risk behaviors using self-administered questionnaires. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, respectively. A total of 2422 college students (1433 males) aged 19.7 ± 1.2 years were participated in the study. The prevalence of physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), frequent alcohol use and current smoking was 62.0, 42.6, 29.8, 22.3, 11.6 and 9.3%, respectively. Significantly increased risks for depression and anxiety were found among students with frequent alcohol use, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior and IAD. Two-step cluster analysis identified two different clusters. Participants in the cluster with more unhealthy behaviors showed significantly increased risk for depression (odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 2.67) and anxiety (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.85, 2.92). This study indicates that a relatively high prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors was found among Chinese college students. Furthermore, the clustering of health risk behaviors was significantly associated with increased risks for depression and anxiety.

  11. A missing element in disaster mental health: behavioral health surveillance for first responders.

    PubMed

    Shubert, Jan; Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Everly, George S; Fiedler, Nancy; Williams, Mary Beth; Mitchell, Clifford S; Langlieb, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    Considerable literature exists on surveillance for medical effects of responses to a disaster but there is a dearth of information on conducting surveillance of behavioral health effects for first responders. This article reviews the literature and rationale behind behavioral health surveillance in the context of medical surveillance of first responders, examines special populations and ethical issues, discusses a model currently used by the U.S. military, discusses unresolved issues, and concludes with some practical suggestions.

  12. The Influence of Mothers’ Lifestyle and Health Behavior on Their Children: An Exploration for Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Nourijelyani, Keramat; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Pakpour, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents and teachers involvement reinforce health promotion programs for children's health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers’ lifestyle behavior and its association with children's oral health. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on 383 children and their mothers who were selected from 6 primary schools in Tehran, Iran. Mothers and children who participated in this study were asked to complete a questionnaire containing demographic questions, knowledge of oral health, attitude towards the oral health behavior, and oral health behaviors. Furthermore, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were assessed by two calibrated dentists. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed model analyses. Results: The average age of the children and their mothers were 11.6 and 38.4 years, respectively. Mothers’ higher knowledge, higher educational status, positive attitude, higher frequent oral health behaviors, lower DMFT and lower CPI were all associated significantly with children’s higher oral health status. Conclusions: The results suggest that to improve children’s oral health, educational interventions should focus on both children and mothers to obtain a more promising outcome. PMID:24719751

  13. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    SciTech Connect

    Mathez, D.; Paul, D.; de Belilovsky, C.; Sultan, Y.; Deleuze, J.; Gorin, I.; Saurin, W.; Decker, R.; Leibowitch, J. )

    1990-10-01

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials.

  14. Use of Mobile Health Applications for Health-Seeking Behavior Among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Lu, Ning; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Hyunmin; Wyant, David; Bhatt, Jay; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the use of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) on smartphones or tablets for health-seeking behavior among US adults. Data was obtained from cycle 4 of the 4th edition of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4). Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of 1) having mHealth apps, 2) usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 3) helpfulness in medical care decision-making, and 4) asking a physician new questions or seeking a second opinion. Using the Andersen Model of health services utilization, independent variables of interest were grouped under predisposing factors (age, gender, race, ethnicity, and marital status), enabling factors (education, employment, income, regular provider, health insurance, and rural/urban location of residence), and need factors (general health, confidence in their ability to take care of health, Body Mass Index, smoking status, and number of comorbidities). In a national sample of adults who had smartphones or tablets, 36 % had mHealth apps on their devices. Among those with apps, 60 % reported the usefulness of mHealth apps in achieving health behavior goals, 35 % reported their helpfulness for medical care decision-making, and 38 % reported their usefulness in asking their physicians new questions or seeking a second opinion. The multivariate models revealed that respondents were more likely to have mHealth apps if they had more education, health insurance, were confident in their ability to take good care of themselves, or had comorbidities, and were less likely to have them if they were older, had higher income, or lived in rural areas. In terms of usefulness of mHealth apps, those who were older and had higher income were less likely to report their usefulness in achieving health behavior goals. Those who were older, African American, and had confidence in their ability to take care of their health were more likely to respond that the mHealth

  15. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  16. Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents.

  17. Early-Childhood Poverty and Adult Attainment, Behavior, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…

  18. Behavioral Health and Performance, Risk to Mitigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren; Whitemire, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the working of the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) group, which supports the research element which manages an integrated program for future space flight. The BHP operations group supports astronauts and their families in all phases of the International Space Station Mission, and post mission effects.

  19. Can an Immersion in Wellness Camp Influence Youth Health Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabary-Olsen, Elizabeth A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Foster, Randal; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Campbell, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Summer 4-H camps present an untapped opportunity for advancement of mission mandates. The project reported here immersed campers in healthy living experiential learning. The goal was to improve self-efficacy and health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. Data was collected from enrolled campers through multiple survey tools. A…

  20. Mindfulness and Health Behaviors: Is Paying Attention Good for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kimberly C.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and health behaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…

  1. Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

  2. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  3. Materialism, Stress and Health Behaviors among Future Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouskeli, Vasiliki; Loumakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated materialism among future educators and its relationship with stress and a number of health behaviors. Participants were 228 students (Mean = 20.64 years of age, S.D = 2.571) of the Department of Education Sciences in Early Childhood of the University of Thrace, Greece. The instrument consisted of a short form of the…

  4. Health Behaviors of Elementary School Children in Rural Southern Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; Monge, Eduardo A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of patterns of health behavior among rural and small-town children surveyed 1,950 K-6 students from seven southern Illinois elementary schools. Findings indicate that less than half of the students ate the recommended amounts of fruits, vegetables, and grain each day. Males and females smoked at about the same rates, but sixth-grade boys…

  5. Third Year Trends in Compliance with Recommended Health Seeking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker; Soeken, Karen L.

    Beginning in 1983, a national poll has been conducted annually to assess the extent to which the American public engaged in a core of 21 recommended health seeking behaviors. For the third consecutive year a national sample of approximately 1250 adults were interviewed concerning their self-reported compliance with a basic core of 21 health…

  6. Priority Health Behavior Practices among Chinese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ping H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the priority health behaviors among Chinese youth by administering a questionnaire to 1,917 undergraduates enrolled in three universities in China. The response rate was 89.7%. This survey found that 75.2% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over half had their first cigarette and alcoholic…

  7. Priority Health Behaviors among South African Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kandice; Johnson, Ping Hu; Petrillo, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the priority health behaviors of South African youth by administering a questionnaire to 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a large metropolitan university in South Africa. Results indicate that 65.5% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over 15.2% had their first cigarette and 31.2% had…

  8. Developing games for health behavior change: Getting started

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...

  9. Adolescent Health Behavior, Contentment in School, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.; Helgason, Asgeir R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between health behavior indicators, school contentment, and academic achievement. Methods: Structural equation modeling with 5810 adolescents. Results: Our model explained 36% of the variance in academic achievement and 24% in school contentment. BMI and sedentary lifestyle were negatively related to school…

  10. Alexithymia and health behaviors in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Helmers, K F; Mente, A

    1999-12-01

    The association between alexithymia and maladaptive health behaviors was evaluated in 118 young, healthy men, aged 18-45 years. Subjects completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), and a health behaviors questionnaire, measuring alcohol and drug use, sedentary lifestyle, poor nutritional consumption, and risky sexual practices. In forced hierarchical regression analyses, the association between alexithymia and health behaviors was evaluated after adjusting for age, body mass index, social support, ambivalence over expression of emotion, and the expression of emotion. Results indicated that: (1) the TAS-26 and difficulty identifying feelings was associated with poor nutritional consumption; (2) difficulty identifying feelings was associated with greater alcohol and drug use; and (3) difficulty communicating feelings was associated with a more sedentary lifestyle. There was no association between risky sexual practices and alexithymia. These results suggest that, in young men, difficulties with identifying emotions and communicating emotions are associated with maladaptive nutritional habits, a sedentary lifestyle, and substance abuse, even after adjusting for other psychosocial and demographic variables. Such maladaptive health behaviors may help explain the association between alexithymia and premature mortality.

  11. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  12. Long-Term Association between Developmental Assets and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on internal and external assets, the positive youth development approach aims to increase the capacity among adolescents to overcome challenges as they transition to adulthood. Developmental assets have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement, a variety of health promoting behaviors, and improved…

  13. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  14. Health behaviors and personality in burnout: a third dimension

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Osama M.

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of burnout among healthcare professionals warrants a thorough examination aimed at improving the current understanding of its predictors and preventive measures. Cecil et al. have underscored the alarming prevalence of burnout among medical students and assessed its association with demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral factors. Of interest, health behaviors were found to be predictive of burnout. The study suggests certain behaviors (such as high physical activity) to be protective, and thus, calls for their establishment early in college life to prevent the development of this professionally-disabling mental state. Although the adoption of advisable health behaviors may independently reduce the risk of burnout, recognition of the existence and influence of closely related factors allows for an enhanced understanding and a greater precision for any conclusions to be made. Personality, through deductive and inductive reasoning, is likely to exert significant influence on both the student's behavior and his/her susceptibility to burnout. Thus, with personality representing – in and of itself – a principal model for prediction of burnout risk, controlling for personality traits when addressing health behaviors’ influence per se on burnout is essential. PMID:26365101

  15. A sustainable behavioral health program integrated with public health primary care.

    PubMed

    Mims, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The need for behavioral healthcare for the poor and indigent is well documented in rural North Carolina, and integrated behavioral healthcare--that is, mental health screening and treatment offered as part of primary care services--has proven a very effective and efficient method to improve patients' health. In 2000, the Buncombe County Health Center (BCHC) began a grant-funded program treating depressed patients in its public health clinics and school health programs. The Health Center used the opportunity to send a team to the Management Academy for Public Health to learn business principles that could be applied to the challenge of sustaining this program as part of its ongoing public health service delivery for the county. Using their business plan from the Management Academy, the BCHC sought funding from various stakeholders, and, through their support, was able to institute a fully integrated behavioral health program in 2004. The BCHC has now joined forces with other partners in the state to address statewide policy changes in support of such programs. These efforts are an example of how a community health center can apply entrepreneurial thinking and strategic business planning to improve healthcare and effect wide-ranging change.

  16. Personality types and risky health behaviors in Norwegian students.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Torgersen, Svenn

    2008-06-01

    Typological research has received increasing interest in recent years, but is still regarded as substandard by personality psychologists. The current investigation shows how a typological approach can enhance our understanding of the influence of personality on risky health behaviors. We focused on Torgersen's eight personality types that represent unique configurations of high and low Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Constraint (Vollrath & Torgersen, 2000). Participants were 606 Norwegian university students. Measures assessed personality factors, smoking, abuse of drugs and alcohol, drunk driving, and risky sexual behaviors. Results replicated earlier research showing that types combining either high Extraversion and low Constraint (Hedonists, Impulsives) or high Neuroticism and low Constraint (Insecures) engage in more risky health behaviors. The discussion focuses on demonstrating that the study of types is a valuable supplement to the dimensional tradition in personality psychology.

  17. Behavioral Health and Performance Element: Tools and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research into the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) of the Human Research Program. The program element goal is to identify, characterize and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. To accomplish this goal the program focuses on applied research that is designed to yield deliverables that reduce risk. There are several different elements that are of particular interest: Behavioral Medicine, Sleep, and team composition, and team work. In order to assure success for NASA missions the Human Research Program develops and validate the standards for each of the areas of interest. There is discussion of the impact on BHP while astronauts are on Long Duration Missions. The effort in this research is to create tools to meet the BHP concerns, these prospective tools are reviewed.

  18. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  19. African American College Students' Health Behaviors and Perceptions of Related Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Goode, Carolyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A study of African American college students compared students' health-related behaviors with their perceptions of corresponding health issues. Students had low smoking rates but higher alcohol consumption. Most students did not practice good nutrition or daily physical activity. Over half managed stress well, and three-quarters were sexually…

  20. Leveraging Intensive Longitudinal Data to Better Understand Health Behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Timms, Kevin P.; Martín, César A.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Hekler, Eric B.; Riley, William

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral scientists have historically relied on static modeling methodologies. The rise in mobile and wearable sensors has made intensive longitudinal data (ILD)—behavioral data measured frequently over time—increasingly available. Consequently, analytical frameworks are emerging that seek to reliably quantify dynamics reflected in these data. Employing an input-output perspective, dynamical systems models from engineering can characterize time-varying behaviors as processes of change. Specifically, ILD and parameter estimation routines from system identification can be leveraged together to offer parsimonious and quantitative descriptions of dynamic behavioral constructs. The utility of this approach for facilitating a better understanding of health behaviors is illustrated with two examples. In the first example, dynamical systems models are developed for Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), a prominent concept in behavioral science that considers interrelationships between personal factors, the environment, and behaviors. Estimated models are then obtained that explore the role of SCT in a physical activity intervention. The second example uses ILD to model day-to-day changes in smoking levels as a craving-mediated process of behavior change. PMID:25571579

  1. Oral health knowledge and behavior among male health sciences college students in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ansari, Jassem; Honkala, Eino; Honkala, Sisko

    2003-01-01

    Background Health auxiliary personnel have an important role in oral health promotion when they graduate and start working in the health care system. This study aims to find out oral health knowledge and oral health behavior of male Health Sciences College students. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all students at the male Health Sciences College in Kuwait (N = 153) during the academic year 2001/2002. The students filled the anonymous questionnaire in the class after the lecture. The response rate was 84% (n = 128). The questions consisted information on the general background, oral health behavior and oral health knowledge. Results Oral health knowledge seemed to be limited and very few background factors were associated with it. More than half of the students had visited a dentist during the previous 12 months, but only one third of students were brushing twice a day or more often. Conclusions It may be concluded that the male Health Sciences College students seemed to have appropriate knowledge on some oral health topics, but limited knowledge on the others. Their toothbrushing practices are still far behind the international recommendation (twice a day) and also the knowledge, why it should be done so frequently also very limited. PMID:12735791

  2. A pilot binational study of health behaviors and immigration.

    PubMed

    Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B

    2011-12-01

    In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences.

  3. Attitudes and Health Behavior of Lawyers in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Barani, G.; Sabapathy, Pavithra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the differences in the behavior and attitudes of male and female lawyers regarding their lifestyles and health habits. Lawyers were randomly chosen. Data was obtained through a structured questionnaire distributed among the lawyers of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Lawyers are found to have unfavorable health practices related to use of tobacco and alcohol, exercise, diet, sleeping habits, and stress. This resulted in obesity, depression, and blood pressure. Many lawyers reported use of alcohol regularly, even as often as every day, and nearly half of them smoked. Many of the lawyers had poor feeding habit of skipping meals and eating snacks as breakfast. Most lawyers considered stressful situations to be unavoidable. Thus identifying individual lawyers with poor health behaviors and providing medical help are essential. PMID:26258166

  4. The evolution of a school behavioral health model in the US Army.

    PubMed

    Faran, Michael E; Johnson, Patti L; Ban, Paul; Shue, Tracy; Weist, Mark D

    2015-04-01

    The US Army has developed an innovative School Behavioral Health (SBH) program, part of the Child and Family Behavioral Health System, a collaborative, consultative behavioral health care model that includes SBH, standardized training of primary care providers in treatment of common behavioral health problems, use of tele-consultation/tele-behavioral health, optimizing community outreach services, and integration with other related behavioral health services. In this article, the needs of military children, adolescents, and families are reviewed, a history of this initiative is presented, key themes are discussed, and next steps in advancing this evolving, innovative system of health care featuring SBH are described. PMID:25773333

  5. Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Little, Richard F; Pluda, James M; Wyvill, Kathleen M; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R; Tosato, Giovanna; Catanzaro, Andrew T; Steinberg, Seth M; Yarchoan, Robert

    2006-06-15

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) enhances Th1-type T-cell responses and exerts antiangiogenic effects. We initiated a phase 1 pilot study of IL-12 in 32 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) whose KS was progressing while on antiretroviral therapy. Fifteen patients had poor prognosis T(1)S(1) disease. IL-12 was administered subcutaneously twice weekly at doses from 100 to 625 ng/kg. The maximum tolerated dose was 500 ng/kg, and the principal toxicities were flulike symptoms, transaminase or bilirubin elevations, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, and depression. No tumor responses were seen at the lowest dose (100 ng/kg), but 17 of 24 evaluable patients at the higher doses had partial or complete responses (response rate, 71%; 95% confidence interval, 48%-89%). Only 3 of 17 patients had a change in antiretroviral therapy before responding, and there were no significant differences between responders and nonresponders with regard to changes in CD4 counts or viral loads. Patients had increases in their serum IL-12, interferon-gamma, and inducible protein-10 (IP-10) after the first dose, and increases above baseline persisted after week 4. These results provide preliminary evidence that IL-12 has substantial activity against AIDS-related KS with acceptable toxicity and warrants further investigation for this indication.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for treatment of AIDS-related mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1992-06-01

    Since 1975, Phase I/II studies have demonstrated the successfulness of hematoporphyrin derivative photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of various malignancies of the skin, eye, bladder, lung, and head and neck. Moreover, in 1981 two cases of traditional Western cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (TKS) have been treated with photodynamic therapy with both early and late complete response. To date, attempts to cure and palliation of the more aggressive AIDS-related oral Kaposi's sarcoma with conventional radiation, chemotherapy or immunotherapy, or surgical excision have been limited and often associated with debilitating mucositis and further immunosuppression. Certain aspects of photodynamic therapy may be efficacious for treatment of mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma: (1) the selective retention of hematoporphyrin derivative by neoplastic lesions (endothelial cell tumors); (2) a tumor- specific cytotoxic agent (i.e., free oxygen radical); (3) absence of systemic toxicity from immunosuppression; (4) the potential for retreatment without increasing side effects; and (5) porphyrin-mediated photoinactivation of enveloped viruses. Herein presented are seven cases of AIDS-related KS (EKS) with diffuse, superficial, and nodular mucocutaneous lesions treated with dihematoporphyrin derivative and photodynamic therapy with subsequent dramatic early partial and complete responses.

  7. Economic empowerment and AIDS-related stigma in rural Kenya: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Katherine; Ruiz, Jamie; Kellett, Nicole; Sussman, Andrew; Sullivan, Mary Ann; Montoya, Maria; Levin, Nick; Tomedi, Angelo; Mwanthi, Mutuku A

    2013-01-01

    Economic empowerment, HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma appear intricately intertwined for women in Kenya. Their interaction must be understood in order to implement effective economic interventions that also decrease HIV risk and stigma. We conducted a qualitative study amongst women in a rural Kamba-speaking community of southeastern Kenya to pursue whether engagement in an economic empowerment initiative (a basket weaving cooperative) influences women's perspectives and experiences with HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma. We conducted seven women's focus groups: participants in the local basket-weaving cooperative comprised four focus groups and non-participants comprised the remaining three groups. The HIV status of the women was not known. Three dominant themes emerged from the focus groups: empowerment, pervasive vulnerability and unanticipated social paradoxes. Contradictions found in these themes suggest that economic empowerment can become a double-edged sword. Economic empowerment enhanced perceived individual, domestic and social community status. However, this enhancement was not protective of domestic violence and perceived HIV risk. Social perceptions may have paradoxically contributed barriers to HIV testing and treatment putting women at greater HIV risk. In conclusion, economic empowerment initiatives for women in developing countries in the context of the HIV epidemic should be coupled with peer mediated support and HIV-risk education. PMID:23668536

  8. Economic empowerment and AIDS-related stigma in rural Kenya: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Katherine; Ruiz, Jamie; Kellett, Nicole; Sussman, Andrew; Sullivan, Mary Ann; Montoya, Maria; Levin, Nick; Tomedi, Angelo; Mwanthi, Mutuku A

    2013-01-01

    Economic empowerment, HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma appear intricately intertwined for women in Kenya. Their interaction must be understood in order to implement effective economic interventions that also decrease HIV risk and stigma. We conducted a qualitative study amongst women in a rural Kamba-speaking community of southeastern Kenya to pursue whether engagement in an economic empowerment initiative (a basket weaving cooperative) influences women's perspectives and experiences with HIV risk and AIDS-related stigma. We conducted seven women's focus groups: participants in the local basket-weaving cooperative comprised four focus groups and non-participants comprised the remaining three groups. The HIV status of the women was not known. Three dominant themes emerged from the focus groups: empowerment, pervasive vulnerability and unanticipated social paradoxes. Contradictions found in these themes suggest that economic empowerment can become a double-edged sword. Economic empowerment enhanced perceived individual, domestic and social community status. However, this enhancement was not protective of domestic violence and perceived HIV risk. Social perceptions may have paradoxically contributed barriers to HIV testing and treatment putting women at greater HIV risk. In conclusion, economic empowerment initiatives for women in developing countries in the context of the HIV epidemic should be coupled with peer mediated support and HIV-risk education.

  9. [Factors affecting health behavior of the people aged forties--a test of the health belief model].

    PubMed

    Tohnai, S; Hata, E

    1994-04-01

    The health behavior of 1120 persons, aged in their forties, living in a city, a mountain village and a fishing village were analyzed according to the Health Belief Model. Women practiced more health behaviors than men. People living in the city and mountain village practiced more than people in fishing village. Company employees, farmers and housewives practiced more than self-employeds and fishermen. Education level had no significant influence in the practice of health behavior. As predicted, people who believed in the effectiveness of health behavior practiced more health behaviors. On the other hand, people who perceived barriers to health behavior practiced less. Paradoxically, people who perceived vulnerability to hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or cancer, and the seriousness of these diseases, practiced less health behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that health beliefs, social supports and information from mass media could account for 33.0% of the Health Behavior Score variation. Perceived barriers to health behavior was the strongest determinant for practice of health behavior. Perceived barriers may account for gender and occupational differences in health behavior.

  10. Health locus of control and self-esteem as related to adolescent health behavior and intentions.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S L; Lorenger, A T; Horvath, W J

    1984-01-01

    A health behavior and attitudes questionnaire was administered to 246 fifth-grade and 265 sixth-grade students during class time. The questions included 20 children's health locus of control (CHLC) items reported by Parcel and Meyer (1978), 17 children's self-esteem (CSE) items modified from those reported by Coopersmith (1967), and questions concerning past and current behavior and future intentions with respect to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use. The results indicate that the relationships between dimensions of children's health locus of control and self-esteem and their behaviors and intentions are not large enough to suggest that intervention programs directed at the prevention of detrimental health behaviors focus on the enhancement of self-esteem or the internal locus of control. An appropriate test of the efficacy of such an approach requires a longitudinal rather than a cross-sectional study, monitoring changes in the levels of self-esteem and health locus of control and associated changes in health behavior.

  11. Health behavior predictors of medication adherence among low health literacy people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-09-01

    One particularly vulnerable population for HIV treatment non-adherence is persons with poor health literacy skills. For these individuals, it is important to simplify medication taking as much as possible by integrating medication adherence into other routine health behaviors. This study aims to ascertain the relationship between medication adherence and other health behaviors. Adults living with HIV (N = 422) completed intake measures and 3 months of unannounced pill counts. Endorsement of diet and exercise behaviors at intake predicted higher medication adherence, over and above other known predictors of medication adherence such as HIV symptoms, depression, social support, and stress. These results support integrating strategies for medication management into a constellation of routine health practices. PMID:25706334

  12. [Public health and behavior modification: a contemporary issue].

    PubMed

    Chor, D

    1999-01-01

    Most cardiovascular disease risk factors can be modified through life-style changes. Choices of habits and behavior are in fact heavily influenced by concepts of normality and social values. However, social influences fail to fully explain these choices, insofar as health-related habits are also shaped by personal experience. The main limitations of public health practice can probably be found at this subjective level. This article emphasizes the need to consider determinants of human behavior at different levels, increasingly important for strategies to promote health and prevent disease, or at least delay its onset. The primary focus is to influence rules and laws aimed at protecting life. The article also discusses possible strategies for translating scientific knowledge into public health action, avoiding the restriction to the "healthy life" regulatory role. Finally, participation by public health professionals is suggested in places where population groups share life experiences, such as workplaces, schools, and churches, developing approaches which include those experiences as well as fears and hopes related to health. Scientific facts might thus be transformed into more familiar elements of everyday life.

  13. Health behaviors, quality of life, and psychosocial health among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gina E.; Zhang, Yingying; McFadden, Molly; Wright, Jennifer; Spraker-Perlman, Holly; Kinney, Anita Y.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer may engage in unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., smoking), potentially heightening their risk for long-term health problems. We assessed health behaviors and constructs including quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial well-being among survivors of AYA cancer compared to the general population. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to evaluate health behaviors for survivors of AYA cancer compared to AYAs without cancer. Multivariable regressions assessed health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking, physical inactivity, and low fruit/vegetable intake) by sex and age between AYA survivors and controls, and among survivors to determine the effects of demographic, QOL, psychosocial, and cancer factors on behaviors. Results A greater proportion of female survivors of AYA cancer smoked than controls (currently aged 20–39: 27 vs. 14.3%, respectively; currently aged 40–64: 29.3 vs. 18.4%, respectively). Generally, survivors and controls were non-adherent to national health behavior guidelines. Uninsured survivors were at greater risk of smoking vs. insured (females, Relative Risk (RR)=1.64, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.43–1.90; males, RR=2.62, 95 % CI 1.71–4.02). Poor social/emotional support was associated with smoking (RR= 1.26, 95 % CI 1.07–1.48) among female survivors and was associated with low fruit/vegetable intake among male (RR= 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01–1.23) and female (RR=1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19) survivors. Female survivors >10 years from diagnosis had higher risk of smoking (RR=1.26–1.91, all p<0.01) than survivors 5–10 years from diagnosis. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are common in survivors of AYA cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors AYA survivors require health behavior support. PMID:26248766

  14. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  15. HIV/AIDS - Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Practices among Migrant Wives in Rural Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Dai, Xin; Meng, Xiaojun; Wang, Huadong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Yongqing; Tang, Song; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant wives have been increasing in some poor rural regions of China and they may bridge HIV transmission across regions. This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices among this population in rural Anhui Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaire of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices between June 2011 and May 2012. A total of 730 migrant wives and 207 local women were enrolled in this study. Unpaired T-test, Chi-square was utilized to compare the difference of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices between migrant wives and local women. Results Around 80% of the migrant wives were from Yunnan, Guizhou, or Sichuan Provinces. The main sources of HIV/AIDS information were TV/radio, posters, and newspapers/periodicals. HIV/AIDS knowledge level among migrant wives was significantly lower than that among local women (e.g. 47.1% vs 57.0% (p<0.001) answered “Yes” for the question “Can an apparently healthy person be HIV-infected?”), and stigma and prejudice towards HIV/AIDS among migrant wives were more common than those among local women (e.g. 73.2% vs 65.7% (p=0.006) answered “No” for the question “If a shopkeeper or food seller had the HIV, would you buy food from them?”). Compared to local women, migrant wives were more likely to have ever had sex during menstruation (6.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.065) and extramarital sex (17.5% vs 10.1%, p=0.01), and were less likely to consistently use condoms with their husbands (45.8% vs 57.5%, p<0.001) or extramarital sex partners (48.8% vs 58.95, p<0.001). Conclusions Migrant wives in rural China had a low HIV/AIDS knowledge level and high prevalence of stigma and prejudice and risky sexual behaviors. Local HIV/AIDS prevention programs should target this neglected population. PMID:25844269

  16. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Health-Promoting Behaviors of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Horner, Sharon D.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents…

  17. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  18. What contribution have human rights approaches made to reducing AIDS-related vulnerability in sub-Saharan Africa? Exploring the case study of access to antiretrovirals.

    PubMed

    Forman, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Human rights approaches may offer powerful tools to deal with HIV and AIDS-related vulnerabilities experienced throughout the subcontinent's endemic regions. This paper examines how such approaches have contributed to remediating health and dignity violations posed by the inaccessibility of antiretrovirals in the region. Increases in regional access and key changes in the causal chain of drug access are explored. Rights-based social campaigns that produced domestic as well as global shifts in related law and policy are described in the key low- and middle-income countries of South Africa, Brazil and Thailand. Finally, I consider the implications of these shifts in relation to the strengths and weaknesses of rights-based approaches to reducing AIDS-related vulnerability in the region, arguing that these experiences indicate the need for structural fixes that codify the right to health at domestic and international levels, so as to entrench the right to medicines and enable social actors and policy-makers alike to better meet essential health needs. PMID:23549704

  19. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412

  20. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  1. Development of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Nolan, Sarah E. M.; Grandoit, Delphia J.; Gonzales, Lucia; Smith, Mary B.; Desmond, Frederic F.

    2011-01-01

    The Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI) was developed for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart behaviors") that should occur daily to help promote health and overcome illnesses/diseases: eating a healthy breakfast, eating…

  2. 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Leon, Gloria; Dimsdale, Joel; Balkin, Thomas; Bono, Joyce; Caldwell, John; Joiner, Thomas; Paulus, Martin; Zaccaro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17 - 18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated research plan for the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness, and Work Overload (Sleep Risk) and also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders (BMed Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (Team Risk).

  3. AIDS-related information exposure in the mass media and discussion within social networks among married women in Bombay, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, N

    1999-08-01

    Married women are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection in India and health education remains the most feasible preventive tool in their context. In a survey conducted among 350 married women in Bombay, it was found that a majority had acquired information about AIDS from the mass media, especially television. Although 87% of women who knew of AIDS had been exposed to AIDS-related information in the mass media in the past four weeks, only 57% had discussed it within their social networks. Those with more exposure to AIDS information in the mass media were significantly more likely to discuss AIDS within social networks. The women were most likely to discuss AIDS with their husbands as a general social issue, followed by friends and family members and least likely to talk to husbands about AIDS as a personal issue relating to their sexual relationship. Increased frequency and duration of AIDS messages on television will have a positive influence on AIDS knowledge in this group.

  4. Health behaviors among college students: the influence of future time perspective and basic psychological need satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Preston L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior change may prevent many fatal diseases, and may be influenced by social and motivational constructs. We assessed the interaction effect of future time perspective and basic psychological need fulfillment on positive and negative health behaviors. Future time perspective was associated with more positive, and less negative, health behaviors. Need fulfillment was associated with only positive health behaviors. In moderation analyses, individuals reporting both high need fulfillment and future perspective reported greater positive health behaviors, and were especially unlikely to smoke. Enhancing future-mindedness and supporting need satisfaction in interventions targeting modifiable health behaviors is encouraged. PMID:25750770

  5. Behavioral health and managed care contracting under SCHIP.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Sonosky, Colleen; Shaw, Karen; Mauery, D Richard

    2002-09-01

    This Policy Brief examines behavioral health managed care contracting under separately administered State Children's Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP), i.e., programs that operate under the direct authority of Title XXI of the Social Security Act rather than as expansions of Medicaid. Most separate SCHIP programs buy managed care style health insurance for some or most of their enrolled children. Because Title XXI provides states with far greater administrative flexibility than Medicaid with respect to coverage and benefit design, provision of services, and administration of managed care arrangements,studying separate SCHIP managed care products sheds important light on how states might approach insurance and managed care design generally in the area of behavioral health were Medicaid modified through section 1115 demonstration or federal statutory authority to permit greater latitude. To conduct this analysis, two nationwide databases maintained by the George Washington University Center for Health Services Research and Policy (CHSRP) were used: a database consisting of all Medicaid MCO-style managed care contracts in use in Calendar Year 2000; and a nationwide database consisting of contracts used by separate SCHIP programs for the same calendar year. As of the point of collection in 2000 there were 33 such separate programs; according to CMS' latest website information, that total has now reached 35. Both sets of contracts were analyzed and separated into their components by lawyers experienced in managed care contract analysis and interpretation. The data were entered into working tables that organize the contents of the contracts into a series of searchable domains.

  6. The Health and Health Behaviors of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kipke, Michele D.; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Wong, Carolyn; Lopez, Donna; Iverson, Ellen; Ford, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at increased risk for a wide range of health and mental health problems. Methods An audio-computer assisted survey was administered to a large, ethnically diverse sample of 526 YMSM (ages 18 to 24 years) recruited from bars, clubs, and other social venues using a venue-based probability sampling method. Results Subjects reported a range of health and mental health problems, and involvement in health-compromising behaviors, such as overweight/obesity, depression, suicidal thoughts/attempts, and many were found to have high rates of sexually transmitted infections. Moreover, many reported not having insurance coverage and/or limited access to care. Conclusions Many of the health concerns and risks reported by these young men are preventable and can be addressed by any number of sectors, including health care and social service providers, religious organizations, schools, and employers. PMID:17367727

  7. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  8. Behavioral Health in Prevention and Chronic Illness Management: Motivational Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Tuccero, Donna; Railey, Kenyon; Briggs, Melvania; Hull, Sharon K

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the history, methodology, and evidence related to the effective use of motivational interviewing (MI) in the primary care setting. MI has been shown to have a positive effect in promotion and modification of health habits and to increase treatment engagement. MI is also effective when used in conjunction with other treatment modalities, such as educational programs and cognitive behavioral therapy. Practical application of MI can be accomplished in a variety of primary care settings by a wide range of practitioners, incorporates nicely into new health care delivery models, and may improve the patient-provider relationship. PMID:27262001

  9. The integration of behavioral health interventions in children's health care: services, science, and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Kolko, David J; Perrin, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Because the integration of mental or behavioral health services in pediatric primary care is a national priority, a description and evaluation of the interventions applied in the healthcare setting is warranted. This article examines several intervention research studies based on alternative models for delivering behavioral health care in conjunction with comprehensive pediatric care. This review describes the diverse methods applied to different clinical problems, such as brief mental health skills, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices, and the empirical outcomes of this research literature. Next, several key treatment considerations are discussed to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these interventions. Some practical suggestions for overcoming key service barriers are provided to enhance the capacity of the practice to deliver behavioral health care. There is moderate empirical support for the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of these interventions for treating internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Practical strategies to extend this work and address methodological limitations are provided that draw upon recent frameworks designed to simplify the treatment enterprise (e.g., common elements). Pediatric primary care has become an important venue for providing mental health services to children and adolescents due, in part, to its many desirable features (e.g., no stigma, local setting, familiar providers). Further adaptation of existing delivery models may promote the delivery of effective integrated interventions with primary care providers as partners designed to address mental health problems in pediatric healthcare.

  10. Health Policy Considerations in Treating Mental and Behavioral Health Emergencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Halmer, Thiago C; Beall, Rakel C; Shah, Asim A; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, health care providers have sounded the call that the US mental health system is in crisis. With decreases in funding and eroding access to care, the availability of psychiatric services has become increasingly limited, failing to meet growing needs. This article provides a brief history of mental health services in the United States and describes the current landscape of US psychiatric care; it touches upon some of the most important policy considerations, describing some of the glaring issues in US mental health care today. Last, it offers some potential remedies to improve care in acute behavioral emergencies. PMID:26493530

  11. Health Policy Considerations in Treating Mental and Behavioral Health Emergencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Halmer, Thiago C; Beall, Rakel C; Shah, Asim A; Dark, Cedric

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, health care providers have sounded the call that the US mental health system is in crisis. With decreases in funding and eroding access to care, the availability of psychiatric services has become increasingly limited, failing to meet growing needs. This article provides a brief history of mental health services in the United States and describes the current landscape of US psychiatric care; it touches upon some of the most important policy considerations, describing some of the glaring issues in US mental health care today. Last, it offers some potential remedies to improve care in acute behavioral emergencies.

  12. Multiple Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents: An Examination of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative health behaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…

  13. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  14. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety.

  15. Future Directions in the Study of Health Behavior among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128

  16. Community Participation in New Mexico's Behavioral Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Miria; Willging, Cathleen E.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, New Mexico implemented a unique reform in managed behavioral health services that seeks to ensure delivery of consumer-driven, recovery-oriented care to low-income individuals. Distinguishing features of the reform are the Local Collaboratives (LCs), regionally based community organizations designed by state government to represent behavioral health concerns of New Mexico's diverse cultural populations. We examine community response to the LCs, focusing on two broad sets of themes derived from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork. The first set—structure and function—encompasses several issues: predominance of provider versus consumer voice; insufficient resources to support internal operations; imposition of state administrative demands; and perceived lack of state response to LC efforts. The second set—participation and collaboration—reveals how problems of information flow and other logistical factors impact involvement in LCs and how the construction of “community” introduced under this initiative exacerbates tensions across localities with varied histories and populations. PMID:19764315

  17. NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.

  18. [Mental health from a cognitive-behavioral perspective].

    PubMed

    Keegan, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a succinct overview of the conception of mental health held by the cognitive-behavioral paradigm. For some of these models, human suffering is ubiquitious and largely unavoidable. Therefore, suffering cannot be linearly equated to pathology. Mental health implies acting towards achieving our valued goals, despite the negative emotions and thoughts that this may activate. The paper describes some cognitive and metacognitive phenomena characteristically associated to psychopathology, as well as some principles to establish the normalcy of both emotional experience and behavior. It establishes a difference between consultations motivated by mental disorders and those motivated by life crises and by a desire of achieving personal growth. Finally, the paper analyzes the conditions in which implementing treatment is desirable and necessary.

  19. Developing Games for Health Behavior Change: Getting Started

    PubMed Central

    Buday, Richard; Thompson, Debbe; Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Many investigators are considering developing videogames for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked questions are answered, including defining a G4H, considerations in developing a team, considerations in G4H design, and anticipating unintended consequences. PMID:24443708

  20. Genomic information as a behavioral health intervention: can it work?

    PubMed

    Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J

    2011-11-01

    Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle health behaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991

  1. Genomic information as a behavioral health intervention: can it work?

    PubMed Central

    Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle health behaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991

  2. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior. PMID:26327939

  3. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.

  4. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

  5. What should non-US behavioral health systems learn from the USA?: US behavior health services trends in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Yasuhiro; Kathol, Roger G; McAlpine, Donna D; Meller, William H; Richards, Steven W

    2006-06-01

    Several countries, such as the USA, inadvertently created a different behavioral health payment system from the rest of medicine through the introduction of diagnostic-related group exemptions for psychiatric care. This led to isolation in the administration and delivery of care for patients with mental health and substance abuse disorders from other medical services with significant, yet unintended, consequences. To insure an efficient and effective health-care system, it is necessary to recognize the problems introduced by segregating behavioral health from the rest of medical care. In this review, the authors assess trends in behavioral health services during the last two decades in the USA, a period in which independently managed behavioral health care has dominated administrative practices. During this time, behavioral health has been an easy target for aggressive cost cutting measures. There have been no clinically significant improvements in the number of adults receiving minimally adequate treatment or in the percentage of the population with behavior health problems receiving psychiatric care with the possible exception of depression. While decreased spending for behavioral health services has been well documented during this period, these savings are offset by costs shifted to greater medical service use with a net increase in the total cost of health care. Targeting behavioral health for reduction in health-care spending through independent management, starting with diagnostic procedure code or diagnostic-related group exemption may not be the wisest approach in addressing the increasing fiscal burden that medical care is placing on the national economy.

  6. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  7. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  8. Tattooing: another adolescent risk behavior warranting health education.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M L; Murphy, K P

    1997-11-01

    A cross-sectional, convenient sample of adolescents (N = 2101) from 8 states were queried regarding interest in tattooing. Permanent markings and blood-borne diseases were reasons respondents refrain from tattooing, yet 55% (n = 1159) expressed an interest in tattooing. Tattooed adolescents in the sample (10%, n = 213) responded with their experiences. Tattooing was frequently done around the 9th grade and as early as 8 years of age; over half (56%, n = 120) report academic grades of As and Bs. Potential health risks and definite psychosocial findings of purchase and possession risks were evident, building on data from a similar 1994 study by Armstrong and McConnell. Health providers and educators should initiate applicable health education and become community adolescent advocates regarding this risk-taking behavior. Findings indicate that adolescents who want a tattoo will obtain one, regardless of money, regulations, or risks. Adolescents view the tattoos as objects of self-identity and body art, whereas adults perceive the markings as deviant behavior. Informed decision-making could be promoted in health education by incorporating information about the possibility of blood-borne diseases, permanent markings, and themselves as growing and changing people. PMID:9419914

  9. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  10. ClickDiary: Online Tracking of Health Behaviors and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Yen, Tso-Jung; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional studies of health behaviors are typically conducted using one-shot, cross-sectional surveys. Thus, participants’ recall bias may undermine the reliability and validity of the data. To capture mood changes and health behaviors in everyday life, we designed an online survey platform, ClickDiary, which helped collect more complete information for comprehensive data analyses. Objective We aim to understand whether daily mood changes are related to one’s personal characteristics, demographic factors, and daily health behaviors. Methods The ClickDiary program uses a Web-based platform to collect data on participants’ health behaviors and their social-contact networks. The name ClickDiary comes from the platform’s interface, which is designed to allow the users to respond to most of the survey questions simply by clicking on the options provided. Participants were recruited from the general population and came from various backgrounds. To keep the participants motivated and interested, the ClickDiary program included a random drawing for rewards. We used descriptive statistics and the multilevel proportional-odds mixed model for our analysis. Results We selected 130 participants who had completed at least 30 days of ClickDiary entries from May 1 to October 31, 2014 as our sample for the study. According to the results of the multilevel proportional-odds mixed model, a person tended to be in a better mood on a given day if he or she ate more fruits and vegetables, took in more sugary drinks, ate more fried foods, showed no cold symptoms, slept better, exercised longer, and traveled farther away from home. In addition, participants were generally in a better mood during the weekend than on weekdays. Conclusions Sleeping well, eating more fruits and vegetables, and exercising longer each day all appear to put one in a better mood. With the online ClickDiary survey, which reduces the recall biases that are common in traditional one-shot surveys

  11. Predicting Health Care Utilization After Behavioral Health Referral Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Roysden, Nathaniel; Wright, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems are an independent predictor of increased healthcare utilization. We created random forest classifiers for predicting two outcomes following a patient’s first behavioral health encounter: decreased utilization by any amount (AUROC 0.74) and ultra-high absolute utilization (AUROC 0.88). These models may be used for clinical decision support by referring providers, to automatically detect patients who may benefit from referral, for cost management, or for risk/protection factor analysis. PMID:26958306

  12. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  13. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-04-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  14. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  15. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  16. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-12-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently little information about how the combined effects of the refugee experience and the U.S. health environment are related to health practices of refugees in the years and decades after resettlement. We examined cross-sectional survey data for Cambodian refugee and immigrant women 35 to 60 years old (n = 160) from an established refugee community in Lowell, Massachusetts, to examine the potential contributors to health behaviors and outcomes among refugees and immigrants postresettlement. In our representative sample, we found that smoking and betel nut use were very low (4% each). Fewer than 50% of respondents walked for at least 10 minutes on 2 or more days/week. Using World Health Organization standards for overweight/obese for Asians, 73% of respondents were overweight/obese and 56% were obese, indicating increased risk of chronic disease. Depression was also high in this sample (41%). In multivariate models, higher acculturation and age were associated with walking more often; lower education and higher acculturation were related to higher weight; and being divorced/separated or widowed and being older were related to higher risk of depression. The interrelated complex of characteristics, health behaviors, and health outcomes of refugees merits a multifaceted approach to health education and health promotion for long-term refugee health.

  17. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-12-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently little information about how the combined effects of the refugee experience and the U.S. health environment are related to health practices of refugees in the years and decades after resettlement. We examined cross-sectional survey data for Cambodian refugee and immigrant women 35 to 60 years old (n = 160) from an established refugee community in Lowell, Massachusetts, to examine the potential contributors to health behaviors and outcomes among refugees and immigrants postresettlement. In our representative sample, we found that smoking and betel nut use were very low (4% each). Fewer than 50% of respondents walked for at least 10 minutes on 2 or more days/week. Using World Health Organization standards for overweight/obese for Asians, 73% of respondents were overweight/obese and 56% were obese, indicating increased risk of chronic disease. Depression was also high in this sample (41%). In multivariate models, higher acculturation and age were associated with walking more often; lower education and higher acculturation were related to higher weight; and being divorced/separated or widowed and being older were related to higher risk of depression. The interrelated complex of characteristics, health behaviors, and health outcomes of refugees merits a multifaceted approach to health education and health promotion for long-term refugee health. PMID:26157042

  18. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  19. Prayer, meditation, exercise, and special diets: behaviors of the hardy person with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Carson, V B

    1993-01-01

    Literature on long-term survivors with AIDS is replete with anecdotal evidence linking survival to such things as (a) holding a positive attitude toward the illness; (b) participating in health-promoting behaviors; (c) engaging in spiritual activities; and (d) taking part in AIDS-related activities. To determine whether there is quantitative research to support this anecdotal evidence, 100 subjects, who were either HIV-positive or diagnosed with ARC or AIDS, completed Kobasa's Personal Views Survey (hardiness measure) and responded to questions regarding perceptions of their physical, emotional, and spiritual health; participation in spiritual activities, selected health-promoting behaviors, and AIDS-related activities. The results demonstrated positive relationships between hardiness and: perception of physical, emotional, and spiritual health; participation in prayer and meditation; and participation in exercise and the use of special diets.

  20. Does Behavioral Style Influence Learning Strategy in Health Professions Students?

    PubMed

    Williamson, J W; Krumwiede, K H; Reed, JoyLynn; Farmer, Suzanne; Behrendt, William

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency in areas of task completion, information processing, and time management are important attributes for successful academic performance and can be assessed using the Learning Assessment Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in learning strategies across four behavioral profiles using the DISC style analysis (Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Compliance). Graduate health professions students (n=247) were administered the DISC and LASSI to assess study strategy categories based on their natural DISC behavioral style. A one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences for 10 LASSI category scores across the four DISC profiles; scores were also compared with national percentile scores. The D and C profiles were above the 75th percentile for information processing, but below the 50th percentile for self-testing. The S profile had significantly lower scores (p<0.005) for information processing and was below the 50th percentile for anxiety (i.e., higher anxiety). The I profile was below the 50th percentile for time management and concentration to academic tasks. The data are in close agreement with recognized behaviors specific for each behavioral style and suggest that behavioral style should be considered an important factor in academic performance. PMID:26342613

  1. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.

  2. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. PMID:23583444

  3. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites.

  4. Behavioral health services in separate CHIP programs on the eve of parity.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Rachel L; Beardslee, William R; Greenfield, Shelly F; Meara, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plays a vital role in financing behavioral health services for low-income children. This study examines behavioral health benefit design and management in separate CHIP programs on the eve of federal requirements for behavioral health parity. Even before parity implementation, many state CHIP programs did not impose service limits or cost sharing for behavioral health benefits. However, a substantial share of states imposed limits or cost sharing that might hinder access to care. The majority of states use managed care to administer behavioral health benefits. It is important to monitor how states adapt their programs to comply with parity.

  5. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  6. The Youth Form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Desmond, Frederic F.; Hou, Wei; Kaye, Lillian B.; Smith, Tasia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a youth form of the Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Smart Behaviors Inventory (MB-HSBI--Youth) for use in identifying self-reported motivators of and barriers to the following health-promoting behaviors (called "health-smart" behaviors): eating a healthy breakfast, eating healthy foods and snacks, drinking healthy…

  7. Adolescent Health Behaviors among Public School Students in Washington, 1988-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Pollard, James P.

    Many adolescents' health problems arise from preventable behaviors, such as unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created in order to collect information on a variety of health behaviors among students in the state of…

  8. Prevalence of Health Behaviors among a University Staff: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…

  9. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  10. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  11. Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk Behaviors: A Prospective Analysis of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidycz, Christine A.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; King, Carrie R.; Rich, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month…

  12. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  13. Effects of Racial Discrimination and Health Behaviors on Mental and Physical Health of Middle-Class African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Bonham, Vence; Neighbors, Harold W.; Amell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This research is an examination of the effects of racial discrimination and health-promoting behaviors on the physical and mental health of a sample of 399 well-educated African American men. One would think that the attainment of higher education would increase health-promoting behaviors and might decrease discriminatory experiences that impact…

  14. Patterns of Health-Risk Behavior among Japanese High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakura, Minoru; Nagayama, Tomoko; Sakihara, Seizo; Willcox, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed Japanese high school students' health risk behavior patterns, examining clustering and accumulation of health risk behaviors. Physical inactivity and alcohol use were the most common risk behaviors. Prevalence rates for most risk behaviors varied by demographic variables. Smoking, drinking, and sexual intercourse clustered among both…

  15. A criterion measurement model for health behavior change.

    PubMed

    Velicer, W F; Rossi, J S; Diclemente, C C; Prochaska, J O

    1996-01-01

    Researchers in the field of health behavior change have traditionally relied on a univariate criterion measure to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention. Such measures have superficial face validity but suffer from a number of problems: (a) lack of precise definitions; (b) poor statistical power; and (c) a lack of meaningfulness for some aspects of the problem. As an alternative, a theoretical model is developed that attempts to define more appropriate multivariate sets of dependent variables for the study of health behavior change. The model involves three separate constructs: Positive Evaluation Strength, Negative Evaluation Strength, and Habit Strength. The pattern of change for each construct is described across four stages of change: Precontemplation, Contemplation, Action, and Maintenance. For each construct, two thresholds are proposed representing the ability of the environment to modify the construct. Four tests of the model are provided from existing data sets. First, a structural model analysis was used to test if the proposed measurement model adequately fits the data. Second, a dynamic typology approach produced profiles of change that are consistent with the model. Third, a time series analysis provided support for the assumed model. Fourth, longitudinal, five-wave panel design was employed to test if the relation between the two cognitive variables (Pros and Cons) and the behavioral measure (Habit Strength) was consistent with the model. Implications for alternative intervention strategies are discussed.

  16. Innovative strategies for nurse recruitment and retention in behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M; Wright, Ileen

    2007-01-01

    Successfully recruiting licensed nurses to work in behavioral health is challenging. This article describes and illustrates methods one hospital successfully used to attract, orient, and mentor new graduate nurses to work in mental health. The New Horizons program included a paid internship for new graduate vocational nurses, a mental health curriculum, preceptorship, a state board review course, and a new graduate program. Since 2003, the program has recruited 37 new graduates for the unfilled licensed staff vacancies in mental health who continued their professional education and pursued degrees as registered nurses. The evaluations indicated that more than 100% of graduates rated the program as excellent as well as recommended it to their friends, and retention has been more than 90%. New Horizons graduates have received promotions; one has assumed a new role as a clinical resource nurse who teaches nursing orientation. All stakeholders including nurse management, patients, other disciplines, and coworkers have high praise for the program graduates. The program increased the cultural diversity of the mental health staff because the graduates included high percentages of African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans and less than 10% of White Americans. Adult learning technologies were used including teaching with films, role-playing, case studies, reflective thinking, evidence-based practice, and group performance improvement projects. Research-based fact sheets were used for the course and continued education. These 1-page fact sheets help nurses apply the evidence to improve nursing practice. PMID:17607135

  17. [Family cohesion associated with oral health, socioeconomic factors and health behavior].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima

    2013-08-01

    Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health.

  18. Behavioral health and managed care contracting under SCHIP.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Sonosky, Colleen; Shaw, Karen; Mauery, D Richard

    2002-09-01

    This Policy Brief examines behavioral health managed care contracting under separately administered State Children's Health Insurance Programs (SCHIP), i.e., programs that operate under the direct authority of Title XXI of the Social Security Act rather than as expansions of Medicaid. Most separate SCHIP programs buy managed care style health insurance for some or most of their enrolled children. Because Title XXI provides states with far greater administrative flexibility than Medicaid with respect to coverage and benefit design, provision of services, and administration of managed care arrangements,studying separate SCHIP managed care products sheds important light on how states might approach insurance and managed care design generally in the area of behavioral health were Medicaid modified through section 1115 demonstration or federal statutory authority to permit greater latitude. To conduct this analysis, two nationwide databases maintained by the George Washington University Center for Health Services Research and Policy (CHSRP) were used: a database consisting of all Medicaid MCO-style managed care contracts in use in Calendar Year 2000; and a nationwide database consisting of contracts used by separate SCHIP programs for the same calendar year. As of the point of collection in 2000 there were 33 such separate programs; according to CMS' latest website information, that total has now reached 35. Both sets of contracts were analyzed and separated into their components by lawyers experienced in managed care contract analysis and interpretation. The data were entered into working tables that organize the contents of the contracts into a series of searchable domains. PMID:12542079

  19. Community Health Workers in Brazil's Unified Health System: A Framework of their Praxis and Contributions to Patient Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; da Silva, Sueli Bulhões; Soriano, Rafaela

    2012-01-01

    Community Health Workers (CHWs) play a pivotal role in primary care, serving as liaisons between community members and medical providers. However, the growing reliance of health care systems worldwide on CHWs has outpaced research explaining their praxis – how they combine indigenous and technical knowledge, overcome challenges and impact patient outcomes. This paper thus articulates the CHW Praxis and Patient Health Behavior Framework. Such a framework is needed to advance research on CHW impact on patient outcomes and to advance CHW training. The project that originated this framework followed Community-Based Participatory Research principles. A team of U.S.-Brazil research partners, including CHWs, worked together from conceptualization of the study to dissemination of its findings. The framework is built on an integrated conceptual foundation including learning/teaching and individual behavior theories. The empirical base of the framework comprises in-depth interviews with 30 CHWs in Brazil's Unified Health System, Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro. Data collection for the project which originated this report occurred in 2008–10. Semi-structured questions examined how CHWs used their knowledge/skills; addressed personal and environmental challenges; and how they promoted patient health behaviors. This study advances an explanation of how CHWs use self-identified strategies – i.e., empathic communication and perseverance – to help patients engage in health behaviors. Grounded in our proposed framework, survey measures can be developed and used in predictive models testing the effects of CHW praxis on health behaviors. Training for CHWs can explicitly integrate indigenous and technical knowledge in order for CHWs to overcome contextual challenges and enhance service delivery. PMID:22305469

  20. Correlation of dental health behavior with health awareness and subjective symptoms in a rural population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenqun; Tamaki, Yoh; Arakawa, Yuki; Ogino, Daisuke; Aoki, Kunie; Ohyama, Masakazu; He, Dawei; Osawa, Taeko; Ohsawa, Kazuo; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Arakawa, Hirohisa

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of dental health behavior with health awareness, oral condition, and subjective symptoms in Japan. The present study included 1699 individuals who underwent dental checkups at the public health center of Miura City. All those who underwent dental checkups were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The correlation between having a regular dentist and each of the other items was analyzed. Undergoing regular checkups was significantly related to having a regular dentist. To analyze the correlation of dental health behavior with Subjective symptoms and Health awareness, structured equation modeling was performed following factor analysis. As a result, only the regression weight between dental health behavior and health awareness was found to be statistically significant. The present survey indicates that dental health behavior was significantly related to Health awareness but not to Subjective symptoms.

  1. Implementing Health Behavior Change in Primary Care: Lessons From Prescription for Health

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah J.; Tallia, Alfred F.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Young, Denise M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Our objective was to identify themes that emerged from the evaluation of 17 interventions funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Prescription for Health that aimed to enhance adherence to healthy behaviors in the primary care setting. METHODS We performed a content analysis of diary data from this 16-month initiative. Other data sources used to complement this analysis include funded grant applications and field notes from interviews with investigative teams and a limited number of site visits. Participants were 17 practice-based research networks (PBRNs) that had projects funded during Round 1 of Prescription for Health. RESULTS Five themes emerged regarding implementation of health behavior change: (1) health behavior change resources are enthusiastically received by practices and patients, and when given a choice, patients prefer methods of assistance that involve personal contact; (2) practice extenders require extensive training, as well as careful case management and support, in order to function fully and avoid burnout; (3) integrating behavior change tools into the primary care setting requires time, effort, and often specialized expertise; (4) even simple interventions require practice change, and use of a practice change model to guide implementation efforts is crucial; and (5) research philosophy and project management approaches vary across PBRNs and have implications for the potential sustainability of an intervention. CONCLUSIONS A more versatile, multifaceted solution involving new tools, technologies, and multidisciplinary care teams is needed in order to integrate health behavior change into everyday primary care routines. Even the best interventions require a model to articulate how to integrate an innovation into practices. PMID:16049075

  2. Surveillance of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and perceptions among the general public in Hong Kong from 1994 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, H Y

    2002-10-01

    The present study monitored the trends of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and perceptions including awareness, knowledge, self-perceived risk of HIV infection, and program evaluation among the general public in Hong Kong over a period of 7 years. Six cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted. A total of 6,795 respondents aged 18-50 randomly selected from the general population participated in the study. Over the study period, the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge has improved slightly for most of the studied items. Condom use has been more widely accepted as an efficacious means of HIV prevention. However, the public seemed to be losing interest in HIV/AIDS-related issues and were not satisfied with the efficacy and adequacy of HIV/AIDS programs in Hong Kong. Sustaining efforts to remove misconceptions and to raise the public's interest, formulation of more effective programs, and ongoing evaluation are necessary. PMID:12413187

  3. Sexual Health Knowledge, Self-Efficacy and Behavioral Intentions Following a Health Fair for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Noel L; McNeill, Cynthera; Murphy, Angela R; Iovan, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exist among urban African American youth. There is a need to provide HIV information to youth prior to the onset of sexual activity. The Stomping Out HIV intervention combines a health fair and step show to increase awareness and healthy behaviors among this population. Questionnaires were administered to youth and parents before and after Stomping Out, and focused on health knowledge, satisfaction with Stomping Out, intended behavior changes and self-efficacy to make healthier choices related to HIV and STI prevention. Youth and adults reported increased knowledge and self-efficacy after Stomping Out. These findings suggest that health initiatives focusing on sociocultural issues can greatly impact adults and youth. PMID:27383775

  4. Teachable moments for health behavior change: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Peter J.; Flocke, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective “Teachable moments” have been proposed as events or circumstances which can lead individuals to positive behavior change. However, the essential elements of teachable moments have not been elucidated. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive review of the literature to uncover common definitions and key elements of this phenomenon. Methods Using databases spanning social science and medical disciplines, all records containing the search term “teachable moment*” were collected. Identified literature was then systematically reviewed and patterns were derived. Results Across disciplines, ‘teachable moment’ has been poorly developed both conceptually and operationally. Usage of the term falls into three categories: 1) “teachable moment” is synonymous with “opportunity” (81%); 2) a context that leads to a higher than expected behavior change is retrospectively labeled a ‘teachable moment’ (17%); 3) a phenomenon that involves a cueing event that prompts specific cognitive and emotional responses (2%). Conclusion The findings suggest that the teachable moment is not necessarily unpredictable or simply a convergence of situational factors that prompt behavior change but suggest the possible creation of a teachable moment through clinician-patient interaction. Practice Implications Clinician-patient interaction may be central to the creation of teachable moments for health behavior change. PMID:19110395

  5. Health promotion behavior in low income black and Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Phillips, K

    1994-01-01

    Health promotion behaviors were examined in a sample of low-income, Black and Latino women. Latino women were more likely than Black women to eat a daily breakfast; sleep 7-8 hours per night and abstain from alcohol and tobacco use. Black women were more likely to be eating vegetables on a regular basis and exercising at least once per week. The results suggest that low-income Latino women may need to increase their consumption of vegetables and frequency of exercise. Among Black women, a wider range of healthy lifestyle behaviors such as sleeping eight hours per night, eating a daily breakfast and decreasing alcohol and tobacco consumption may need to be emphasized.

  6. Culture change and ethnic-minority health behavior: an operant theory of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    Data on acculturation and ethnic-minority health indicate that acculturation has opposite effects on the same health behavior among different ethnic groups; opposite effects on different health behaviors within an ethnic group; opposite effects on the same health behavior for the women vs. the men of most ethnic groups; and no effect whatsoever on some health behaviors for some ethnic groups. This evidence is so incoherent that it is unintelligible, and hence it continues to be largely useless to health psychology and behavioral medicine. This paper presents a new theory of acculturation that renders these confusing data coherent by predicting such changes in minority health behavior a priori. By so doing, the operant model of acculturation has the potential to improve health promotion and disease prevention and thereby reduce ethnic health disparities.

  7. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  8. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  9. The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

  10. Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Work-Rest Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    BHP Program Element Goal: Identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration and return to terrestrial life. BHP Requirements: a) Characterize and assess risks (e.g., likelihood and consequences). b) Develop tools and technologies to prevent, monitor, and treat adverse outcomes. c) Inform standards. d) Develop technologies to: 1) reduce risks and human systems resource requirements (e.g., crew time, mass, volume, power) and 2) ensure effective human-system integration across exploration mission.

  11. Religion and selected health behaviors among Latinos in Texas.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ginny; Ellison, Christopher G; Sunil, Thankam S; Hill, Terrence D

    2013-03-01

    Though research has shown that religion provides a protective influence with respect to a number of health-related outcomes, little work has examined its influence on patterns of alcohol (especially binge drinking) and tobacco consumption among Latinos in Texas. Thus, we used a probability sample of Texas adults to test this relationship via logistic regression. Our results revealed that clear distinctions emerge on the basis of both denomination and frequency of attendance. Specifically, Protestants who regularly attend religious services are significantly more likely to be abstainers and to have never smoked, while those with no religious affiliation exhibit relatively unfavorable risk profiles. These findings persist despite a range of socio-demographic controls. Our study supports the assertion that religion may serve as an important protective influence on risky health behaviors.

  12. Test-retest reliability of health behavior items in the Community Health Survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin A; Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Hun Je; Oh, In Hwan; Lee, Jakyoung

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Responses to health-related items on the Community Health Survey (CHS) provide evidence that is used to develop community-based health policy. This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of selected health behavioral items on the CHS according to item category, response period, and response scale. METHODS: A sample of 159 men and women 20 to 69 years of age participated in a test-retest with an interval of 14 to 21 days. A total of 28 items relating to smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and weight control, and mental health were selected. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of the items using kappa statistics. RESULTS: Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to 0.93. Items concerning habits had higher kappa values (mean, 0.7; standard error, 0.05) than items concerning awareness or attitudes (p=0.012). The kappa value of items with two- to four-point scales was 0.63, which was higher than the value of 0.59 for items with scales involving five or more points, although this difference was not statistically significant. Different kappa values were observed for each reference period, but no statistically significant differences were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The test-retest reliability of the CHS items that we studied was associated with item category. Further study of the relationship between item category and reliability in domains other than health behaviors is required. PMID:26493776

  13. Working toward financial sustainability of integrated behavioral health services in a public health care system.

    PubMed

    Monson, Samantha Pelican; Sheldon, J Christopher; Ivey, Laurie C; Kinman, Carissa R; Beacham, Abbie O

    2012-06-01

    The need, benefit, and desirability of behavioral health integration in primary care is generally accepted and has acquired widespread positive regard. However, in many health care settings the economics, business aspects, and financial sustainability of practice in integrated care settings remains an unsolved puzzle. Organizational administrators may be reluctant to expand behavioral health services without evidence that such programs offer clear financial benefits and financial sustainability. The tendency among mental health professionals is to consider positive clinical outcomes (e.g., reduced depression) as being globally valued indicators of program success. Although such outcomes may be highly valued by primary care providers and patients, administrative decision makers may require demonstration of more tangible financial outcomes. These differing views require program developers and evaluators to consider multiple outcome domains including clinical/psychological symptom reduction, potential cost benefit, and cost offset. The authors describe a process by which a pilot demonstration project is being implemented to demonstrate programmatic outcomes with a focus on the following: 1) clinician efficiency, 2) improved health outcomes, and 3) direct revenue generation associated with the inclusion of integrated primary care in a public health care system. The authors subsequently offer specific future directions and commentary regarding financial evaluation in each of these domains.

  14. The effect of retirement on mental health and health behaviors: the Kaiser Permanente Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Midanik, L T; Soghikian, K; Ransom, L J; Tekawa, I S

    1995-01-01

    To assess the short-term effect of retirement on mental health and health behaviors of members of a health maintenance organization aged 60-66, questionnaires were completed in 1985 and 1987 by employed members planning to retire during the study period and those not planning to retire. Mental health and health behaviors of members who actually retired (n = 320) were compared with those members who did not retire (n = 275). Using logistic regression controlling for age, gender, marital status, and education, we found that retired members were more likely to have lower stress levels and to engage in regular exercise more often as compared to those who did not retire during the study period. Retired women were more likely to report no alcohol problems as compared to nonretired women. There were no differences between the groups on self-reported mental health status, coping, depression, smoking, alcohol consumption, and frequency of drunkenness. These findings underscore the importance of assessing positive benefits associated with retirement and call for further evaluation of whether these benefits persist over time.

  15. Sexual Health Behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) Users

    PubMed Central

    Heiman, Erica; Haynes, Sharon; McKee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the sexual health behaviors of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. Objective We sought to characterize the self-reported sexual behaviors of Deaf individuals. Methods Responses from 282 Deaf participants aged 18–64 from the greater Rochester, NY area who participated in the 2008 Deaf Health were analyzed. These data were compared with weighted data from a general population comparison group (N=1890). We looked at four sexual health-related outcomes: abstinence within the past year; number of sexual partners within the last year; condom use at last intercourse; and ever tested for HIV. We performed descriptive analyses, including stratification by gender, age, income, marital status, and educational level. Results Deaf respondents were more likely than the general population respondents to self-report two or more sexual partners in the past year (30.9% vs 10.1%) but self-reported higher condom use at last intercourse (28.0% vs 19.8%). HIV testing rates were similar between groups (47.5% vs 49.4%) but lower for certain Deaf groups: Deaf women (46.0% vs. 58.1%), lower-income Deaf (44.4% vs. 69.7%) and among less educated Deaf (31.3% vs. 57.7%) than among respondents from corresponding general population groups. Conclusion Deaf respondents self-reported higher numbers of sexual partners over the past year compared to the general population. Condom use was higher among Deaf participants. HIV was similar between groups, though HIV testing was significantly lower among lower-income, less well-educated, and female Deaf respondents. Deaf individuals have a sexual health risk profile that is distinct from that of the general population. PMID:26242551

  16. Health literacy and health seeking behavior among older men in a middle-income nation

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A; Morris, Chloe; Charles, Christopher AD; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Kerr-Campbell, Maureen D; Crawford, Tazhmoye V

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy is a measure of the patient’s ability to read, comprehend and act on medical instructions. This research article examines health literacy and health-seeking behaviors among elderly men in Jamaica, in order to inform health policy. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. A 133-item questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 2,000 men, 55 years and older, in St Catherine, Jamaica. In this study, 56.9% of urban and 44.5% of rural residents were health literate. Only 34.0% of participants purchased medications prescribed by the medical doctor and 19.8% were currently smoking. Despite the reported good self-related health status (74.4%) and high cognitive functionality (94.1%) of the older men, only 7.9% sought medical care outside of experiencing illnesses. Thirty-seven percent of rural participants sought medical care when they were ill compared with 31.9% of their urban counterparts. Thirty-four percent of the participants took the medication as prescribed by the medical doctor; 43% self-reported being diagnosed with cancers such as prostate and colorectal in the last 6 months, 9.6% with hypertension, 5.3% with heart disease, 5.3% with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 5.3% with diabetes mellitus, and 3.8% with kidney/bladder problems. Approximately 14% and 24% of the participants indicated that they were unaware of the signs and symptoms of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, respectively. The elderly men displayed low health literacy and poor health-seeking behavior. These findings can be used to guide the formulation of health policies and intervention programs for elderly men in Jamaica. PMID:22915951

  17. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health behavior (OHB), one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about patients’ characteristics and addiction history. The T-test, ANOVA, and a linear regression model served for statistical analysis. Results Of the patients, 48% reported brushing their teeth less than once a day, more than 90% used fluoride toothpaste almost or always, and 81% flossed their teeth rarely or never. Eating sugary products twice a day or more was reported by 57% of the patients and 85% of them were current smokers. Poor OHB was associated with male gender, lower education, being addicted mainly to crystalline heroin, starting drug abuse at a younger age, and having a longer history of addiction (p < .05). Conclusion Poor OHB was found among the participants in drug withdrawal treatment. Preventive strategies on oral health should be planned and be integrated into other health promotion programs for addicts along with their withdrawal treatment taking into account special groups at higher risk. PMID:23368406

  18. [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode].

    PubMed

    Ilniczky, Sándor; Debreczeni, Róbert; Kovács, Tibor; Várkonyi, Viktória; Barsi, Péter; Szirmai, Imre

    2006-07-20

    The most frequent neurological manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-(AIDS) are Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and AIDS-encephalitis (AIDS-dementia complex, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy). Neurological complications usually occur in the advanced stages of the disease, and they are uncommon in the beginning as presenting illness, but may result in life-threatening condition or in death. Rarely the disease presents as a neuropsychiatric illness in an undiagnosed AIDS patient, delaying a proper diagnosis. We present the case of a 34 years old patient treated for AIDS-related Toxoplasma-encephalitis in our department. His illness started as an acute psychosis followed by rapid mental and somatic decline, leading to death in three months. His HIV-seropositivity was not known at his admission, and the extraneural manifestations were slight. The diagnosis was established by serology, imaging methods and histopathological investigation. After presenting the medical history and results of autopsy studies of the patient we discuss the problems of the differential diagnosis, especially regarding the findings of the imaging methods.

  19. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Arastéh, K; Hannah, A

    2000-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common neoplasm associated with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. KS involves the skin and mucous membranes as well as other organs and can lead to tumor-associated edema and ulcerations. Despite therapy with highly active antiviral agents, most patients with HIV-1-related KS eventually develop disseminated disease. In the treatment of KS, a strong rationale exists for the use of agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Angiogenesis appears to be an important feature of this disease, and recent experimental studies have demonstrated the role of VEGF and its receptors in the pathogenesis of KS. Thus, therapeutic agents that target the VEGF pathway may be an effective strategy in reducing the tumor growth and edema associated with KS. Phase I study results with SU5416, a synthetic low molecular-weight inhibitor of the VEGF-Flk-1/KDR receptor tyrosine kinase, demonstrate that this agent is well tolerated. Preliminary results show that in a majority of patients with autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related disease, SU5416 clearly has biological activity (it flattens, shrinks, or dissolves lesions and reduces or resolves edema) or stabilizes the disease. Angiogenesis inhibition with SU5416 is a promising therapeutic approach in treating patients with KS, and further clinical evaluation is currently under way.

  20. Health Literacy Association With Health Behaviors and Health Care Utilization in Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Fox, Robert J; Cutter, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is generally associated with poor health outcomes; however, health literacy has received little attention in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the health literacy of persons with MS using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of health literacy among NARCOMS participants. Respondents completed the Medical Term Recognition Test (METER) which assesses the ability to distinguish medical and nonmedical words, and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instrument which evaluates reading, interpretation, and numeracy skills. Respondents reported their sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, comorbidities, visits to the emergency room (ER), and hospitalizations in the last 6 months. We used logistic regression to evaluate the characteristics associated with functional literacy, and the association between functional literacy and health care utilization. Results Of 13,020 eligible participants, 8934 (68.6%) completed the questionnaire and were US residents. Most of them performed well on the instruments with 81.04% (7066/8719) having functional literacy on the METER and 74.62% (6666/8933) having adequate literacy on the NVS. Low literacy on the METER or the NVS was associated with smoking, being overweight or obese (all P<.001). After adjustment, low literacy on the METER was associated with ER visits (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.48) and hospitalizations (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.98-1.44). Findings were similar for the NVS. Conclusions In the NARCOMS cohort, functional health literacy is high. However, lower levels of health literacy are associated with adverse health behaviors and greater health care utilization. PMID:24513479

  1. Advancing Health Promotion in Dentistry: Articulating an Integrative Approach to Coaching Oral Health Behavior Change in the Dental Setting

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Oral health is managed based on objective measures such as the presence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. In recent years, oral health researchers and practitioners have shown increasing interest in a widened array of physical, psychological, and social factors found to influence patients’ oral health. In this article, we introduce a behavior change coaching approach that can be used to enhance psychosocial diagnosis and client-centered delivery of health-promoting interventions. Briefly, this health coaching approach is based on an interactive assessment (both physical and psychological), a non-judgmental exploration of patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, a mapping of patient behaviors that may contribute to disease progression, gauging patient motivation, and tailoring health communication to encourage health-promoting behavior change. Developed in a clinical setting, this coaching model is supported by interdisciplinary theory, research, and practice on health behavior change. We suggest that, with supervision, this coaching process may be learned. PMID:26457237

  2. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes. PMID:26160295

  3. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-07-09

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes.

  4. Influencing factors on health promoting behavior among the elderly living in the community

    PubMed Central

    Harooni, Javad; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health promotion behavior is one of the main criteria for determining health that is recognized as the basic factor in catching numerous diseases. Observing such behaviors by the elderly prevents affliction to various diseases and has potential effect in promoting health and increasing the elderly quality of life. This research was done for the aim of determining effective factors on health promotion behaviors and health status in the elderly of the Dena province. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty elderly of over 65 years of age were selected randomly to do this descriptive-analytical study (cross-sectional type). The questionnaire regarding health promoting lifestyle profile 2 (HPLP2) was used for measuring the rate of health promotion behaviors. The data was collected by personal interviews and face to face method for completing the relevant questionnaire and was analyzed by SPSS software version 20 and also proper tests. Results: The average score of the elderly health promotion behaviors in the Dena province (143.8) indicated the acceptable level of performing health promoting behaviors in this group, such that 85% of the elderly had intermediate health promoting behaviors and 15% had proper behaviors. Also, the results showed that the average score of the physical activity and nutrition sub-measuring conditions was lower than the average score of other sub measures of prevention had the highest average. Moreover, comparison of the correlation of health promotion behaviors with the sub-measures showed that apart from the healthy nutrition sub-measure, all the other sub-measures have significant correlation with health promotion behaviors. Conclusion: From the findings of this study, the authors recommend health providers to promote elderly health promotion behaviors in all communities by identifying health promotion behaviors in other parts of the country, and also designing suitable intervention programs based on effective factors on

  5. The Effect of Individual Factors on Health Behaviors Among College Students: The Mediating Effects of eHealth Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, ChiaHsun

    2014-01-01

    Background College students’ health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual’s health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. Objective This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. Methods The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students’ eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students’ functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants’ health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. Results The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, P<.001-.03) and greater concern for health (t520=2.58-6.95, P<.001-.003) influenced college students’ development of 3 dimensions of eHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating

  6. Behavioral health providers' beliefs about health information exchange: a statewide survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess behavioral health providers' beliefs about the benefits and barriers of health information exchange (HIE). Methods Survey of a total of 2010 behavioral health providers in a Midwestern state (33% response rate), with questions based on previously reported open-ended beliefs elicitation interviews. Results Factor analysis resulted in four groupings: beliefs that HIE would improve care and communication, add cost and time burdens, present access and vulnerability concerns, and impact workflow and control (positively and negatively). A regression model including all four factors parsimoniously predicted attitudes toward HIE. Providers clustered into two groups based on their beliefs: a majority (67%) were positive about the impact of HIE, and the remainder (33%) were negative. There were some professional/demographic differences between the two clusters of providers. Discussion Most behavioral health providers are supportive of HIE; however, their adoption and use of it may continue to lag behind that of medical providers due to perceived cost and time burdens and concerns about access to and vulnerability of information. PMID:22184253

  7. Can Customizing an Avatar Motivate Exercise Intentions and Health Behaviors Among Those with Low Health Ideals?

    PubMed

    Waddell, T Franklin; Sundar, S Shyam; Auriemma, Joshua

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown that self-resembling avatars in health games and other applications can heighten exercise intentions, but objective self-awareness (OSA) theory suggests that this effect is likely to be true only for those who believe in the ideal of a healthy self. How can avatars be used to motivate those who do not hold this ideal and may not be motivated by avatars to pursue healthy activities? One possibility is to afford individuals the ability to customize their avatar, so they are not only more self-aware but also feel in control of their persona, both of which are necessary conditions for behavior change according to OSA. In order to test this prediction, participants in an online virtual environment created an avatar of the same sex or opposite sex by choosing among a small or large number of possible traits, then completed a series of items measuring self-awareness, sense of control, health-focused behavior, and ideal internalization. Results show that customizing a same-sex avatar can overcome differences in health intentions and behaviors between individuals with high and low levels of prior health-ideal internalization. PMID:26406804

  8. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  9. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future

  10. Optimizing Decision Support for Tailored Health Behavior Change Applications.

    PubMed

    Kukafka, Rita; Jeong, In cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The Tailored Lifestyle Change Decision Aid (TLC DA) system was designed to provide support for a person to make an informed choice about which behavior change to work on when multiple unhealthy behaviors are present. TLC DA can be delivered via web, smartphones and tablets. The system collects a significant amount of information that is used to generate tailored messages to consumers to persuade them in certain healthy lifestyles. One limitation is the necessity to collect vast amounts of information from users who manually enter. By identifying an optimal set of self-reported parameters we will be able to minimize the data entry burden of the app users. The study was to identify primary determinants of health behavior choices made by patients after using the system. Using discriminant analysis an optimal set of predictors was identified. The resulting set included smoking status, smoking cessation success estimate, self-efficacy, body mass index and diet status. Predicting smoking cessation choice was the most accurate, followed by weight management. Physical activity and diet choices were better identified in a combined cluster. PMID:26262020

  11. Definition, Measurement, and Health Risks Associated with Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Hergenroeder, Andrea L.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Lee, I-Min; Jakicic, John M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE and METHODS Though evidence is accumulating that sedentary behavior (SB), independent of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), is associated with cardiometabolic and aging outcomes in adults, several gaps present opportunities for future research. This paper reports on the ‘Research Evidence on Sedentary Behavior’ session of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities workshop, sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to identify priorities in SB research. RESULTS and CONCLUSIONS A consensus definition of SB has not yet been established, though agreement exists that SB is not simply all behaviors other than MVPA. The two most common definitions are: one based solely on intensity (<1.5 metabolic equivalents (METS)) and another which combines low intensity (≤1.5 METS) with a seated or reclining posture. Thus, for the definition of SB, evaluation of whether or not to include a postural component is a research priority. SB assessment methodologies include self-report and objective measurement, each offering distinct information. Therefore, evaluation, standardization, and comparison across self-report and objective assessment methods are needed. Specific priorities include the development and validation of novel devices capable of assessing posture and standardization of research practices for SB assessment by accelerometry. The prospective evidence that SB relates to health outcomes is limited in that SB is almost exclusively measured by self-report. The lack of longitudinal studies with objectively-measured SB was recognized as a major research gap, making examination of the association between objectively-measured SB and adverse health outcomes in longitudinal studies a research priority. Specifically, studies with repeated measures of SB, evaluating dose-response relationships, with inclusion of more diverse populations are needed. PMID:25222816

  12. Applying the concept of culture to reduce health disparities through health behavior research.

    PubMed

    Kagawa Singer, Marjorie

    2012-11-01

    Culture is often cited as an underlying cause of the undue burden of disease borne by communities of color along the entire life cycle. However, culture is rarely defined or appropriately measured. Scientifically, culture is a complex, integrated, and dynamic conceptual framework that is incongruent with the way it is operationalized in health behavior theories: as a unidimensional, static, and immutable character element of a homogeneous population group. This paper lays out this contradiction and proposes a more scientifically grounded approach to the use of culture. The premise is that if the concept of culture were better operationalized, results from studies of diverse population groups would produce findings that are more scientifically valid and relevant to the community. Practitioners could then use these findings to develop more effective strategies to reduce health disparities and improve the health of all population groups. Six steps are proposed to increase our ability to achieve greater clarity on what culture is and to identify how it impacts health behavior and ultimately health outcomes, enabling researchers to build a stronger science of cultural diversity.

  13. The relationship between Chinese construction workers' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Qu, B; Guo, H Q; Liu, J; Zuo, T M; Zhang, Y; Sun, G

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in migrant urban construction workers using structural equation modelling (SEM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 male subjects on three building sites in Shenyang City. The SEM model of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour was built using LISREL version 8.5 and it fitted the data well, as shown by an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.82 and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.094. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS was closely correlated with attitudes and behaviour. Age was an important factor affecting HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. These findings suggest that increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge could improve the attitude and behaviour of migrant urban construction workers, enabling them to avoid high-risk behaviour that increases the spread of HIV/AIDS. Any intervention used will need to take the important factor of age into consideration.

  14. Health policy and cost containment laws: lessons for public health education in social and behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J J

    1986-01-01

    As an extension of a contribution by Health Policy and Law to Public Health Education in areas of mutual concern, a descriptive model of cost containment policy in health care delivery is developed. The model starts from the basis of a typology of key Congressional enactments promoting economically motivated policymaking in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. These policies and laws are, in turn, related to the resulting multilevel adaptive behavior in health care services delivery and acquisition. From this descriptive model the thesis is developed that although government has improved its effectiveness in attaining economic and budgetary goals, this type of policy is also creating displacements and generally leading to the retrenchment of national commitment to equity-promoting social welfare policy and the possibility of abandoning longstanding historical commitments on strictly economic and budgetary grounds. The article concludes by placing emphasis on the need for public health disciplines to collaborate in order to strengthen national policy, to create a new health policy synthesis, and to strengthen the ability of individuals to qualitatively improve their situation and more effectively assert their health and social welfare rights.

  15. Validation and Impact of Caregivers’ Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior on Children’s Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anne R; Brega, Angela G; Campagna, Elizabeth; Braun, Patricia A; Henderson, William G; Bryant, Lucinda L; Batliner, Terrence S; Quissell, David O; Albino, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to validate oral health knowledge and behavior measures from the Basic Research Factors Questionnaire, developed to capture specific themes contributing to children’s oral health outcomes and influence of caregivers. Methods Data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial (N=992) aimed at reducing dental caries in young children. Participants were American Indian/Alaska Native caregivers with a child aged three to five years enrolled in a Navajo Nation Head Start Center. Caregivers completed the questionnaire at enrollment with concomitant evaluation of children for decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs). Oral health knowledge and behavior outcomes were compared with convergent measures (participant sociodemographic characteristics, oral health attitudes, indicators of oral health status). Results Caregiver oral health knowledge was significantly associated with education, income, oral health behavior, and all but one of the oral health attitude measures. Behavior was significantly associated with several measures of oral health attitudes and all but one measure of oral health status. As the behavior score improved, dmfs declined, child/caregiver overall oral health status improved, and pediatric oral health quality of life improved. Conclusions Questionnaire measures were valid for predicting specific caregiver factors potentially contributing to children’s oral health status. PMID:26892215

  16. The Relationship between Radon Knowledge, Concern and Behavior, and Health Values, Health Locus of Control and Preventive Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Cassondra Jeanne

    1991-01-01

    A survey returned by 300 homeowners (50 percent) in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations found that, although 64 percent were concerned, only 7 percent tested their homes. Findings indicate the need for more education about radon and its health effects. (JOW)

  17. A customizable mobile tool for supporting health behavior interventions.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Esa; Salminen, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    Recorded self-observations on a regular basis is an important component in many health behavior interventions. Using information and communication technologies (ICT) and especially mobile eHealth applications is a promising way of improving user-friendliness and possibly the overall effectiveness of self-monitoring. Mobility as such brings the added value of continuous availability and timely information access. One additional benefit of ICT based solutions is the possibility for various types of customization, allowing support for a wider set of application requirements than was originally planned, and meeting changing needs and targets of individuals, groups or larger user segments. In this paper, we present a customizable mobile application for recording and managing health related self-observations, Wellness Diary, and the ideas and technical solutions for supporting tailoring of the application. The main idea is to allow end-users to freely change the data model in the application, and customize related data presentations. This work has been done in Nuadu ITEA project, as well as further work where the effectiveness of the mobile tool and other ICT technologies will be investigated in a controlled trial in Finland. We'll also present shortly a counterpart for the mobile application, a web service that should bring some added value for the end user. PMID:18003358

  18. The integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Flynn, Brian W; Schonfeld, David; Brown, Lisa M; Jacobs, Gerard A; Dodgen, Daniel; Donato, Darrin; Kaul, Rachel E; Stone, Brook; Norwood, Ann E; Reissman, Dori B; Herrmann, Jack; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Jones, Russell T; Ruzek, Josef I; Ursano, Robert J; Taylor, Robert J; Lindley, David

    2012-03-01

    The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice.

  19. Prioritizing multiple health behavior change research topics: expert opinions in behavior change science.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katie; Park, Eunhee; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) approaches are understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic MHBC research direction. This cross-sectional study contacted participants through the Society of Behavioral Medicine email listservs and rated the importance of 24 MHBC research topics (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) separately for general and underserved populations. Participants (n = 76) were 79 % female; 76 % White, 10 % Asian, 8 % African American, 5 % Hispanic, and 1 % Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Top MHBC research priorities were predictors of behavior change and the sustainability, long-term effects, and dissemination/translation of interventions for both populations. Recruitment and retention of participants (t(68) = 2.17, p = 0.000), multi-behavioral indices (t(68) = 3.54, p = 0.001), and measurement burden (t(67) = 5.04, p = 0.001) were important for the underserved. Results identified the same top research priorities across populations. For the underserved, research should emphasize recruitment, retention, and measurement burden.

  20. Prioritizing multiple health behavior change research topics: expert opinions in behavior change science.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katie; Park, Eunhee; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) approaches are understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic MHBC research direction. This cross-sectional study contacted participants through the Society of Behavioral Medicine email listservs and rated the importance of 24 MHBC research topics (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) separately for general and underserved populations. Participants (n = 76) were 79 % female; 76 % White, 10 % Asian, 8 % African American, 5 % Hispanic, and 1 % Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Top MHBC research priorities were predictors of behavior change and the sustainability, long-term effects, and dissemination/translation of interventions for both populations. Recruitment and retention of participants (t(68) = 2.17, p = 0.000), multi-behavioral indices (t(68) = 3.54, p = 0.001), and measurement burden (t(67) = 5.04, p = 0.001) were important for the underserved. Results identified the same top research priorities across populations. For the underserved, research should emphasize recruitment, retention, and measurement burden. PMID:27356992

  1. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  2. Serious Video Games for Health How Behavioral Science Guided the Development of a Serious Video Game.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano

    2010-08-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among youth, two health problems increasing in prevalence. It demonstrates how video game designers and behavioral scientists can combine their unique talents to create a highly focused serious video game that entertains while promoting behavior change.

  3. High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

    2007-01-01

    The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…

  4. Applying the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to Rural Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Yasenka

    2001-01-01

    Determined current health risk behaviors of rural college freshmen using elements of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS). Student surveys indicated that for some behaviors, the incidence among these rural students was higher than the incidence among freshmen from the NCHRBS (e.g., binge drinking, ever smoking marijuana, and…

  5. Serious Video Games for Health: How Behavioral Science Guided the Development of a Serious Video Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game…

  6. Serious video games for health: How behavioral science guided the development of a serious video game

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specifi...

  7. Assessing the Competency of Bachelor-Level Behavioral Health Professionals: Implications for Training or Supervision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Paula Sanders

    2013-01-01

    Governmental organizations, community agencies, and behavioral health consumers are concerned about the competency of behavioral healthcare workers. Studies indicate that education is needed to improve the quality of the behavioral health workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the competencies workers perceive they need to develop and…

  8. Effect of College Health Course Enrollment on Interest, Knowledge and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Britney A.

    2009-01-01

    Health of college students is a national public health concern, however general health courses which cover topics of concern such as responsible sexual behaviors, alcoholism, drug abuse, tobacco use, nutrition, weight management, cardiovascular health, and mental health issues are rarely a required course for college students. University health…

  9. Health-Seeking Behaviors of Elderly Chinese Americans: Shifts in Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Elaine C.; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Silverstein, Merril; Cody, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study reported a qualitative analysis of health-seeking behaviors of community-dwelling elderly Chinese Americans on the influences of family network, cultural values, and immigrant experience in their use of health resources. Barriers to health care, pathway of health care, and adaptation of health care by use of self-treatment and…

  10. Gender, Health Behavior, and Intimate Relationships: Lesbian, Gay, and Straight Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N=100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of “health behavior work” to align activities done to promote health behavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized health behavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner’s health behavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized health behavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents—but few straight respondents—also describe cooperative health behavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another’s health behaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for health behavior work. PMID:22227238

  11. Health risk behaviors and dating violence victimization: An examination of associated risk behaviors among detained female youth

    PubMed Central

    King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice

    2016-01-01

    There are many health risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents’ health risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors. PMID:26408099

  12. Health-Risk Behaviors and Dating Violence Victimization: An Examination of the Associated Risk Behaviors Among Detained Female Youth.

    PubMed

    King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice

    2015-01-01

    There are many health-risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health-risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents' health-risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors, and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug, and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors. PMID:26408099

  13. Do Children with Multiple Patterns of Problem Behavior Improve? The Effectiveness of an Intensive Bio-Behaviorally Oriented School-Based Behavioral Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cautilli, Joseph; Harrington, Nadine; Gillam, Emma Vila; Denning, Jamie; Helwig, Ileana; Ettingoff, Andrea; Valdes, Antonio; Angert, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, children's behavioral health services in the school have witnessed drastic progress. Over this time, medications for mental health problems have improved. In addition, empirically validated treatments, most of which have come from behavioral psychology, have made their way into Best Practice guidelines for the treatment…

  14. Modifying Health Behavior for Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention with the Health Belief Model and Social Support Theory.

    PubMed

    Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health problem in Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), endemic among human populations in northeast and north Thailand where raw fish containing fluke metacercariae are frequently consumed. Recently, Thailand public health authorities have been organized to reduce morbidity and mortality particularly in the northeast through O. viverrini and CCA screening projects. Health modfication is one of activities included in this campaign, but systemic guidelines of modifying and developing health behavior for liver flukes and CCA prevention in communities towards health belief and social support theory are still various and unclear. Here we review the guidelines for modifying and developing health behavior among populations in rural communities to strengthen understanding regarding perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to liver fluke and CCA prevention. This model may be useful for public health of cancers and related organizations to further health behavior change in endemic areas. PMID:27644606

  15. Preventing Behavior Problems and Health-risking Behaviors in Girls in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D.; Smith, Dana K.

    2007-01-01

    Transition into middle school presents complex challenges, including exposure to a larger peer group, increased expectations for time management and self-monitoring, renegotiation of rules with parents, and pubertal changes. For children in foster care, this transition is complicated by their maltreatment histories, living situation changes, and difficulty explaining their background to peers and teachers. This vulnerability is especially pronounced for girls in foster care, who have often experienced sexual abuse and are at risk for associating with older antisocial males. Failures in middle school can initiate processes with cascading negative effects, including delinquency, substance abuse, mental health problems, and health-risking sexual behaviors. An intervention is described to prevent these problems along with a research design aimed at testing the intervention efficacy underlying mechanisms of change. PMID:18176629

  16. General Medical and Pharmacy Claims Expenditures in Users of Behavioral Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Kathol, Roger G; McAlpine, Donna; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Spies, Robert; Meller, William; Bernhardt, Terence; Eisenberg, Steven; Folkert, Keith; Gold, William

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify the magnitude of general medical and/or pharmacy claims expenditures for individuals who use behavioral health services and to assess future claims when behavioral service use persists. DESIGN Retrospective cost trends and 24-month cohort analyses. SETTING A Midwest health plan. PARTICIPANTS Over 250,000 health plan enrollees during 2000 and 2001. MEASUREMENTS Claims expenditures for behavioral health services, general medical services, and prescription medications. MAIN RESULTS Just over one tenth of enrollees (10.7%) in 2001 had at least 1 behavioral health claim and accounted for 21.4% of total general medical, behavioral health, and pharmacy claims expenditures. Costs for enrollees who used behavioral health services were double that for enrollees who did not use such services. Almost 80% of health care costs were for general medical services and medications, two thirds of which were not psychotropics. Total claims expenditures in enrollees with claims for both substance use and mental disorders in 2000 were 4 times that of those with general medical and/or pharmacy claims only. These expenditures returned to within 15% of nonbehavioral health service user levels in 2001 when clinical need for behavioral health services was no longer required but increased by another 37% between 2000 and 2001 when both chemical dependence and mental health service needs persisted. CONCLUSIONS The majority of total claims expenditures in patients who utilize behavioral health services are for medical, not behavioral, health benefits. Continued service use is associated with persistently elevated total general medical and pharmacy care costs. These findings call for studies that better delineate: 1) the interaction of general medical, pharmacy, and behavioral health service use and 2) clinical and/or administrative approaches that reverse the high use of general medical resources in behavioral health patients. PMID:15836550

  17. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Behavioral Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Behavioral Health Care To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM Service ... individuals should be involved in their own behavioral health care. These efforts to increase consumer awareness and involvement ...

  18. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  19. When Frontline Practice Innovations Are Ahead of the Health Policy Community: The Example of Behavioral Health and Primary Care Integration.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in health care delivery often far outpaces the speed at which health policy changes to accommodate this innovation. Integrating behavioral health and primary care is a promising approach to defragment health care and help health care achieve the triple aim of decreasing costs, improving outcomes, and enhancing patients' experiences. However, the problem remains that health policy does not frequently support the integration of care. This commentary describes some of the reasons policy falters as well as potential opportunities to begin to influence health policy to better support practices that take an integrated approach to health care.

  20. Small grant management in health and behavioral sciences: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Sakraida, Teresa J; D'Amico, Jessica; Thibault, Erica

    2010-08-01

    This article describes considerations in health and behavioral sciences small grant management and describes lessons learned during post-award implementation. Using the components by W. Sahlman [Sahlman, W. (1997). How to write a great business plan. Harvard Business Review, 75(4), 98-108] as a business framework, a plan was developed that included (a) building relationships with people in the research program and with external parties providing key resources, (b) establishing a perspective of opportunity for research advancement, (c) identifying the larger context of scientific culture and regulatory environment, and (d) anticipating problems with a flexible response and rewarding teamwork. Small grant management included developing a day-to-day system, building a grant/study program development plan, and initiating a marketing plan.

  1. Small grant management in health and behavioral sciences: Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Sakraida, Teresa J; D'Amico, Jessica; Thibault, Erica

    2010-08-01

    This article describes considerations in health and behavioral sciences small grant management and describes lessons learned during post-award implementation. Using the components by W. Sahlman [Sahlman, W. (1997). How to write a great business plan. Harvard Business Review, 75(4), 98-108] as a business framework, a plan was developed that included (a) building relationships with people in the research program and with external parties providing key resources, (b) establishing a perspective of opportunity for research advancement, (c) identifying the larger context of scientific culture and regulatory environment, and (d) anticipating problems with a flexible response and rewarding teamwork. Small grant management included developing a day-to-day system, building a grant/study program development plan, and initiating a marketing plan. PMID:20643328

  2. HIV and/or AIDS-related deaths and modifiable risk factors: A descriptive study of medical admissions at Oshakati Intermediate Hospital in Northern Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Mgori, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background High rates of HIV infection have decreased life expectancy in many African countries. Regardless of worldwide efforts to escalate treatment, care and prevention strategies, the number of deaths due to AIDS-related disorders is still high. Local healthcare workers suspect that there are modifiable factors in the care of HIV and/or AIDS patients which can be identified and improved. Aim To describe the HIV and/or AIDS-related causes of adult mortality and identify modifiable factors amongst patients admitted to Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, northern Namibia. Methods Data was extracted retrospectively and coded using the modified CoDe protocol for AIDS. Modifiable factors relating to the patient, health system or clinical care were identified using a standardised data collection tool. Results A total of 177 HIV and/or AIDS patients were identified, 94 (53.1%) were male and 120 (68%) had a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mL. The common HIV-related causes of death were tuberculosis (25.9%), renal failure (15.8%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (11.3%), cryptococcal meningitis (9%), HIV wasting syndrome (7.9%) and AIDS-defining malignancy (7.9%). The analysis revealed 281 modifiable factors; patient-related factors were the most common (153 [54.4%]), followed by health system factors (97 [34.5%]) and healthcare personnel factors (31 [11%]). Conclusion Our findings have highlighted the challenges in overall HIV and/or AIDS inpatient care and surrounding primary care facilities. The identification of specific modifiable factors can be used to reduce mortality by providing training as well as rational monitoring, planning and resource allocation.

  3. Delivering On Accountable Care: Lessons From A Behavioral Health Program To Improve Access And Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Robin M A; Jeffrey, Jessica; Grossman, Mark; Strouse, Thomas; Gitlin, Michael; Skootsky, Samuel A

    2016-08-01

    Patients with behavioral health disorders often have worse health outcomes and have higher health care utilization than patients with medical diseases alone. As such, people with behavioral health conditions are important populations for accountable care organizations (ACOs) seeking to improve the efficiency of their delivery systems. However, ACOs have historically faced numerous barriers in implementing behavioral health population-based programs, including acquiring reimbursement, recruiting providers, and integrating new services. We developed an evidence-based, all-payer collaborative care program called Behavioral Health Associates (BHA), operated as part of UCLA Health, an integrated academic medical center. Building BHA required several innovations, which included using our enterprise electronic medical record for behavioral health referrals and documentation; registering BHA providers with insurance plans' mental health carve-out products; and embedding BHA providers in primary care practices throughout the UCLA Health system. Since 2012 BHA has more than tripled the number of patients receiving behavioral health services through UCLA Health. After receiving BHA treatment, patients had a 13 percent reduction in emergency department use. Our efforts can serve as a model for other ACOs seeking to integrate behavioral health care into routine practice.

  4. Delivering On Accountable Care: Lessons From A Behavioral Health Program To Improve Access And Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Robin M A; Jeffrey, Jessica; Grossman, Mark; Strouse, Thomas; Gitlin, Michael; Skootsky, Samuel A

    2016-08-01

    Patients with behavioral health disorders often have worse health outcomes and have higher health care utilization than patients with medical diseases alone. As such, people with behavioral health conditions are important populations for accountable care organizations (ACOs) seeking to improve the efficiency of their delivery systems. However, ACOs have historically faced numerous barriers in implementing behavioral health population-based programs, including acquiring reimbursement, recruiting providers, and integrating new services. We developed an evidence-based, all-payer collaborative care program called Behavioral Health Associates (BHA), operated as part of UCLA Health, an integrated academic medical center. Building BHA required several innovations, which included using our enterprise electronic medical record for behavioral health referrals and documentation; registering BHA providers with insurance plans' mental health carve-out products; and embedding BHA providers in primary care practices throughout the UCLA Health system. Since 2012 BHA has more than tripled the number of patients receiving behavioral health services through UCLA Health. After receiving BHA treatment, patients had a 13 percent reduction in emergency department use. Our efforts can serve as a model for other ACOs seeking to integrate behavioral health care into routine practice. PMID:27503975

  5. Amplifying Health Through Community Gardens: A Framework for Advancing Multicomponent, Behaviorally Based Neighborhood Interventions.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions. PMID:27379424

  6. Amplifying Health Through Community Gardens: A Framework for Advancing Multicomponent, Behaviorally Based Neighborhood Interventions.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions.

  7. Genetic counseling content: How does it impact health behavior?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Porter, Kyle; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Women with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer face decisions about screening (transvaginal ultrasound, CA125, mammography, breast exams) and proactive (before cancer) or reactive (after cancer) surgery (oophorectomy, mastectomy). The content of genetic counseling and its relation to these key health behaviors is largely unexamined. Ashkenazi Jewish women (n = 78) were surveyed through the process of genetic testing and had audiorecorded counseling sessions available for Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count analysis. Proportions for participant and counselor cognitive and affective content during sessions were used as primary predictor variables in linear mixed models for change in intentions for screening and treatment and in self-reported screening. Cognitive and affective content were important predictors of behavior. Counselor cognitive content was associated with ovarian screening. An interaction effect also emerged for CA-125, such that counselor cognitive content plus participant cognitive content or counselor affective content were associated with more screening. Teasing out the factors in risk communication that impact decision-making are critical, and affect from a risk communicator can spur action, such as cancer screening.

  8. Genetic counseling content: How does it impact health behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Porter, Kyle; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Women with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer face decisions about screening (transvaginal ultrasound, CA125, mammography, breast exams) and proactive (before cancer) or reactive (after cancer) surgery (oophorectomy, mastectomy). The content of genetic counseling and its relation to these key health behaviors is largely unexamined. Ashkenazi Jewish women (n = 78) were surveyed through the process of genetic testing and had audiorecorded counseling sessions available for Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count analysis. Proportions for participant and counselor cognitive and affective content during sessions were used as primary predictor variables in linear mixed models for change in intentions for screening and treatment and in self-reported screening. Cognitive and affective content were important predictors of behavior. Counselor cognitive content was associated with ovarian screening. An interaction effect also emerged for CA-125, such that counselor cognitive content plus participant cognitive content or counselor affective content were associated with more screening. Teasing out the factors in risk communication that impact decision-making are critical, and affect from a risk communicator can spur action, such as cancer screening. PMID:25533642

  9. Examining the utility of behavioral health integration in well-child visits: implications for rural settings.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer D; Garbacz, S Andrew; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Frerichs, Lynae; Gathje, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of integrating behavioral health services into well-child visits in underserved, remote, and/or fringe areas. Specifically, the following were examined: the structure of the well-child visit for standard care in comparison to when a behavioral health provider was integrated into the visit and the effect of integrating a behavioral health provider on behavioral health topics covered and parent satisfaction. Participants were 94 caregivers of children attending well-child visits. Group differences were examined for participants in well-child visits with a behavioral health provider and participants in a standard well-child visit. Findings suggest a statistically significant increase in caregiver-rated perception for the number of topics covered with the integration of a behavioral health provider in the well-child visits. No significant effects of caregiver-rated helpfulness or satisfaction were observed. Implications for the findings and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Health Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors in Menopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrami, Fereshte Shabani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining health promoting lifestyle behaviors of age-specific groups of women provides valuable information for designing health promotion intervention programs. Hence the present study was conducted to assess health promoting lifestyle behaviors in menopausal women. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study examined health promoting lifestyle behaviors in 400 menopausal women admitted to health care centers in Neka city-north of Iran-from March 2015 to July 2015. Health promoting lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a demographic characteristics form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) through simple convenience sampling. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistics at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: The mean score of participants’ health promoting lifestyle behaviors was 136.43±19.61, ranging from 88 to 194. The logistic regression test revealed women’s health promoting lifestyle behaviors to be significantly related to their place of residence (P=0.009, odds ratio=1.73) and their spouse’s level of education (P=0.027, odds ratio=0.58). The Pearson correlation test showed significant relationships between mean score of the six sub-scale of health promoting lifestyle behaviors with each other (P<0.001). Conclusion: These findings have implications for addressing the role of men to promote health promoting lifestyle behaviors among rural menopausal women.

  11. The Affordable Care Act and integrated behavioral health programs in community health centers to promote utilization of mental health services among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susan; Fong, Susana; Duong, Thomas; Quach, Thu

    2016-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act has greatly expanded health care coverage and recognizes mental health as a major priority. However, individuals suffering from mental health disorders still face layered barriers to receiving health care, especially Asian Americans. Integration of behavioral health services within primary care is a viable way of addressing underutilization of mental health services. This paper provides insight into a comprehensive care approach integrating behavioral health services into primary care to address underutilization of mental health services in the Asian American population. True integration of behavioral health services into primary care will require financial support and payment reform to address multi-disciplinary care needs and optimize care coordination, as well as training and workforce development early in medical and mental health training programs to develop the skills that aid prevention, early identification, and intervention. Funding research on evidence-based practice oriented to the Asian American population needs to continue. PMID:27188196

  12. Perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors of African-American and White informal caregivers of impaired elders.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Patricia E; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Wykle, May L

    2005-07-01

    Caregiving and its consequences are major concerns for nurses. Many studies have examined health-promoting behaviors in general (Duffy, 1993; Walker, Volkan, Sechrist, & Pender, 1988), but few studies have explored health-promoting behaviors of caregivers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age, gender, race, and length of caregiving on perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors of African-American and White informal caregivers of impaired elders. Data from a larger study was used to examine a conceptual model linking perceived health status and health-promoting behavior. A sample of 136 (n = 136) African-American and 257 (n = 257) White caregivers was recruited from northeastern Ohio through random digit dialing and interviewed face to face. English-speaking caregivers were selected for study who provided unpaid assistance or care for a minimum of five hours a week to an impaired person 60 years of age or older living in the community. The Health-Promoting Behavior Questionnaire, perceived health status, and a demographic profile were used to measure the study variables. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. Findings from this study suggest that the overall fit of the conceptual model was significant, and that moreover, the relationship found between perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors supported Pender's model of health promotion (Pender, 1987). The relationship between perceived health status and health-promoting behaviors has not been documented in prior studies of caregivers, or in studies comparing the two racial groups of African-Americans and Whites. PMID:16255310

  13. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  14. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  15. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  16. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  17. Current Trends in the study of Gender Norms and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; Agnew-Brune, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Gender norms are recognized as one of the major social determinants of health and gender norms can have implications for an individual’s health behaviors. This paper reviews the recent advances in research on the role of gender norms on health behaviors most associated with morbidity and mortality. We find that (1) the study of gender norms and health behaviors is varied across different types of health behaviors, (2) research on masculinity and masculine norms appears to have taken on an increasing proportion of studies on the relationship between gender norms and health, and (3) we are seeing new and varied populations integrated into the study of gender norms and health behaviors. PMID:26075291

  18. Integrating Health Behavior Theory and Design Elements in Serious Games

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs FG; Bridgman, Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better informed serious games. Objective To elucidate design elements important in SPARX, a serious game for adolescents with depression, from a user-centered perspective. Methods We proposed a model based on an established theory of health behavior change and practical features of serious game design to organize ideas and rationale. We analyzed data from 5 studies comprising a total of 22 focus groups and 66 semistructured interviews conducted with youth and families in New Zealand and Australia who had viewed or used SPARX. User perceptions of the game were applied to this framework. Results A coherent framework was established using the three constructs of self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence, and relatedness, to organize user perceptions and design elements within four areas important in design: computer game, accessibility, working alliance, and learning in immersion. User perceptions mapped well to the framework, which may assist developers in understanding the context of user needs. By mapping these elements against the constructs of SDT, we were able to propose a sound theoretical base for the model. Conclusions This study’s method allowed for the articulation of design elements in a serious game from a user-centered perspective within a coherent overarching framework. The framework can be used to deliberately incorporate serious game design elements that support a user’s sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, key constructs which have been found

  19. Health Status during College Students' Transition to Adulthood: Health Behaviors, Negative Experiences, and the Mediating Effects of Personal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenzig, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    University attendance includes various activities and experiences that can have a unique impact on psychosocial development and adult health behaviors, and can influence life course outcomes such as short- and long-term health and quality of life. College attendance and health are cyclical and reinforcing factors. Healthier students do better…

  20. The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

  1. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-12-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations.

  2. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care

    PubMed Central

    Jimison, Holly B.; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M.; Saranummi, Niilo

    2016-01-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations. PMID:26441408

  3. Behavioral Informatics and Computational Modeling in Support of Proactive Health Management and Care.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M; Saranummi, Niilo

    2015-12-01

    Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations. PMID:26441408

  4. A Bidirectional Relationship between Executive Function and Health Behavior: Evidence, Implications, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Julia L.; McMinn, David; Daly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy aging. PMID:27601977

  5. A Bidirectional Relationship between Executive Function and Health Behavior: Evidence, Implications, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Julia L.; McMinn, David; Daly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy aging.

  6. Racial discrimination and health-promoting vs damaging behaviors among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope

    2012-11-01

    Studies have found relationships between racial discrimination and increased health-damaging behaviors among African-Americans, but have not examined possible concomitant decreased health-promoting behaviors. We explored the role of discrimination in two health-promoting behaviors, consuming ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables daily (FVC) and physical activity (PA), for the first time, and likewise examined discrimination's contribution to cigarette smoking, among a sample of N = 2118 African-American adults. Results revealed that discrimination contributed positively to smoking and to PA but was unrelated to FVC. These findings suggest that both adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors might be used to cope with the stress of discrimination.

  7. A Bidirectional Relationship between Executive Function and Health Behavior: Evidence, Implications, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Allan, Julia L; McMinn, David; Daly, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy aging. PMID:27601977

  8. Primary sources of health information: comparisons in the domain of health attitudes, health cognitions, and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2004-01-01

    The recent growth in consumer autonomy in health care accompanied by the surge in the use of new media for health information gathering has led to an increasing scholarly interest in understanding the consumer health information search construct. This article explores consumer health information seeking in the realm of the primary sources of health information used by consumers. Based on an analysis of the 1999 HealthStyles data, the paper demonstrates that active communication channels such as interpersonal communication, print readership, and Internet communication serve as primary health information sources for health-conscious, health-information oriented individuals with strong health beliefs, and commitment to healthy activities. On the other hand, passive consumption channels such as television and radio serve as primary health information resources for individuals who are not health-oriented. Media planning implications are drawn from the results, suggesting that broadcast outlets with an entertainment orientation are better suited for prevention campaigns. Such channels provide suitable sites for entertainment-education. On the other hand, print media, interpersonal networks, and the Internet are better suited for communicating about health issues to the health-active consumer segment.

  9. Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of health promotion has emphasized the reduction of health risk behaviors to reduce disease and impairment. Well-being research expands this focus to include positive constructs such as thriving, productivity, life-evaluation, and emotional and physical health. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between health risk behaviors and specific measures of individual well-being. Participants (N = 790) from 49 states completed a one-time online assessment that included the Life-Evaluation Index, Emotional and Physical Health Ladders, the Health Risk Intervention Assessment, and the Work Productivity and Activity Improvement Questionnaire for General Health. Life Evaluation and physical and emotional health were all inversely related to the number of health risk behaviors, with higher well-being scores associated with lower number of risk behaviors. Across the three Life Evaluation categories (Suffering, Struggling, and Thriving) the number of health risk behaviors decreased, productivity loss decreased, and emotional and physical health increased. The results add to previous research on how reducing multiple health risk behaviors can be combined with well-being, i.e., an emphasis on increasing life-evaluation, emotional and physical health, better functioning, and productivity.

  10. A Technical Assistance Framework to Facilitate the Delivery of Integrated Behavioral Health Services in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs).

    PubMed

    Chaple, Michael; Sacks, Stanley; Randell, Joan; Kang, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    An implementation approach, featuring direct, onsite technical assistance is described, and findings from a pilot study assessing the capability of Federally Qualified Health Centers to provide integrated behavioral health services are presented. Investigators used the Behavioral Health Integration in Medical Care (BHIMC) index to measure integration at baseline and follow-up at four FQHCs in New Jersey. Results indicate that the average baseline capability score of 1.95 increased to 2.44 at follow-up, almost one-half point on the five-point BHIMC index. This pilot project demonstrates that co-occurring capability can be assessed, and system-wide technical assistance can be delivered to assist FQHCs in integrating behavioral health services. Future research should test technical assistance as an implementation strategy to promote the integration of medical care and behavioral health treatment on a wider scale.

  11. Health Behaviors and Health Status of At-Risk Latino Students for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Santos, Silvia; Reynosa, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined the behavioral lifestyle patterns and health status of at-risk Latino college students for future diabetes onset in relation to their age, gender, and acculturation status. Participants were 156 Latino (34% male and 66% female) university students who had a first and/or second degree relative afflicted with diabetes. Findings indicated that Latino students exhibit similar lifestyle patterns in terms of dietary intake, physical activity, and drinking and smoking behaviors observed in the general and college population that have been linked to obesity—a particularly problematic risk factor among those who already have a genetic predisposition for diabetes. The reported findings are of importance for the development of culturally-relevant treatment interventions targeting young Latinos in college. PMID:26566366

  12. One-stop shopping: efforts to integrate physical and behavioral health care in five California community health centers.

    PubMed

    Pourat, Nadereh; Hadler, Max W; Dixon, Brittany; Brindis, Claire

    2015-01-01

    More than 70 percent of behavioral health conditions are first diagnosed in the primary care setting. Yet physical and behavioral health care are typically provided separately, compelling many vulnerable patients to navigate the complexities of two separate systems of care. This policy brief examines five community health centers (CHCs) in California that have taken preliminary steps toward creating "one-stop shopping" for both physical and behavioral health care. The steps taken to increase integration by the CHCs include employing behavioral health providers, using a single electronic health record that includes both physical and behavioral health data, transforming the physical space, and developing mechanisms for effective transition of patients between providers. The findings emphasize the importance of changes to Medi-Cal reimbursement policies to promote same-day visits, as well as the importance of cultural changes to integrate behavioral health. They also highlight the need for comprehensive tools to assess and promote integration and to identify solutions for the most challenging activities required to achieve full integration.

  13. Prevalence of Health-Related Behaviors among Physicians and Medical Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Sharon K.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Dorsey, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the prevalence of health-promoting and health-risking behaviors among physicians and physicians-in-training. Given the significant potential for negative outcomes to physicians' own health as well as the health and safety of their patients, examination of the natural history of this acculturation process about…

  14. Consumer Health Information Behavior in Public Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Yong Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…

  15. Weight Misperception and Health Risk Behaviors in Youth: the 2011 US YRBS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yongwen; Kempner, Marga; Loucks, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate dose-response associations between misperceived weight and 32 health risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Methods Participants included 13,864 US high school students in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Comparing the degree of agreement between perceived and reported actual weight, weight misperception was determined as 5 categories. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of weight misperception with 32 health risk behaviors. Results Both underestimated and overestimated weight were statistically significantly associated with all 32 health risk behaviors in a dose-response manner after adjustment for age, sex and race/ethnicity, where greater weight misperception was associated with higher engagement in health risk behaviors. Conclusions Understanding potential impacts of weight misperception on health risk behaviors could improve interventions that encourage healthy weight perception and attainment for adolescents. PMID:24933146

  16. Integrating multiple health behavior theories into program planning: the PER worksheet.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Marietta A; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-01

    The foundation of a logic model or any theory-based planning model is the identification of the behavioral antecedents and the relationship of these variables to the target behavior. Applying theoretical concepts to specific behaviors and populations is often challenging for practitioners and program planning students. The challenge comes from the abstract definition of theoretical constructs, the duplication of similar constructs in multiple theories, and the need to combine multiple theories. To simplify the planning process when utilizing logic models and health behavior theory, we recommend the use of the PER Worksheet. The PER Worksheet is a planning tool that provides layman-term prompts for identifying health behavior antecedents. It encompasses five common health behavior theories-health belief model, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, an ecological perspective, and transtheoretical model. The PER Worksheet is organized into three columns: Predisposing, Enabling, and Reinforcing factors, terms of the PRECEDE/PROCEED model.

  17. The Impact Of Medicare ACOs On Improving Integration And Coordination Of Physical And Behavioral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Catherine A; Henke, Rachel M; Crable, Erica; Hohlbauch, Andriana; Cummings, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    The accountable care organization (ACO) model holds the promise of reducing costs and improving the quality of care by realigning payment incentives to focus on health outcomes instead of service volume. One key to managing the total cost of care is improving care coordination for and treatment of people with behavioral health disorders. We examined qualitative data from ninety organizations participating in Medicare ACO demonstration programs from 2012 through 2015 to determine whether and how they focused on behavioral health care. These ACOs had mixed degrees of engagement in improving behavioral health care for their populations. The biggest challenges included a lack of behavioral health care providers, data availability, and sustainable financing models. Nonetheless, we found substantial interest in integrating behavioral health care into primary care across a majority of the ACOs. PMID:27385242

  18. The Impact Of Medicare ACOs On Improving Integration And Coordination Of Physical And Behavioral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Catherine A; Henke, Rachel M; Crable, Erica; Hohlbauch, Andriana; Cummings, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    The accountable care organization (ACO) model holds the promise of reducing costs and improving the quality of care by realigning payment incentives to focus on health outcomes instead of service volume. One key to managing the total cost of care is improving care coordination for and treatment of people with behavioral health disorders. We examined qualitative data from ninety organizations participating in Medicare ACO demonstration programs from 2012 through 2015 to determine whether and how they focused on behavioral health care. These ACOs had mixed degrees of engagement in improving behavioral health care for their populations. The biggest challenges included a lack of behavioral health care providers, data availability, and sustainable financing models. Nonetheless, we found substantial interest in integrating behavioral health care into primary care across a majority of the ACOs.

  19. Time to get healthy: associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:24784153

  20. Time to get healthy: associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  1. Impact of Sense of Coherence on Oral Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Elyasi, Maryam; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Badri, Parvaneh; Saltaji, Humam; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Amin, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review was to critically analyze the empirical evidence on the association between Sense of Coherence (SOC) and oral health behaviors through a systematic approach. Methods A systematic search up to April 2015 was carried out using the following electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE; ISI Web of Science; and Ovid PsychInfo. Studies were included if they evaluated the relationship between SOC and oral health behaviors including tooth cleaning, fluoride usage, dietary habits, dental attendance, and smoking. We excluded studies that only assessed the relationship between oral health status and SOC without evaluating oral health behaviors. The New Castle Ottawa (NOS) quality assessment checklist was employed to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Results Thirty-nine potential papers met the preliminary selection criteria and following a full-text review, 9 papers were finally selected for this systematic review. Results provided by the included studies indicated different levels of association between SOC and oral health behaviors. The most frequent behaviors investigated were tooth brushing and dental attendance pattern. The impact of SOC on performing positive oral health behaviors, to some extent, was related to demographic and socio-economic factors. In addition, mothers’ SOC influenced children’s oral health practices. Conclusions A more favorable oral health behavior was observed among those with a stronger SOC suggesting that the SOC can be a determinant of oral health-related behaviors including tooth brushing frequency, daily smoking, and dental attendance. PMID:26275064

  2. Women's social position and health-seeking behaviors: is the health care system accessible and responsive in Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar T; Haran, David; Hatcher, Juanita

    2008-09-01

    To make the health care system more accessible and responsive to women particularly in developing countries, it is imperative to study the health-seeking behaviors and factors determining utilization of health care services. This study was carried out in close collaboration with Aga Khan Health Services, Pakistan (AKHSP) and the Health Department of Northern Areas of Pakistan. Key findings indicate that more than one-third of women did not know the cause of their reported illness. There is a median delay of 3 days before a consultation. Local women utilize AKHSP services far more than other health services due to the quality of services offered and the availability of female health staff. The perception of receiving the required treatment is lowest for government health services. Consulting faith healers is a common practice. Health education and health promotion campaigns are needed to change existing health-seeking behaviors among women. Social arrangements should be thoughtfully considered to make the health system more responsive. More female staff needs to be deployed in government health facilities. A public-private partnership seems to provide a means to strengthen the health care system and consequently to promote women's health. PMID:18726800

  3. AIDS-Related Training in U.S. Schools of Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Yolanda E.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 70 master of social work programs to determine how curricula included instruction on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Most programs offered training in foundation areas pertinent to AIDS (health/mental health systems, practice with racial/ethnic minorities, substance abuse prevention/treatment). Over 40% of programs provided no…

  4. Health Behaviors, Mental Health, and Health Care Utilization Among Single Mothers After Welfare Reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Rehkopf, David H; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-03-15

    We studied the health of low-income US women affected by the largest social policy change in recent US history: the 1996 welfare reforms. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1993-2012), we performed 2 types of analysis. First, we used difference-in-difference-in-differences analyses to estimate associations between welfare reforms and health outcomes among the most affected women (single mothers aged 18-64 years in 1997; n = 219,469) compared with less affected women (married mothers, single nonmothers, and married nonmothers of the same age range in 1997; n = 2,422,265). We also used a synthetic control approach in which we constructed a more ideal control group for single mothers by weighting outcomes among the less affected groups to match pre-reform outcomes among single mothers. In both specifications, the group most affected by welfare reforms (single mothers) experienced worse health outcomes than comparison groups less affected by the reforms. For example, the reforms were associated with at least a 4.0-percentage-point increase in binge drinking (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 7.0) and a 2.4-percentage-point decrease in the probability of being able to afford medical care (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 4.8) after controlling for age, educational level, and health care insurance status. Although the reforms were applauded for reducing welfare dependency, they may have adversely affected health. PMID:26946395

  5. Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Gallè, Francesca; Dallolio, Laura; Marotta, Manfredo; Raggi, Alessandra; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Liguori, Giorgio; Toni, Francesco; Leoni, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users’ health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents), while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Conclusions: Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being. PMID:27213417

  6. Cultural Aspects of Health and Illness Behavior in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hartog, Joseph; Hartog, Elizabeth Ann

    1983-01-01

    Health care attitudes reflect the basic world view and values of a culture, such as how we relate to nature, other people, time, being, society versus community, children versus elders and independence versus dependence. Illness behavior determines who is vulnerable to illness and who agrees to become a patient—since only about one third of the ill will see a physician. Cultural values determine how one will behave as a patient and what it means to be ill and especially to be a hospital patient. They affect decisions about a patient's treatment and who makes the decisions. Cultural differences create problems in communication, rapport, physical examination and treatment compliance and follow through. The special meaning of medicines and diet requires particular attention. The perception of physical pain and psychologic distress varies from culture to culture and affects the attitudes and effectiveness of care-givers as much as of patients. Religious beliefs and attitudes about death, which have many cultural variations, are especially relevant to hospital-based treatment. Linguistic and cultural interpreters can be essential; they are more available than realized, though there are pitfalls in their use. Finally, one must recognize that individual characteristics may outweigh the ethnic and that a good caring relationship can compensate for many cultural missteps. PMID:6666109

  7. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.

  8. Oral-systemic health during pregnancy: exploring prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and behavioral skills.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse.

  9. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  10. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Bratton, Sally I.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzed were the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander (API) California community college students who took the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) survey. This was done to identify characteristics related to sexual behavior and choice of birth control and examine the association between condom use and history…

  11. Health Behavior among the Elderly in Turkey: An Early Evaluation of the Geroatlas Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Scientific investigations have revealed that behaviors about health and illness states are related to socioeconomic status, gender, and cultural factors. Chronic diseases and comorbidity are common in elderly people when compared to the rest of the population. Major problems of the elderly in Turkey are related to health behaviors, financial…

  12. Health Behavior Theories and Research: Implications for Suicidal Individuals' Treatment Linkage and Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Polly; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Treatment linkage and adherence to psychotherapeutic interventions can be challenging with suicidal individuals. Health behavior theories, specifically the Health Belief Model, Stages of Change, and Theory of Planned Behavior, focus on individuals' beliefs, their readiness to change, their perceptions of illness severity and "threat," their…

  13. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  14. Differences in Health Behaviors of Overweight or Obese College Students Compared to Healthy Weight Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, M. Rachel; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in college students, yet research is warranted to determine whether obesity increases the likelihood of risky health behaviors in this population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors in college students. Methods: A…

  15. Assessing Students with Serious Mental Health and Behavioral Problems: Clinical Assessment for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Conlon, Amy L.

    The current intervention trend for many of the mental health and behavioral problems faced by today's youth is an integrative approach that involves the community, families, and schools. Clinical assessment for serious mental health and behavioral problems can be an important component in the development of school-based screening programs. The…

  16. Educational Gaps in Medical Care and Health Behavior: Evidence from US Natality Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph; Price, Joshua; Simon, Kosali

    2011-01-01

    The US Natality files provide information on medical procedures and health related behavior during pregnancy and childbirth. The data set represents nearly the universe of mothers who give birth in the US, providing the most complete coverage possible of medical care and health behavior among a specific patient population. We document gaps in…

  17. Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

  18. Predicting Health Behavior Changes in Adolescents: A Tenth Grade Nutrition Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loesch-Griffin, Deborah; And Others

    Two studies investigated the utility of a Cognitive-Behavior Change model in predicting adolescents' health behavior changes. The intervention specifically aimed at increasing students' knowledge of heart healthy habits, strengthening their beliefs, attitudes, and confidence regarding their ability to improve their health habits, and providing…

  19. Health Belief Factors and Dispositional Optimism as Predictors of STD and HIV Preventive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak-Place, Jennifer; Stern, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Identifying factors predictive of youth's engaging in preventive behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV remains a prominent public health concern. The utility of the Health Belief Model (HBM) continues to be suggested in identifying preventive behaviors. This study sought to examine the full HBM, including self-efficacy,…

  20. Federal spending on behavioral health accelerated during recession as individuals lost employer insurance.

    PubMed

    Levit, Katharine R; Mark, Tami L; Coffey, Rosanna M; Frankel, Sasha; Santora, Patricia; Vandivort-Warren, Rita; Malone, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    The 2007-09 recession had a dramatic effect on behavioral health spending, with the effect most prominent for private, state, and local payers. During the recession behavioral health spending increased at a 4.6 percent average annual rate, down from 6.1 percent in 2004-07. Average annual growth in private behavioral health spending during the recession slowed to 2.7 percent from 7.2 percent in 2004-07. State and local behavioral health spending showed negative average annual growth, -1.2 percent, during the recession, compared with 3.7 percent increases in 2004-07. In contrast, federal behavioral health spending growth accelerated to 11.1 percent during the recession, up from 7.2 percent in 2004-07. These behavioral health spending trends were driven largely by increased federal spending in Medicaid, declining private insurance enrollment, and severe state budget constraints. An increased federal Medicaid match reduced the state share of Medicaid spending, which prevented more drastic cuts in state-funded behavioral health programs during the recession. Federal Medicaid served as a critical safety net for people with behavioral health treatment needs during the recession.