Science.gov

Sample records for aifudi plastic packaging

  1. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  2. Recycled plastics for food packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsheim, H.R.; Armstrong, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    There is a strong movement in this country to decrease the amount of waste produced and to use resources more efficiently. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is interested in helping to resolve the solid waste problem. The FDA supports recycling and the broader societal goal of diverting material from the solid waste stream, when it is consistent with the statutory responsibilities to protect the public health. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates that the FDA review the impact of new food-packaging materials on the environment. Currently, no regulations have been issued for the use of recycled polymers in contact with food. Plastics are permeable, and the possibility that a contaminant such as a pesticide or motor oil might be absorbed by a plastic container and remain in the resin after recycling is very real. The paper discusses FDA policy and research to ensure that recycled plastics are safe for food-contact use.

  3. Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

  4. Starch plastics packaging and agriculture applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental impact of petroleum-based plastics is a growing concern throughout the world. Containers and packaging comprise the largest sector of municipal solid waste and are a major component of pollution on both land and sea. Although the benefits of plastics in many consumer and industrial...

  5. 49 CFR 178.925 - Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.925 Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic Large Packagings intended to contain liquids...

  6. 49 CFR 178.925 - Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.925 Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic Large Packagings intended to contain liquids...

  7. 49 CFR 178.925 - Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.925 Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic Large Packagings intended to contain liquids...

  8. Pre-release plastic packaging of MEMS and IMEMS devices

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for pre-release plastic packaging of MEMS and IMEMS devices. The method can include encapsulating the MEMS device in a transfer molded plastic package. Next, a perforation can be made in the package to provide access to the MEMS elements. The non-ablative material removal process can include wet etching, dry etching, mechanical machining, water jet cutting, and ultrasonic machining, or any combination thereof. Finally, the MEMS elements can be released by using either a wet etching or dry plasma etching process. The MEMS elements can be protected with a parylene protective coating. After releasing the MEMS elements, an anti-stiction coating can be applied. The perforating step can be applied to both sides of the device or package. A cover lid can be attached to the face of the package after releasing any MEMS elements. The cover lid can include a window for providing optical access. The method can be applied to any plastic packaged microelectronic device that requires access to the environment, including chemical, pressure, or temperature-sensitive microsensors; CCD chips, photocells, laser diodes, VCSEL's, and UV-EPROMS. The present method places the high-risk packaging steps ahead of the release of the fragile portions of the device. It also provides protection for the die in shipment between the molding house and the house that will release the MEMS elements and subsequently treat the surfaces.

  9. Soft plastic bread packaging: lead content and reuse by families

    SciTech Connect

    Weisel, C.; Demak, M.; Marcus, S.; Goldstein, B.D. )

    1991-06-01

    The presence of lead in labels painted on soft plastic bread packaging was evaluated. Lead was detected on the outside of 17 of 18 soft plastic bread bags that were analyzed, with an average of 26 +/- 6 mg per bag with lead. Of 106 families questioned, 16 percent of respondents reported turning the bags inside out before reusing for food storage, thus putting food in contact with the lead paint. We estimate that a weak acid, such as vinegar, could readily leach 100 micrograms of lead from a painted plastic bag within 10 minutes. Further, lead and other metals painted on food packaging of any type becomes part of the municipal waste stream subject to incineration and to land-filling. The use of lead in packaging presents an unnecessary risk to public health.

  10. IC chip stress during plastic package molding

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.W.; Benson, D.A.; Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.

    1998-02-01

    Approximately 95% of the world`s integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study the authors developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over the surface of an integrated circuit during the molding process. A CMOS test chip with 25 diffused resistor stress sensors was applied to a commercial lead frame. Both compression and shear stresses were measured at all 25 locations on the surface of the chip every 50 milliseconds during molding. These measurements have a fine time and stress resolution which should allow comparison with computer simulation of the molding process, thus allowing optimization of both the manufacturing process and mold geometry.

  11. High reliability plastic packaging for microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.; Tuck, M.

    1997-07-01

    Goal was Assembly Test Chips (ATCs) which could be used for evaluating plastic encapsulation technologies. Circuits were demonstrated for measuring Au-Al wirebond and Al metal corrosion failure rates during accelerated temperature and humidity testing. The test circuits on the ATC02.5 chip were very sensitive to extrinsic or processing induced failure rates. Accelerated aging experiments were conducted with unpassivated triple track Al structures on the ATC02.6 chip; the unpassivated tracks were found to be very sensitive to particulate contamination. Some modifications to existing circuitry were suggested. The piezoresistive stress sensing circuitry designed for the ATC04 test chip was found suitable for determining the change in the state of mechanical stress at the die when both initial and final measurements were made near room temperature (RT). Attempt to measure thermal stress between RT and a typical polymer glass transition temperature failed because of excessive die resistor- substrate leakage currents at the high temperature end; suitable circuitry changes were developed to overcome this problem. One temperature and humidity experiment was conducted with Sandia developed static radom access memory parts to examine non-corrosion CMOS failures; this objective was not achieved, but corrosion failure at the metal to Si contacts on the die surface could be detected. This 2-year effort resulted in new designs for test circuits which could be used on an advanced ATC for reliability assessment in Defense Programs electronics development projects.

  12. 49 CFR 178.522 - Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... plastic receptacles. 178.522 Section 178.522 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... packagings with inner plastic receptacles. (a) The following are the identification codes for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles: (1) 6HA1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel...

  13. 49 CFR 178.522 - Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... plastic receptacles. 178.522 Section 178.522 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... packagings with inner plastic receptacles. (a) The following are the identification codes for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles: (1) 6HA1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel...

  14. 49 CFR 178.522 - Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plastic receptacles. 178.522 Section 178.522 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles. (a) The following are the identification codes for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles: (1) 6HA1 for a plastic receptacle...

  15. 49 CFR 178.522 - Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... plastic receptacles. 178.522 Section 178.522 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... packagings with inner plastic receptacles. (a) The following are the identification codes for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles: (1) 6HA1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel...

  16. 49 CFR 178.522 - Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... plastic receptacles. 178.522 Section 178.522 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... packagings with inner plastic receptacles. (a) The following are the identification codes for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles: (1) 6HA1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel...

  17. Influence of RFID tags on recyclability of plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, César; Ferreira, Beatriz; Hortal, Mercedes; Pancorbo, María Ángeles; López, José Manuel; Navas, Francisco Javier

    2011-06-01

    The use of Radio Frequency IDentification Technology (RFID) in the packaging sector is an important logistical improvement regarding the advantages offered by this technology in comparison with barcodes. Nevertheless, the presence of these devices in plastic packaging, and consequently in plastic waste, can cause several problems in the recycling plants due to the materials included in these devices. In this study, the mentioned recycling constraints have been experimentally identified in a pilot scale recycling study consisting in three recycling tests with an increasing presence of RFID tags. Differences in each test were evaluated. Furthermore, the quality of the recycled material of each test was studied through the injection and testing of tests probes. The results of the pilot scale recycling tests did not show a decrease in the quality of the recycled plastic due to the presence of RFID tags. Nevertheless, several operational problems during the recycling process were observed such as the obstruction of the screens, which lessened the process yield and created process interruptions, as well as the loss of extruded plastic during the process. These recycling constraints cannot be directly extrapolated to the industrial plants due to the different working scales. Nevertheless, technological solutions are proposed in order to avoid these recycling constraints if they appear.

  18. Glass, Plastic and Semiconductors: Packaging Techniques for Miniature Optoelectric Components

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Garrett, H.E.; Patel, R.R.; Jones II, L.M.; Larson, M.C.; Emanuel, M.A.; Bond, S.W.; Deri, R.J.; Drayton, R.F.; Peterson, H.E.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-12-20

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, they have extensive experience with the design and development of miniature photonic systems which require novel packaging schemes. Over the years they have developed silicon micro-optical benches to serve as a stable platform for precision mounting of optical and electronic components. They have developed glass ball lenses that can be fabricated in-situ on the microbench substrate. They have modified commercially available molded plastic fiber ribbon connectors (MT) and added thin film multilayer semiconductor coatings to create potentially low-cost wavelength combiners and wavelength selective filters. They have fabricated both vertical-cavity and in-plane semiconductor lasers and amplifiers, and have packaged these and other components into several miniature photonics systems. For example, they have combined the silicon optical bench with standard electronic packaging techniques and the custom-made wavelength-selective filters to develop a four-wavelength wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter module mounted in a standard 120-pin ceramic PGA package that couples light from several vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser arrays into one multimode fiber-ribbon array. The coupling loss can be as low as 2dB, and the transmitters can be operated at over 1.25 GHz. While these systems were not designed for biomedical or environmental applications, the concepts and techniques are general and widely applicable.

  19. Effects of simulant Hanford tank waste on plastic packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging components which might be used to transport mixed wastes. They mention the results of the screening phase of this program and then present the results of the second phase of this experimental program. This effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in the aqueous mixed waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately} 140, 290, 570, and 3,670 krads of gamma radiation followed by 7, 14, 28, 180 day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. From the data analysis performed to date in this study, they have identified the fluorocarbon Kel-F{trademark} as having the greatest chemical compatibility after being exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of Teflon under these conditions. The data obtained from this testing program will be available to packaging designers for the development of mixed waste packagings. The implications of the testing results on the selection of appropriate materials as packaging components are discussed.

  20. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a

  1. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Hortal, M; Aliaga, C; Devis, A; Cloquell-Ballester, V A

    2014-12-01

    Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE-Nanoclay1, PE-CaCO3, PP-Ag, PET-ZnO, PET-Ag, PET-Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET-Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more

  2. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Hortal, M; Aliaga, C; Devis, A; Cloquell-Ballester, V A

    2014-12-01

    Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE-Nanoclay1, PE-CaCO3, PP-Ag, PET-ZnO, PET-Ag, PET-Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET-Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more

  3. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles B Appendix B to Part 173 Transportation Other... Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles B Appendix B to Part 173 Transportation Other... Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles B Appendix B to Part 173 Transportation Other... Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles B Appendix B to Part 173 Transportation Other... Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 173 - Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packaging and Receptacles B Appendix B to Part 173 Transportation Other... Plastic Packaging and Receptacles 1. The purpose of this procedure is to determine the chemical compatibility and permeability of liquid hazardous materials packaged in plastic packaging and...

  8. 49 CFR 178.925 - Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS... plastic Large Packaging must be manufactured from plastic material of known specifications and be of a... to § 173.24 of this subchapter, plastic materials must be resistant to aging and to...

  9. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Adrados, A.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of plastic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different samples: real waste, simulated and real waste + catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the effects of inorganic components in the pyrolysis products. - Abstract: Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  10. Superfos Packaging: Plastics Manufacturer Saves $100,000 Per Year by Implementing Industrial Energy Assessment Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices case study based on a comprehensive plant assessment conducted at Superfos Packaging by ITP's Industrial Assessment Center in conjunction with The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

  11. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products. PMID:21795037

  12. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  13. Plastic packaging: Migration of plastics into foods. March 1972-November 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for March 1972-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the leaching of plastics and plasticizers from packaging materials into foods. Measurement of plastics in oils and dairy products is emphasized. Analytical methods, toxicology, and legislation concerning plastic migration and food safety are included. (This updated bibliography contains 191 citations, 27 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Effects of mixed waste simulants on transportation packaging plastic components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes.

  15. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: influence of reuse on intrinsic properties.

    PubMed

    Jetten, J; de, Kruijf N

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the investigations into potential adulteration effects by reuse on the intrinsic properties of plastics in more detail. The plastic articles investigated were bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) and vending cups of polypropylene (PP). The influence of repeated use on the migration of plastic constituents, degradation products of plastic additives, barrier properties and surface characteristics were investigated. The overall conclusion was that the investigated intrinsic properties of the refillable articles were not significantly influenced by repeated use. Only the hydrophobicity of the refillable PC and PP articles seemed to be influenced by repeated washing. PC bottles washed 15 times were significantly less hydrophobic than unwashed bottles.

  16. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: influence of reuse on intrinsic properties.

    PubMed

    Jetten, J; de, Kruijf N

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the investigations into potential adulteration effects by reuse on the intrinsic properties of plastics in more detail. The plastic articles investigated were bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) and vending cups of polypropylene (PP). The influence of repeated use on the migration of plastic constituents, degradation products of plastic additives, barrier properties and surface characteristics were investigated. The overall conclusion was that the investigated intrinsic properties of the refillable articles were not significantly influenced by repeated use. Only the hydrophobicity of the refillable PC and PP articles seemed to be influenced by repeated washing. PC bottles washed 15 times were significantly less hydrophobic than unwashed bottles. PMID:11811768

  17. Application of Thermo-Mechanical Measurements of Plastic Packages for Reliability Evaluation of PEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Teverovsky, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) is typically employed for measurements of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) in molding compounds used in plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs). Application of TMA measurements directly to PEMs allows anomalies to be revealed in deformation of packages with temperature, and thus indicates possible reliability concerns related to thermo-mechanical integrity and stability of the devices. In this work, temperature dependencies of package deformation were measured in several types of PEMs that failed environmental stress testing including temperature cycling, highly accelerated stress testing (HAST) in humid environments, and bum-in (BI) testing. Comparison of thermo-mechanical characteristics of packages and molding compounds in the failed parts allowed for explanation of the observed failures. The results indicate that TMA of plastic packages might be used for quality evaluation of PEMs intended for high-reliability applications.

  18. 49 CFR 178.925 - Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and... pigment content or the inhibitor content do not adversely affect the physical properties of the material... or chemical properties of the material of construction. (3) No used material other than...

  19. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    SciTech Connect

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N.; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  20. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-04-15

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10 wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9 wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76 wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75 wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7 wt.% and 3.0 wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films.

  1. An Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening for the LAMMPS Granular Package

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhr, Bryan; Brake, Matthew Robert; Lechman, Jeremy B.

    2015-03-01

    The following details the implementation of an analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening for normal im pacts into the LAMMPS granular package. The model assumes that, upon impact, the co llision has a period of elastic loading followed by a period of mixed elastic plas tic loading, with contributions to each mechanism estimated by a hyperbolic seca nt weight function. This function is implemented in the LAMMPS source code as the pair style gran/ep/history. Preliminary tests, simulating the pouring of pure nickel spheres, showed the elastic/plastic model took 1.66x as long as similar runs using gran/hertz/history.

  2. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  3. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA).

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-01

    Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of the proposed approach was also tested using two spectrometers with considerable differences in their sensitivities. Discrimination rates were not affected proving that the developed approach could be extrapolated to different spectrometers. MIR combined with ICA is a promising tool for plastic waste separation that can help improve performance in this field; however further technological improvements and developments are required before it can be applied

  4. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA).

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-01

    Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of the proposed approach was also tested using two spectrometers with considerable differences in their sensitivities. Discrimination rates were not affected proving that the developed approach could be extrapolated to different spectrometers. MIR combined with ICA is a promising tool for plastic waste separation that can help improve performance in this field; however further technological improvements and developments are required before it can be applied

  5. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified. PMID:26319625

  6. Determination of plastic additives in packaging by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María-Teresa

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method for the determination of several plastic additives in multilayer packaging based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to variable wavelength (VWD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detectors is presented. The proposed method allows the simultaneous determination of fourteen additives belonging to different families such as antioxidants, slip agents and light stabilizers, as well as two oxidation products in only 9min. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, matrix effect error, detection and quantification limits, repeatability and intermediate precision. The instrumental method showed satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision at concentrations closed to LOQ with RSDs less than 7 and 20%, respectively, and LODs until 5000 times more sensitive than other GC-FID and HPLC-VWD methods previously reported. Also, focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) was optimized and evaluated to extract plastic additives from packaging. Extraction results obtained by FUSLE and SLE were compared to those obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). All extraction methods showed excellent extraction efficiency for slip agents, however quantitative recovery of all analytes was achieved only by SLE with just 5ml of hexane for 10h. Finally, the selected method was applied to the analysis of packaging samples where erucamide, Irgafos 168, oxidized Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010 were detected and quantified.

  7. Effects of Hanford tank simulant waste on plastic packaging to components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this paper, we have performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford Tank mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in the aqueous mixed waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}1, 3, 6, and 40 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 7, 14, 28, 180 day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60{degree}C. From the limited data analyses performed to date in this study, we have identified the fluorocarbon Kel-F{trademark} as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to 40 kGy gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste at 60{degree}C. The most stricking observation from this study was the poor performance of Teflon under these conditions.

  8. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg−1, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material. PMID:25105506

  9. Prospects for application of post-consumer used plastics in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Miltz, J; Ram, A; Nir, M M

    1997-01-01

    The two most widely used polymers in packaging in recent years are polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene (PE). The biggest fractions of these polymers are not re-utilized, in spite of the fact that they possess excellent properties even after their first application. The ban on using recycled polymers in food packaging applications and the lack of good value outlets for these materials causes them to end up in landfills. The high cost nylon, used in packaging primarily as high gas barrier laminates with PE, also finds its way to landfills. In this case, the reason is the difficulty of recycling different polymers that are incompatible. Thus, the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream transferred to landfills contains many plastic packages. These packages are being blamed as a major pollutant of the environment in spite of the fact that all plastics contribute only a small percentage to the weight of the garbage in landfills. If proper and cost effective applications for the recycled polymers could be developed, the waste related to their disposal could be limited. In addition, the contribution of plastic packages to the environmental problem could be diminished. In the present paper, the possibility of sandwiching a contaminated PET layer between two layers of the virgin material was studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether such an operation could lower the migration level of contaminants from a multilayer structure (containing a recycled layer of PET) to values below the limits required by regulatory agencies. The diffusion coefficients (required to determine migration) of four organic liquids in PET were determined. As a result of the sandwiching operation, the amount of pollutant (toluene) migrating into the food simulant was reduced by two orders of magnitude. The properties of PE/nylon blends were also studied. It was found that the high gas barrier properties of nylon are preserved in the blend when proper processing conditions are used

  10. Capillary GC analysis of compounds leached into parenteral solutions packaged in plastic bags

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, R.P. )

    1989-09-01

    A number of investigators have reported finding the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in plasma, urine, and parenteral solutions. These findings have been associated with the use of polyvinyl chloride packaging materials. Capillary gas chromatography--mass spectrometry, packed column gas chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography were used for the analyses. The screening procedure described herein accurately and quantitatively analyzes the plasticizers di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dibutylphthalate and some of the degradation products plus 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol and cyclohexanone. Liquid--liquid extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography is used. Linear regression analysis of standard solutions gives correlation coefficients from 0.99963 to 0.99989 for six compounds. Recoveries for these compounds vary from 84.9% to 114% with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.51% to 6.33%.

  11. Analysis of phthalate migration from plastic containers to packaged cooking oil and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Niping; Shen, Yanyan; Xu, Shi; Zhang, Ling; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-11-10

    The migration of phthalates (PAEs), a class of typical environmental estrogen contaminants in food, from food packaging to packaged food attracts more and more attention worldwide. Many factors will affect the migration processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAE migration from plastic containers to cooking oil and mineral water packed in authentic commercial packaging and stored under various conditions (different storage temperatures, contact times, and storage states (static or dynamic state)) and to identify a potential relationship between the amount and type of PAEs migrated and the lipophilic character of the food matrix. The samples were analyzed by a novel method of liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction by an electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers mat, with PAE detection limits of 0.001 μg/L in mineral water and 0.020 μg/L in cooking oil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the cooking oil was a more suitable medium for the migration of PAEs from packages into foodstuffs than mineral water. Scilicet, the migration potential of the PAEs into foodstuffs, depends on the lipophilic characteristics of the food matrix. The results also demonstrated that migrations were more significant at higher temperature, longer contact time, and higher dynamic frequency; thus, the migration tests should be evaluated with consideration of different storage temperatures and contact times. Mathematical models with good logarithmic relationships were established to demonstrate the relationship between the PAE migration and food/packaging contact time for different storage temperatures. These established mathematical models would be expected to become a set of practical tools for the prediction of PAE migration.

  12. [Analysis of phthalates in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Ruohua

    2006-01-01

    The method for simultaneous determination of four phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in plastic food-packaging bags by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was developed. The plastic food-packaging bags were extracted with ethanol by ultrasonication, then the mixture was filtrated through membrane (0.45 microm). The mixture of ethyl acetate-anhydrous ether-isooctane (1 : 4 : 15, v/v) was used as developing agent on the TLC silica gel plate for development. The filtered liquid was spotted on the TLC plate dealt by acetone, and detected with scanning wavelength of 275 nm and reference wavelength of 340 nm. The qualitative analysis of the phthalates was performed using the R(f) values of the chromatogram. The quantitative analysis was performed with external standard method. Good linearities were obtained for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP. The detection limits were 2.1 ng for DMP, 2.4 ng for DEP, 3.4 ng for DBP and 4.0 ng for DEHP. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the four phthalates were 2.8% - 3.5%. The recoveries of the four phthalate standards in real sample were 78.58% - 111.04%. The method presented has the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment . The method was used to detect the four phthalates in the food-packaging bags. The contents in real samples were close to the results by gas chromatography.

  13. Technological substitution: the potential of plastic as primary packaging material in the US brewing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Roeleveld, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation develops a general model of technological substitution that could be of help to planners and decision makers in industry who are faced with the problems created by continual technological change. The model as presented differs from existing models in the theoretical literature because of its emphasis on analyzing current and potential technologies in an attempt to understand the underlying factors contributing to technological substitution. The general model and the cost model that is part of it belong to that step in the interactive planning cycle called the formulation of the mess. The methodology underlying the cost model is a combination of life-cycle analysis (i.e., from raw materials in nature, through all intermediate products, to waste returned to the environment) and resoumetrics, which is an engineering approach to measuring all physical inputs required to produce a certain level of output. The models are illustrated with a specific field of interest: substitution of primary packaging technologies in the US brewing industry. The physical costs of packaging beer in different containers are compared. Strategic considerations for a brewery deciding to adopt plastic packaging technology are discussed. Attention is given to another potential fruitful application of the model in the field of technology transfer to developing countries.

  14. Upgrading of recycled plastics obtained from flexible packaging waste by adding nanosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, E.; Claro, M.; Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, the growing consumption of polymer products creates large quantities of waste materials resulting in public concern in the environment and people life. The efficient treatment of polymer wastes is still a difficult challenge and the recycling process represents the best way to manage them. Recently, many researchers have tried to develop nanotechnology for polymer recycling. The products prepared through the addition of nanoparticles to post-used plastics could offer the combination of improved properties, low weight, easy of processing and low cost which is not easily and concurrently found by other methods of plastic recycling. In this study materials, obtained by the separation and mechanical recycling of post-consumer packaging films of small size (plastics (denoted as Recyclate A and Recyclate B) evidenced that they are mainly constituted of polyethylene (PE) and of a small fraction of polypropylene (PP). PE/PP incompatibility has been proved and explained in many studies reported in the literature and it represents the main reason for the unsatisfactory mechanical properties of these recycled plastics. The aim of this work was to improve the mechanical properties of these recycled polymeric mixtures by the addition of two different types of organo-modified silicates, also taking advantage of the function of nanofillers as potential blend compatibilizers. In particular, three organoclays (Dellite 67G, sepiolite PM15 and sepiolite UNISA1), differing for the morphology (lamellar or acicular) and/or the type of organic modifier, were melt compounded with the recycled materials in a twin-screw extruder. The morphological, thermal, rheological and mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites were extensively discussed.

  15. A testing program to evaluate the effects of simulant mixed wastes on plastic transportation packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.; Dickman, P.T.

    1997-08-01

    Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl rubber, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). These plastics were first screened in four simulant mixed wastes. The liner materials were screened using specific gravity measurements and seal materials by vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements. For the screening of liner materials, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals. The tests also indicated that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. Those materials which passed the screening tests were subjected to further comprehensive testing in each of the simulant wastes. The materials were exposed to four different radiation doses followed by exposure to a simulant mixed waste at three temperatures and four different exposure times (7, 14, 28, 180 days). Materials were tested by measuring specific gravity, dimensional, hardness, stress cracking, VTR, compression set, and tensile properties. The second phase of this Testing Program involving the comprehensive testing of plastic liner has been completed and for seal materials is currently in progress.

  16. Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Teresa; Durao, Fernando; Ferreira, Celia

    2010-11-15

    The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

  17. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  18. [Determination of phthalate plasticizers in daily foods and their migration from food packages].

    PubMed

    Yang, Youyou; Xie, Yunfeng; Tian, Feifei; Yang, Yongtan

    2013-07-01

    A total of 16 phthalates in food samples (beverage, milk and wine) were analyzed by y gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with the sample preparation of liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction ( dSPE ) . The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for the 16 phathalates were fairly good, ranging form 0.005 to 0.025 mg/L. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas were less than 2%, showing good repeatability. In addition, the recoveries of phthalates in various matrices were generally ranging from 60% to 110%. In conclusion, the developed method can help the trace analysis of phthalates in beverage, wine and milk. In order to strictly investigate the migration of phthalates from the daily food packages like plastic wraps and storage bags, iso-octane was used as the simulant of fatty foods. The migration determined using the above aptimized method showing the significant migration exsting in plastic wraps and some unqualified products in current market is not meeting the national regulations about the migration limits of phthalates. PMID:24164037

  19. Packaging-materials biodegradation. January 1973-April 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of packaging materials. Plastic films, cellophane, and biodegradable plastic bottles are emphasized. European, state, and local laws and regulations prohibiting the use of plastics that are not degradable are discussed. A starch-based plastic additive that promotes plastic biodegradation is briefly studied. (This updated bibliography contains 117 citations, 34 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Packaging materials biodegradation. January 1973-February 1990 (A Bibliography from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of packaging materials. Plastic films, cellophane, and biodegradable plastic bottles are emphasized. European, state, and local laws and regulations prohibiting the use of plastics that are not degradable are discussed. A starch-based plastic additive that promotes plastic biodegradation is briefly examined. (This updated bibliography contains 176 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Packaging materials biodegradation. January 1973-October 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of packaging materials. Plastic films, cellophane, and biodegradable plastic bottles are emphasized. European, state, and local laws and regulations prohibiting the use of plastics that are not degradable are discussed. A starch-based plastic additive that promotes plastic biodegradation is briefly examined. (This updated bibliography contains 150 citations, 28 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    PubMed

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  3. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications. PMID:26787952

  4. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.

  5. Determination of Polymer Additives-Antioxidants, Ultraviolet Stabilizers, Plasticizers and Photoinitiators in Plastic Food Package by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying; Su, Qi-Zhi; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of 4 antioxidants, 9 ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 12 phthalate plasticizers and 2 photoinitiators in plastic food package using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the process such as extraction and chromatographic conditions were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The analytical method of ASE-HPLC showed good linearity with good correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9833). The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.30 µg mL(-1) and between 0.10 and 1.00 µg mL(-1) for 27 analytes. Average spiked recoveries for most analytes in samples were >70.4% at 10, 20 and 40 µg g(-1) spiked levels, except UV-9 and Irganox 1010 (58.6 and 64.0% spiked at 10 µg g(-1), respectively), the relative standard deviations were in the range from 0.4 to 15.4%. The methodology has been proposed for the analysis of 27 polymer additives in plastic food package.

  6. Occurrence of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and phthalate plasticizers in samples of meat, fish, and cheese and their packaging films.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Churchill, Robin; Hilts, Carla

    2014-04-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers to soften polyvinyl chloride products. Because both DEHA and certain phthalates have been identified as priority chemicals for assessment of human health risk under the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan, a comprehensive targeted survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of DEHA and eight phthalates (di-methyl phthalate, di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, d-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di-n-octyl phthalate) in a total of 118 samples of meat (beef, pork, and chicken), fish, and cheese packaged mostly in cling films. The eight phthalates were not detected in any of the food packaging, but DEHA was detected in most of the cling films, indicating that although DEHA-plasticized films (e.g., polyvinyl chloride film) are currently being used by most grocery stores, nonplasticized cling films such as polyethylene film, are also being used by some stores. DEHA was not detected in any of the 10 cheese samples packaged in nonplasticized rigid plastics but was detected in all 30 cheese samples packaged in DEHA-plasticized cling films at levels from 0.71 to 879 μg/g, with an average of 203 μg/g. Only DEHA was detected in the beef, pork, chicken, and fish samples packaged in DEHA-plasticized cling films but at considerably lower levels than those found in cheese, with averages of 6.3, 9.1, 2.5, and 5.9 μg/g, respectively. Among the eight phthalates, only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was detected in a few cheese samples at levels from 0.29 to 15 μg/g, with an average of 2.8 μg/g; these levels were very likely due to environmental contamination. Levels of DEHA found in most of the cheese samples from this study are above the European specific migration limit of 18 mg/kg for DEHA in food or food simulants, and levels of phthalates (i.e., DEHP) were low.

  7. An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: The case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Hage, Olle Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-07-01

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  8. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics. PMID:19897949

  9. [Study of relationship between consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon on plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    Consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as indices of total organic matter migrated into water from plastic kitchen utensils, food packages and toys for children. The samples were soaked in water at 60 or 95 degrees C for 30 min for kitchen utensils and food packages, and at 40 degrees C for 30 min for toys and the eluates were examined, using the two indices. The quantitation limits were both 0.5 microg/mL. Among 97 kitchen utensils and food packages tested, consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC were 0.5-10.9 microg/mL and ND-18.9 microg/mL for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tea-pot spouts and nylon kitchen utensils, respectively. Among 32 toys tested, the levels were 0.8-45.5 microg/mL and 0.5-8.9 microg/mL from PVC toys and block toys made by ethylene vinyl acetate resin. The levels for other samples were very low. There were large discrepancies between consumption of potassium permanganate and TOC for some PVC products and nylon kitchen utensils. The cause may be a marked difference of the oxidation decomposition rate by potassium permanganate, depending on the kind of organic matter that migrated from the plastics.

  10. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: a European study to underpin future legislation.

    PubMed

    Jetten, J; de Kruijf, N; Castle, L

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal degradation effects, flavour carry-over caused by flavour and off-flavour substances, the influence of washing processes on the materials, and the efficiency of washing processes in removing off-flavour substances and surrogate substances representing misuse chemicals as might be put in bottles by consumers. The microbial safety of the refillable plastic articles in relation to commercial washing processes and the industrial procedures applied has also been investigated. Lastly, the suitability of laboratory procedures using strips of bottle material for predicting the sorption and washing properties of refillable plastic bottles has been studied. In general it is concluded that reuse of the articles does not significantly influence any of the properties investigated. Neither the chemical, physical nor surface properties seem to be significantly influenced by repeated washing. It can be concluded, however, that it is very likely that most of the articles investigated will cause flavour carry-over to a new filling if they are contaminated with strongly flavoured products. Finally it can be concluded that the procedures evaluated can serve as a basis for future legislation on refillable articles, but for several procedures (like quick predictive testing with strips) more investigation is required to create a more solid basis.

  11. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: a European study to underpin future legislation.

    PubMed

    Jetten, J; de Kruijf, N; Castle, L

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal degradation effects, flavour carry-over caused by flavour and off-flavour substances, the influence of washing processes on the materials, and the efficiency of washing processes in removing off-flavour substances and surrogate substances representing misuse chemicals as might be put in bottles by consumers. The microbial safety of the refillable plastic articles in relation to commercial washing processes and the industrial procedures applied has also been investigated. Lastly, the suitability of laboratory procedures using strips of bottle material for predicting the sorption and washing properties of refillable plastic bottles has been studied. In general it is concluded that reuse of the articles does not significantly influence any of the properties investigated. Neither the chemical, physical nor surface properties seem to be significantly influenced by repeated washing. It can be concluded, however, that it is very likely that most of the articles investigated will cause flavour carry-over to a new filling if they are contaminated with strongly flavoured products. Finally it can be concluded that the procedures evaluated can serve as a basis for future legislation on refillable articles, but for several procedures (like quick predictive testing with strips) more investigation is required to create a more solid basis. PMID:11565572

  12. Mixed waste chemical compatibility: A testing program for plastic packaging components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the United States have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). The design requirements for both hazardous [49 CFR 173.24 (e)(1)] and radioactive [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging @d any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] and Type B (10 CFR 71.43) packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program attempts to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. This program has been described in considerable detail in an internal SNL document, the Chemical Compatibility Test Plan & Procedure Report (Nigrey 1993).

  13. Recovery of polypropylene and polyethylene from packaging plastic wastes without contamination of chlorinated plastic films by the combination process of wet gravity separation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2011-08-01

    Wet gravity separation technique has been regularly practiced to separate the polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) (light plastic films) from chlorinated plastic films (CP films) (heavy plastic films). The CP films including poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and poly vinylidene chloride (PVDC) would float in water even though its density is more than 1.0g/cm(3). This is because films are twisted in which air is sometimes entrapped inside the twisted CP films in real existing recycling plant. The present research improves the current process in separating the PP and PE from plastic packaging waste (PPW), by reducing entrapped air and by increasing the hydrophilicity of the CP films surface with ozonation. The present research also measures the hydrophilicity of the CP films. In ozonation process mixing of artificial films up to 10min reduces the contact angle from 78° to 62°, and also increases the hydrophilicity of CP films. The previous studies also performed show that the artificial PVDC films easily settle down by the same. The effect of ozonation after the wet gravity separation on light PPW films obtained from an actual PPW recycling plant was also evaluated. Although actual light PPW films contained 1.3% of CP films however in present case all the CP films were removed from the PPW films as a settled fraction in the combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation. The combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation is the more beneficial process in recovering of high purity PP and PE films from the PPW films. PMID:21530222

  14. The occurrence of phthalate ester and di-2-ethylhexyl adipate plasticizers in Canadian packaging and food sampled in 1985-1989: a survey.

    PubMed

    Page, B D; Lacroix, G M

    1995-01-01

    Selected foods (260 samples) packaged in materials with the potential to contribute plasticizers to the food, and available food composites (98 samples) obtained from the Canadian Health Protection Branch Total Diet Program, were analysed for phthalate plasticizers and di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA). The available contacting packaging was also analysed for plasticizers. The results show DEHA in food-contacting film and as a migrant in store-wrapped meat, poultry, fish, cheese and ready-to-eat foods at levels as high as 310 micrograms/g (cheese). DEHA levels in unheated film-wrapped ready-to-eat foods were increased by heating. The di-2-ethylhexyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl and diethyl phthalate esters (DEHP, DBP, BBP and DEP, respectively) were also found in both the packaging and the contacted foods. Low levels of DEHP (0.065 micrograms/g, average in beverages and 0.29 micrograms/g, average in foods) associated with the use of DEHP-plasticized cap or lid seals, were found in a variety of glass-packaged foods; DBP, BBP and DEHP were found, as previously described, in butter and margarine as migrants from the aluminium foil-paper laminates; and DEP in pies at 1.8 micrograms/g (average) as a migrant from the pie carton windows. In most cases, plasticizers detected in the food were also found in the associated packaging. When possible, 'core' or non-contacting food portions were analysed to verify the migration phenomena.

  15. Latch-up signature analysis technique for plastic dual-in-line package (PDIP) devices using scanning acoustic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanpour, M.; Morgan, I.; Li, S.; Kaufmann, M.

    1995-12-31

    Cracks in the top surface of plastic package product (PDIP), as shown in a figure, resulting from Latch-Up (LU), DC Vcc Over-Voltage, or Reverse Insertion in the socket are usually similar in appearance. A scanning acoustic microscope can not determine the root cause of this Electrical Over-Stress (EOS) damage since all of the above show similar delamination. Even after device decapsulation, carbonized epoxy around Vcc and Vss bond wires doesn`t always indicate the exact root cause of failure. However, a nondestructive technique has been developed to distinguish (LU) from other EOS failures using a Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM). Finally, to verify the validity of the results, a computer analysis using a 3-Dimensional Finite Element Model (FEM) was used. The calculated stress distribution in the plastic IC package in the sustained LU condition agreed with the observations of delamination using SAM on product subjected to Transient Latch-Up (TLU) simulation on the power supply pin.

  16. [Studies on primary aromatic amines (PAAs) migration from multi-layer plastic food packaging by HPLC method].

    PubMed

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Pawlicka, Marzena; Starski, Andrzej; Półtorak, Hanna; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and to determine their migration from plastic food packaging. The magnitude of the migration of these substances from plastic food packaging consists a base for the evaluation of their compliance with the requirements of EU legislation and hazard for human health taking into account their migration into food. The unprinted and printed multi-layer plastic packaging (laminates), domestic and imported, were examined in these studies. PAAs migration tests from the laminates into food simulant (3% acetic acid) was performed according to the appropriate procedures recommended in the EU for testing migration from food contact articles under standard conditions reflecting the real use of laminates (10 days, 40 degrees C) and under ,, worst case scenario" conditions (2 h, 70 degrees C). PAAs present in migration solutions were concentrated on SPE columns and then seven PAAs (aniline, 1,3-phenylenediamine, 2, 6-toluenediamine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and 3,3 '-dimethylbenzidyne) were identified and determined by previously validated HPLC-DAD method. Depending on the migration conditions the PAAs content was different. When the "worst case scenario" conditions were applied the migration of 4,4 '-methylenedianiline (4,4 '-MDA) ranged from below detection limit (LOD = 0.51 microg/kg) up to 9.86 microg/kg, and aniline was released in the range from below detection limit (LOD = 0,98 microg/kg) up to 7.04 microg/kg. In two laminate samples of eight examined, the sum of PAAs (aniline and 4,4'-MDA) was 13.32 microg/kg and 14.72 microg/kg showing that the permitted limit (10 microg/kg) was exceeded. In the standard conditions, the migration of aniline and 4,4'-MDA was significantly lower Regarding the carcinogenic potential of PAAs, the laminates causing the amines migration above the permitted limit should not be used as food packaging.

  17. Independent components analysis coupled with 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy to study the interaction between plastic food packaging and olive oil.

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Amine; El Rakwe, Maria; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette; Rutledge, Douglas N; Maalouly, Jacqueline

    2014-08-11

    Olive oil is one of the most valued sources of fats in the Mediterranean diet. Its storage was generally done using glass or metallic packaging materials. Nowadays, plastic packaging has gained worldwide spread for the storage of olive oil. However, plastics are not inert and interaction phenomena may occur between packaging materials and olive oil. In this study, extra virgin olive oil samples were submitted to accelerated interaction conditions, in contact with polypropylene (PP) and polylactide (PLA) plastic packaging materials. 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, being a simple, fast and non destructive analytical technique, was used to study this interaction. Independent components analysis (ICA) was used to analyze raw 3D-front-face fluorescence spectra of olive oil. ICA was able to highlight a probable effect of a migration of substances with antioxidant activity. The signals extracted by ICA corresponded to natural olive oil fluorophores (tocopherols and polyphenols) as well as newly formed ones which were tentatively identified as fluorescent oxidation products. Based on the extracted fluorescent signals, olive oil in contact with plastics had slower aging rates in comparison with reference oils. Peroxide and free acidity values validated the results obtained by ICA, related to olive oil oxidation rates. Sorbed olive oil in plastic was also quantified given that this sorption could induce a swelling of the polymer thus promoting migration.

  18. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  19. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  20. Nanostructured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Most materials currently used for food packaging are nondegradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for ecofriendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nanostructured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications.

  1. Testing and evaluation of recycled plastics for food packaging use--possible migration through a functional barrier.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Huber, M; Piringer, O G

    1994-01-01

    A coextruded three-layered polypropylene (PP) cup with recycled PP material (R-PP) in the middle layer was investigated with respect to its possible use for a specific food packaging application. From the results of this investigation a general approach to testing and evaluating the use of recycled plastic materials in food packaging is presented. The method which focuses on the direct comparison of the R-PP containing cup with a food grade PP cup manufactured from virgin material involves essentially three investigation levels: 1, compositional analysis of the raw materials, i.e. PP and R-PP granules; 2, compositional analysis of the PP and R-PP cup materials and 3, migration testing of both types of cups applying practical as well as more severe test conditions. The aim of this approach is to test the PP food contact layer for its functional barrier behaviour. One key step is the estimation of migration under practice-like test conditions in concentrations below the analytical detection limits. This can only be achieved by selecting appropriate R-PP specific guide compounds whose migration can be monitored under more severe conditions than occur in practice. From the results of this investigation general conclusions on functional barrier testing are drawn.

  2. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    PubMed

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome.

  3. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    PubMed

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome. PMID:26376122

  4. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects.

  5. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae)

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  6. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  7. Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.

    PubMed

    Franz, R

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress. PMID:11962719

  8. Effects of moisture and elevated temperature on reliability of interfacial adhesion in plastic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebbai, M.; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Yuen, Matthew M. F.

    2003-06-01

    The interfacial-adhesion performance between the lead frame and molding compound was studied after temperature cycles and hygrothermal aging, simulating a typical package-assembly process. The hygrothermal aging involved a treatment at 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for 168 h and three cycles of infrared (IR) solder-reflow condition. The interfacial-bond strengths were measured using shear and lead-pull tests. The lead-frame surface finishes studied include a bare Cu, microetched Cu, spot Ag coating, Ni, Pd/Ni, and Au/Ni coatings. Special emphasis was placed on the study of the changes in surface characteristics and the corresponding interfacial adhesion after various manufacturing processes. It was found that moderate thermal cycles enhanced the interfacial adhesion for all coated lead frames, except the Ni coating. Hygrothermal aging was detrimental to the interfacial-bond strength, especially for hydrophilic or polar surfaces, such as bare Cu, Ag, Pd/Ni, and Au/Ni coated lead frames. The introduction of tiny dimples etched on the lead frame was effective in mitigating the reduction in interfacial-bond strength arising from hygrothermal aging. This result confirms the important role of the mechanical-interlocking mechanism provided by dimples in retaining the interfacial adhesion in a humid environment.

  9. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  10. A real-time inspection system using a terahertz technique to detect microleak defects in the seal of flexible plastic packages.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasuyuki; Dobroiu, Adrian; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo

    2005-04-01

    A method to detect production faults in flexible plastic packages with the use of terahertz radiation is presented. Relying on the large difference between the absorption coefficients of plastic and water (for water-filled channel defects) and on the refraction index difference between plastic and air (for air-filled channel defects), our technique consists of focusing and scanning a terahertz beam on the sealed area of the package, followed by detection of the transmitted signal. Compared with previous methods, such as visual and ultrasound inspection, our technique can be applied to optically opaque packages and does not require immersion in a matching liquid. We tested our system on defects that we fabricated as water-filled and air-filled channels imbedded in polyethylene films, with diameters in the range of 10 to 100 microm. The detection limit (the minimum size of a detectable defect) depends on the conveying speed; this relationship was determined and analyzed. The results show that our system has the potential for application in an actual production line for real-time inspection. PMID:15830679

  11. [Determination of 46 plasticizers in food contact polyvinyl chloride packaging materials and their migration into food simulants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunhai; Bo, Haibo; Duan, Wenzhong; Jia, Haitao; Chen, Ruichun; Ma, Yusong; Ai, Lianfeng

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 46 plasticizers in food contact polyvinyl chloride (PVC) packaging materials and their migration into food simulants, i. e. water, 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol and olive oil. Plasticizers in the PVC packaging materials, aqueous food simulants and olive oil food simulants were extracted by the dissolution-precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) approaches, respectively. The extracts were analyzed by GC-MS in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode and quantified using the external standard method. The cal-ibration curves were linear in the ranges of 0.1-2.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.9910-0. 999 9. The limits of detection were from 0. 005 mg/kg to 0. 05 mg/kg ( S/N = 5 ). The recoveries at 3 spiked levels were 69.51%-107. 21% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs n = 6) ranged from 3.53% to 18.95%. These results show that this method is fast, sensitive and accurate for the qualitative and quantitative determination of plasticizers in food contact plastic products and 4 types of food simulants.

  12. Progress in mass spectrometry for the analysis of set-off phenomena in plastic food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Margarita; Alfaro, Pilar; Nerín, Cristina; Jones, Emrys; Riches, Eleanor

    2016-07-01

    In most cases, food packaging materials contain inks whose components can migrate to food by diffusion through the material as well as by set-off phenomena. In this work, different mass spectrometry approaches had been used in order to identify and confirm the presence of ink components in ethanol (95%) and Tenax(®) as food simulants. Three different sets of materials, manufactured with different printing technologies and with different structures, were analyzed. Sample analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), using a quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) as a mass analyser proved to be an excellent tool for identification purposes while ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) shown to be very useful for the confirmation of the candidates proposed. The results showed the presence of different non-volatile ink components in migration such as colorants (Solvent Red 49), plasticizers (dimethyl sebacate, tributyl o-acetyl citrate) or surfactants (SchercodineM, triethylene glycol caprilate). An oxidation product of an ink additive (triphenyl phosphine oxide) was also detected. In addition, a surface analysis technique, desorption electrospray mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), was used for analyzing the distribution of some ink components (tributyl o-acetyl citrate Schercodine L, phthalates) in the material. The detection of some of these compounds in the back-printed side confirmed the transference of this compound from the non-food to the food contact side. The results also showed that concentration of ink migrants decreased when an aluminum or polypropylene layer covered the ink. When aluminum was used, concentration of most of ink migrants decreased, and for 5 out of the 9 even disappeared. PMID:27215462

  13. [The influence of microbiological factors on the mass of plastics laminates used for packaging of lactic acid cheese].

    PubMed

    Steinka, Izabela

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing changes of physical properties of package lactic acid cheese and the PA/PE and Cryovac laminates after storage of this products. The fluctuation of water in the product and swelling of packaging caused changes in their mass. The changes in the packaging mass could also result from the interactions between micro-organisms present in product. It was found that staphylococci, enterococci and Escherichia coli were the micro-organisms that had contributed to changes of packaging mass to a highest degree. Changes were described with the help of response surface models.

  14. [Determination of the overall migration of chemicals from the plastic packaging into the aqueous models of food using the EU methods].

    PubMed

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Stelmach, Agnieszka; Mazańska, Małgorzata; Jurkiewicz, Małgorzata; Półtorak, Hanna

    2004-01-01

    Overall migration from food plastic packaging to aquatic food simulants (distilled water, 3% acetic acid) was determined according to the EU methods. Testing conditions (time and temperature) reflected normal use of tested food packaging. The overall migration studies using different food simulants (distilled water, 3% acetic acid) shows that the migration rate was very low, far below the allowed limit (10 mg/dm2). The high results of overall migration into 3% acetic acid (average 250.2 mg/dm2), markedly exceeding the allowed limit, was found in the case of multilayer film. It means that the multilayer film tested does not comply with the migration limit and it can not be used as a food packaging for the sour foodstuffs of pH below 4.5. Differences between the magnitude of overall migration into distilled water (0.5-1.1 mg/dm2) and 3% acetic acid are probably due to the presence of easy washable substances into the sour medium. From that reason the application of such food packaging materials must be limited.

  15. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user. PMID:25230184

  16. Study of solvent sublation for concentration of trace phthalate esters in plastic beverage packaging and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Bi, Pengyu; Li, Xiaochen; Wei, Yun

    2015-06-15

    A novel trace analytical method based on solvent sublation (SS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the trace determination of twenty-two phthalate esters (PAEs) from plastic beverage packaging. In the solvent sublation section, the effects of solution pH, NaCl concentration, nitrogen flow rate, and sublation time on the sublation efficiency were investigated in detail, and the optimal conditions were obtained. The trace PAEs migrated from plastic beverage packaging to food simulants were separated and concentrated by solvent sublation, and then the trace target compounds in the concentrated solution were analyzed by GC-MS. According to the European Union Regulation, the food simulants including distilled water for the normal beverages and acetic acid solution (3%) for the acetic beverage of yogurt were prepared for migration tests. The trace analysis method showed good linearity, low limits of detection (LODs) of 1.6-183.5 ng/L, and satisfied recoveries (67.3-113.7%). PMID:25660867

  17. Reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for investigation of primary aromatic amines migration from food packaging and during industrial curing of multilayer plastic laminates.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Francesca; Di Lallo, Valentina; Catellani, Dante; Mattarozzi, Monica; Careri, Maria; Suman, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. In the present work, a reliable analytical method, exploiting a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-(selected ion monitoring)-mass spectrometry system, for PAAs compliance assessment in food contact materials was developed as an effective alternative to the current standard spectrophotometric one, moving in this way from the screening to the accurate and selective quantitation perspective for the analysis of PAAs both in aqueous and acidic food simulants. The main validation parameters were verified achieving very satisfactory results in terms of linearity range, limit of detection (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µg kg(-1)) and quantitation (ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 µg kg(-1)), repeatability and accuracy. Suitability of the method was demonstrated for a wide range of commercial samples, chosen among different producers of the most common used food packaging plastic and paperboard categories and then analyzed to assess the risk related to PAAs migration. Finally, the method was also successfully exploited to monitor the evolution of potential PAAs migration during the industrial curing process of multilayer plastic laminates, prior to their release for delivery to the food industry end user.

  18. Plasticized poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends incorporated with catechin intended for active food-packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Marina Patricia; Castro-López, María del Mar; Rayón, Emilio; Barral-Losada, Luis Fernando; López-Vilariño, José Manuel; López, Juan; González-Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2014-10-15

    Active biobased packaging materials based on poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends were prepared by melt blending and fully characterized. Catechin incorporation, as antioxidant compound, enhanced the thermal stability, whereas its release was improved by the addition of acetyl(tributyl citrate) (ATBC) as plasticizer. Whereas the incorporation of ATBC resulted in a reduction of elastic modulus and hardness, catechin addition produced more rigid materials due to hydrogen-bonding interactions between catechin hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups of PLA and PHB. The quantification of catechin released into a fatty food simulant and the antioxidant effectiveness after the release process were demonstrated. The effect of the materials' exposure to a food simulant was also investigated. PHB-added materials maintained their structural and mechanical properties after 10 days in a test medium that represents the worst foreseeable conditions of the intended use. Thus, plasticized PLA-PHB blends with catechin show their potential as biobased active packaging for fatty food. PMID:25255375

  19. Plasticized poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends incorporated with catechin intended for active food-packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Marina Patricia; Castro-López, María del Mar; Rayón, Emilio; Barral-Losada, Luis Fernando; López-Vilariño, José Manuel; López, Juan; González-Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2014-10-15

    Active biobased packaging materials based on poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends were prepared by melt blending and fully characterized. Catechin incorporation, as antioxidant compound, enhanced the thermal stability, whereas its release was improved by the addition of acetyl(tributyl citrate) (ATBC) as plasticizer. Whereas the incorporation of ATBC resulted in a reduction of elastic modulus and hardness, catechin addition produced more rigid materials due to hydrogen-bonding interactions between catechin hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups of PLA and PHB. The quantification of catechin released into a fatty food simulant and the antioxidant effectiveness after the release process were demonstrated. The effect of the materials' exposure to a food simulant was also investigated. PHB-added materials maintained their structural and mechanical properties after 10 days in a test medium that represents the worst foreseeable conditions of the intended use. Thus, plasticized PLA-PHB blends with catechin show their potential as biobased active packaging for fatty food.

  20. Plastic encapsulated parts

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, T.

    1994-10-01

    Plastic semiconductor packages were characterized as possible alternatives for canned devices, which are susceptible to internal shorts caused by conductive particles. Highly accelerated stress testing (HAST) as well as electrical and mechanical testing were conducted on plastic technology devices.

  1. Design of an innovative, ecological portable waste compressor for in-house recycling of paper, plastic and metal packaging waste.

    PubMed

    Xevgenos, D; Athanasopoulos, N; Kostazos, P K; Manolakos, D E; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Loizidou, M

    2015-05-01

    Waste management in Greece relies heavily on unsustainable waste practices (mainly landfills and in certain cases uncontrolled dumping of untreated waste). Even though major improvements have been achieved in the recycling of municipal solid waste during recent years, there are some barriers that hinder the achievement of high recycling rates. Source separation of municipal solid waste has been recognised as a promising solution to produce high-quality recycled materials that can be easily directed to secondary materials markets. This article presents an innovative miniature waste separator/compressor that has been designed and developed for the source separation of municipal solid waste at a household level. The design of the system is in line with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), since it allows for the separate collection (and compression) of municipal solid waste, namely: plastic (polyethylene terephthalate and high-density polyethylene), paper (cardboard and Tetrapak) and metal (aluminium and tin cans). It has been designed through the use of suitable software tools (LS-DYNA, INVENTROR and COMSOL). The results from the simulations, as well as the whole design process and philosophy, are discussed in this article.

  2. Design of an innovative, ecological portable waste compressor for in-house recycling of paper, plastic and metal packaging waste.

    PubMed

    Xevgenos, D; Athanasopoulos, N; Kostazos, P K; Manolakos, D E; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Loizidou, M

    2015-05-01

    Waste management in Greece relies heavily on unsustainable waste practices (mainly landfills and in certain cases uncontrolled dumping of untreated waste). Even though major improvements have been achieved in the recycling of municipal solid waste during recent years, there are some barriers that hinder the achievement of high recycling rates. Source separation of municipal solid waste has been recognised as a promising solution to produce high-quality recycled materials that can be easily directed to secondary materials markets. This article presents an innovative miniature waste separator/compressor that has been designed and developed for the source separation of municipal solid waste at a household level. The design of the system is in line with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), since it allows for the separate collection (and compression) of municipal solid waste, namely: plastic (polyethylene terephthalate and high-density polyethylene), paper (cardboard and Tetrapak) and metal (aluminium and tin cans). It has been designed through the use of suitable software tools (LS-DYNA, INVENTROR and COMSOL). The results from the simulations, as well as the whole design process and philosophy, are discussed in this article. PMID:25819929

  3. Tomorrow's Plastic World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Averil

    2005-01-01

    Far from being just cheap packaging materials, plastics may be the materials of tomorrow. Plastic can conduct electricity, and this opens up a host of high-tech possibilities in the home and in energy generation. These possibilities are discussed here along with how plastic can be recycled and perhaps even grown.

  4. Determination of the thickness of plastic sheets used in blister packaging by near infrared spectroscopy: development and validation of the method.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Magali; Harmia-Pulkkinen, Tuulikki; Simard, Christine; Räsänen, Markku; Vuorela, Heikki

    2004-03-01

    A near infrared (NIR) quantitative analysis method was developed for determining the thickness of PVC-based plastic sheets used as pharmaceutical packs. Samples that can be analyzed are transparent films made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), PVC coated with polyvinylidene dichloride (PVDC) or PVC coated with Thermoelast (TE) and PVDC. The method, based on a partial least squares (PLS) algorithm, is used together with a previously developed NIR identification method to acquire simultaneously qualitative and quantitative information about the samples. Validation of the quantitative method was conducted according to the very recent European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) guidance on the use of NIR spectroscopy. Suggestions were made for a better statistical evaluation of the calibration model prior to validation. Validation consisted of the study of specificity, accuracy (mean recovery from the reference values was 99.56%), precision (repeatability and intermediate precision were <0.6%), linearity, quantification limit (41 microm), and robustness of the method. This demonstration of the applicability of NIR spectroscopy as a validated quality control tool for pharmaceutical packaging films will hopefully facilitate the acceptance of NIR spectroscopy in pharmaceutical laboratories.

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial monolayer flexible plastics packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Goulas, A E; Riganakos, K A; Badeka, A; Kontominas, M G

    2002-12-01

    The effect of gamma-radiation doses (5, 10, 30 kGy) on the mechanical properties, gas and water vapour permeability, infrared (IR) spectra, and overall migration into aqueous and alternative fatty food simulants of commercial monolayer flexible packaging films ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), bi-axially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and Ionomer was studied. For comparison purposes, respective non-irradiated (control) films were also studied. The results showed that radiation doses of 5, 10 and 30 kGy did not induce any statistically significant changes in the permeability of all studied films to gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and water vapour. Likewise, IR spectra of all studied films showed no significant differences after all absorbed doses. The mechanical properties (tensile strength, percentage elongation at break and Young's modulus) of all studied films remained unaffected after absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy. In contrast, the tensile strength of HDPE, BOPP and Ionomer films irradiated at a dose of 30kGy decreased. In addition, the percentage elongation at break of LDPE and Ionomer films irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy decreased while Young's modulus of all samples remained unaffected. All mechanical properties of PS and EVA films remained unaffected after radiation at 30 kGy. Radiation (all absorbed doses) resulted in no statistically significant differences in overall migration values into distilled water for all studied films. For 3% aqueous acetic acid, absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy did not affect overall migration values of all investigated samples with the exception of the Ionomer film, for which the overall migration value decreased at 10 kGy. An absorbed dose of 30 kGy caused an increase in BOPP overall migration values and a decrease in Ionomer overall migration values. In contrast, a dose of 30 kGy induced no changes in overall migration values of EVA, HDPE, LDPE

  6. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  7. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... significant chemical or galvanic reaction between the materials and contents of the package. (3) Plastic... this part (“Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packagings... plastic packaging or receptacle used for Packing Group I materials. The maximum rate of permeation...

  8. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... significant chemical or galvanic reaction between the materials and contents of the package. (3) Plastic... this part (“Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packagings... plastic packaging or receptacle used for Packing Group I materials. The maximum rate of permeation...

  9. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significant chemical or galvanic reaction between the materials and contents of the package. (3) Plastic... this part (“Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packagings... plastic packaging or receptacle used for Packing Group I materials. The maximum rate of permeation...

  10. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... significant chemical or galvanic reaction between the materials and contents of the package. (3) Plastic... this part (“Procedure for Testing Chemical Compatibility and Rate of Permeation in Plastic Packagings... plastic packaging or receptacle used for Packing Group I materials. The maximum rate of permeation...

  11. 75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... provisions to require plastic single and composite non-bulk packagings containing Division 6.1 material to be.... 172.313(b). Paragraph (b) of Sec. 172.313 requires plastic single and composite non-bulk packagings... in This Final Rule A. Definitions B. Plastic Packagings Used To Transport Poison Materials...

  12. Characterization and antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli of a helium/air plasma at atmospheric pressure created in a plastic package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, J.; Valdramidis, V. P.; Byrne, E.; Karatzas, K. A.; Cullen, P. J.; Keener, K. M.; Mosnier, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    A plasma source, sustained by the application of a floating high voltage (±15 kV) to parallel-plate electrodes at 50 Hz, has been achieved in a helium/air mixture at atmospheric pressure (P = 105 Pa) contained in a zip-locked plastic package placed in the electrode gap. Some of the physical and antimicrobial properties of this apparatus were established with a view to ascertain its performance as a prototype for the disinfection of fresh produce. The current-voltage (I-V) and charge-voltage (Q-V) characteristics of the system were measured as a function of gap distance d, in the range (3 × 103 ⩽ Pd ⩽ 1.0 × 104 Pa m). The electrical measurements showed this plasma source to exhibit the characteristic behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge in the filamentary mode and its properties could be accurately interpreted by the two-capacitance in series model. The power consumed by the discharge and the reduced field strength were found to decrease quadratically from 12.0 W to 4.5 W and linearly from 140 Td to 50 Td, respectively, in the range studied. Emission spectra of the discharge were recorded on a relative intensity scale and the dominant spectral features could be assigned to strong vibrational bands in the 2+ and 1- systems of N2 and N_2^+ , respectively, with other weak signatures from the NO and OH radicals and the N+, He and O atomic species. Absolute spectral intensities were also recorded and interpreted by comparison with the non-equilibrium synthetic spectra generated by the computer code SPECAIR. At an inter-electrode gap of 0.04 m, this comparison yielded typical values for the electron, vibrational and translational (gas) temperatures of (4980 ± 100) K, (2700 ± 200) K and (300 ± 100) K, respectively and an electron density of 1.0 × 1017 m-3. A Boltzmann plot also provided a value of (3200 ± 200 K) for the vibrational temperature. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed by studying the resistance of both Escherichia coli K12 its isogenic

  13. Plastic condoms.

    PubMed

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  14. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic...

  15. The reduction of packaging waste

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; McCollom, M.; Hogan, J.

    1993-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one third of the waste being sent to our solid waste landfills. These wastes range from product and shipping containers made from plastic, glass, wood, and corrugated cardboard to packaging fillers and wraps made from a variety of plastic materials such as shrink wrap and polystyrene peanuts. The amount of packaging waste generated is becoming an important issue for manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Elimination of packaging not only conserves precious landfill space, it also reduces consumption of raw materials and energy, all of which result in important economic and environmental benefits. At the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office's (DOE-RL) Hanford Site as well as other DOE sites the generation of packaging waste has added importance. By reducing the amount of packaging waste, DOE also reduces the costs and liabilities associated with waste handling, treatment, storage, and disposal.

  16. The reduction of packaging waste

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; McCollom, M.; Hogan, J.

    1993-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one third of the waste being sent to our solid waste landfills. These wastes range from product and shipping containers made from plastic, glass, wood, and corrugated cardboard to packaging fillers and wraps made from a variety of plastic materials such as shrink wrap and polystyrene peanuts. The amount of packaging waste generated is becoming an important issue for manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Elimination of packaging not only conserves precious landfill space, it also reduces consumption of raw materials and energy, all of which result in important economic and environmental benefits. At the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office`s (DOE-RL) Hanford Site as well as other DOE sites the generation of packaging waste has added importance. By reducing the amount of packaging waste, DOE also reduces the costs and liabilities associated with waste handling, treatment, storage, and disposal.

  17. Efficacy of UV-C irradiation for inactivation of food-borne pathogens on sliced cheese packaged with different types and thicknesses of plastic films.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficacy of using UV-C light to inactivate sliced cheese inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and, packaged with 0.07 mm films of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) was investigated. The results show that compared with PET and PVC, PP and PE films showed significantly reduced levels of the three pathogens compared to inoculated but non-treated controls. Therefore, PP and PE films of different thicknesses (0.07 mm, 0.10 mm, and 0.13 mm) were then evaluated for pathogen reduction of inoculated sliced cheese samples. Compared with 0.10 and 0.13 mm, 0.07 mm thick PP and PE films did not show statistically significant reductions compared to non-packaged treated samples. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of PP and PE films. These results suggest that adjusted PP or PE film packaging in conjunction with UV-C radiation can be applied to control foodborne pathogens in the dairy industry.

  18. Efficacy of UV-C irradiation for inactivation of food-borne pathogens on sliced cheese packaged with different types and thicknesses of plastic films.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficacy of using UV-C light to inactivate sliced cheese inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and, packaged with 0.07 mm films of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) was investigated. The results show that compared with PET and PVC, PP and PE films showed significantly reduced levels of the three pathogens compared to inoculated but non-treated controls. Therefore, PP and PE films of different thicknesses (0.07 mm, 0.10 mm, and 0.13 mm) were then evaluated for pathogen reduction of inoculated sliced cheese samples. Compared with 0.10 and 0.13 mm, 0.07 mm thick PP and PE films did not show statistically significant reductions compared to non-packaged treated samples. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of PP and PE films. These results suggest that adjusted PP or PE film packaging in conjunction with UV-C radiation can be applied to control foodborne pathogens in the dairy industry. PMID:27052716

  19. Detection and Identification of Leachables in Vaccine from Plastic Packaging Materials Using UPLC-QTOF MS with Self-Built Polymer Additives Library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Sun, Shuqi; Xing, Xuebin; Du, Zhenxia; Guo, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wenlian

    2016-07-01

    The direct contact of plastic parts with the medical products raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished medical product. The leachable components from plastic materials may impact the safety and efficacy of the final medical product, so identification and determination of the leachables are essential for the safety assessment of medical products. A method to identify main leachables-polymer additives in medical products was developed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and a self-built library. The library contains 174 additives and the information on their names, formulas, structures, retention times, fragments, classifications, origin, and corresponding MS(E) and MSMS spectra. The reliability of the construction process of the library was guaranteed by the system stability and suitability test. Identification parameters of library application, such as mass error, retention times, fragments, and isotope pattern, were evaluated. Leachables in real vaccine and the intermediates were identified using automatic library searching. In vaccine, the peak m/z 239.0887 that could not be assigned by the library was identified as dimethyl 2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylate using a series of elucidation tools. As a result, the concentrations of leachables in vaccine and the intermediates ranged from 0.85 to 21.91 μg/L. PMID:27258161

  20. Detection and Identification of Leachables in Vaccine from Plastic Packaging Materials Using UPLC-QTOF MS with Self-Built Polymer Additives Library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Sun, Shuqi; Xing, Xuebin; Du, Zhenxia; Guo, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wenlian

    2016-07-01

    The direct contact of plastic parts with the medical products raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished medical product. The leachable components from plastic materials may impact the safety and efficacy of the final medical product, so identification and determination of the leachables are essential for the safety assessment of medical products. A method to identify main leachables-polymer additives in medical products was developed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and a self-built library. The library contains 174 additives and the information on their names, formulas, structures, retention times, fragments, classifications, origin, and corresponding MS(E) and MSMS spectra. The reliability of the construction process of the library was guaranteed by the system stability and suitability test. Identification parameters of library application, such as mass error, retention times, fragments, and isotope pattern, were evaluated. Leachables in real vaccine and the intermediates were identified using automatic library searching. In vaccine, the peak m/z 239.0887 that could not be assigned by the library was identified as dimethyl 2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylate using a series of elucidation tools. As a result, the concentrations of leachables in vaccine and the intermediates ranged from 0.85 to 21.91 μg/L.

  1. The effects of packaging method (vacuum pouch vs. plastic tray) on spoilage in a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two packaging methods on the spoilage of a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration were studied. Raw pork cuts and pre-cooked tomato sauce were packed under vacuum "sous vide" in polyamide-polypropylene pouches (SV) or into translucent polypropylene trays under modified atmosphere (80% N(2)+20% CO(2)) and sealed with a top film (PT). Samples were cooked inside the pack at an oven temperature/time of 70 degrees C/7h, chilled at 3 degrees C and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 90days. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic-acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity and total acidity) and sensory (colour, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. Heat penetration was faster in SV (2 degrees C/min) than in PT (1 degrees C/min) (core temperature). Both packaging methods were equally effective in protecting against microbial spoilage for 90 day at 2 degrees C. Minor counts were only detected for lactic-acid bacteria and anaerobic psychrotrophs in SV. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was found. Slight differences between SV and PT in pH and total acidity were observed. SV and PT had similar effects on the sensory preservation of the dishes. A gradual loss of acceptance of the cooked pork and tomato sauce was observed. Rancid flavour in PT and warmed-over-flavour in SV were noted in the final stages of storage. According to acceptance scores, the shelf-life of both SV and PT was 56 days at 2 degrees C. Both packaging methods can be used to manufacture sous vide meat-based dishes subsequently stored under refrigeration for catering use. PMID:20374821

  2. The effects of packaging method (vacuum pouch vs. plastic tray) on spoilage in a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two packaging methods on the spoilage of a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration were studied. Raw pork cuts and pre-cooked tomato sauce were packed under vacuum "sous vide" in polyamide-polypropylene pouches (SV) or into translucent polypropylene trays under modified atmosphere (80% N(2)+20% CO(2)) and sealed with a top film (PT). Samples were cooked inside the pack at an oven temperature/time of 70 degrees C/7h, chilled at 3 degrees C and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 90days. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic-acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity and total acidity) and sensory (colour, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. Heat penetration was faster in SV (2 degrees C/min) than in PT (1 degrees C/min) (core temperature). Both packaging methods were equally effective in protecting against microbial spoilage for 90 day at 2 degrees C. Minor counts were only detected for lactic-acid bacteria and anaerobic psychrotrophs in SV. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was found. Slight differences between SV and PT in pH and total acidity were observed. SV and PT had similar effects on the sensory preservation of the dishes. A gradual loss of acceptance of the cooked pork and tomato sauce was observed. Rancid flavour in PT and warmed-over-flavour in SV were noted in the final stages of storage. According to acceptance scores, the shelf-life of both SV and PT was 56 days at 2 degrees C. Both packaging methods can be used to manufacture sous vide meat-based dishes subsequently stored under refrigeration for catering use.

  3. Waste plastics liquefaction technology

    SciTech Connect

    Machidori, Hideki; Ikawa, Hironori

    1996-12-31

    Plastics are now indispensable not only in industries but for daily life because of their excellent convenience. Only in Japan, about 12.25 million tons of plastics were produced in 1993. On the other hand, the production of waste plastics in the form of industrial and municipal wastes reached 7.56 million tons in the same year. A greater part of the produced waste plastics are now disposed of by incineration and landfill. The incineration would however generate detrimental substances from burned-up plastics and emit them into the exhaust gas, while the landfill would reduce rapidly the residual capacity of the final repositories. Under the circumstances, the Law for the Promotion of Sorted Collection and Recommercialization of Plastics Containers and Packages is to be enforced in 2000 in Japan. Waste plastics liquefaction technology has become high-lighted and is presupposed to employ for the treatment of waste plastics other than PET bottles in the law for the reason that relatively wide variety of waste plastics can be processed in quantity by this technology. The Kubota Corporation has made R and D efforts relating to the plastics liquefaction technology for more than 4 years, and it is now entering the stage of its commercialization.

  4. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 2. Migration of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate from PVC films used for retail food packaging.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Mercer, A J; Startin, J R; Gilbert, J

    1987-01-01

    A UK survey of di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) levels in retail foods (83 samples) wrapped in plasticized PVC film has been carried out, examining a wide range of different food types obtained from retail and take-away outlets. Foodstuffs analysed included fresh meat and poultry, ready-cooked poultry, cheese, fruit, vegetables and baked goods such as cakes, bread rolls and sandwiches. Analysis by stable isotope dilution GC/MS showed DEHA levels ranging from 1.0 to 72.8 mg/kg in uncooked meat and poultry, 9.4 to 48.6 mg/kg in cooked chicken portions, 27.8 to 135.0 mg/kg in cheese, less than 2.0 mg/kg in fruit and vegetables and 11 to 212 mg/kg in baked goods and sandwiches. The level of DEHA migration correlated with the extent of contact between the film and exposed fatty portions of the food, whether that was the mayonnaise filling of a sandwich or the surface fat from a joint of uncooked meat. The level of DEHA in meat exposed to plasticized film was not reduced significantly by volatilization or chemical transformation on subsequent cooking by grilling or frying.

  5. 49 CFR 173.28 - Reuse, reconditioning and remanufacture of packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.28, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... and jerricans used as single packagings or the outer packagings of composite packagings are authorized... metal packagings) or minimum (for plastic packagings) thickness of the packaging material, as...

  6. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  7. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an inner packaging is constructed of paper or flexible plastic, the inner packaging must be replaced...) Corrosive materials (except ORM-D) in bottles are further packed in securely closed inner receptacles...

  8. Migration analysis of epoxidized soybean oil and other plasticizers in commercial lids for food packaging by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Ferrer, C; Jimenez, A; Garrigos, M C

    2010-10-01

    A modification of the method of Castle et al. (J. Chromatogr. 1988: 437:274-280) for the analysis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is proposed to simplify the analysis and reduce the time and consumption of reagents. The proposed modifications, particularly the elimination of the internal standard, resulted in a simpler, faster and more economical method. A complete analytical validation, including evaluation of the main analytical parameters, such as detection and quantification limits, linearity, working range, precision, accuracy and selectivity, was carried out. The data demonstrated the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of ESBO in polymer matrices. A specific migration study for ESBO in different food simulants (fat and aqueous) was carried out by applying the method to poly(vinyl chloride) materials prepared with known amounts of ESBO, as well as some commercial lids. High levels of migration of ESBO into fat simulants were found. In the case of commercial lids, in addition to ESBO, some other plasticizers such as citrates, adipates and sebacates were found and quantified to establish their migration under different conditions of use.

  9. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  10. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  11. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  12. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  13. 21 CFR 310.509 - Parenteral drug products in plastic containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parenteral drug products in plastic containers... Parenteral drug products in plastic containers. (a) Any parenteral drug product packaged in a plastic... parenteral drug product for intravenous use in humans that is packaged in a plastic immediate container on...

  14. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  15. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  16. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic film bags. 178.519 Section...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.519 Standards for plastic film bags. (a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4. (b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are...

  17. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials. PMID:19389606

  18. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  19. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  20. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Plastic Jellyfish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  3. Nonreturnable packaging: The environmental debate. (Latest citations from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental and economic impacts of nonreturnable versus returnable food packaging containers. Topics include the burdens on the environment due to nonreturnable beverage containers, economic considerations for the packaging industry, and government regulations imposed to reduce waste disposal. Various packaging containers are examined, including glass, aluminum, tin-plate, cardboard, and plastics. Government legislation in the soft drink and beverage industries, dairy packaged products, and paperboard packaging are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S. K.; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future. PMID:22412286

  5. Public health impact of plastics: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S K; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-09-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  6. Public health impact of plastics: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S K; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-09-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future. PMID:22412286

  7. Industrial plastics waste: Identification and segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widener, Edward L.

    1990-01-01

    Throwaway plastic products, mainly packaging, are inundating our landfills and incinerators. Most are ethenic thermoplastics, which can be recycled as new products or fossil-fuels. Lab experiments are described, involving destructive and non-destructive tests for identifying and using plastics. The burn-test, with simple apparatus and familiar samples, is recommended as quick, cheap and effective.

  8. Plastics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  9. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  10. Seafood Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  11. 49 CFR 173.201 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or earthenware..., 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, specification or UN standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except 3HT and...

  12. 49 CFR 173.201 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or earthenware..., 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, specification or UN standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except 3HT and...

  13. 49 CFR 173.201 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or earthenware..., 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, specification or UN standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except 3HT and...

  14. 49 CFR 178.503 - Marking of packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or plastic drums or jerricans intended for reuse or reconditioning as single packagings or the outer... met: (A) The total gap space does not exceed 15 percent of the circumference of the circle; (B)...

  15. 49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...” means a jerrican. (iv) “4” means a box. (v) “5” means a bag. (vi) “6” means a composite packaging. (vii...) “H” means plastic. (viii) “L” means textile. (ix) “M” means paper, multi-wall. (x) “N” means metal... outer packaging. For example, a plastic receptacle in a steel drum is designated “6HA1”. (c)...

  16. 49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...” means a jerrican. (iv) “4” means a box. (v) “5” means a bag. (vi) “6” means a composite packaging. (vii...) “H” means plastic. (viii) “L” means textile. (ix) “M” means paper, multi-wall. (x) “N” means metal... outer packaging. For example, a plastic receptacle in a steel drum is designated “6HA1”. (c)...

  17. 49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...” means a jerrican. (iv) “4” means a box. (v) “5” means a bag. (vi) “6” means a composite packaging. (vii...) “H” means plastic. (viii) “L” means textile. (ix) “M” means paper, multi-wall. (x) “N” means metal... outer packaging. For example, a plastic receptacle in a steel drum is designated “6HA1”. (c)...

  18. Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

  19. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  20. The reduction of packaging waste

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  1. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

  2. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  3. The plastic bottle: A multi-industry impact

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in motor oil packaging project the future rate of change for packaging operations of companies committed to the marketing of motor oil. Highlighted by the widespread conversion to the plastic bottle as a new standard container for motor oil is the need for the development of higher speed, more cost effective packaging machinery which will meet and eventually exceed historical line speeds and operating efficiencies. The significant investments required for evolving equipment and packaging systems require rethinking of traditional manufacturing concepts and relationships; onetime investments in packaging plants are decisions of the past. The plastic bottle for motor oil truly impacts packaging operations, distribution networks, retail outlets and packaging machinery manufacturers. It is a multi-industry impact.

  4. Optimizing biomass blends for manufacturing molded packaging materials using mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  5. Double-sided solar-cell package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelpuk, B.

    1978-01-01

    Cost-effective solar-cell package is proposed for development of practical solar-cell system. Since cells are enclosed in inexpensive plastic tubes, forced-air-cooling loop is proposed to maintain cell temperature at adequate levels. Loop must include desiccant to remove moisture from hermetic enclosures to prevent cell corrosion.

  6. Food-packaging materials: migration of constituents into food contents. January 1982-December 1988 (Citations from Packaging Science and technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the migration of food-packaging materials into foods. Plastic, glass, cardboard, metal, and ceramic containers are discussed. Techniques for analyzing packaging contamination are included. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. 49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Fiberboard box (4G) with a single inner plastic bag, and a maximum net mass of not more than 50 kg (110 lbs). (2) Fiberboard box (4G) or fiber drum (1G), with a plastic inner packaging not exceeding 5 kg (11...

  8. 49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Fiberboard box (4G) with a single inner plastic bag, and a maximum net mass of not more than 50 kg (110 lbs). (2) Fiberboard box (4G) or fiber drum (1G), with a plastic inner packaging not exceeding 5 kg (11...

  9. 49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Fiberboard box (4G) with a single inner plastic bag, and a maximum net mass of not more than 50 kg (110 lbs). (2) Fiberboard box (4G) or fiber drum (1G), with a plastic inner packaging not exceeding 5 kg (11...

  10. 49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Fiberboard box (4G) with a single inner plastic bag, and a maximum net mass of not more than 50 kg (110 lbs). (2) Fiberboard box (4G) or fiber drum (1G), with a plastic inner packaging not exceeding 5 kg (11...

  11. 49 CFR 173.206 - Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or Steel receptacle (c) Except for... standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except Specification 3HT and those prescribed for acetylene Cylinders (for liquids in PG II), specification, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except...

  12. 49 CFR 173.206 - Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or Steel receptacle (c) Except for... standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except Specification 3HT and those prescribed for acetylene Cylinders (for liquids in PG II), specification, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except...

  13. 49 CFR 173.206 - Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or Steel receptacle (c) Except for... standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except Specification 3HT and those prescribed for acetylene Cylinders (for liquids in PG II), specification, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except...

  14. 49 CFR 173.206 - Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or Steel receptacle (c) Except for... standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except Specification 3HT and those prescribed for acetylene Cylinders (for liquids in PG II), specification, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except...

  15. 49 CFR 173.206 - Packaging requirements for chlorosilanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings: Glass or Steel receptacle (c) Except for... standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except Specification 3HT and those prescribed for acetylene Cylinders (for liquids in PG II), specification, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except...

  16. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  17. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Bag, woven plastic: 5H1, 5H2 or 5H3 Bag... or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  18. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Bag, woven plastic: 5H1, 5H2 or 5H3 Bag... or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  19. 49 CFR 173.203 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Metal box other... stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Plastic receptacle in plywood drum: 6HD1... prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specifications 8 and 3HT...

  20. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Bag, woven plastic: 5H1, 5H2 or 5H3 Bag... or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  1. 49 CFR 173.203 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Metal box other... stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Plastic receptacle in plywood drum: 6HD1... prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specifications 8 and 3HT...

  2. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Bag, woven plastic: 5H1, 5H2 or 5H3 Bag... or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  3. 49 CFR 173.212 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Bag, woven plastic: 5H1, 5H2 or 5H3 Bag... or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  4. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  5. Plastics Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 16 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of plastics technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and would…

  6. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  7. 49 CFR 178.609 - Test requirements for packagings for infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liner, plastic bag, or other equally effective means of containment. (vii) In addition, the marking... performance may be rapidly affected by moisture; plastics that may embrittle at low temperature; and other... the appropriate test. Table I—Tests Required Material of Outer packaging Fiberboard Plastics...

  8. 49 CFR 178.609 - Test requirements for packagings for infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liner, plastic bag, or other equally effective means of containment. (vii) In addition, the marking... performance may be rapidly affected by moisture; plastics that may embrittle at low temperature; and other... the appropriate test. Table I—Tests Required Material of Outer packaging Fiberboard Plastics...

  9. 49 CFR 178.609 - Test requirements for packagings for infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liner, plastic bag, or other equally effective means of containment. (vii) In addition, the marking... performance may be rapidly affected by moisture; plastics that may embrittle at low temperature; and other... the appropriate test. Table I—Tests Required Material of Outer packaging Fiberboard Plastics...

  10. Plastic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding. PMID:26556975

  11. Organic reactants rapidly produce plastic foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Look, G. F.

    1965-01-01

    Adding trichlorofluoromethane to polyether resin accelerates the reaction between the resin and toluene diisocyanate. This accelerated reaction instantaneously produces a plastic foam of low density and uniform porosity needed to provide buoyancy for flotation recovery of instrument packages dropped into the sea from spacecraft.

  12. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  13. Plastics and Environmental Health: The Road Ahead

    PubMed Central

    North, Emily J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including endocrine-disrupting properties and long-term pollution. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials – such as metal or glass – and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications, such as disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol-A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of ever increasing mass-production of plastic consumer articles. By example of the healthcare sector, this review concentrates on benefits and downsides of plastics and identities opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the healthcare and food industry, and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  14. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process.

  15. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Plastics waste trashes German recycling scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-06-30

    Plastics waste is causing a major headache for Duales System Deutschland (DSD: Bonn), one of Europe`s groundbreaking national packaging recycling programs. Five of Germany`s states have threatened to withdraw from the plan mainly because of the lack of plastics recycling capacity, says a DSD spokeswoman. {open_quotes}The pace of establishing recycling capacity does not meet the zeal in collection.{close_quotes} she notes. In addition, the organization has been crippled by a lack of funds. It claims that up to half the subscribers to the scheme - who pay a fee to display a green dot on packaging - are either irregular payers or not paying fees in proportion to their use of the green dot. The cost of setting up and paying for plastics recycling - not originally part of DSD`s responsibility - is also hurting the organization.

  20. Genome packaging in viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2010-02-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures became available. Here we discuss various aspects of genome packaging and compare the mechanisms proposed for packaging motors on the basis of structural information. PMID:20060706

  1. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  2. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  3. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-07-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO{sub 2} abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO{sub 2}, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling.

  4. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  5. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  6. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  7. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  8. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  9. Clear plastic cups: a childhood choking hazard.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R L; Goldstein, M N; Dharia, A; Zahtz, G; Abramson, A L; Patel, M

    1996-11-01

    The disposable plastic beverage cup is not usually regarded as hazardous to young children. Certain varieties of these products however, are manufactured from a brittle, clear plastic that easily cracks and fragments. While most conscientious parents keep their children safe from peanuts, balloons, and other known choking hazards, a child can surreptitiously bite a cup edge and aspirate the fragment. We report two cases of foreign body aspiration involving clear plastic cups that went undetected one of which remained 21 months following a negative rigid bronchoscopy. Diagnostic difficulties are related to the transparency and radiolucency of these objects. When suspicious of foreign body aspiration in children, otolaryngologists should inquire about the availability of clear plastic cups in the household and be mindful of the diagnostic pitfalls. Further investigations including CT scanning and repeat bronchoscopy may be helpful in cases of suspected missed foreign bodies. An educational campaign aimed at prevention and placement of product package warning labels should be established.

  10. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  11. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  12. 49 CFR 173.203 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings... fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging... wickerwork hamper: 6PD1 or 6PD2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specifications...

  13. 49 CFR 173.203 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings... fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging... wickerwork hamper: 6PD1 or 6PD2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specifications...

  14. 49 CFR 173.203 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Inner packagings... fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging... wickerwork hamper: 6PD1 or 6PD2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specifications...

  15. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  16. Nonreturnable packaging: The environmental debate. January 1982-August 1989 (Citations from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental and economic impacts of nonreturnable versus returnable food-packaging containers. Topics include the burdens on the environment due to nonreturnable beverage containers, economic considerations for the packaging industry, and government regulations imposed to reduce waste disposal. Various packaging containers are examined and include glass, aluminum, tinplate, cardboard, and plastics. Government legislation in the soft drink and beverage industries, dairy packaged products, and paperboard packaging are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 287 citations, 39 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Nonreturnable packaging: the environmental debate. January 1982-November 1988 (Citations from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental and economic impacts of nonreturnable versus returnable food-packaging containers. Topics include the burdens on the environment due to nonreturnable beverage containers, economic considerations for the packaging industry, and government regulations imposed to reduce waste disposal. Various packaging containers are examined and include glass, aluminum, tinplate, cardboard, and plastics. Government legislation in the soft drink and beverage industries, dairy packaged products, and paperboard packaging are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 276 citations, 139 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. 49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (iii) “3” means a jerrican. (iv) “4” means a box. (v) “5” means a bag. (vi) “6” means a composite... fiberboard. (vii) “H” means plastic. (viii) “L” means textile. (ix) “M” means paper, multi-wall. (x) “N..., that of the outer packaging. For example, a plastic receptacle in a steel drum is designated “6HA1”....

  19. 49 CFR 173.202 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wood box: 4C1 or 4C2 Plywood box: 4D Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box... stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Plastic receptacle in plywood drum: 6HD1..., specification, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specifications 8 and 3HT...

  20. 49 CFR 173.202 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wood box: 4C1 or 4C2 Plywood box: 4D Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box... stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Plastic receptacle in plywood drum: 6HD1..., specification, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specifications 8 and 3HT...

  1. 49 CFR 173.201 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Metal box other than steel or aluminum... stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, specification or UN standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except 3HT and those prescribed for acetylene....

  2. 49 CFR 173.201 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box: 4H2 Metal box other than steel or aluminum... stoneware in solid or expanded plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, specification or UN standard, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except 3HT and those prescribed for acetylene....

  3. Energy and packaging from energy materials: requirements of beverage containers and packaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boustead, I.; Hancock, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of the energy and materials requirements of the beverage container and packaging industry is presented. Information available to the industry for the first time is given and a quantitative picture of many significant industrial sectors is provided. Contains original reports presented to the UK Government's Waste Advisory Council, that analyze, in detail, the energy and materials required to produce and use glass bottles, plastic bottles, and metal cans for the packaging of beers, cider, and carbonated soft drinks. An extensive collection of tables of energy requirements broken down by fuel type is also presented.

  4. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  5. Waste-paper recyling in the packaging industry. January 1982-August 1989 (a Bibliography from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and re-use of waste paper in the packaging industry. Uses of recycled papers include containers, paper manufacture, paperboard products, and other packaging applications. Economics, environmental impacts, legislation, and feasibility studies are included. Problems associated with recycling paper products, and comparisons with plastic products are also considered. Biodegradation of packaging materials is considered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 142 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Packaging effects on shell egg breakage rates during simulated transportation.

    PubMed

    Seydim, A C; Dawson, P L

    1999-01-01

    Shell eggs were packaged in either expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam or molded paper pulp (MPP) one dozen cartons, then were bulk packaged in either polypropylene crates or corrugated boxes. The packages were then subjected to a well-defined computer-simulated vibration test on an electrohydraulic test machine. The percentage and the location on the egg (side, top, bottom) of breakage was determined in the secondary (corrugated box or polypropylene crate) and primary (EPS or MPP carton) package after 15, 75, and 180 min. For each of three trials, 60 dozen Grade A large eggs were randomly assigned to each primary package and cross-stacked in a secondary container that contained three cartons in a row and a total of five layers. When cartons were packed in 15-dozen corrugated boxes, no significant difference was found in total eggshell damage rates between the MPP carton and the EPS carton. However, when eggs were packed in 15-dozen plastic crates, the MPP cartons caused significantly less eggshell damage than the EPS cartons. The EPS cartons packed in corrugated boxes had the lowest breakage (4.63%), whereas the EPS foam cartons packed in plastic crates had the highest breakage (12.59%). When the effect of secondary packaging and vibration time were not considered, no significant difference was found between MPP and EPS cartons. In addition, when the effect of primary packaging was not taken into account, the corrugated boxes had significantly lower breakage rates than the plastic crates. Nearly 55% of the breakage occurred in the bottom section of the eggshell as compared to the side and top. When the test periods were compared, the EPS cartons packed in plastic crates had the highest breakage (16.28%) at 180 min.

  7. Fast-melting tablets based on highly plastic granules.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yourong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Park, Kinam

    2005-12-01

    Highly plastic granules that can be compressed into tablets at low pressure were developed to make fast-melting tablets (FMTs) by compression method. The highly plastic granules are composed of three components: a plastic material, a material enhancing water penetration, and a wet binder. One of the unique properties of the highly plastic granules is that they maintain a porous structure even after compression into tablets. The porous and plastic nature of the granules allows fast absorption of water into the compressed tablet for fast melting/dissolution of the tablet. The prepared tablets possess tablet strength and friability that are suitable for multi-tablet packages. The three-component highly plastic granules provide an effective way of making FMTs by compression.

  8. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  9. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  10. DNA profiling from heroin street dose packages.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Ashira; Cohen, Yaron; Azoury, Myriam

    2007-03-01

    A large amount of heroin street doses are seized and examined for drug content by the Israel police. These are generally wrapped in heat-sealed plastic. Occasionally it is possible to visualize latent fingerprints on the plastic wrap itself, but the small size of the plastic item and the sealing process makes the success rate very low. In this study, the possibility of extracting and profiling DNA from the burnt edge of the plastic wrap was investigated. The idea was based on the assumption that epithelial cells might be trapped during the sealing process. The results show that there are sufficient quantities of DNA deposited at the "amorphic" burnt edges of sealed street doses for DNA profiling to be carried out. A controlled experiment using a known donor was performed. This subject carried out sealing of "street drug" packages and consequent DNA extractions were performed to show that known DNA profiles could be recovered from such packages, as a result of handling by the "packer." "Square-like" burnt edges did not yield DNA profiles, probably because of differences in the sealing process. It was also shown that DNA could be recovered from the plastic wrap itself and not only from the amorphic burnt edges. As heroin dealers and drug users are often involved in other crimes and run-ins with the law, the effective extraction and addition of their DNA profiles from such items of evidence to the newly established DNA database in Israel provides new avenues in the continued fight against crime and drug traffickers.

  11. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  12. Effects of box liner perforation area on methyl bromide diffusion into table grape packages during fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastic liners are used inside boxes of table grapes to retard moisture loss from the grapes and to contain sulfur dioxide gas released inside the packages to control postharvest decay. However, to control organisms of quarantine concern, regulators specify exported packages must be fumigated with m...

  13. Evaluation of select blends of cotton byproducts in the manufacture of biodegradable packaging material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics in the manufacture of packaging materials. Extruded polystyrene foam is commonly sold under the trademark name of StyrofoamTM. Polystyrene packaging is a multibillion dollar a year industry. Since polystyrene is non-biodegradable, a biodegradable m...

  14. Optimization of biomass blends in the manufacture of molded packaging materials produced using fungal mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  15. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and...

  16. 49 CFR 176.900 - Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable fibers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Packaging and stowage of cotton and vegetable... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Subpart O-Detailed Requirements for Cotton and Vegetable Fibers, Motor Vehicles, Polymeric Beads, and Plastic Molding Compounds § 176.900 Packaging and stowage of cotton and...

  17. Evaluation of Biomass Residual Substrate Blends for Eco-Friendly Packaging and Insulation Sheets/Panels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; and 3) Extruded p...

  18. 76 FR 44506 - Petition Requesting Non-See-Through Packaging for Torch Fuel and Lamp Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ..., including torch fuel and lamp oil, as currently packaged, resemble juice. Petitioner notes that because young children enjoy the taste of juice and are accustomed to drinking it regularly, packaging petroleum distillates in clear plastic bottles causes needless danger, as children may mistake it for juice....

  19. 49 CFR 173.3 - Packaging and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... materials that have spilled or leaked may be placed in a metal or plastic removable head salvage drum that... cylinder near the marking required in (d)(3) of this section or on a metal plate permanently secured to the... equipment; and (iii) Knowledge of the properties of chlorine and sulphur dioxide. (4) Packagings...

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  1. 49 CFR 178.503 - Marking of packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or plastic drums or jerricans intended for reuse or reconditioning as single packagings or the outer... nearest 0.1 mm), as follows: (i) Metal drums or jerricans must be marked with the nominal thickness of the... thickness of either head of a metal drum is thinner than that of the body, the nominal thickness of the...

  2. 49 CFR 178.503 - Marking of packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or plastic drums or jerricans intended for reuse or reconditioning as single packagings or the outer... nearest 0.1 mm), as follows: (i) Metal drums or jerricans must be marked with the nominal thickness of the... thickness of either head of a metal drum is thinner than that of the body, the nominal thickness of the...

  3. 49 CFR 178.503 - Marking of packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or plastic drums or jerricans intended for reuse or reconditioning as single packagings or the outer... nearest 0.1 mm), as follows: (i) Metal drums or jerricans must be marked with the nominal thickness of the... thickness of either head of a metal drum is thinner than that of the body, the nominal thickness of the...

  4. The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah

    2014-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

  5. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-10-18

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described.

  6. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  7. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  8. Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carolyn

    This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  9. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  10. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  11. TRNSYS for windows packages

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.J.; Beckman, W.A.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    TRNSYS 14.1 was released in 1994. This package represents a significant step forward in usability due to several graphical utility programs for DOS. These programs include TRNSHELL, which encapsulates TRNSYS functions, PRESIM, which allows the graphical creation of a simulation system, and TRNSED, which allows the easy sharing of simulations. The increase in usability leads to a decrease in the time necessary to prepare the simulation. Most TRNSYS users operate on PC computers with the Windows operating system. Therefore, the next logical step in increased usability was to port the current TRNSYS package to the Windows operating system. Several organizations worked on this conversion that has resulted in two distinct Windows packages. One package closely resembles the DOS version and includes TRNSHELL for Windows and PRESIM for Windows. The other package incorporates a general front-end, called IISIBat, that is a general simulation tool front-end. 8 figs.

  12. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  13. Modular electronics packaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

  14. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ... Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain ...

  15. Plasticity and Geotechnics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-Sui

    Plasticity and Geotechnics is the first attempt to summarize and present, in one volume, the major developments achieved to date in the field of plasticity theory for geotechnical materials and its applications to geotechnical analysis and design.

  16. Plastic Surgery for Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... or severe acne and scarring. Teens frequently gain self-esteem and confidence when their physical problems are corrected. ... art as a helpful index of anxiety and self-esteem with plastic surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2002. ...

  17. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  18. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  19. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  20. Miniaturization of dielectric liquid microlens in package

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, C. Gary; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study presents packaged microscale liquid lenses actuated with liquid droplets of 300–700 μm in diameter using the dielectric force manipulation. The liquid microlens demonstrated function focal length tunability in a plastic package. The focal length of the liquid lens with a lens droplet of 500 μm in diameter is shortened from 4.4 to 2.2 mm when voltages applied change from 0 to 79 Vrms. Dynamic responses that are analyzed using 2000 frames∕s high speed motion cameras show that the advancing and receding times are measured to be 90 and 60 ms, respectively. The size effect of dielectric liquid microlens is characterized for a lens droplet of 300–700 μm in diameter in an aspect of focal length. PMID:21267438

  1. Investigations about thermal separation of aluminum packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rossel, H.; Mackenstedt, D.; Fillon, B.; Bertaud, Y.; Blanc, B.; Templier, J.C.; Franquart, P.

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum packaging scrap is combined with a lot of other materials, such as plastics (PE, PP, PET), paper, varnish, glue, colors and ink. In addition the scrap can be contaminated with residues of the packaged goods (cosmetics, food etc.). Most of the nonaluminum components would be removed by incineration during the melting procedure. The local increase in temperature resulting from the combustion process and mixing with carbonaceous residues decreases the metal yield and produces unacceptable emissions of hydrocarbons. Low temperature pyrolysis, i.e. endothermic cracking of organics in short gaseous chains recovered and/or burnt (energy recovery), is the only solution. The investigation has been divided in lab scale and design experiment tests.

  2. Processing of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Spaak, Albert

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

  3. Plastics in Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeist, Irving, Ed.

    The evaluation and use of plastics in the construction industry are explained. The contributors offer extensive, timely, and thoroughly researched data on the chemistry, properties, functions, engineering behavior, and specific applications of plastics to building requirements. The major subjects discussed in depth are--(1) the role of plastics in…

  4. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  5. Seawater Chemistry Package

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  6. Extractable/leachable substances from plastic materials used as pharmaceutical product containers/devices.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    A review is provided related to the accumulation of organic and inorganic leachable substances from DEHP-plasticized PVC, polyolefin and various other related pharmaceutical plastic packaging materials. The review considers both the identification of such leachables as well as their reported levels in actual and simulated pharmaceutical products.

  7. Biodegradability of Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Ugwu, Charles U.; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed. PMID:19865515

  8. Biodegradability of plastics.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  9. Types of packaging waste from secondary sources (supermarkets)--the situation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Hardy, Darron W; Curran, Beverley A

    2009-03-01

    Packaging waste is a contributing factor to the large quantity of waste that is sent to landfill in the UK. This research focuses on waste from the secondary packaging sector in the UK. In particular, supermarkets were investigated as they supply a large section of consumers with their grocery and other requirements and generate high quantities of packaging waste due to the high turnover within the store. In general, supermarkets use either metal cages or wooden pallets to transport products from depot to store. Investigation shows that packaging waste produced when using the wooden pallets is greater than for metal cages but the use of wooden pallets allows for greater versatility when in the store. The type of transit packaging used depends on what the products are initially packaged in and how the supermarket supply chain works. All cardboard and high-grade plastic is recycled but, depending on the facilities at the stores, the low-grade plastic can be recycled as well. This paper details types of packaging used within the supermarket secondary packaging sector and how waste can be reduced. To reduce the amount of packaging waste produced by the supermarkets, the products will have to be wrapped differently by the producers so that less packaging is needed in transit.

  10. Biodegradable plastics. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological processes that breakdown polymers. Emphasis is placed on the polymers most susceptible to biodecomposition. Materials used in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, wastewater treatment, and food packaging are considered. The importance of biodegradable plastics as a way to control waste is discussed. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Biodegradable plastics. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological processes that breakdown polymers. Emphasis is placed on the polymers most susceptible to biodecomposition. Materials used in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, wastewater treatment, and food packaging are considered. The importance of biodegradable plastics as a way to control waste is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. 49 CFR 178.519 - Standards for plastic film bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Bags must be made of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material used and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and the intended use of the bag. Joints and... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS...

  13. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  14. The ENSDF Java Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-05-24

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  15. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  16. A novel analytical technique suitable for the identification of plastics.

    PubMed

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Sket, Primož; Plavec, Janez; Grdadolnik, Jože; Zvanut, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The enormous development and production of plastic materials in the last century resulted in increasing numbers of such kinds of objects. Development of a simple and fast technique to classify different types of plastics could be used in many activities dealing with plastic materials such as packaging of food, sorting of used plastic materials, and also, if technique would be non-destructive, for conservation of plastic artifacts in museum collections, a relatively new field of interest since 1990. In our previous paper we introduced a non-destructive technique for fast identification of unknown plastics based on EDXRF spectrometry,1 using as a case study some plastic artifacts archived in the Museum in order to show the advantages of the nondestructive identification of plastic material. In order to validate our technique it was necessary to apply for this purpose the comparison of analyses with some of the analytical techniques, which are more suitable and so far rather widely applied in identifying some most common sorts of plastic materials.

  17. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  20. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  1. How Plastics Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Louis

    2013-03-01

    We encounter plastics every day, but despite their widespread use, amazing range of properties, and basic scientific underpinnings, most physicists--like most people--know relatively little about plastics. In contrast to hard crystalline and amorphous solids (e.g., metals, salts, ceramics, and glasses), we take plastics for granted, select them carelessly, and examine them more closely only on a need-to-know basis. By ignoring plastics until we need them, however, we risk not knowing what we don't know and using the wrong ones. To repurpose a familiar advertisement, ``there's a plastic for that.'' This talk will review some of the basic physics and science of plastics. It will examine the roles of temperature, order, intermolecular forces, entanglements, and linkages in plastics, and how those issues affect the properties of a given plastic. We'll stop along the way to recognize a few of the more familiar plastics, natural and synthetic, and explain some of their mechanical, chemical, and optical properties. The talk will conclude by explaining the remarkable properties of a plastic that has been largely misunderstood since its discovery 70 years ago: Silly Putty.

  2. Application of silicon piezoresistive stress test chips in electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yida

    In this work, both special (100) and (111) silicon test chips containing an array of optimized piezoresistive stress sensor rosettes have been successfully applied within several electronic packaging configurations. Unlike (100) silicon test chips, (111) silicon test chips are able to measure the complete stress state on the die surface. After calibration and characterization of the test chips, they were packaged into various assemblies. The post packaging resistances of the sensors were then recorded at room temperature, as a function of temperature excursion, and during long term packaging reliability qualification tests (thermal cycling and thermal aging). The stresses on the die surface were calculated using the measured resistance changes and the appropriate theoretical equations. For comparison purposes, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element simulations of the packaging processes were also performed, and the stress predictions were correlated with the experimental test chip data. AAA2 (100) silicon test chips containing optimized four element dual polarity rosettes have been applied within 44 pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) packages and 240 pin Quad Flat Packs (QFP's). In these plastic package experiments, comparison of the stress levels induced by various molding compounds was emphasized. Advanced (111) silicon test chips (BMW-1 or BMW-2) comprising an array of optimized eight-element dual polarity piezoresistive sensor rosettes were encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's, 160 pin QFP's, Chip on Board (COB) packages, and 281 pin ceramic Pin Grid Array (PGA) packages. In addition to molding compound evaluations, BMW-1 test chips encapsulated in 240 pin QFP's were used to detect the presence of delaminations between the die surface and the encapsulant. In the wire bonded COB package studies, die surface stress evaluations were conducted after die attachment, and throughout the cure cycle of the liquid encapsulant. The stresses were also studied as a

  3. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  5. Air-depolyable geophysics package

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

  6. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  7. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  8. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof. The complaint names...

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  11. Our plastic age.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Swan, Shanna H; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2009-07-27

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation.

  12. Our plastic age

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard C.; Swan, Shanna H.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation. PMID:19528049

  13. Our plastic age.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Swan, Shanna H; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2009-07-27

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. At the same time, we examine the environmental consequences resulting from the accumulation of waste plastic, the effects of plastic debris on wildlife and concerns for human health that arise from the production, usage and disposal of plastics. Finally, we consider some possible solutions to these problems together with the research and policy priorities necessary for their implementation. PMID:19528049

  14. Packaging the MAMA module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  15. Plasticized phenolphthalein polycarbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Phenolphthalein polycarbonate was successfully plasticized with polychlorinated biphenyls (e.g., Aroclor 1231) or tricresyl phosphate and cast from tetrahydrofuran to give clear films without loss of fire resistance. At loadings of 20 to 30 percent plasticizer the Tg was lowered to approximately 100 C which would render phenolphthalein polycarbonate easily moldable. Although these materials had some mechanical integrity as shown by their film forming ability, the room temperature toughness of the plasticized polymer was not significantly improved over unmodified polymer.

  16. Plasticity and Geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. O.; Selvadurai, A. P. S.

    2002-11-01

    Plasticity and Geomechanics is a concise introduction to the general subject of plasticity with a particular emphasis on applications in geomechanics. Derived from the authors' lecture notes, this book is written with students firmly in mind. Excessive use of mathematical methods is avoided and, where possible, physical interpretations are given for important concepts. The authors present a clear introduction to the complex ideas and concepts of plasticity and demonstrate how this developing subject is of critical importance to geomechanics and geotechnical engineering.

  17. Plasticity and Geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. O.; Selvadurai, A. P. S.

    2005-08-01

    Plasticity and Geomechanics is a concise introduction to the general subject of plasticity with a particular emphasis on applications in geomechanics. Derived from the authors' lecture notes, this book is written with students firmly in mind. Excessive use of mathematical methods is avoided and, where possible, physical interpretations are given for important concepts. The authors present a clear introduction to the complex ideas and concepts of plasticity and demonstrate how this developing subject is of critical importance to geomechanics and geotechnical engineering.

  18. Plastics and health risks.

    PubMed

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  19. The plastics waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Rowatt, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Post-consumer plastic is a symptom of the municipal solid waste (MSW) problem, not the cause. Yet the U.S. public sees plastic as a major contributor to the waste stream. Two-thirds say the environmental risks of using plastics outweigh the benefits and that they favor mandatory recycling programs in their community; more than four-fifths think recycling can substantially reduce the amount of solid waste and decry the presence of nonbiodegradable plastics in landfills. Given this perception, the author reviews solid waste management issues and examines the contributions that resin producers can make.

  20. Coatings For Plastic Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Robert W.

    1983-11-01

    Over the past decade there has been a tremendous surge of interest in the use of plastic optical elements to supplement or replace glass optics. While the technology of molding and polishing plastic optics has been the chief interest, there has been increasing need for precision coatings for these elements. In some instances these coatings are as critical as the elements themselves. In this paper we will describe the difficulties incurred in coating plastic and some of the many coatings presently available today despite the difficulties encountered. We will then cover the durability aspects of these coatings and lastly, point out some areas to consider when evaluating using plastic instead of glass.

  1. TSF Interface Package

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  2. Hydrogen Diffusion through Multiple Packaging Layers

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, J.; Mohiuddin, A.

    2010-05-05

    For this scenario, hydrogen is generated in a container that is eventually stored within a drum or some type of long range storage container. When preparing for long-term storage, the hydrogen container (HC) is placed in a plastic bag (PB1). The PB1 is then placed inside an inner drum (ID). The ID is placed inside a plastic bag (PB2) which is then placed within an outer drum (OD). One or more ODs are then storage is a large container (LC). Filtered vents or vent holes are located on all the container barriers to prevent pressurization and allow gases to flow in and out of the HC. The LC is vented to the atmosphere with four vent paths for this example. The source of hydrogen generation for this study is not important. Any source that generates hydrogen in elemental form (i.e., H{sub 2}) is a candidate for the purposes of this generic evaluation. The released hydrogen accumulates inside the waste packaging. Depending on the permeability of the packaging layers, some of the accumulated hydrogen may diffuse out of the packaging layers and into the space surrounding the drums. Since the drums are confined in the LC, the hydrogen accumulates in the LC as it did inside the drums if venting of the LC does not occur. If accumulation in the LC is allowed without venting, the confinement is eventually breached or the hydrogen is consumed by reaction with other chemical species. One possible reaction is combustion with oxygen. Such a reaction can be explosive, and from this possibility arises the safety concern.

  3. Polylactide nanocomposites for packaging materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, Indah

    2016-02-01

    This review aims at highlighting on an attempt for improving the properties of polylactide (PLA) as packaging material by application of nanocomposite technology. PLA is attracting considerable interest because of more eco-friendliness from its origin as contrast to the petrochemical-based polymers and its biodegradability. Despite possessing good mechanical and optical properties, deterioration of the material properties in PLA materials during their service time could occur after prolonged exposure to humidity and high temperature condition. Limited gas barrier is another drawback of PLA material that should be overcome to satisfy the requirement for packaging application. To further extend the range of mechanical and thermal properties achievable, several attempts have been made in modifying the material such as blending with other polymers, use of plasticizing material and development of PLA nanocomposites. Nanocomposite is a fairly new type of composite that has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nanometer scale dimensions (at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm). In this review, the critical properties of PLA as packaging materials and its degradation mechanism are presented. This paper discusses the current effort and key research challenges in the development of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymer matrices and nano-fillers. The PLA layered silicate nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modification, frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of mechanical strength, gas barrier and thermal stability.

  4. System packager strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-03-01

    Advances in combined equipment technologies, the ability to supply fuel flexibility and new financial support structures are helping power systems packagers meet a diverse series of client and project needs. Systems packagers continue to capture orders for various size power plants around the globe. A competitive buyer`s market remains the order of the day. In cogeneration markets, clients continue to search for efficiency rather than specific output for inside-the-fence projects. Letter-perfect service remains a requisite as successful suppliers strive to meet customers` ever-changing needs for thermal and power applications.

  5. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  6. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  7. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  8. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    PubMed

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  9. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law.

  10. The existing situation and challenges regarding the use of plastic carrier bags in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasidoni, Maria; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Malamis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Since day one, retailers and consumers have favoured plastic carrier bags. However, owing to the numerous environmental disadvantages, lightweight plastic carrier bags have been drawing the attention of the European Union competent authorities. Therefore, many European Union member states have taken action so as to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags. Based on the existing legislation and voluntary initiatives for the reduction of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the challenges and achieved outcomes from the implemented policy options in the various European Union member states are discussed and commented regarding the forthcoming transposition of the 'Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste to reduce the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags' into the European Union member states' national law. PMID:25827845

  11. Reinforced plastics durability

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, G.

    1999-01-01

    Written especially for first-time users of reinforced plastics. The book offers substantial introductory information with key concepts. Chapters examine the long-term threats to the integrity of reinforced plastics: outdoor weathering, solvent/water attack, high temperatures, and repetitive stress.

  12. Coatings for plastic glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This article describes how, as a replacement for glass, coated thermoplastic polymers can reduce cost and weight and increase occupant retention and design flexibility. Advances in transparent protective coatings have increased the potential for successful use of plastics in automotive applications. Originally, plastic materials were considered replacements for metals but, with proven performance, the utility of plastics is expanding beyond metal displacement. Now, transparent plastics are being considered as a potential replacement for glass. Driving this approach are many of the same reasons that plastics were first considered as alternatives to metals--cost, weight, design flexibility, and CAFE requirements. Glass has good optical properties, abrasion and chemical resistance, and outdoor durability, but it is also heavy, breakable, and expensive to form into intricate shapes. Although most clear plastics offer good optical properties, moldability, toughness, and cost benefits, their primary limitation is poor surface resistance to abrasion, scratching, chemicals, and the outdoor environment. In many cases, clear protective coatings can minimize these limitations. The potential advantages and disadvantages of plastic vs glass in automotive applications are given. Transparent plastic materials available for consideration as replacements for automotive glazing are listed.

  13. Detecting plastics in seedcotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US cotton industry wants to increase market share and value by supplying pure cotton. Removing contamination requires developing a means to detect plastics in seedcotton. This study was conducted to determine if Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) could be used to find small amounts of plastic in ...

  14. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Plywood box: 4D Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box... box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  15. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Plywood box: 4D Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid plastic box... box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  16. Packaging Materials Properties Data

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.

    1991-10-30

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection . data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  17. Packaging materials properties data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Several energy absorbing materials are used in nuclear weapons component shipping containers recently designed for the Y-12 Plant Program Management Packaging Group. As a part of the independent review procedure leading to Certificates of Compliance, the US Department of Energy Technical Safety Review Panels requested compression versus deflection data on these materials. This report is a compilation of that data.

  18. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  19. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  20. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  1. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  2. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  3. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  4. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-02

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests.

  5. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  6. Printer Graphics Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  7. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements.

  8. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  9. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  10. Creating Methane from Plastic: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Captain, Janine; Devor, Robert; Gleaton, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste into fuel. This process thermally degrades plastic in the presence of oxygen producing CO2 and CO. The CO2 and CO are then reacted with hydrogen over catalyst (Sabatier reaction) producing methane. An end-to-end laboratory-scale system has been designed and built to produce methane from plastic, in this case polyethylene. This first generation system yields 12-16% CH4 by weight of plastic used.

  11. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... determination was published in the Federal Register on Monday, July 23, 2012 (77 FR 43123). ] At the request of... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins....

  12. Effect of packaging systems and pressure fluids on inactivation of Clostridium botulinum spores by combined high pressure and thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Patazca, Eduardo; Morrissey, Travis R; Loeza, Viviana; Reddy, N Rukma; Skinner, Guy E; Larkin, John W

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have been published on the inactivation of bacterial spores by using high pressure processing in combination with heat. None of the studies investigated the effect of the packaging system or the pressurizing fluid on spore inactivation. The objective of this study was to select and validate an appropriate packaging system and pressure transfer fluid for inactivation of Clostridium botulinum spores by using high pressure processing in combination with thermal processing. Inactivation of spores packaged in three packaging systems (plastic pouches, cryovials, and transfer pipettes) was measured in two pressure test systems (laboratory-scale and pilot-scale) at 700 MPa and >105°C. Total destruction (>6.6-log reduction) of the spores packaged in the graduated tube part of transfer pipettes was obtained after processing for up to 10 min at 118°C and 700 MPa in both pressure test systems, compared with the spores packaged either in plastic pouches or cryovials. Reduction of spores packaged in plastic pouches was lowest (<4.8 log) for both pressure test systems when processed at the same conditions (i.e., 700 MPa and 118°C). Within the pilot-scale pressure system, increasing the process temperature from 118 to 121°C at 700 MPa for 10 min resulted in only a small increase in spore reduction (<5.1 log) for spores packaged in plastic pouches, whereas there were no recoverable spores for either of the other two packaging systems. Use of plastic pouches for packaging spores in inactivation kinetic studies could lead to erroneous conclusions about the effect of high pressure in combination with heat. BioGlycol is the pressure-heat transfer fluid of choice, as compared with Duratherm oil, to maximize the temperature response rate during pressurization within the laboratory-scale pressure test system.

  13. Enhancing the release of the antioxidant tocopherol from polypropylene films by incorporating the natural plasticizers lecithin, olive oil, or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Ares Pernas, Ana; Castro López, María del Mar; López Vilariño, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2013-12-01

    In this work, natural plasticizers-modified polypropylenes intended for food active packaging were developed. Sunflower oil, olive oil, and soy lecithin, without any known harmful effects or toxicity, were employed as natural plasticizers, also implementing the attractiveness of using synthetic plastics on active packaging developments. Their incorporation during the extrusion of polypropylene was tried as a means to obtain polymers with improved diffusion paths, allowing differences in antioxidant release rates for active packaging materials. Thermal and rheological characterization of the films showed that blending natural plasticizers do not significantly modify their thermal properties; however, small variations of viscoelastic properties were observed. Furthermore, the resulting release of tocopherol was highly dependent on the polymer formulation. Furthermore, it was clearly time-controlled by using those natural plasticizers, especially olive oil. Antioxidant activity results also showed that packaged foods are protected against oxidative degradation over time, resulting from the improved release of the antioxidants.

  14. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  15. Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Briefing Papers > Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients Briefing Paper: Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients More than 3. ... 2067-2071. Share Related Links Plastic Surgery Briefing Papers Menu Cosmetic Reconstructive Patient Safety Before & After Find ...

  16. A promiscuous DNA packaging machine from bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Kottadiel, Vishal I; Vafabakhsh, Reza; Dai, Li; Chemla, Yann R; Ha, Taekjip; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-01-01

    Complex viruses are assembled from simple protein subunits by sequential and irreversible assembly. During genome packaging in bacteriophages, a powerful molecular motor assembles at the special portal vertex of an empty prohead to initiate packaging. The capsid expands after about 10%-25% of the genome is packaged. When the head is full, the motor cuts the concatemeric DNA and dissociates from the head. Conformational changes, particularly in the portal, are thought to drive these sequential transitions. We found that the phage T4 packaging machine is highly promiscuous, translocating DNA into finished phage heads as well as into proheads. Optical tweezers experiments show that single motors can force exogenous DNA into phage heads at the same rate as into proheads. Single molecule fluorescence measurements demonstrate that phage heads undergo repeated initiations, packaging multiple DNA molecules into the same head. These results suggest that the phage DNA packaging machine has unusual conformational plasticity, powering DNA into an apparently passive capsid receptacle, including the highly stable virus shell, until it is full. These features probably led to the evolution of viral genomes that fit capsid volume, a strikingly common phenomenon in double-stranded DNA viruses, and will potentially allow design of a novel class of nanocapsid delivery vehicles. PMID:21358801

  17. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-01

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention. PMID:24016262

  18. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-01

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  19. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana R V; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications. PMID:27089372

  20. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana R V; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications.

  1. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana R. V.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications. PMID:27089372

  2. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  3. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  4. Roll-to-roll gravure with nanomaterials for printing smart packaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minhun; Kim, Junseok; Koo, Hyunmo; Lee, Wookyu; Subramanian, Vivek; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-02-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure is considered one of the highest throughput tools for manufacturing inexpensive and flexible ubiquitous IT devices called "smart packaging" in which NFC (near-field communication) transponder, sensors, ADC (analog-to-digital converter), simple processor and signage are all integrated on paper or plastic foils. In this review, we show R2R gravure can be employed to print smart packaging, starting from printing simple electrodes, dielectrics, capacitors, diodes and thin film transistors with appropriate nanomaterial-based inks on plastic foils. PMID:24749427

  5. Roll-to-roll gravure with nanomaterials for printing smart packaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minhun; Kim, Junseok; Koo, Hyunmo; Lee, Wookyu; Subramanian, Vivek; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-02-01

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure is considered one of the highest throughput tools for manufacturing inexpensive and flexible ubiquitous IT devices called "smart packaging" in which NFC (near-field communication) transponder, sensors, ADC (analog-to-digital converter), simple processor and signage are all integrated on paper or plastic foils. In this review, we show R2R gravure can be employed to print smart packaging, starting from printing simple electrodes, dielectrics, capacitors, diodes and thin film transistors with appropriate nanomaterial-based inks on plastic foils.

  6. KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

    KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

  7. TIDEV: Tidal Evolution package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Melita, M.; Zuluaga, J.; Portilla, B.; Sucerquia, M.; Miloni, O.

    2016-09-01

    TIDEV (Tidal Evolution package) calculates the evolution of rotation for tidally interacting bodies using Efroimsky-Makarov-Williams (EMW) formalism. The package integrates tidal evolution equations and computes the rotational and dynamical evolution of a planet under tidal and triaxial torques. TIDEV accounts for the perturbative effects due to the presence of the other planets in the system, especially the secular variations of the eccentricity. Bulk parameters include the mass and radius of the planet (and those of the other planets involved in the integration), the size and mass of the host star, the Maxwell time and Andrade's parameter. TIDEV also calculates the time scale that a planet takes to be tidally locked as well as the periods of rotation reached at the end of the spin-orbit evolution.

  8. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  9. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  10. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchir Y; Prajapati, Prajesh N; Agrawal, Y K

    2010-10-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  11. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  12. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  13. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  14. The Assurance Challenges of Advanced Packaging Technologies for Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microelectronic parts performance are driving towards finer feature sizes, three-dimensional geometries and ever-increasing number of transistor equivalents that are resulting in increased die sizes and interconnection (I/O) counts. The resultant packaging necessary to provide assemble-ability, environmental protection, testability and interconnection to the circuit board for the active die creates major challenges, particularly for space applications, Traditionally, NASA has used hermetically packaged microcircuits whenever available but the new demands make hermetic packaging less and less practical at the same time as more and more expensive, Some part types of great interest to NASA designers are currently only available in non-hermetic packaging. It is a far more complex quality and reliability assurance challenge to gain confidence in the long-term survivability and effectiveness of nonhermetic packages than for hermetic ones. Although they may provide more rugged environmental protection than the familiar Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), the non-hermetic Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packages that are the focus of this presentation present a unique combination of challenges to assessing their suitability for spaceflight use. The presentation will discuss the bases for these challenges, some examples of the techniques proposed to mitigate them and a proposed approach to a US MIL specification Class for non-hermetic microcircuits suitable for space application, Class Y, to be incorporated into M. IL-PRF-38535. It has recently emerged that some major packaging suppliers are offering hermetic area array packages that may offer alternatives to the nonhermetic CCGA styles but have also got their own inspectability and testability issues which will be briefly discussed in the presentation,

  15. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  16. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  17. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  18. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  19. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  20. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  1. A Plastic Menagerie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  2. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  3. Recycle plastics into feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, H.; Kaminsky, W.

    1995-05-01

    Thermal cracking of mixed-plastics wastes with a fluidized-bed reactor can be a viable and cost-effective means to meet mandatory recycling laws. Strict worldwide environmental statutes require the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) to develop and implement product applications and technologies that reuse post-consumer mixed-plastics waste. Recycling or reuse of plastics waste has a broad definition. Recycling entails more than mechanical regranulation and remelting of polymers for film and molding applications. A European consortium of academia and refiners have investigated if it is possible and profitable to thermally crack plastics into feedstocks for refining and petrochemical applications. Development and demonstration of pyrolysis methods show promising possibilities of converting landfill garbage into valuable feedstocks such as ethylene, propylene, BTX, etc. Fluidized-bed reactor technologies offer HPI operators a possible avenue to meet recycling laws, conserve raw materials and yield a profit. The paper describes thermal cracking for feedstocks and pyrolysis of polyolefins.

  4. Dreaming in plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhov, Marianna; Andelman, David; Shikler, Rafi

    2008-07-01

    Plastic is one of the most versatile materials available. It is cheap, flexible and easy to process, and as a result it is all around us - from our computer keyboards to the soles of our shoes. One of its most common applications is as an insulating coating for electric wires; indeed, plastic is well known for its insulating characteristics. It came as something of a surprise, therefore, when in the late 1970s a new generation of plastics was discovered that displayed exactly the opposite behaviour - the ability to conduct electricity. In fact, plastics can be made with a whole range of conductivities - there are polymer materials that behave like semiconductors and there are those that can conduct as well as metals. This discovery sparked a revolution in the electronics community, and three decades of research effort is now yielding a range of stunning new applications for this ubiquitous material.

  5. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  6. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  7. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  8. Technical Review Report for the Model 9978-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00002, Revision 1, March 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    West, M

    2009-03-06

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), on the 'Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), Model 9978 B(M)F-96', Revision 1, March 2009 (S-SARP-G-00002). The Model 9978 Package complies with 10 CFR 71, and with 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material-1996 Edition (As Amended, 2000)-Safety Requirements', International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9978 Packaging is designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B&PVC). The review presented in this TRR was performed using the methods outlined in Revision 3 of the DOE's 'Packaging Review Guide (PRG) for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packages'. The format of the SARP follows that specified in Revision 2 of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 7.9, i.e., 'Standard Format and Content of Part 71 Applications for Approval of Packages for Radioactive Material'. Although the two documents are similar in their content, they are not identical. Formatting differences have been noted in this TRR, where appropriate. The Model 9978 Packaging is a single containment package, using a 5-inch containment vessel (5CV). It uses a nominal 35-gallon drum package design. In comparison, the Model 9977 Packaging uses a 6-inch containment vessel (6CV). The Model 9977 and Model 9978 Packagings were developed concurrently, and they were referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Material Package, Version 1 (GPFP). Both packagings use General Plastics FR-3716 polyurethane foam as insulation and as impact limiters. The 5CV is used as the Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) in the Model 9975-96 Packaging. The Model 9975-96 Packaging also has the 6CV as its Secondary Containment Vessel (SCV). In comparison, the Model 9975

  9. The Need for Plastics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society of Plastics Engineers, Inc., Stamford, CT.

    In view of a lack of trained personnel in the industry, the Plastics Education Foundation proposes that educators (1) add more plastics programs, (2) establish plastics engineering degrees at appropriate 4-year institutions, (3) add plastics processing technology to current engineering curricula, and (4) interest younger students in courses and/or…

  10. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. The LEOS Interpolation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F N

    2003-03-12

    This report describes the interpolation package in the Livermore Equation of State (LEOS) system. It is an updated and expanded version of report [1], which described the status of the package as of May 1998, and of [2], which described its status as of the August 2001 release of the LEOS access library, and of [3], which described its status as of library version 7.02, released April 2002. This corresponds to library version 7.11, released March 2003. The main change since [3] has been the addition of the monotone bicubic Hermite (bimond) interpolation method. Throughout this report we assume that data has been given for some function f({rho},T) on a rectangular mesh {rho} = {rho}{sub 0}, {rho}{sub 1}, ..., {rho}{sub nr-1}; T = T{sub 0}, T{sub 1}, ..., T{sub nt-1}. Subscripting is from zero to be consistent with the C code. (Although we use this notation throughout, there is nothing in the package that assumes that the independent variables are actually density and temperature.) The data values are f{sub ij} = f({rho}{sub j},T{sub i}). (This subscript order is historical and reflects the notation used in the program.) There are nr x nt data values, (nr-1) x (nt-1) mesh rectangles (boxes). In the C code, the data array is one-dimensional, with data [i*(nr-1)+j] = f({rho}{sub j},T{sub i}). In the case of the few univariate functions supported by LEOS, the T variable is omitted, as well as the associated index on the data array: data [j] = f({rho}{sub j}).

  13. Mother-baby package.

    PubMed

    Tamburlini, G

    1995-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme developed the Mother-Baby package to facilitate the development of national strategies and plans of action. It was presented at an international meeting in Geneva in April 1994. The goals of the package are by the year 2000 to reduce maternal mortality by half and perinatal and neonatal mortality by 30-40% of 1990 levels. The package comprises: 1) a section on the technical basis and underlying strategies, 2) a section describing intervention before and during pregnancy, and during and after delivery, and 3) detailed recommendations on operating the program. The underlying strategy aims to reduce the number of high-risk and unwanted pregnancies; the number of obstetric complications; and the case fatality rate in women with complications. Interventions are based on a fourfold approach of family planning, quality antenatal care, clean and safe delivery, and access to essential obstetric care for high-risk pregnancies and complications. The district health system is the basic unit for planning and implementing the interventions. Midwives who live in the community are best equipped to provide appropriate community-based care to pregnant women. Pregnancy and obstetric complications requiring surgery and anesthesia should be available in the district hospital with an adequate referral system. Upgrading the skills of traditional birth attendants is also essential. National authorities should undertake a series of steps to carry out the interventions. A basic infrastructure, the upgrading of peripheral facilities, the development of human resources for safe motherhood, the effective delegation of responsibility, information, education, and communication (IEC), the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and women's groups, and the monitoring of results are other important elements in carrying out the interventions.

  14. New package for CMOS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  15. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  16. Aristos Optimization Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ridzal, Danis

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the area of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.

  17. KAPPA: Kernel Applications Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David S.

    2014-03-01

    KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

  18. Aristos Optimization Package

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the areamore » of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.« less

  19. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  20. The plasticity of clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Group, F.F.

    1905-01-01

    (1) Sand injures plasticity little at first because the grains are suspended in a plastic mass. It is only when grains are abundant enough to come in contact with their neighbors, that the effect becomes serious, and then both strength and amount of possible flow are injured. (2) Certain rare organic colloids increase the plasticity by rendering the water viscous. (3) Fineness also tends to increase plasticity. (4) Plane surfaces (plates) increase the amount of possible flow. They also give a chance for lubrication by thinner films, thus increasing the friction of film, and the strength of the whole mass. The action of plates is thus twofold ; but fineness may be carried to such an extent as to break up plate-like grains into angular fragments. The beneficial effects of plates are also decreased by the fact that each is so closely surrounded by others in the mass. (5) Molecular attraction is twofold in increasing plasticity. As the attraction increases, the coherence and strength of the mass increase, and the amount of possible deformation before crumbling also increases. Fineness increases this action by requiring more water. Colloids and crystalloids in solution may also increase the attraction. It is thus seen to be more active than any other single factor.

  1. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  2. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  3. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  4. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  5. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  6. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  7. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  8. Plastic condom developed.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    A prototype plastic condom that is expected to be at least as strong as latex, less likely to fail, and more comfortable to use has been designed by researchers at North Carolina-based Family Health International (FHI). The National Institutes of Health has granted the nonprofit medical research organization $1.3 million to conduct tests that will include clinical trials involving volunteer couples to examine the condom/s safety, efficacy in preventing pregnancy, and acceptability among users. Researchers hope the tests, expected to take about 4 years, will show that the plastic condom can be stored for years without weakening, whereas latex loses strength with time. In addition, FHI claims the plastic condom can be used with any kind of lubricant, while Latex is limited to water-based or silicone lubricants. Latex condoms lose up to 90% of their strength when used with oil-based lubricants such as hand lotion, according to studies.

  9. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  10. Adaptation without Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Quiroga, Maria; Morris, Adam P; Krekelberg, Bart

    2016-09-27

    Sensory adaptation is a phenomenon in which neurons are affected not only by their immediate input but also by the sequence of preceding inputs. In visual cortex, for example, neurons shift their preferred orientation after exposure to an oriented stimulus. This adaptation is traditionally attributed to plasticity. We show that a recurrent network generates tuning curve shifts observed in cat and macaque visual cortex, even when all synaptic weights and intrinsic properties in the model are fixed. This demonstrates that, in a recurrent network, adaptation on timescales of hundreds of milliseconds does not require plasticity. Given the ubiquity of recurrent connections, this phenomenon likely contributes to responses observed across cortex and shows that plasticity cannot be inferred solely from changes in tuning on these timescales. More broadly, our findings show that recurrent connections can endow a network with a powerful mechanism to store and integrate recent contextual information. PMID:27681421

  11. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  12. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  13. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  14. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  15. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  16. Finite-element simulation of flanging in the deform 3D software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrov, V. N.; Kononov, P. V.

    2016-05-01

    The results of a finite element simulation of the rolling of cylindrical workpieces using the DEFORM 3D software package are presented. The curve of the limiting plasticity of L63 brass that corresponds to various schemes of the state of stress in a workpiece is plotted. The deformation paths of the characteristic regions in a rolled part are calculated.

  17. 49 CFR 178.609 - Test requirements for packagings for infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Inner packaging Plastics Other Tests required Refer to para. (d) (d) (e) (f) (g) Refer to para. (h) X X X X When dry ice is used X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (d) Samples must be subjected to... used to fill......

  18. 49 CFR 178.609 - Test requirements for packagings for infectious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inner packaging Plastics Other Tests required Refer to para. (d) (d) (e) (f) (g) Refer to para. (h) X X X X When dry ice is used X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (d) Samples must be subjected to... used to fill......

  19. Mechanisms for enhanced packaging and/or burn-in total dose sensitivity in microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.; Winokur, P.

    1997-03-01

    The ionizing radiation response of several semiconductor process technologies has been shown to be enhanced by plastic packaging and/or pre-conditioning (burn-in). Potential mechanisms for this effect are discussed and data on bipolar linear circuits are presented.

  20. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  1. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  2. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  3. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  4. Praxis I/O package

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, F.W.; Sherman, T.A.

    1988-04-07

    The Praxis language specification, like Algol and Ada, does not specify any I/O statements. The intent was to provide a standard I/O package as a companion to the compiler. This would allow the user to substitute, or supplement, the I/O package, as needed, for specialized applications. Like Algol, however, Praxis provided only limited (text) I/O for several years. Ada, in contrast, provided a comprehensive standard I/O package from its inception. Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC's) implementation of Ada, on their VAX family of computers, further supplemented this package with other packages which exploit the I/O facilities available under the VMS operating system. The Praxis I/O package described in this document has been modeled after DEC's implementation of Ada and provides a similar set of I/O facilities. Currently, the I/O package is supported only under VAX/VMS. The design of the package, however, is essentially independent of any operating system (with the exception of the module COMMAND IO). The VAX/VMS version of the I/O package fully exploits the vast I/O facilities which are provided under VAX/VMS and makes them directly available to the Praxis programmer. The design, prototype implementation, and draft documentation of the Praxis I/O Package was done by Tim Sherman as part of a University project in computer science. Subsequent work by both Tim and Fred Holloway lead to a more complete implementation, testing and development of example programs, and inclusion of the package into the Praxis compilers as their principal interface to RMS and VMS.

  5. Tpetra Kernel Package

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs. Templated on the scalar and ordinal types so that any valid floating-point type, as well as any valid integer type can be used with these classes. Other non-standard types, such as 3-by-3 matrices for the scalar type and mod-based integers for ordinal types, can also be used. Tpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vectormore » operations for the next generation of Trilinos preconditioners and solvers, It can be considered as the follow-on to Epetra. Tpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface, The most common implementation of this interface will be MPI.« less

  6. Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package

    1982-04-23

    PCHIP (Piecewise Cubic Interpolation Package) is a set of subroutines for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and "visually pleasing" interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contain both 'steep' and 'flat' sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application. In PCHIP, all piecewise cubic functions are represented in cubic Hermite form; that is, f(x)more » is determined by its values f(i) and derivatives d(i) at the breakpoints x(i), i=1(1)N. PCHIP contains three routines - PCHIM, PCHIC, and PCHSP to determine derivative values, six routines - CHFEV, PCHFE, CHFDV, PCHFD, PCHID, and PCHIA to evaluate, differentiate, or integrate the resulting cubic Hermite function, and one routine to check for monotonicity. A FORTRAN 77 version and SLATEC version of PCHIP are included.« less

  7. Anasazi Block Eigensolvers Package

    2004-03-01

    ANASAZI is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale eigenvalue algorithms. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale eigenvalue problems. ANASAZI is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors (defining the eigenspace) are considered to be opaque objects---only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Anasazi is accomplished via the use of interfaces. One of themore » goals of ANASAZI is to allow the user the flexibility to specify the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based and preconditioned eigensolvers.« less

  8. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  9. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  10. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  11. Meros Preconditioner Package

    2004-04-01

    Meros uses the compositional, aggregation, and overload operator capabilities of TSF to provide an object-oriented package providing segregated/block preconditioners for linear systems related to fully-coupled Navier-Stokes problems. This class of preconditioners exploits the special properties of these problems to segregate the equations and use multi-level preconditioners (through ML) on the matrix sub-blocks. Several preconditioners are provided, including the Fp and BFB preconditioners of Kay & Loghin and Silvester, Elman, Kay & Wathen. The overall performancemore » and scalability of these preconditioners approaches that of multigrid for certain types of problems. Meros also provides more traditional pressure projection methods including SIMPLE and SIMPLEC.« less

  12. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  13. Contribution of Two Different Packaging Material to Microbial Contamination of Peaches: Implications in Their Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Patrignani, Francesca; Siroli, Lorenzo; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aim of this work was understanding the microbial transfer dynamics from packaging to packed peaches in relation to the packaging used. Method and Results: A challenge test was performed, inoculating Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on cardboards and RPC (Reusable Plastic Containers), and monitoring their cell loads on fruits according to a probabilistic model and a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in relation to several independent variables (number of fruit lesions, fruit temperature storage and commercialization time). The data recorded on packed peaches for Pseudomonas and S. cerevisiae were modeled to fit the second order model to study the main, interactive and quadratic effects of the independent variables on the cell loads of target microorganisms as well as on the shelf-life of the fruits in relation to packaging material used. The data collected for E. coli were codified as presence (1) or absence (0) and modeled with a logistic regression analysis to assess the probability of E. coli transferring from packaging to fruits in relation to the adopted variables. The data showed a higher contamination frequency of the fruits packed in plastic than in cardboard. Increasing the storage temperature and the number of lesions, the probability of transferring of E. coli from packaging materials to fruits increased, independently on commercialization time or packaging used. For Pseudomonas, the contamination levels detected on fruits packaged in plastic were significantly higher compared to those found on fruits packed in cardboard, independently on the considered variables. The polynomial equations showed the S. cerevisiae cell loads of fruits stored in plastic was positively affected by the quadratic term of temperature. Conclusions: the use of cardboard, compared to plastic, can significantly reduce the potential of microbial transferring from packaging to fruits. The probabilistic and kinetic models used showed a higher

  14. Chip packaging technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

  15. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  16. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 6. Hydrolysis of polymeric plasticizers under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Nichol, J; Gilbert, J

    1993-01-01

    The polymeric plasticizers poly(butylene adipate) and poly(propylene adipate), and a low molecular weight oligomer fraction from each, were exposed in vitro to simulated gastric and intestinal hydrolysis in order to study their likely fate after ingestion of foods contaminated by migration from plastics packaging. Analysis for loss of the parent compounds indicated that partial hydrolysis occurred under simulated gastric conditions, with the low molecular weight oligomers being the most susceptible. Analysis for one of the starting materials, adipic acid, revealed however that the hydrolysis did not result in a significant conversion to free monomer under either simulated gastric or intestinal conditions. This is explained on the basis of partial hydrolysis of the plasticizers to smaller oligomer units but with the more resistant ester linkages resisting complete breakdown to monomer.

  17. Plastics in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandine, David R.; Holm, D. Andrew

    The materials in this curriculum supplement, developed for middle school or high school science classes, present solid waste problems related to plastics. The set of curriculum materials is divided into two units to be used together or independently. Unit I begins by comparing patterns in solid waste from 1960 to 1990 and introducing methods for…

  18. Hydrodynamic Elastic Magneto Plastic

    1985-02-01

    The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional elastic-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.

  19. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  20. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  1. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  2. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  3. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  4. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  5. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  6. Blood Pressure. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on blood pressure is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  7. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  8. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  9. Plastics for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Describes three plastics projects (which involve making a styrene fishing bobber, an acrylic salad fork and spoon set, and acetate shrink art) designed to provide elementary level students an opportunity to work with plastics and to learn about careers in plastics production and distribution. (TA)

  10. Seabirds and floating plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Cadée, Gerhard C

    2002-11-01

    80% of floating plastic debris freshly washed ashore on a Dutch coast showed peckmarks made by birds at sea. They either mistake these debris for cuttlebones or simply test all floating objects. Ingestion of plastic is deleterious for marine organisms. It is urgent to set measures to plastic litter production.

  11. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  12. Method of forming a package for mems-based fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    2004-11-23

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMOS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  13. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  14. Use of optical technique for inspection of warpage of IC packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Siew-Lok; Chau, Fook S.; Ong, Sim Heng

    2001-06-01

    The packaging of IC packages has changed over the years, form dual-in-line, wire-bond, and pin-through-hole in printed wiring board technologies in the 1970s to ball grid array, chip scale and surface mount technologies in the 1990s. Reliability has been a big problem for manufacturers for some moisture-sensitive packages. One of the potential problems in plastic IC packages is moisture-induced popcorn effect which can arise during the reflow process. Shearography is a non-destructive inspection technique that may be used to detect the delamination and warpage of IC packages. It is non-contacting and permits a full-field observation of surface displacement derivatives. Another advantage of this technique is that it is able to give the real-time formation of the fringes which indicate flaws in the IC package under real-time simulation condition of Surface Mount Technology (SMT) IR reflow profile. It is extremely fast and convenient to study the true behavior of the packaging deformation during the SMT process. It can be concluded that shearography has the potential for the real- time detection, in situ and non-destructive inspection of IC packages during the surface mount process.

  15. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  16. Amesos Solver Package

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Vendall S.; Heroux, Michael A.; Hoekstra, Robert J.; Sala, Marzio

    2004-03-01

    Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.

  17. Amesos Solver Package

    2004-03-01

    Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. wheremore » A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.« less

  18. Packaging Considerations for Biopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Erik J.; Thirumala, Sreedhar

    2011-01-01

    Summary The packaging system chosen for biopreservation is critical for many reasons. An ideal biopreservation container system must provide for closure integrity, sample stability and ready access to the preserved material. This means the system needs to be hermetically sealed to ensure integrity of the specimen is maintained throughout processing, storage and distribution; the system must remain stable over long periods of time as many biobanked samples may be stored indefinitely; and functionally closed access systems must be used to avoid contamination upon sample withdraw. This study reviews the suitability of a new commercially available vial configuration container utilizing blood bag style closure and access systems that can be hermetically sealed and remain stable through cryopreservation and biobanking procedures. This vial based systems allow for current good manufacturing/tissue practice (cGTP) requirements during processing of samples and may provide the benefit of ease of delivery by a care giver. In this study, the CellSeal® closed system cryovial was evaluated and compared to standard screw cap vials. The CellSeal system was evaluated for durability, closure integrity through transportation and maintenance of functional viability of a cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cell model. The results of this initial proof-of-concept study indicated that the CellSeal vials are highly suitable for biopreservation and biobanking, and provide a suitable container system for clinical and commercial cell therapy products frozen in small volumes. PMID:21566715

  19. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  20. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  1. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  2. Impacts of plastic ingestion on post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; Cole, Georgina; Spiby, Kevin; Nel, Ronel; Osborne, Alexis; Perold, Vonica

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-four of 40 (60%) loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta post-hatchlings (carapace<9cm) that died within 2months of stranding on southern Cape beaches in April 2015 contained ingested anthropogenic debris. Plastic comprised of 99% of debris: 77% hard plastic fragments, 10% flexible packaging and 8% fibres; industrial pellets comprised only 3%, compared to ~70% in 1968-1973, when 12% of stranded post-hatchlings contained plastics. Turtles selected for white (38%) and blue (19%) items, but translucent items (23%) were under-represented compared to beach mesodebris. Ingested loads did not decrease up to 52days in captivity, indicating long retention times. Plastic killed 11 turtles by blocking their digestive tracts or bladders, and contributed to the deaths of five other turtles. Our results indicate that the amount and diversity of plastic ingested by post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa have increased over the last four decades, and now kill some turtles.

  3. Impacts of plastic ingestion on post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; Cole, Georgina; Spiby, Kevin; Nel, Ronel; Osborne, Alexis; Perold, Vonica

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-four of 40 (60%) loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta post-hatchlings (carapace<9cm) that died within 2months of stranding on southern Cape beaches in April 2015 contained ingested anthropogenic debris. Plastic comprised of 99% of debris: 77% hard plastic fragments, 10% flexible packaging and 8% fibres; industrial pellets comprised only 3%, compared to ~70% in 1968-1973, when 12% of stranded post-hatchlings contained plastics. Turtles selected for white (38%) and blue (19%) items, but translucent items (23%) were under-represented compared to beach mesodebris. Ingested loads did not decrease up to 52days in captivity, indicating long retention times. Plastic killed 11 turtles by blocking their digestive tracts or bladders, and contributed to the deaths of five other turtles. Our results indicate that the amount and diversity of plastic ingested by post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa have increased over the last four decades, and now kill some turtles. PMID:27087353

  4. Recent progress in safety evaluation studies on plasticizers and plastics and their controlled use in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Y

    1976-01-01

    Recent experimental studies in Japan on the evaluation of potential health hazards from phthalate esters used in manufacturing poly (vinyl chloride) as well as several plastics for medical devices and for food containers and packages were introduced. Development of pulmonary granuloma formation after intravenous injection of diethylhexyl phthalate was assumed to be dependent on the particle size of the phthalate in vehicle used. Dietary administration of large amount of diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate produced renal cysts in mothers and in descendants in reproduction studies in mice. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the phthalates and several plastics and resins were also examined by in vivo and in vitro studies. Hematological parameters examined in rabbits after repeated intravenous injection of diethylhexyl phthalate and after implantation of plastics in aorta for 3--6 months did not show any significant change. A slow decrease of radioactivity was observed in adipose tissue of rats following oral administration of 14C-labeled diethylhexyl phthalate. tthe administrative action on phthalates by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is briefly reviewed. PMID:1026406

  5. Breathing: Rhythmicity, Plasticity, Chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jack L.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2010-01-01

    Breathing is a vital behavior that is particularly amenable to experimental investigation. We review recent progress on three problems of broad interest. (i) Where and how is respiratory rhythm generated? The preBötzinger Complex is a critical site, whereas pacemaker neurons may not be essential. The possibility that coupled oscillators are involved is considered. (ii) What are the mechanisms that underlie the plasticity necessary for adaptive changes in breathing? Serotonin-dependent long-term facilitation following intermittent hypoxia is an important example of such plasticity, and a model that can account for this adaptive behavior is discussed. (iii) Where and how are the regulated variables CO2 and pH sensed? These sensors are essential if breathing is to be appropriate for metabolism. Neurons with appropriate chemosensitivity are spread throughout the brainstem; their individual properties and collective role are just beginning to be understood. PMID:12598679

  6. Stress-gradient plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Srinath S.; Curtin, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    A new model, stress-gradient plasticity, is presented that provides unique mechanistic insight into size-dependent phenomena in plasticity. This dislocation-based model predicts strengthening of materials when a gradient in stress acts over dislocation source–obstacle configurations. The model has a physical length scale, the spacing of dislocation obstacles, and is validated by several levels of discrete-dislocation simulations. When incorporated into a continuum viscoplastic model, predictions for bending and torsion in polycrystalline metals show excellent agreement with experiments in the initial strengthening and subsequent hardening as a function of both sample-size dependence and grain size, when the operative obstacle spacing is proportional to the grain size. PMID:21911403

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  8. Compensatory plasticity: time matters.

    PubMed

    Lazzouni, Latifa; Lepore, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Plasticity in the human and animal brain is the rule, the base for development, and the way to deal effectively with the environment for making the most efficient use of all the senses. When the brain is deprived of one sensory modality, plasticity becomes compensatory: the exception that invalidates the general loss hypothesis giving the opportunity of effective change. Sensory deprivation comes with massive alterations in brain structure and function, behavioral outcomes, and neural interactions. Blind individuals do as good as the sighted and even more, show superior abilities in auditory, tactile and olfactory processing. This behavioral enhancement is accompanied with changes in occipital cortex function, where visual areas at different levels become responsive to non-visual information. The intact senses are in general used more efficiently in the blind but are also used more exclusively. New findings are disentangling these two aspects of compensatory plasticity. What is due to visual deprivation and what is dependent on the extended use of spared modalities? The latter seems to contribute highly to compensatory changes in the congenitally blind. Short-term deprivation through the use of blindfolds shows that cortical excitability of the visual cortex is likely to show rapid modulatory changes after few minutes of light deprivation and therefore changes are possible in adulthood. However, reorganization remains more pronounced in the congenitally blind. Cortico-cortical pathways between visual areas and the areas of preserved sensory modalities are inhibited in the presence of vision, but are unmasked after loss of vision or blindfolding as a mechanism likely to drive cross-modal information to the deafferented visual cortex. The development of specialized higher order visual pathways independently from early sensory experience is likely to preserve their function and switch to the intact modalities. Plasticity in the blind is also accompanied with

  9. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  10. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  11. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  12. Plasticity of amyloid fibrils†

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Ronald; Shivaprasad, Shankaramma; Williams, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    In experiments designed to characterize the basis of amyloid fibril stability through mutational analysis of the Aβ(1-40) molecule, fibrils exhibit consistent, significant structural malleability. In these results, and in other properties, amyloid fibrils appear to more resemble plastic materials generated from synthetic polymers than they do globular proteins. Thus, like synthetic polymers and plastics, amyloid fibrils exhibit both polymorphism, the ability of one polypeptide to form aggregates of different morphologies, and isomorphism, the ability of different polypeptides to grow into a fibrillar amyloid morphology. This view links amyloid with the prehistorical and 20th Century use of proteins as starting materials to make films, fibers, and plastics, and with the classic protein fiber stretching experiments of the Astbury group. Viewing amyloid from the point of view of the polymer chemist may shed new light on issues such as the role of protofibrils in the mechanism of amyloid formation, the biological potency of fibrils, and the prospects for discovering inhibitors of amyloid fibril formation. PMID:17198370

  13. Plastic footwear for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Antia, N H

    1990-03-01

    The anaesthetic foot in leprosy poses the most major problem in the rehabilitation of its patients. Various attempts have been made to produce protective footwear such as the microcellular rubber-car-tyre sandals. Unfortunately these attempts have had little success on a large scale because of the inability to produce them in large numbers and the stigma attached to such unusual footwear. While such footwear may be superior to the 'tennis' shoe in protecting the foot from injury by the penetration of sharp objects, it fails to distribute the weight-bearing forces which is the major cause of plantar damage and ulceration in the anaesthetic foot. This can be achieved by providing rigidity to the sole, as demonstrated by the healing of ulcers in plaster of paris casts or the rigid wooden clog. A new type of moulded plastic footwear has been evolved in conjunction with the plastic footwear industry which provides footwear that can be mass produced at a low price and which overcomes the stigma of leprosy. Controlled rigidity is provided by the incorporation of a spring steel shank between the sponge insole and the hard wearing plastic sole. Trials have demonstrated both the acceptability of the footwear and its protective effects as well as its hard wearing properties. PMID:2319903

  14. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  15. New perspectives in plastic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Alex

    2011-06-01

    During the past 50 years new plastic materials, in various applications, have gradually replaced the traditional metal, wood, leather materials. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics--durability--exerts also the major environmental threat. Recycling has practically failed to provide a safe solution for disposal of plastic waste (only 5% out of 1 trillion plastic bags, annually produced in the US alone, are being recycled). Since the most utilized plastic is polyethylene (PE; ca. 140 million tons/year), any reduction in the accumulation of PE waste alone would have a major impact on the overall reduction of the plastic waste in the environment. Since PE is considered to be practically inert, efforts were made to isolate unique microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers. Recent data showed that biodegradation of plastic waste with selected microbial strains became a viable solution.

  16. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proof: 4C2 Plywood box: 4D Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid... fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  17. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... proof: 4C2 Plywood box: 4D Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid... fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  18. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... proof: 4C2 Plywood box: 4D Reconstituted wood box: 4F Fiberboard box: 4G Expanded plastic box: 4H1 Solid... fiberboard box: 6PA2, 6PB2, 6PC or 6PG2 Glass, porcelain or stoneware in expanded or solid plastic packaging: 6PH1 or 6PH2 Cylinders, as prescribed for any compressed gas, except for Specification 8 and 3HT...

  19. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  20. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  1. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  2. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation.

  3. Interfacial interactions between plastic particles in plastics flotation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-hua; Fu, Jian-gang; Lin, Qing-quan; Liu, You-nian

    2015-12-01

    Plastics flotation used for recycling of plastic wastes receives increasing attention for its industrial application. In order to study the mechanism of plastics flotation, the interfacial interactions between plastic particles in flotation system were investigated through calculation of Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) function, Lewis acid-base (AB) Gibbs function, and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential energy profiles. The results showed that van der Waals force between plastic particles is attraction force in flotation system. The large hydrophobic attraction, caused by the AB Gibbs function, is the dominant interparticle force. Wetting agents present significant effects on the interfacial interactions between plastic particles. It is found that adsorption of wetting agents promotes dispersion of plastic particles and decreases the floatability. Pneumatic flotation may improve the recovery and purity of separated plastics through selective adsorption of wetting agents on plastic surface. The relationships between hydrophobic attraction and surface properties were also examined. It is revealed that there exists a three-order polynomial relationship between the AB Gibbs function and Lewis base component. Our finding provides some insights into mechanism of plastics flotation. PMID:26337962

  4. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  5. Spack: the Supercomputing Package Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, T.

    2013-11-09

    The HPC software ecosystem is growing larger and more complex, but software distribution mechanisms have not kept up with this trend. Tools, Libraries, and applications need to run on multiple platforms and build with multiple compliers. Increasingly, packages leverage common software components, and building any one component requires building all of its dependencies. In HPC environments, ABI-incompatible interfaces (likeMPI), binary-incompatible compilers, and cross-compiled environments converge to make the build process a combinatoric nightmare. This obstacle deters many users from adopting useful tools, and others waste countless hours building and rebuilding tools. Many package managers exist to solve these problems for typical desktop environments, but none suits the unique needs of supercomputing facilities or users. To address these problems, we have Spack, a package manager that eases the task of managing software for end-users, across multiple platforms, package versions, compilers, and ABI incompatibilities.

  6. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  7. Spack: the Supercomputing Package Manager

    2013-11-09

    The HPC software ecosystem is growing larger and more complex, but software distribution mechanisms have not kept up with this trend. Tools, Libraries, and applications need to run on multiple platforms and build with multiple compliers. Increasingly, packages leverage common software components, and building any one component requires building all of its dependencies. In HPC environments, ABI-incompatible interfaces (likeMPI), binary-incompatible compilers, and cross-compiled environments converge to make the build process a combinatoric nightmare. This obstaclemore » deters many users from adopting useful tools, and others waste countless hours building and rebuilding tools. Many package managers exist to solve these problems for typical desktop environments, but none suits the unique needs of supercomputing facilities or users. To address these problems, we have Spack, a package manager that eases the task of managing software for end-users, across multiple platforms, package versions, compilers, and ABI incompatibilities.« less

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of the constituent components effect on the biodegradable package characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Coţa, C.; Cioica, N. Nagy, E. M.; Filip, C.; Fechete, R.; Todica, M.; Cozar, O.

    2015-12-23

    The effect of the nature and the content of the plasticizers (water, glycerol) on the corn starch based biodegradable packages properties (crystalline-amorphous) and also on their degradation process after absorption of distilled water were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR relaxation and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. For this goal, a set of 14 samples with various starch/glycerol/water (mass %) ratios were prepared and investigated after extrusion process in order to establish their crystalline or amorphous character. The composition having starch/glycerol/water 68/17/15 mass % ratio was found to have a dominant amorphous character and very similar features with a commercial specimen (USA) used for the package. It was also found that this best package is extremely degraded after just one day under water absorption. The most resistant package was that with a large content of starch (78/19.5/2.5)

  9. Material flow analysis for an industry - A case study in packaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Sandgren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The basic materials used in packaging are glass, metals (primarily aluminum and steel), an ever-growing range of plastics, paper and paperboard, wood, textiles for bags, and miscellaneous other materials (such as glues, inks, and other supplies). They are fabricated into rigid, semi-rigid, or flexible containers. The most common forms of these containers include cans, drums, bottles, cartons, boxes, bags, pouches, and wraps. Packaging products are, for the most part, low cost, bulky products that are manufactured close to their customers. There is virtually no import or export of packaging products. A material flow analysis can be developed that looks at all inputs to an industrial sector, inventories the losses in processing, and tracks the fate of the material after its useful life. An example is presented that identifies the material inputs to the packaging industry, and addresses the ultimate fate of the materials used. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of the constituent components effect on the biodegradable package characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coťa, C.; Cioica, N.; Filip, C.; Fechete, R.; Todica, M.; Nagy, E. M.; Cozar, O.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of the nature and the content of the plasticizers (water, glycerol) on the corn starch based biodegradable packages properties (crystalline-amorphous) and also on their degradation process after absorption of distilled water were investigated by 1H NMR relaxation and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. For this goal, a set of 14 samples with various starch/glycerol/water (mass %) ratios were prepared and investigated after extrusion process in order to establish their crystalline or amorphous character. The composition having starch/glycerol/water 68/17/15 mass % ratio was found to have a dominant amorphous character and very similar features with a commercial specimen (USA) used for the package. It was also found that this best package is extremely degraded after just one day under water absorption. The most resistant package was that with a large content of starch (78/19.5/2.5).

  11. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  12. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  13. TRU waste transportation package development

    SciTech Connect

    Eakes, R. G.; Lamoreaux, G. H.; Romesberg, L. E.; Sutherland, S. H.; Duffey, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures. (DLC)

  14. Effect of packaging material on enological parameters and volatile compounds of dry white wine.

    PubMed

    Revi, M; Badeka, A; Kontakos, S; Kontominas, M G

    2014-01-01

    The enological parameters and volatile compounds of white wine packaged in dark coloured glass and two commercial bag-in-box (BIB) pouches (low density polyethylene - LDPE and ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA lined) were determined for a period of 6 months at 20 °C. Parameters monitored included: titratable acidity, volatile acidity, pH, total SO2, free SO2, colour, volatile compounds and sensory attributes. The BIB packaging materials affected the titratable acidity, total and free SO2 and colour of wine. A substantial portion of the wine aroma compounds was adsorbed by the plastic materials or lost to the environment through leakage of the valve fitment. Between the two plastics, the LDPE lined pouch showed a considerably higher aroma sorption as compared to EVA. Wine packaged in glass retained the largest portion of its aroma compounds. Sensory evaluation showed that white wine packaged in both plastics was of acceptable quality for 3 months vs. at least 6 months for that in glass bottles.

  15. Effect of packaging material on enological parameters and volatile compounds of dry white wine.

    PubMed

    Revi, M; Badeka, A; Kontakos, S; Kontominas, M G

    2014-01-01

    The enological parameters and volatile compounds of white wine packaged in dark coloured glass and two commercial bag-in-box (BIB) pouches (low density polyethylene - LDPE and ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA lined) were determined for a period of 6 months at 20 °C. Parameters monitored included: titratable acidity, volatile acidity, pH, total SO2, free SO2, colour, volatile compounds and sensory attributes. The BIB packaging materials affected the titratable acidity, total and free SO2 and colour of wine. A substantial portion of the wine aroma compounds was adsorbed by the plastic materials or lost to the environment through leakage of the valve fitment. Between the two plastics, the LDPE lined pouch showed a considerably higher aroma sorption as compared to EVA. Wine packaged in glass retained the largest portion of its aroma compounds. Sensory evaluation showed that white wine packaged in both plastics was of acceptable quality for 3 months vs. at least 6 months for that in glass bottles. PMID:24444945

  16. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    SciTech Connect

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  17. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    PubMed

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs.

  18. Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.

    PubMed

    Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs. PMID:23777666

  19. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  20. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, M. Justin

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients.

  1. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  2. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vikram; Coffey, M Justin

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients. PMID:27622096

  3. Plastic Surgery and Suicide: A Clinical Guide for Plastic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, M. Justin

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Several studies have identified an increased risk of suicide among patient populations which a plastic surgeon may have a high risk of encountering: women undergoing breast augmentation, cosmetic surgery patients, and breast cancer patients. No formal guidelines exist to assist a plastic surgeon when faced with such a patient, and not every plastic surgery team has mental health clinicians that are readily accessible for consultation or referral. The goal of this clinical guide is to offer plastic surgeons a set of practical approaches to manage potentially suicidal patients. In addition, the authors review a screening tool, which can assist surgeons when encountering high-risk patients. PMID:27622096

  4. Processing plastics in Packerland

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-04-01

    Located in Green Bay, Wisconsin, Catenation, Inc. is a privately held recycling company dedicated to the recovery of post-consumer plastic containers. What makes the company stand out is its ability to separate and sort material from a commingled bale. Catenation uses custom-made, high-speed, computer-driven vision equipment to scan and sort every bottle by category. The computer even can be programmed to distinguish soiled jugs from clean containers. This is a selling point for buyers of resin who are insistent on receiving high-grade material.

  5. Fabrication of plastic biochips

    SciTech Connect

    Saaem, Ishtiaq; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Alam, S. Munir; Tian Jingdong

    2010-07-15

    A versatile surface functionalization procedure based on rf magnetron sputtering of silica was performed on poly(methylmethacrylate), polycarbonate, polypropylene, and cyclic olefin copolymers (Topas 6015). The hybrid thermoplastic surfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis and contact angle measurements. The authors then used these hybrid materials to perform a sandwich assay targeting an HIV-1 antibody using fluorescent detection and biotinylated peptides immobilized using the bioaffinity of biotin-neutravidin. They found a limit of detection similar to arrays on glass surfaces and believed that this plastic biochip platform may be used for the development of disposable immunosensing and diagnostic applications.

  6. History of reinforced plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Rosato, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    This history of reinforced plastics is told by combining the individual histories of each reinforcement and the way in which they added to and changed the direction and rate of growth of the industry. The early history is based on all resins, fillers, and fibers found in nature. Then came the Baekeland revolution with the first synthetic resin which lasted about 25 years, at which time synthetic fiber glass and polyester resin dramatically changed the industry. Now, for the 1980s, the high modulus fibers developed 10 to 20 years ago are reshaping the industry. 32 figures.

  7. Psychotherapy and brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Collerton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I will review why psychotherapy is relevant to the question of how consciousness relates to brain plasticity. A great deal of the research and theorizing on consciousness and the brain, including my own on hallucinations for example (Collerton and Perry, 2011) has focused upon specific changes in conscious content which can be related to temporal changes in restricted brain systems. I will argue that psychotherapy, in contrast, allows only a focus on holistic aspects of consciousness; an emphasis which may usefully complement what can be learnt from more specific methodologies. PMID:24046752

  8. Advances in engineering plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, L.

    1997-12-01

    New polymers are being commercialized in record numbers, offering the product designer a new realm of possibilities, and promising tough competition to the traditional engineering resins. Most of the growth is in single-site catalyzed resins. Metallocene (and non-metallocene) single-site catalysts enhance polymer architecture to generate highly uniform molecules, and even permit tailoring new categories of polymers. These new materials include the truly unique aliphatic polyketone, syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS); polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) resins; and novel variations of established polymers. This article provides a closer look at these newcomers to the plastics marketplace, with an emphasis on their properties and potential applications.

  9. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. PMID:27372152

  10. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains.

  11. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  12. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  13. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  14. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Detonators containing no more than 1 g explosive (excluding ignition and delay charges) that are electric... excepted from the packaging requirements of § 173.62: (1) No more than 50 detonators in one inner packaging... outer packaging; (3) No more than 1000 detonators in one outer packaging; and (4) No material may...

  15. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... packagings. (c)-(e) (f) Detonators containing no more than 1 g explosive (excluding ignition and delay... which case they are excepted from the packaging requirements of § 173.62: (1) No more than 50 detonators... compartment is used as the outer packaging; (3) No more than 1000 detonators in one outer packaging; and...

  16. Think INSIDE the Box: Package Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Painter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Most products people purchase, keep in their homes, and often discard, are typically packaged in some way. Packaging is so prevalent in daily lives that many of take it for granted. That is by design-the expectation of good packaging is that it exists for the sake of the product. The primary purposes of any package (to contain, inform, display,…

  17. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... record retention applicable to Industrial Packaging Type 1 (IP-1), Industrial Packaging Type 2 (IP-2), and Industrial Packaging Type 3 (IP-3). (b) Industrial packaging certification and tests. (1) Each IP-1 must meet the general design requirements prescribed in § 173.410. (2) Each IP-2 must meet...

  18. 27 CFR 19.276 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Scales used to weigh packages designed to hold 10 wine gallons or less shall indicate weight in ounces or... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package scales. 19.276... Package scales. Proprietors shall ensure the accuracy of scales used for weighing packages of...

  19. 10 CFR 71.35 - Package evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Package evaluation. 71.35 Section 71.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Application for Package Approval § 71.35 Package evaluation. The application must include the following: (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...