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Sample records for aiken sc usa

  1. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    PubMed

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed.

  2. Plant-Wide Assessment Report for Shaw Industries, Plant #78; Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Brown PE, CEM; Matt Soderlund; Bill Meffert PE; Paolo Baldisserotto; Jerry Zolkowski PE, CEM

    2006-04-10

    A plant-wide energy assessment sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted at Shaw Industries Group, plant #78 in Aiken, SC. The assessment team consisted of Georgia Tech faculty from the Energy & Environmental Management Center and Shaw personnel from plant #78 and the corporate energy group. The purpose of this assessment was to uncover as many opportunities for saving energy usage and costs using techniques that have been established as best practices in the energy engineering field. In addition, these findings are to be shared with similar plants in Shaw Industries Group to multiply the lessons learned. The findings from this assessment are included in this report.

  3. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE) Fire Department Hose Training Facility, Aiken, SC, August 4, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G) (FDHTF) Operable Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) solid waste management unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the FDHTF located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.

  4. AmeriFlux US-Akn Aiken

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, Monique

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Akn Aiken. Site Description - The Aiken site is located within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Providence on a U.S. Department of Energy reservation (806 sq km) at Savannah River National Laboratory. Areas of the site not used for industrial purposes were planted with forests starting in the early 1950s, including the site of the Aiken tower. The site measurements are representative of the southeastern US within a mixed agricultural, residential, and industrial zone.

  5. Marsh soils as potential sinks for Bacteroides fecal indicator bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.

  6. Aiken for armageddon: The Savannah River Site and Aiken, SC, 1950-1955. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.S.

    1998-01-30

    Constructed between November 1950 and March 1955, the Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear production facility was a product of the Cold War and its accompanying arms race. The first Soviet atomic detonation in 1949 shook the foundations of American Cold War diplomacy. Although the diplomatic situation with the Soviets had never been amicable since the end of World War 2, the atomic bomb had provided a psychological edge for American policy makers. Worried about the military balance of power in the aftermath of the unanticipated Soviet test, President Harry S. Truman authorized research for construction of a hydrogen or fusion weapon. The program required a new nuclear weapons facility to produce the hydrogen isotope tritium in sufficient quantities to create a large stockpile of fusion weapons.

  7. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  8. Studies on biologically induced corrosion in heat exchanger systems at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, D.H.; Soracco, R.J.; Wilde, E.W.

    1982-07-01

    Biological fouling and corrosion of stainless steel tubes in the heat exchangers in nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant have caused decreased heat transfer efficiency and reduced operational life. This report addresses the microbiology and chemistry of the films present on these tubes, and the relation of this data to the corrosion of the tube material (304L stainless steel). Very few microorganisms other than bacteria were found in the biofilm. Bacteria capable of producing H/sub 2/S, organic acids, anaerobic conditions, and slime have all been isolated from these films. All of these have been implicated in corrosion processes. The most remarkable chemical finding was the inability to detect chloride in the film around areas of presumed chloride induced stress corrosion cracking. Three model systems were used to test the fouling and corrosion potential of metal specimens under a variety of environmental conditions including various biocide regimes. Using these systems, potential improvements in the use of chlorine as a biocidal agent have been observed. It was also shown that larger bacterial populations (including viable and killed cells) were associated with corroded areas as compared to noncorroded areas on the same specimen.

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. An Update on the Bubel Aiken Foundation: Seeds of Dreams Taking Root in Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Dianne; O'Hearn, Sue

    2007-01-01

    When RCA recording artist Clay Aiken created an independent study project to fulfill requirements for a degree in Special Education, he had no idea that his theoretical design would soon become reality. Aiken's concept on paper outlined an organization that would promote inclusion for children with disabilities. The seed of the idea was planted…

  11. Joan Aiken's Armitage Family Stories: Place and Storytelling as a Way into the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the importance of place and story in the life and work of Joan Aiken (1924-2004), with a focus on the Armitage Family short stories. It explores the fluid relationship between books, storytelling and place in Joan Aiken's childhood and looks at her close relationship with the landscape of the Sussex Downs. Particular…

  12. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, D.N. )

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT[sup 18]O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T[sub e]), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO[sub 2]/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO[sub 2]/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  13. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, D.N.

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT{sup 18}O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T{sub e}), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO{sub 2}/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO{sub 2}/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  14. Factorial Validity of the Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale for Urban School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The revised 20-item Aiken-Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale was administered to 2538 urban minority students in grades 8 to 10. Results supported the existence of two underlying factors, enjoyment and fear. (GDC)

  15. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina, March 1990--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Runs Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F/H area effluent on the creek, the study included qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites (see map), chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. In a March 1990 study of the potential impact of F/H Area effluent on the macroinvertebrate communities of Upper Three Runs Creek was extended, with reductions in the number of sites to be sampled and in the frequency of water chemistry sampling. This report presents the results of macroinvertebrate stream surveys at three sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent and water chemistry analysis of the three stream sites and the effluent from March 1990 to July 1991.

  16. Applying a Score Confidence Interval to Aiken's Item Content-Relevance Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr

    2004-01-01

    Item content-relevance is an important consideration for researchers when developing scales used to measure psychological constructs. Aiken (1980) proposed a statistic, "V," that can be used to summarize item content-relevance ratings obtained from a panel of expert judges. This article proposes the application of the Score confidence interval to…

  17. History Run Wild: The Alternate World of Joan Aiken's "The Wolves of Willoughby Chase" Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dams, Isobel

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the historical fantasy world created by Joan Aiken in the eleven volumes of her "Wolves of Willoughby Chase" series. In particular it looks at her subversion of historical reality by the creation of an alternative yet recognisable representation of our own world, using a wide range of events, and the remoulding of aspects of…

  18. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  19. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, AIKEN, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D

    2006-10-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on ''rapid'' and, because the available keys contained a large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained more genera than we would likely encounter and because this larger number of genera required both more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher) more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  20. A GRADED APPROACH TO FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELING TO SUPPORT DECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, AIKEN SC

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K; Patricia Lee, P; Gregory Flach, G

    2007-06-07

    A graded approach to flow and transport modeling has been used as a cost effective solution to evaluating potential groundwater risk in support of Deactivation and Decommissioning activities at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. This approach incorporates both simple spreadsheet calculations and complex numerical modeling to evaluate the threat to human health posed by contaminants leaching from decommissioned concrete building slabs. Simple spread sheet calculations were used to produce generic slab concentration limits for a suite of radiological and non-radiological contaminants for a chemical separations area at Savannah River Site. These limits, which are based upon the United States Environmental Protection Agency Soil Screening guidance, were used to eliminate most building slabs from further risk assessment. Of the more than 58 facilities located in the area, to date only one slab has been found to have a contaminant concentration in excess of the area specific slab limit. For this slab, a more rigorous numerical modeling effort was undertaken reducing the conservatisms inherent in the spreadsheet calculations. Using the more sophisticated numerical model, it was possible to show that the remaining contaminant of concern would not likely impact groundwater above drinking water standards.

  1. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  2. Sc-Sc bonding in the new ternary phosphide ScNiP

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinke, H.; Franzen, H.F.

    1998-05-01

    The new phosphide ScNiP can be synthesized by arc-melting of ScP and Ni, or by arc-melting of Sc with NiP. The lattice constants, as obtained from the bulk sample, are a = 6.3343(8) {angstrom}, b = 3.7375(7) {angstrom}, c = 7.0917(8), and V = 167.89(4) {angstrom}{sup 3}. ScNiP crystallizes in the Co{sub 2}Si structure type. Although one might assign the trivalent state to Sc, corresponding to a formal ionic formula of Sc{sup 3+}Ni{sup {+-}0}P{sup 3{minus}}, the structure of ScNiP contains Sc-Sc bonds and shows weak metallic properties, as expected based on extended Hueckel calculations.

  3. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  4. Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Almost the entire state of Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) can be seen in this single view from space. The large urban area on the SE coast is the greater Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Boca Raton and West Palm Beach complex. Half way up the coast is the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral where the space shuttle lifts off into space. Even at this great distance, the huge Vehicle Assembly Building, causeway and launch areas can still be easily seen.

  5. Seismic and tornado evaluation of Building 221H at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-30

    This report summarizes the results of the seismic and tornado evaluation of Building 221-H and Penthouse Additions 221-SH, TH, and UH at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The main objective of this project was to determine whether Building 221-H and the two-story penthouse addition over Sections 2 through 6 meet the established acceptance criteria for the criterion seismic and tornado loadings. The analyses and evaluations of three related structures -- the exhaust stack 291-H, sand filters 294-H/294-lH, and the connecting air tunnel -- are presented in a separate report. During the progress of the project, both the scope of work and the acceptance criteria for the seismic analyses of Building 221-H went through several revisions since the original criteria were established. As a result, linear elastic, quasi-nonlinear, and nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed to assess the building. The seismic criteria was based on the design response spectrum developed by Dr. George W. Housner with a Design Basis Earthquake ground acceleration of 0.2g and an Operating Basis Earthquake ground acceleration of 0.1g. Chapter 1 discusses the seismic analysis history of this project and the various analysis phases performed. The tornado analysis was performed for a Design Basis Tornado. The analyses considered the effects of wind velocity pressure, atmospheric pressure drop, and missile impact for structural response effects. The evaluation for wind velocity pressure and atmospheric pressure drop effects included consideration of both local and overall structural adequacy. The evaluation of missile impact effects included consideration of overall structural and individual panel response.

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE), Burma Road Rubble Pit (operable unit 32), Aiken, SC, June 18, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) unit (231-4F) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) solid waste management unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensatin and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site. Only non-hazardous, inert material (e.g., wood, trash, wire, bottles, plastic, rubble, foam, concrete, etc.) was placed at the BRRP source unit. Based on the results of the remedial investigation, no action is necessary at the BRRP unit soils to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.

  7. Environmental temperatures, physiology and behavior limit the range expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott R; Barker, David G; Barker, Tracy M; Mauldin, Richard; Avery, Michael L; Engeman, Richard; Secor, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    A well-established population of Burmese pythons resides in the Everglades of southern Florida. Prompted in part by a report that identified much of southern USA as suitable habitat for expansion or establishment of the Burmese python, we examined the plausibility of this snake to survive winters at sites north of the Everglades. We integrated daily low and high temperatures recorded from October to February from 2005-2011 at Homestead, Orlando and Gainesville, Florida; and Aiken, South Carolina, with minimum temperatures projected for python digestion (16 °C), activity (5 °C) and survival (0 °C). Mean low and high temperatures decreased northward from Homestead to Aiken and the number of days of freezing temperatures increased northward. Digestion was impaired or inhibited for 2 months in the Everglades and up to at least 5 months in Aiken, and activity was increasingly limited northward during these months. Reports of overwinter survivorship document that a single bout of low and freezing temperatures results in python death. The capacity for Burmese pythons to successfully overwinter in more temperate regions of the USA is seemingly prohibited because they lack the behaviors to seek refuge from, and the physiology to tolerate, cold temperatures. As tropical Southeast Asia is the source of the Everglades Burmese pythons, we predict it is unlikely that they will be able to successfully expand to or colonize more temperate areas of Florida and adjoining states due to their lack of behavioral and physiological traits to seek refuge from cold temperatures. PMID:22938524

  8. 33 CFR 80.703 - Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little River Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. 80.703 Section 80.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Inlet, SC to Cape Romain, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost extremity of the sand spit on...

  9. Phenotypes and Virulence among Staphylococcus aureus USA100, USA200, USA300, USA400, and USA600 Clonal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    King, Jessica M.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Stach, Christopher S.; Vu, Bao G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus diseases affect ~500,000 individuals per year in the United States. Worldwide, the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages cause many of the life-threatening S. aureus infections, such as bacteremia, infective endocarditis, pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, and surgical site infections. However, the virulence mechanisms associated with these clonal lineages, in particular the USA100 and USA600 isolates, have been severely understudied. We investigated the virulence of these strains, in addition to strains in the USA200, USA300, and USA400 types, in well-established in vitro assays and in vivo in the rabbit model of infective endocarditis and sepsis. We show in the infective endocarditis and sepsis model that strains in the USA100 and USA600 lineages cause high lethality and are proficient in causing native valve infective endocarditis. Strains with high cytolytic activity or producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) or staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) caused lethal sepsis, even with low cytolytic activity. Strains in the USA100, USA200, USA400, and USA600 lineages consistently contained genes that encode for the enterotoxin gene cluster proteins, SEC, or TSST-1 and were proficient at causing infective endocarditis, while the USA300 strains lacked these toxins and were deficient in promoting vegetation growth. The USA100, USA200, and USA400 strains in our collection formed strong biofilms in vitro, whereas the USA200 and USA600 strains exhibited increased blood survival. Hence, infective endocarditis and lethal sepsis are multifactorial and not intrinsic to any one individual clonal group, further highlighting the importance of expanding our knowledge of S. aureus pathogenesis to clonal lineages causative of invasive disease. IMPORTANCE S. aureus is the leading cause of infective endocarditis in the developed world, affecting ~40,000 individuals each year in the United States, and the second leading cause of bacteremia (D

  10. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  11. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  12. Theoretical prediction of the structures and properties of metal sulfide fullerene Sc2S@C80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Li-Hua; Lei, Dan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Sc2S@C80 has been detected but not been isolated and characterized. To investigate the structures and properties of Sc2S@C80, a density functional theory study on fullerene C80 and metallofullerene Sc2S@C80 was carried out. The calculations demonstrate that Sc2S prefers to be encapsulated inside D5h-C80 and C2v-C80, instead of the well-known Ih-C80. The two lowest-energy isomers of Sc2S@C80 may coexist in the soot. The calculations reveal that there exists strong covalent interaction between the cage and Sc2S cluster, suggesting Sc2S@C80 may have different properties from those usual C80-based metallofullerenes. Raman spectra are provided to help future experimental identification of Sc2S@C80.

  13. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  14. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  15. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  16. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  17. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  18. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  19. Introduction to SC-Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, Victor

    2011-03-01

    A new type of potential for nucleus, which is different from Coulomb potential or Yukawa potential, is introduced. This new called Smarandache-Christianto potential may have effect for radius range within r = 5-10 fm. For experimental verification of this potential, we find possible applications in the context of Condensed Matter Nuclear reaction. According to Takahashi's research, it is more likely to get condensed matter nuclear reaction using cluster of deuterium (4D) rather than using D+D reaction (as in hot-fusion, in this process Coulomb barrier is very high). In recent work, Takahashi shows that in the TSC framework it is also possible to do CMNS reaction not only with DDDD, but also with DDDH, DDHH, DHHH, or HHHH, where the reaction can be different. In other words, TSC can be a mixture of heavy and light water (as in neutrosophic logic). More interestingly, his EQPET/TSC (tetrahedra symmetric condensate) model, Takahashi can predict a new potential called STTBA (sudden-tall thin barrier approximate) which includes negative potential (reverse potential) and differs from Coulomb potential. The SC-potential, which has sinusoidal form, can be viewed as a generalization of Takahashi's TSC/STTBA potential.

  20. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  1. Gradient Optimization for SC CW Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, William; Kneisel, Peter; Rode, Claus

    2003-05-01

    The proposed rare isotope accelerator (RIA) design consists of a normally conducting radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) section, a superconducting (SC) drift tube cavity section, a SC elliptical multi-cell cavity section and two charge strippers with associated charge state selection and beam matching optics. The SC elliptical section uses two or three multi-cell beta cavity types installed into cryomodules to span the energy region of about 84.5 MeV/nucleon up to 400 MeV/nucleon. This paper focuses on the gradient optimization of these SC elliptical cavities that provide a significant portion of the total acceleration to the beam. The choice of gradient coupled with the cavity quality factor has a strong affect on the overall cost of the accelerator. The paper describes the optimization of the capital and operating cost associated with the RIA elliptical cavity cryomodules.

  2. Hydrogenation studies on NdScSi and NdScGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tencé, Sophie; Mahon, Tadhg; Gaudin, Etienne; Chevalier, Bernard; Bobet, Jean-Louis; Flacau, Roxana; Heying, Birgit; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    NdScSi and NdScGe were synthesized from the elements via arc-melting and subsequent annealing. Their ordered La2Sb type structures, with space group I4/mmm, were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a=428.94(6) and b=1570.5(3) pm, wR2=0.0395, 309 F2 values for NdScSi and a=431.2(1) and c=1581.3(5) pm, wR2=0.1220, 227 F2 values for NdScGe, with 11 variables per refinement. Hydrogen insertion was performed on both Nd-based intermetallics by solid/gas reaction. Hydrogen uptake keeps the pristine compound space group but yields an anisotropic expansion of the unit cell with a large increase of c (≈+7%) and a slight decrease of a (≈-1.7%) parameters. Hydrogen absorption at 350 °C and under 5 bar of H2 pressure shows that the hydride NdScSiH1.48(5) is formed. An in-situ neutron diffraction study during the deuteration of NdScSi reveals for the first time in a CeScSi-type compound, the possibility to fill two interstitial sites with deuterium atoms, leading to the composition NdScSiD1.5 for the deuteride adopting then the La2Fe2Se2O3-type structure. From magnetization measurements, we evidence that hydrogenation strongly reduces the Curie temperature of NdScSi (TC=175 K) and NdScGe (TC=194 K) since NdScSiH1.5 and NdScGeHx undergo a magnetic transition at 4 K and around 2 K, respectively.

  3. Sc3N and Sc2C2 encapsulated B40: Smarter than its carbon analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Esha V.; Roy, Debesh R.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed comparative investigation on the recently synthesised B40 and C40 along with their metal nitride (Sc3N)and carbide (Sc2C2) encapsulated endohedral fullerenes, is performed under density functional theory for the first time. The structures, electronic, thermodynamic and magnetic properties of all the considered compounds are explored in detail. The present study identifies borospherene (B40) and its encapsulated nitride (Sc3N@B40) and carbide (Sc2C2@B40) endohedral borofullerenes as the better candidates for future novel nano-applications compared to their carbon bucky ball analogues.

  4. Aerodynamic Characteristics of SC1095 and SC1094 R8 Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Two airfoils are used on the main rotor blade of the UH-60A helicopter, the SC1095 and the SC1094 R8. Measurements of the section lift, drag, and pitching moment have been obtained in ten wind tunnel tests for the SC1095 airfoil, and in five of these tests, measurements have also been obtained for the SC1094 R8. The ten wind tunnel tests are characterized and described in the present study. A number of fundamental parameters measured in these tests are compared and an assessment is made of the adequacy of the test data for use in look-up tables required by lifting-line calculation methods.

  5. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  6. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.5W) is a detailed look at the national seashore recreation area with its many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago.

  7. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a detailed look at the national seashore recreation area with its many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago.

  8. 75 FR 43815 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace: Pickens, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... amend Class E airspace at Clemson, SC and establish Class E airspace at Pickens, SC (75 FR 13697) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace: Pickens, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION:...

  9. 75 FR 13697 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pickens, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pickens, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., SC, to correct the airspace description and establish Class E airspace at Pickens, SC, to achieve...

  10. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost point on Cape Romain to the... northernmost extremity of Northeast Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Bull Island...

  11. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  12. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  13. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  14. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  15. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  16. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.712 Morris...

  17. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  18. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  19. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the westernmost point on Cape Romain to the... northernmost extremity of Northeast Point. (c) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Bull Island...

  20. Sc20C60: a volleyballene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable.An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as ``Volleyballene''. Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (~1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sc20C60: a Volleyballene_SI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07784b

  1. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center and Educational Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, K.; Crass, D.C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-02-01

    Documented in this report are the methods and results of an intensive archaeological survey for the proposed University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Conference Center and Educational Facility on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological investigations conducted by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) on the 70-acre project area and associated rights-of-way consisted of subsurface testing at two previously recorded sites and the discovery of one previously unrecorded site. The results show that 2 sites contain archaeological remains that may yield significant information about human occupations in the Aiken Plateau and are therefore considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Adverse impacts to these sites can be mitigated through avoidance.

  2. Chicago, Illinois, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this late winter scene of Chicago, Illinois, USA (42.0N, 87.5W) the light dusting of snow has actually enhanced the determination of the cities street pattern, parks and other cultural features. Sited at the south end of Lake Michigan, Chicago has long served as an industrial, transportation and communications center for the midwest. The obvious snowline on the ground enables meteorologists to trace the regional groundtracks of winter storms.

  3. Central Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of central Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) shows both coasts of the Florida peninsula with Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center readily visible in the center on the Atlantic coast. Other features on the Earth which are visible through the clouds include Tampa Bay, several lakes and the Gulf of Mexico on Florida's east coast. The space shuttle's tail fin and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are seen in the foreground.

  4. Construction of multiform scFv antibodies using linker peptide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihua; Zheng, Cengjie; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Huirong; Wang, Zonghua

    2008-05-01

    Multiform single chain variable fragments (scFvs) including different length linker scFvs and bispecific scFv were constructed. The linker lengths of 0, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 15 amino acids between V(H) and V(L) of antideoxynivalenol (anti-DON) scFv were used to analyze the affinities of scFvs. The affinity constants of these scFvs increased when the linker was lower than 12 amino acids. The affinity constant would not change when the linker was longer than 12 amino acids. Fusion gene of anti-DON scFv and antizearalenone (anti-ZEN) scFv was also constructed through connection by a short peptide linker DNA to express a bispecific scFv. The affinity constants assay showed that the two scFvs of fusion bispecific scFv remained their own affinity compared to their parental scFvs. Competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect DON and ZEN in contaminated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples, and the results indicated that this bispecific scFv was applicable in DON and ZEN detection. This work confirmed that bispecific scFv could be successfully obtained, and might also have an application in diagnosing fungal infection, and breeding transgenic plants.

  5. Magnetic structure in Dy/Sc superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, F.; Flynn, C. P.; Beach, R. S.; Borchers, J. A.; Erwin, R. W.; Rhyne, J. J.

    1993-05-01

    We have investigated magnetic order in superlattices of Dy and Sc grown along the hcp c axis by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. Our neutron diffraction experiments reveal that individual Dy layers order ferromagnetically below Tc˜150 K. The magnetic coherence length along the growth direction is less than the Dy-layer thickness. Previous studies of rare-earth superlattices with Y or Lu as spacer layers have shown that magnetic coherence propagates through sufficiently thin nonmagnetic interlayers. This arises from the long-range exchange interaction that originates from nesting features in the Fermi surface of the spacer material. The lack of coupling in Dy/Sc superlattices reflects the very different Fermi surface of Sc, with much weaker nesting than Y and Lu.

  6. K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

  7. Sc20C60: a volleyballene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Hong-Man; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    An exceptionally stable hollow cage containing 20 scandium atoms and 60 carbon atoms has been identified. This Sc20C60 molecular cluster has a Th point group symmetry and a volleyball-like shape that we refer to below as "Volleyballene". Electronic structure analysis shows that the formation of delocalized π bonds between Sc atoms and the neighboring pentagonal rings made of carbon atoms is crucial for stabilizing the cage structure. A relatively large HOMO-LUMO gap (∼1.4 eV) was found. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations both demonstrate that this Volleyballene molecule is exceptionally stable. PMID:26878201

  8. Electronic structure of Sc3N@C68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Shojun; Ogasawara, Naoko; Ohta, Tomona; Yagi, Hajime; Miyazaki, Takafumi; Nishi, Tatsuhiko; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2013-06-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of non-IPR endohedral fullerene Sc3N@C68 are measured. A simulated spectrum generated from a geometry optimized structure calculated by the density functional theory reproduces the UPS very well. XPS chemical shift of Sc2p3/2 level and electron population analysis of Sc3N@C68 suggest the electronic configuration of (Sc3N)6+@C686-. The Sc2p3/2 and N1s levels of Sc3N@C68, Sc3N@C78 and Sc3N@C80 move toward lower binding energy in accordance with cage size contraction.

  9. Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.5W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  10. Differences between the in vitro combinations of secretory component (SC) and immunoglobulin polymers (Ig) by enumeration of SC epitopes.

    PubMed

    Geneste, C; Mangalo, R; Iscaki, S

    1984-01-01

    The enumeration of the SC epitopes has been established on 125I-labelled free and combined SC, by binding to anti-SC coated beads, then by addition of 3H-labelled anti-SC Fab' fragments of various specificities. The number of moles of Fab' fragments found on the beads increases in relation to the introduced amount. The extrapolation to an infinite concentration of added Fab' fragments gives the maximal theoretical accessible number of SC epitopes. The number of hidden epitopes (cryptotopes) is established by subtracting the total number found on sIgA, IgA-SC and IgM-SC from those found for free SC. These values are confirmed with Fab' fragments specific for the inaccessible determinant of SC. There are 4 cryptotopes in the case of sIgA, 3 for IgA1-SC, 2 for dimer IgA-SC and only 1 for IgM-SC (polyclonal or monoclonal). Thus the in vitro combinations of SC with polyclonal IgA dimers are different from the in vitro combinations with polyclonal or monoclonal IgM. The structural implications of these differences are discussed.

  11. Effects of climate change on saltwater intrusion at Hilton Head Island, SC. U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Dorothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Sea‐level rise and changes in precipitation patterns may contribute to the occurrence and affect the rate of saltwater contamination in the Hilton Head Island, South Carolina area. To address the effects of climate change on saltwater intrusion, a threedimensional, finite‐element, variable‐density, solute‐transport model was developed to simulate different rates of sea‐level rise and variation in onshore freshwater recharge. Model simulation showed that the greatest effect on the existing saltwater plume occurred from reducing recharge, suggesting recharge may be a more important consideration in saltwater intrusion management than estimated rates of sea‐level rise. Saltwater intrusion management would benefit from improved constraints on recharge rates by using model‐independent, local precipitation and evapotranspiration data, and improving estimates of confining unit hydraulic properties.

  12. δ15N as a proxy for historic anthropogenic nitrogen loading in Charleston Harbor, SC, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, T. N.; Andrus, C. F. T.

    2015-12-01

    Bivalve shell geochemistry can serve as a useful indicator of changes in coastal environments. There is increasing interest in developing paleoenvironmental proxies from mollusk shell organic components. Numerous studies have focused on how the δ15N obtained from bivalve tissues can be used to trace present-day wastewater input into estuaries. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to tracing the impact of anthropogenic nitrogen loading into estuaries over time. By measuring historic levels of δ15N in the organic fraction of oyster shells (Crassostrea virginica) from archaeological sites around Charleston Harbor and comparing those levels to the δ15N content of modern shells, it is possible to assess how nitrogen has fluctuated historically in the area. Whole-shell samples from the Late Archaic Period (~3000-4000 BP, Late Woodland Period (~1400-800 BP), 18th and 19th centuries, and modern controls were measured for %N and d15N. Evidence of increased anthropogenic input of N is expected to begin in the early historic period based on similar analysis in Chesapeake Bay. More ancient samples may give insight into baseline conditions prior to recent population growth and industrialization. This information could help understand how large-scale anthropogenic nitrogen loading has affected coastal ecosystems over time and guide future remediation. Furthermore, this project will help refine and improve this novel proxy of past environmental conditions.

  13. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY... establishes Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace, Incorporation...

  14. 76 FR 56099 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC AGENCY... July 25, 2011, that amends Class E airspace at Orangeburg Municipal Airport, Orangeburg, SC. DATES...), amends Class E airspace at Orangeburg Municipal Airport, Orangeburg, SC. A typographical error was...

  15. 49 CFR 372.205 - Charleston, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Charleston, S.C. 372.205 Section 372.205... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.205 Charleston, S.C. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part of Charleston, S.C., within which transportation by motor vehicle in interstate or...

  16. 77 FR 22190 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Columbia, SC, by removing Corporate Airport...

  17. Microstructural investigations on as-cast and annealed Al-Sc and Al-Sc-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lohar, A.K.; Mondal, B.; Rafaja, D.; Klemm, V.; Panigrahi, S.C.

    2009-11-15

    Al-Sc and Al-Sc-Zr alloys containing 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 wt.% Sc and 0.15 wt.% Zr were investigated using optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase composition of the alloys and the morphology of precipitates that developed during solidification in the sand casting process and subsequent thermal treatment of the samples were studied. XRD analysis shows that the weight percentage of the Al{sub 3}Sc/Al{sub 3}(Sc, Zr) precipitates was significantly below 1% in all alloys except for the virgin Al0.5Sc0.15Zr alloy. In this alloy the precipitates were observed as primary dendritic particles. In the binary Al-Sc alloys, ageing at 470 deg. C for 24 h produced precipitates associated with dislocation networks, whereas the precipitates in the annealed Al-Sc-Zr alloys were free of interfacial dislocations except at the lowest content of Sc. Development of large incoherent precipitates during precipitation heat treatment reduced hardness of all the alloys studied. Growth of the Al{sub 3}Sc/Al{sub 3}(Sc, Zr) precipitates after heat treatment was less at low Sc content and in the presence of Zr. Increase in hardness was observed after heat treatment at 300 deg. C in all alloys. There is a small difference in hardness between binary and ternary alloys slow cooled after sand casting.

  18. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METALS IN STREAMS ON A DEFENSE MATERIALS PROCESSING SITE IN SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Dyer, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 780 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy facility near Aiken SC established in 1950 to produce nuclear materials. SRS streams are 'integrators' that potentially receive water transportable contaminants from all sources within their watersheds necessitating a GIS-based watershed approach to organize contaminant distribution data and accurately characterize the effects of multiple contaminant sources on aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediments, fish, and water were elevated in streams affected by SRS operations, but contaminant exposure models for Lontra Canadensis and Ceryle alcyon indicated that toxicological reference values were exceeded only by Hg and Al. Macroinvertebrate community structure was unrelated to sediment metal concentrations. This study indicated that (1) modeling studies and field bioassessments provide a complementary basis for addressing the individual and cumulative effects of contaminants, (2) habitat effects must be controlled when assessing contaminant impacts, (3) sensitivity analyses of contaminant exposure models are helpful in apportioning sampling effort, and (4) contaminants released during fifty years of industrial operations have not resulted in demonstrable harm to aquatic organisms in SRS streams.

  19. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  20. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J., L.

    2004-03-10

    Horn, Scott, and James L. Hanula. 2004. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. 39(3): 464-469. Abstract: In recent years concern over widespread losses in biodiversity has grown to include a possible decline of many native pollinators, primarily bees. Factors such as habitat fragmentation, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, the introduction of invasive species, or changes in land use may negatively impact these vital organisims. Most reported studies show that human impacts on pollinators are overwhelmingly negative. Reductions in pollinator populations may profoundly impact plant population dynamics and ecosystem function. Little baseline data exists on the diversity and relative abundance of bees and wasps in southern forests. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, effective method of surveying cavity-nesting bees and wasps and to determine species diversity in mature forests of loblolly pine, the most widely planted tree species in the southern United States.

  1. Thermodynamics of Sc-H and Sc-D Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-qiu; Tang, Tao; Ao, Bing-yun; Luo, De-li; Sang, Ge; Zhu, Hong-zhi

    2013-04-01

    The pressure composition isotherms ( p- c-T) of Sc-H and Sc-D systems have been experimentally measured using the PVT method in the same work. The enthalpies and entropies are extracted from van't Hoff plots and compared with the literature values. The results show that the enthalpy and entropy for hydrogen absorption are in good agreement with the data reported by Manchester et al. (J Phase Equilib 18(2):194-205, 1997), while those for deuterium absorption are in variance with the data reported by Wu et al. (J Fusion Energ, 2012). First principles calculations further prove that the thermodynamic data of Sc-D system reported by us are more reasonable.

  2. Structure, chemical bonding, and 45Sc solid state NMR of Sc 2RuSi 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmening, Thomas; Al Alam, Adel; Matar, Samir F.; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2009-07-01

    The silicide Sc 2RuSi 2 was synthesized from the elements by arc-melting. The structure was refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Zr 2CoSi 2 type, C2/ m, a = 1004.7 (2), b = 406.8 (1), c = 946.6 (2) pm, β = 117.95 (2), w R2 = 0.0230, 743 F2 values, and 32 variables. The structure consists of a rigid three-dimensional [RuSi 2] network in which the two crystallographically independent scandium atoms fill larger cages of coordination numbers 16 and 15, respectively. The [RuSi 2] network shows short Ru-Si distances (234-247 pm) and two different Si 2 pairs: Si1-Si1 at 247 and Si2-Si2 at 243 pm. Each silicon atom has trigonal prismatic Sc 6 (for Si2) or Sc 4Ru 2 (for Si1) coordination. These building units are condensed via common edges and faces. The various Sc-Sc distances between the prisms range from 327 to 361 pm. From electronic structure investigation within DFT, chemical bonding shows a major role of Ru-Si bonding and the presence of strong electron localization around Si-Si pairs pointing to a polyanionic silicide network [RuSi 2] δ-. The 45Sc MAS-NMR spectra recorded at 11.7 and 9.4 T clearly resolve the two distinct scandium sites. The large electric field gradients present at both scandium sites result in typical line shapes arising from second-order quadrupole perturbation effects.

  3. Dengue in Florida (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Florida (USA), particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases), and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes. PMID:26462955

  4. Dengue in Florida (USA).

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R

    2014-01-01

    Florida (USA), particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases), and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes. PMID:26462955

  5. Spectroscopy of {sup 52,53}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Gelin, M.; Mittig, W.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Poves, A.; Theisen, Ch.

    2009-01-15

    Excited states of neutron-rich odd-A and odd-odd Sc isotopes, populated in deep inelastic multinucleon transfer reactions, induced by a {sup 238}U beam on a thin {sup 48}Ca target, have been identified. A strong feeding of both yrast and nonyrast states in such a reaction is illustrated using a combination of a large efficiency spectrometer and a {gamma} detector array. The structure of the populated states is interpreted in terms of the role of the valence proton and neutrons and compared to shell model calculations in the full pf shell.

  6. Measurement of Low-Lying States in {sup 40}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    V. Y. Hansper; A. E. Champagne; C. Iliadis; S. E. Hale; D. C. Powell

    1999-12-31

    In explosive hydrogen burning nucleosynthesis material is processed via the proton capture sequence {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Ti. It has been predicted that the isotope {sup 39}Ca represents a waiting point for a continuous reaction flow. Therefore, its reaction rate is of interest. The {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc reaction rate is determined by three resonances corresponding to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited states of {sup 40}Sc. Improved nuclear structure information of the low-lying levels of {sup 40}Sc is necessary to reduce uncertainties in the reaction rate of {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc. Results from a current measurement of {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,t){sup 40}Sc at TUNL indicate that the 4th excited state is a doublet and further investigation is warranted.

  7. Measurement of Low-lying states in {sup 40}Sc

    SciTech Connect

    Hansper, V. Y.; Champagne, A. E.; Iliadis, C.; Hale, S. E.; Powell, D. C.

    1999-11-16

    In explosive hydrogen burning nucleosynthesis material is processed via the proton capture sequence {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc(p,{gamma}){sup 41}Ti. It has been predicted that the isotope {sup 39}Ca represents a waiting point for a continuous reaction flow. Therefore, its reaction rate is of interest. The {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc reaction rate is determined by three resonances corresponding to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited states of {sup 40}Sc. Improved nuclear structure information of the low-lying levels of {sup 40}Sc is necessary to reduce uncertainties in the reaction rate of {sup 39}Ca(p,{gamma}){sup 40}Sc. Results from a current measurement of {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,t){sup 40}Sc at TUNL indicate that the 4th excited state is a doublet and further investigation is warranted.

  8. Hydrogeologic investigation and establishment of a permanent multi-observational well network in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Phase VIII

    SciTech Connect

    Gellici, J.A.; Gawne, C.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Lower Savannah River Project was established in 1986 to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in west-central South Carolina. Six progress reports have been written since 1987. This report covers the period from July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995. During the current phase, work focused on locating and procuring suitable sites for future well clusters; drafting well-construction specifications and bid packages; drilling monitoring wells at site C-7; and completing two comprehensive reports. Land was acquired for three future well-cluster sites: C-11, C-13, and C-15. Site C-11 will be located at the Oakwood Fire Tower in Aiken County. This land was made available through the South Carolina Forestry Commission. Land for site C-13 was donated by the Wildlife Division of the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources and will be located at Little Hell Landing on the Savannah River flood plain southwest of Millet in Allendale County. Site C-15 will be located at Gillisonville in northern Jasper County. A 0.9-acre parcel of land was purchased from Westvaco, Inc., for this site. Well specifications and bid packages were drawn up for the construction of seven monitoring wells at site C-10, three at C-13, and two at C-15. Specific-capacity values of nine wells at site C-7 range from 0.3 to 20.6 gpm/ft (gallons per minute per foot of drawdown). Two deep Cretaceous wells were drilled at site C-7, one each in the Midville and Dublin aquifer systems. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers. Two comprehensive reports were completed during this phase of the project: (1) a compilation and interpretation of data collected from the project since its inception in 1986, and (2) a detailed description of the hydrogeologic framework of west-central South Carolina and the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifers and confining units.

  9. FrogwatchUSA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  10. IHAVS NITE Hawk SC targeting FLIR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Bob

    1996-06-01

    Loral Aeronutronic is supporting the IHAVS project by integrating Navy-furnished NITE Hawk Targeting FLIR Pod (AN/AAS-38B) Weapons Replaceable Assemblies (WRAs) with Loral-furnished aft section and interface module WRAs for flight testing on a TAV-8B. Loral developed an aft section WRA without the conformal fairing required for installation on an F/A-18 and incorporated a self-cooling system. WRAs from the AN/AAS-38B pod are integrated in this aft section to provide a pod which is functionally the same as the F/A-18 system yet can be installed on any aircraft. Loral calls this derivative of the F/A-18 NITE Hawk pod the NITE Hawk Self-Cooled (SC) pod. The NITE Hawk SC has also has also been flight demonstrated on the F-15, F-16 and F-14 platforms and is the baseline laser targeting system on the Spanish Air Force's EF-2000 aircraft. The Loral-developed interface module WRA provides the capability to translate messages from any aircraft mission computer into the particular format design for the F/A-18 controller processor WRA. This maintains maximum commonality to the AN/AAS-38B WRAs. The interface module provides for signal processing of the FLIR video and includes the capability to electronically zoom, freeze, and format the video output into any standard required by the aircraft.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Assessing Sc1 for GCSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that investigations that `fit' the National Curriculum or examination board criteria are few in number. The fair testing emphasis means that pupils all over the country are finding out what affects the rate of a chemical reaction, the rate of photosynthesis or, in the case of Physics, the resistance of a wire. This book focuses on nine of the most common Sc1 investigations and how to prepare for them, manage and assess them. The author, a GCSE examiner, has turned his expertise into a handbook for improving Sc1 performance in the classroom. He has produced a book that would be extremely useful to both newly qualified teachers and experienced teachers. The first aim of the book, however, is to explain the requirements of Sc1. This is done comprehensively with examples of what the jargon means in practice. By breaking down the elements of planning, obtaining evidence, analysing evidence and evaluating, it is easy to see the subtleties of the mark descriptors. At first glance there seems to be little difference between the type of scientific knowledge needed for planning at level 6 and level 8. However, the level 8 statement specifies `detailed' scientific knowledge and understanding, which would mean a student should use equations from physics or symbolic chemical equations to support their arguments. One of the most useful sections in the book details the marking problems that can arise with some investigations. For example, in an investigation into electromagnets it is difficult for students to provide sufficient relevant scientific theory to satisfy the requirements of planning at level 6. One of the problems with Sc1 is that certain requirements, such as graph plotting, are difficult for many students. This book provides exercises that can be given to students to improve those skills. Each of the nine investigations is covered in great detail. Each investigation begins with an introduction detailing the rationale for choosing it, whether students

  12. 75 FR 4270 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Saluda, SC... Register September 14, 2009 that establishes Class E Airspace at Saluda County Airport, Saluda, SC. DATES... (74 FR 46894), Docket No. FAA-2009-0603; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-16. The FAA uses the direct...

  13. 76 FR 54690 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... E airspace at Clemson, SC (76 FR 38582) Docket No. FAA-2011-0394. Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC AGENCY: Federal.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  14. 76 FR 44257 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC AGENCY..., SC (76 FR 12298) Docket No. FAA-2010- 1325. Interested parties were invited to participate in this... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3CFR, 1959-1963...

  15. Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Justin; Gaynes, Bruce; Lim, Jennifer I; Molokie, Robert; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-08-01

    The known biophysical variations of hemoglobin (Hb) S and Hb C may result in hemodynamic differences between subjects with SS and SC disease. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare conjunctival hemodynamics between subjects with Hb SS and SC hemoglobinopathies. Image sequences of the conjunctival microcirculation were acquired in 9 healthy control subjects (Hb AA), 24 subjects with SC disease, and 18 subjects with SS disease, using a prototype imaging system. Diameter (D) and blood velocity (V) measurements were obtained in multiple venules of each subject. Data were categorized according to venule caliber by averaging V and D for venules with diameters less than (vessel size 1) or greater than (vessel size 2) 15 µm. V in vessel size 2 was significantly greater than V in vessel size 1 in the AA and SS groups (P ≥ 0.009), but not in the SC group (P = 0.1). V was significantly lower in the SC group as compared to the SS group (P = 0.03). In AA and SS groups, V correlated with D (P ≤ 0.005), but the correlation was not statistically significant in the SC group (P = 0.08). V was inversely correlated with hematocrit in the SS group for large vessels (P = 0.03); however, no significant correlation was found in the SC group (P ≥ 0.2). Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics in SS and SC disease may advance understanding of sickle cell disease pathophysiology and thereby improve therapeutic interventions.

  16. 76 FR 58401 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 38586). We received no... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  17. {sup 45}Sc Solid State NMR studies of the silicides ScTSi (T=Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    SciTech Connect

    Harmening, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Fehse, Constanze M.; Sebastian, C. Peter; Poettgen, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    The silicides ScTSi (T=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) were synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The structures of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. These silicides crystallize with the TiNiSi type, space group Pnma. No systematic influences of the {sup 45}Sc isotropic magnetic shift and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling parameters on various structural distortion parameters calculated from the crystal structure data can be detected. {sup 45}Sc MAS-NMR data suggest systematic trends in the local electronic structure probed by the scandium atoms: both the electric field gradients and the isotropic magnetic shifts relative to a 0.2 M aqueous Sc(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution decrease with increasing valence electron concentration and within each T group the isotropic magnetic shift decreases monotonically with increasing atomic number. The {sup 45}Sc nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants are generally well reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc-melting synthesis of silicides ScTSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal X-ray data of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 45}Sc solid state NMR of silicides ScTSi.

  18. Fermi surface study of ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P. V. Sreenivasa; Kanchana, V.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-06-24

    A detailed study on the electronic structure and Fermi surface (FS) of superconducting Heusler compounds ScAu{sub 2}(Al, In) and ScPd{sub 2}(Sn, Pb) has been carried out using first principles electronic structure calculations. The spin orbit coupling is found to play a major role in understanding the band structure and FS. Analysis of the data shows the importance of spin orbit coupling effect in the above compounds. The bands which cross Fermi level (EF) are found to be dominated by the Sc d{sub t2g}-states. The calculated total density of states are in good agreement with the experimentally reported value for ScPd{sub 2}Sn. Under compression we find a change in the Fermi surface topology of ScPd{sub 2}Sn at V/V{sub 0} = 0.95 (pressure of≈15 GPa), which is explained using the band structure calculations.

  19. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  20. Ground-water levels in the Floridan-Midville aquifer in the Breezy Hill area, Aiken and Edgefield Counties, South Carolina, April 1999-November 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrelson, Larry G.; Falls, W. Fred; Prowell, David C.

    2002-01-01

    The Breezy Hill area in Aiken and Edgefield Counties of west-central South Carolina is a rapidly growing region in need of increasing amounts of ground water. From 1995 to 1998, the local water utility increased ground-water withdrawals in the Breezy Hill area from 1.4 to 2.1 million gallons per day to meet water-supply demands. As development continues, future demands forground water will likely put stress on the surface-and ground-water resources of the area. To address this issue, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Aiken County, compiled and interpreted geologic and hydrologic data needed to map the ground-water system in the Breezy Hill study area. The Breezy Hill study area consists of four interfluvial areas comprising the regions between Horse and Little Horse Creeks, Little Horse and Hightower Creeks, Hightower Creek and Franklin Branch, and Franklin Branch and Mims Branch. Across the interfluvial areas, the average elevation of the water-level surface ranged from 200 to 480 feet above sea level, and the average saturated thickness of the Floridan-Midville aquifer ranged from less than 20 to 70 feet thick. A water-level aquifer indicates that recharge to the aquifer occurs mainly within the interfluves. Recharge is derived principally from precipitation, although there is some potential for ground-water recharge from underlying crystalline rocks. Ground water discharges along the flanks of the interfluves into the bounding streams where the elevations of the ground water and streams coincide. From April 1999 to November 2000, calculated long-term normal precipitation totaled about 84.0 inches; however, actual recorded precipitation totaled 69.2 inches, representing about a 17.6 percent decrease in precipitation during this period. Published estimates of annual evapotranspiration range from 30 to 35 inches. A U.S. Geological Survey surface-water gaging station located near the center of the study area on Little Horse Creek monitors runoff from a

  1. Gadolinium scandium germanide, Gd2Sc3Ge4

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, S.; Miller, G.

    2009-02-26

    Gd{sub 2}Sc{sub 3}Ge{sub 4} adopts the orthorhombic Pu{sub 5}Rh{sub 4}-type structure. The crystal structure contains six sites in the asymmetric unit: two sites are statistically occupied by rare-earth atoms with Gd:Sc ratios of 0.967 (4):0.033 (4) and 0.031 (3):0.969 (3), one site (.m. symmetry) is occupied by Sc atoms, and three distinct sites (two of which with .m. symmetry) are occupied by Ge atoms. The rare-earth atoms form two-dimensional slabs with Ge atoms occupying the trigonal-prismatic voids.

  2. Infectivity-associated PrP(Sc) and disease duration-associated PrP(Sc) of mouse BSE prions.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Masujin, Kentaro; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Disease-related prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which is a structural isoform of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, is thought to be a causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the specific role of PrP(Sc) in prion pathogenesis and its relationship to infectivity remain controversial. A time-course study of prion-affected mice was conducted, which showed that the prion infectivity was not simply proportional to the amount of PrP(Sc) in the brain. Centrifugation (20,000 ×g) of the brain homogenate showed that most of the PrP(Sc) was precipitated into the pellet, and the supernatant contained only a slight amount of PrP(Sc). Interestingly, mice inoculated with the obtained supernatant showed incubation periods that were approximately 15 d longer than those of mice inoculated with the crude homogenate even though both inocula contained almost the same infectivity. Our results suggest that a small population of fine PrP(Sc) may be responsible for prion infectivity and that large, aggregated PrP(Sc) may contribute to determining prion disease duration.

  3. 49 CFR 372.205 - Charleston, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and which are west of South Carolina Highway 41; and all points in Dorchester County, SC. (d) All of...) and (c) of this section, and (e) All of any municipality wholly surrounded, or so surrounded...

  4. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Amit H.

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  5. Houston/Galveston, Texas, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Houston/Galveston, Texas, USA (29.5N, 95.5W), heavy spring rains emphasize the several bodies of water in the area. Even though partially cloud covered, the progressive nature of the Houston highway and freeway system can easily be observed in this highly detailed view. To the south, the NASA, Clear Lake area just off of Galveston Bay can easily be seen. In the center, is the downtown business district.

  6. Houston/Galveston, Texas, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Houston/Galveston, Texas, USA (29.5N, 95.5W), heavy spring rains emphasize the several bodies of water in the area. The progressive nature of the Houston highway and freeway system can easily be observed in this highly detailed view. Houston Intercontiental Airport can be seen to the north and to the south, the NASA, Clear Lake area just off of Galveston Bay can easily be seen. In the center, is the downtown business district.

  7. Thunderstorm, Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This thunderstorm along the Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.0W), USA is seen as the trailing edge of a large cloud mass formed along the leading edge of a spring frontal system stretching northwest to southeast across the Texas Gulf Coast. This system brought extensive severe weather and flooding to parts of Texas and surrounding states. Muddy water discharging from coastal streams can be seen in the shallow Gulf of Mexico as far south as Lavaca Bay.

  8. Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease

    PubMed Central

    Wanek, Justin; Gaynes, Bruce; Lim, Jennifer I.; Molokie, Robert; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The known biophysical variations of hemoglobin (Hb) S and Hb C may result in hemodynamic differences between subjects with SS and SC disease. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare conjunctival hemodynamics between subjects with Hb SS and SC hemoglobinopathies. Image sequences of the conjunctival microcirculation were acquired in 9 healthy control subjects (Hb AA), 24 subjects with SC disease, and 18 subjects with SS disease, using a prototype imaging system. Diameter (D) and blood velocity (V) measurements were obtained in multiple venules of each subject. Data were categorized according to venule caliber by averaging V and D for venules with diameters less than (vessel size 1) or greater than (vessel size 2) 15 µm. V in vessel size 2 was significantly greater than V in vessel size 1 in the AA and SS groups (P ≥ 0.009), but not in the SC group (P = 0.1). V was significantly lower in the SC group as compared to the SS group (P = 0.03). In AA and SS groups, V correlated with D (P ≥ 0.005), but the correlation was not statistically significant in the SC group (P = 0.08). V was inversely correlated with hematocrit in the SS group for large vessels (P = 0.03); however, no significant correlation was found in the SC group (P ≥ 0.2). Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics in SS and SC disease may advance understanding of sickle cell disease pathophysiology and thereby improve therapeutic interventions. PMID:23657867

  9. Voltammetry of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82}

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.R.; Dorn, H.C.; Stevenson, S.; Burbank, P.M.; Gibson, J.R.

    1997-01-15

    This paper describes the first electrochemical data for a polymetallic endohedral metallofullerene. The voltammetric behavior of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82} resembles that for La@C{sub 82} and Y@C{sub 82}, indicating that the identity of the metal does not influence dramatically the energies of the metallofullerene molecular orbitals. The three Sc atoms, however, transfer more electrons from the encapsulated metals to the cage than the monometallic counterparts, accounting for the differences in the voltammetry for Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82}. The similarity of the voltammetry of Sc{sub 3}@C{sub 82} with that of the monometallic fullerenes suggests that Sc{sub 3}{sup +4}@C{sub 82}{sup 4-} may describe the formal charges on the Sc trimer and the C{sub 82} cage of these species. Metallofullerene electronic structure and physical properties should be better understood as more metallofullerenes become available for investigation. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Theoretical studies of the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    Bonding in the low-lying states of ScO, ScS, VO, and VS is theoretically studied. Excellent agreement is obtained with experimental spectroscopic constants for the low-lying states of ScO and VO. The results for VS and ScS show that the bonding in the oxides and sulfides is similar, but that the smaller electronegativity in S leads to a smaller ionic component in the bonding. The computed D0 of the sulfides are about 86 percent of the corresponding oxides, and the low-lying excited states are lower in the sulfides than in the corresponding oxides. The CPF method is shown to be an accurate and cost-effective method for obtaining reliable spectroscopic constants for these systems.

  11. Heteronuclear transition metal diatomics - The bonding and electronic structure of ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faegri, Knut, Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    High quality ab initio calculations show that ScNi, YNi, ScPd, and YPd all have 2Sigma(+) ground states in agreement with electron spin resonance experiments. For ScNi and YNi, this is expected based on the lowest atomic asymptote. For ScPd and YPd, the lowest atomic asymptote would give the order of stability 2Delta greater than 2Pi equal to about 2Sigma(+), but the calculations show that mixing in of the excited asymptotes preferentially lowers the 2Sigma(+) state. The calculations show that the quartet states are about 20-30 kcal/mol above the ground state, and therefore probably do not contribute significantly to the unexpected g(vertical) values found in experiment. Calculations of excited states for YPd reveal some strong transitions that should be amenable to spectroscopic studies.

  12. Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    As seen from space, the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA (41.5N, 112.5W) appears as two separate bodies of water with a narrow divider in the middle. At the turn of the century, a railroad bridge without culverts, was built across the lake and ever since, the water and salinity levels have been uneqal on either side. Fed by snowmelt from the nearby Wasatch Mountains, the lake in recent years has had record high water levels, threatening to flood the local areas.

  13. Extensive spectroscopic data for multiply ionized scandium: Sc III to Sc XXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacrier, G.; Artru, M.-C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Spectroscopic data for scandium is sparse, while an extensive set is needed to introduce this element into stellar opacity calculations and, more importantly, into stellar models dealing with radiative diffusion. Aims: Our goal is to provide extensive energy levels and radiative transitions data for nineteen ionization stages of scandium relevant to stellar interiors, namely from Sc iii to Sc xxi. Methods: We used the FAC code. This code provides ab initio theoretical values for energy levels in jj-coupling and oscillator strengths of all permitted transitions. Detailed correspondences are established with compiled data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, to locate as much as possible the observed levels and lines at their experimental values and to estimate the quality of our data. Comparison were also made with the spectroscopic data delivered by Kurucz. Results: The theoretical data retained in tables include 21 842 levels and more than two millions transtions. By comparison, the NIST compilation gives a total of 820 levels and 677 gf-values. The good agreement obtained when comparing the new data with those of the NIST compilation demonstrates their quality. This work on scandium shows that the FAC code is efficient in providing spectrocopic data that are unavailable from laboratory analyses but necessary for accurate simulations of stellar plasmas. Full Tables 4-6 and extensive line lists for each ion are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/538/A52

  14. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN.

    PubMed

    Caro, Miguel A; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-24

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in Sc(x)Al(1-x)N alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients e(ij), piezoelectric moduli d(ij) and elastic constants C(ij). The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material.

  15. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive Systems in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER I. Abnormal Spermatid Development in Males with a Heterochromatin-Deficient X Chromosome (sc4sc8)

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, W. J.; Miklos, George L. Gabor; Goodchild, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The meiotic drive characteristics of the In(1)sc4Lsc8R/Y system have been examined by genetic analysis and by light and electron microscopy. sc4sc8/Y males show a direct correlation between nondisjunction frequency and meiotic drive. Temperature-shift experiments reveal that the temperature-sensitive period for nondisjunction is at meiosis, whereas that for meiotic drive has both meiotic and post-meiotic components. Cytological analyses in the light and electron microscopes reveal failures in spermiogenesis in the testes of sc4sc8 males. The extent of abnormal spermatid development increases as nondisjunction becomes more extreme. PMID:805751

  16. The crystallography of cleavage fracture in Al3Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneibel, J. H.; Hazzeldine, P. M.

    1992-04-01

    Detailed observations of fracture surface in Al3Sc are presented. Al3Sc is soft and exhibits five independent slip systems, yet it is brittle. The main fracture surface is 011-plane. The 001-plane, 111-plane, and 012-plane surfaces are only occasionally found and are usually highly localized. The fracture surfaces usually exhibit striations along the traces of slip planes and evidence for twinning is also found. Only occasionally are small regions found that may be atomically flat. Steps aligned along 0 1 -1 line consist of 111-plane cleavage planes. Most steps aligned along 2 1 -1 line exhibit multiple angles and are not fully crystallographic. Reactions between 001-line and 211-line steps are sometimes observed. Although fracture in Al3Sc is not thought to be primarily an environmental effect, certain fractographic similarities with the stress corrosion cracking of fcc materials and Cu3Au are found.

  17. Experience with OpenMP for MADX-SC

    SciTech Connect

    D'Imperio, Nicholas; Montag, Christophe; Yu, Kwangmin; Kapin, Valery; McIntosh, Eric; Renshall, Harry; Schmidt, Frank

    2014-07-01

    MADX-SC allows the treatment of frozen space charge using beam-beam elements in a thin lattice, i.e. one can take advantage of the standard set-up of MAD-X lattices without the need for specialized codes for the space-charge (SC) evaluation. The idea is to simulate over many turns without the problem of noise as in the PIC SC codes. For the examples under study, like the PS and RHIC, it would be desirable to simulate up to 1 million turns or more. To this end one had to make an effort to optimize the scalar speed and, most importantly, get a speed-up of approximately a factor of 5 using OpenMP.

  18. NATIONAL GEODATABASE OF TIDAL STREAM POWER RESOURCE IN USA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brennan T; Neary, Vincent S; Stewart, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    A geodatabase of tidal constituents is developed to present the regional assessment of tidal stream power resource in the USA. Tidal currents are numerically modeled with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and calibrated with the available measurements of tidal current speeds and water level surfaces. The performance of the numerical model in predicting the tidal currents and water levels is assessed by an independent validation. The geodatabase is published on a public domain via a spatial database engine with interactive tools to select, query and download the data. Regions with the maximum average kinetic power density exceeding 500 W/m2 (corresponding to a current speed of ~1 m/s), total surface area larger than 0.5 km2 and depth greater than 5 m are defined as hotspots and documented. The regional assessment indicates that the state of Alaska (AK) has the largest number of locations with considerably high kinetic power density, followed by, Maine (ME), Washington (WA), Oregon (OR), California (CA), New Hampshire (NH), Massachusetts (MA), New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), North and South Carolina (NC, SC), Georgia (GA), and Florida (FL).

  19. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-07-01

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C , which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C (OH) 2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  20. "USA Today": Can the Nation's Newspaper Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicks, Robert H.

    The failure of 17 newspaper markets between 1957 and 1975 raises the question of whether the 1982 entrance of "USA Today" into the newspaper market demonstrated fiscal prudence. A 20-month advertising content analysis was conducted to assess advertising trends in "USA Today." These data were compared with industry statistics obtained from Media…

  1. Growth of ScN(111) on Sc2O3(111) for GaN integration on Si(111): Experiment and ab-initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, P.; Tetzner, H.; Dabrowski, J.; Lupina, L.; Costina, I.; Thapa, S. B.; Storck, P.; Schroeder, T.; Zoellner, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Growth mechanism of ScN on Sc2O3 for integration of Ga-polar GaN on Si(111) is investigated by in-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, ex-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ScN films are grown by molecular beam epitaxy from e-beam evaporated Sc and N plasma. The films grow in a layer-by-layer (Frank-van der Merwe, FM) fashion. Diffusion of nitrogen into Sc2O3 and segregation of oxygen onto ScN are observed. The segregated O atoms are gradually removed from the surface by N atoms from the plasma. Experiment and theory show that nitrogen cannot be efficiently incorporated into Sc2O3 by exposing it to N plasma alone, and calculations indicate that anion intermixing between ScN and Sc2O3 should be weak. On the basis of ab-initio data, the in-diffusion of N into Sc2O3 is attributed mostly to the effect of interaction between ScN ad-dimers on the Sc2O3 surface in the initial stage of growth. The segregation of O to the ScN surface is understood as driven by the tendency to compensate build-up of the electric field in the polar ScN film. This segregation is computed to be energetically favorable (by 0.4 eV per O atom) already for a monolayer of ScN; the energy gain increases to 1.0 eV and 1.6 eV per O atom for two and three ScN layers, respectively. Finally, it is verified by DFT that the ScN deposition method in which Sc metallic film is deposited first and then nitridized would lead to strong incorporation of O into the grown film, accompanied by strong reduction of the Sc2O3 substrate.

  2. Modeling Mercury Exposure at Different Scales in the McTier Creek Watershed and Edisto River Basin, SC USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.25 million miles of rivers under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in lotic ecosystems are not well-understood, in large p...

  3. Modeling Mercury Exposure at Different Scales in the McTier Creek Watershed and Edisto River Basin SC USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.25 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of Hg in lotic ecosystems are not well-understood, in large part...

  4. Longitudinal Patterns in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure: A Southern Appalachian Wild and Scenic River Continuum (USA: GA, NC, SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, E.; Wallace, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    As human activities on the landscape continue to alter characteristics of natural systems, it becomes increasingly important to directly measure ecosystem properties. Our objective was to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate community structure in context of reach position along the longitudinal profile of a wild and scenic river. Trends in taxonomic richness, diversity, and habitat weighted abundance and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrate functional groups were examined in three dominant habitats at four study reaches within the Chattooga River watershed over one year. The continuum began at a first order stream (1:24 000 scale map) and continued into the main channel of the Chattooga River. Macroinvertebrate abundance and biomass was greatest at the first order stream (30,946 ind. m-2; 947 mg AFDM m-2). Gatherers were the most abundant functional group, accounting for 62 - 80 % of reach-scale communities at each study site. Biomass of all functional groups tended to decrease with increasing reach size, except for filterers whose biomass increased. Habitat weighted functional group biomass along the continuum matched some, but not all, predictions of the river continuum concept which postulates that physical and biotic properties of pristine river networks change predictably along a longitudinal profile.

  5. Synaptonemal complex (SC) component Zip1 plays a role in meiotic recombination independent of SC polymerization along the chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Storlazzi, A; Xu, L; Schwacha, A; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Zip1 is a yeast synaptonemal complex (SC) central region component and is required for normal meiotic recombination and crossover interference. Physical analysis of meiotic recombination in a zip1 mutant reveals the following: Crossovers appear later than normal and at a reduced level. Noncrossover recombinants, in contrast, seem to appear in two phases: (i) a normal number appear with normal timing and (ii) then additional products appear late, at the same time as crossovers. Also, Holliday junctions are present at unusually late times, presumably as precursors to late-appearing products. Red1 is an axial structure component required for formation of cytologically discernible axial elements and SC and maximal levels of recombination. In a red1 mutant, crossovers and noncrossovers occur at coordinately reduced levels but with normal timing. If Zip1 affected recombination exclusively via SC polymerization, a zip1 mutation should confer no recombination defect in a red1 strain background. But a red1 zip1 double mutant exhibits the sum of the two single mutant phenotypes, including the specific deficit of crossovers seen in a zip1 strain. We infer that Zip1 plays at least one role in recombination that does not involve SC polymerization along the chromosomes. Perhaps some Zip1 molecules act first in or around the sites of recombinational interactions to influence the recombination process and thence nucleate SC formation. We propose that a Zip1-dependent, pre-SC transition early in the recombination reaction is an essential component of meiotic crossover control. A molecular basis for crossover/noncrossover differentiation is also suggested. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8799151

  6. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  7. Analysis of pSC138, the multidrug resistance plasmid of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis SC-B67.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiehua; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Jianbing; Yu, Jun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) usually causes systemic infections in man and needs antimicrobial treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in S. Choleraesuis is thus a great concern in the treatment of systemic non-typhoid salmonellosis. A large plasmid, pSC138, was identified in 2002 from a S. Choleraesuis strain SC-B67 that was resistant to all antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat salmonellosis, including ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Complete DNA sequence of the plasmid had been determined previously (Chiu et al., 2005). In the present study, the sequence of pSC138 was reannotated in detail and compared with several newly sequenced plasmids. Some transposable elements and drug resistance genes were further delineated. Plasmid pSC138 was 138,742 bp in length and consisted of 177 open reading frames (ORFs). While 134 of the ORFs displayed significant identity levels to other plasmid and prokaryotic sequences, the remaining 43 ORFs have not been previously reported. Mobile elements, including two integrons, seven insertion sequences and eight transposons, and a truncated prophage together encompass at least 66,781 bp (48.1%) of the plasmid genome. The sequence of pSC138 consists of three major regions: a large composite transposable region Tn6088 with a Tn21-like backbone inserted by a variety of integrons or transposable elements; a transfer/maintenance region that contains a conserved ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element Tn6092, carrying an AmpC gene, bla(CMY-2), that confers the ceftriaxone resistance; and a Rep_3 type of replication region. Another seven bacteremic strains of S. Choleraesuis that expressed the same MDR phenotype were identified during 2003-2008. The same Rep_3 type replicase and the bla(CMY-2)-containing, ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element were found in the MDR isolates, suggesting a successful preservation and dissemination of the MDR plasmid. Comparison of pSC138 with other recently published plasmids

  8. Analysis of pSC138, the multidrug resistance plasmid of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis SC-B67.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiehua; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Jianbing; Yu, Jun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) usually causes systemic infections in man and needs antimicrobial treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in S. Choleraesuis is thus a great concern in the treatment of systemic non-typhoid salmonellosis. A large plasmid, pSC138, was identified in 2002 from a S. Choleraesuis strain SC-B67 that was resistant to all antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat salmonellosis, including ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Complete DNA sequence of the plasmid had been determined previously (Chiu et al., 2005). In the present study, the sequence of pSC138 was reannotated in detail and compared with several newly sequenced plasmids. Some transposable elements and drug resistance genes were further delineated. Plasmid pSC138 was 138,742 bp in length and consisted of 177 open reading frames (ORFs). While 134 of the ORFs displayed significant identity levels to other plasmid and prokaryotic sequences, the remaining 43 ORFs have not been previously reported. Mobile elements, including two integrons, seven insertion sequences and eight transposons, and a truncated prophage together encompass at least 66,781 bp (48.1%) of the plasmid genome. The sequence of pSC138 consists of three major regions: a large composite transposable region Tn6088 with a Tn21-like backbone inserted by a variety of integrons or transposable elements; a transfer/maintenance region that contains a conserved ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element Tn6092, carrying an AmpC gene, bla(CMY-2), that confers the ceftriaxone resistance; and a Rep_3 type of replication region. Another seven bacteremic strains of S. Choleraesuis that expressed the same MDR phenotype were identified during 2003-2008. The same Rep_3 type replicase and the bla(CMY-2)-containing, ISEcp1-mediated transposon-like element were found in the MDR isolates, suggesting a successful preservation and dissemination of the MDR plasmid. Comparison of pSC138 with other recently published plasmids

  9. Tetrahedron dynamics in the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn6Sc.

    PubMed

    Euchner, H; Yamada, T; Rols, S; Ishimasa, T; Kaneko, Y; Ollivier, J; Schober, H; Mihalkovic, M; de Boissieu, M

    2013-03-20

    A comparison of periodic approximants and their quasicrystalline counterparts offers the opportunity to better understand the structure, physical properties and stabilizing mechanisms of these complex phases. We present a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study of the lattice dynamics of the icosahedral quasicrystals i-ZnMgSc and i-ZnAgSc and compare it to recently published results obtained for the cubic 1/1-approximant Zn(6)Sc. Both phases, quasicrystal and approximant, are built up from large atomic clusters which contain a tetrahedral shell at the cluster centre and are packed either quasiperiodically or on a bcc lattice. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and atomic scale simulations, we show that in the quasicrystal the tetrahedra display a dynamics similar to that observed in the 1/1-approximant: the tetrahedra behave as a 'single molecule' and reorient dynamically on a timescale of the order of a few ps. The tetrahedra reorientation is accompanied by a large distortion of the surrounding cluster shells which provide a unique dynamical flexibility to the quasicrystal. However, whereas in the 1/1-approximant the tetrahedron reorientation is observed down to T(c) = 160 K, where a phase transition takes place, in the quasicrystal the tetrahedron dynamics is gradually freezing from 550 to 300 K, similarly to a glassy system.

  10. Scandium carbides/cyanides in the boron cage: computational prediction of X@B80 (X = Sc2C2, Sc3C2, Sc3CN and Sc3C2CN).

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Liu, Chang; Hou, Qinghua; Li, Lanlan; Tang, Chengchun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-08-01

    As the first study on metal carbide/cyanide boron clusterfullerenes, the geometries, energies, stabilities and electronic properties of four novel scandium cluster-containing B80 buckyball derivatives, namely Sc2C2@B80, Sc3C2@B80, Sc3CN@B80 and Sc3C2CN@B80, were investigated by means of density functional theory computations. The rather favorable binding energies, which are very close to those of the experimentally abundant carbon fullerene analogues, suggest a considerable possibility to realize these doped boron clusterfullerenes. Their intracluster and cluster-cage bonding natures were thoroughly revealed by various theoretical approaches. In contrast to carbon clusterfullerenes, in which the encaged non-metal atoms mainly play a stabilizing role in the metal clusters, the encapsulated carbon and nitrogen atoms inside the B80 cage covalently bond to the boron framework, resulting in strong cluster-cage interactions. Furthermore, infrared spectra and (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were simulated and fingerprint peaks were proposed to assist future experimental characterization.

  11. Scandium carbides/cyanides in the boron cage: computational prediction of X@B80 (X = Sc2C2, Sc3C2, Sc3CN and Sc3C2CN).

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Liu, Chang; Hou, Qinghua; Li, Lanlan; Tang, Chengchun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-08-01

    As the first study on metal carbide/cyanide boron clusterfullerenes, the geometries, energies, stabilities and electronic properties of four novel scandium cluster-containing B80 buckyball derivatives, namely Sc2C2@B80, Sc3C2@B80, Sc3CN@B80 and Sc3C2CN@B80, were investigated by means of density functional theory computations. The rather favorable binding energies, which are very close to those of the experimentally abundant carbon fullerene analogues, suggest a considerable possibility to realize these doped boron clusterfullerenes. Their intracluster and cluster-cage bonding natures were thoroughly revealed by various theoretical approaches. In contrast to carbon clusterfullerenes, in which the encaged non-metal atoms mainly play a stabilizing role in the metal clusters, the encapsulated carbon and nitrogen atoms inside the B80 cage covalently bond to the boron framework, resulting in strong cluster-cage interactions. Furthermore, infrared spectra and (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were simulated and fingerprint peaks were proposed to assist future experimental characterization. PMID:27424658

  12. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  13. Piezoelectric coefficients and spontaneous polarization of ScAlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Miguel A.; Zhang, Siyuan; Riekkinen, Tommi; Ylilammi, Markku; Moram, Michelle A.; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Molarius, Jyrki; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-06-01

    We present a computational study of spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity in ScxAl1-xN alloys in the compositional range from x = 0 to x = 0.5, obtained in the context of density functional theory and the Berry-phase theory of electric polarization using large periodic supercells. We report composition-dependent values of piezoelectric coefficients eij, piezoelectric moduli dij and elastic constants Cij. The theoretical findings are complemented with experimental measurement of e33 for a series of sputtered ScAlN films carried out with a piezoelectric resonator. The rapid increase with Sc content of the piezoelectric response reported in previous studies is confirmed for the available data. A detailed description of the full methodology required to calculate the piezoelectric properties of ScAlN, with application to other complex alloys, is presented. In particular, we find that the large amount of internal strain present in ScAlN and its intricate relation with electric polarization make configurational sampling and the use of large supercells at different compositions necessary in order to accurately derive the piezoelectric response of the material.

  14. SC3: Protecting Students and Staff with Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    EPA's Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign (SC3) is working to encourage schools to use green cleaning practices to safely clean their classrooms and grounds. From elementary school maintenance closets to high school chemistry labs, schools use a variety of chemicals. Some of the most essential chemicals are those that keep schools clean and safe…

  15. 77 FR 14700 - Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish temporary moving safety zones during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on...

  16. 77 FR 51471 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (77 FR...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston,...

  17. 76 FR 38586 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish a temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring...

  18. 78 FR 54583 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring on waters of...

  19. VIEW OF STEEL PLATE DOOR IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY, BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STEEL PLATE DOOR IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY, BETWEEN LABORATORY AND SP-SE REACTOR ROOM,LEVEL -15’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  20. VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP, LEVEL 0’, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP, LEVEL 0’, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND, LTR TANK TOP ON LEFT, AND SHEAVE RACK ELEMENTS AT TOP, LOOKING NORTH - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  1. TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TILTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TILTING TABLE MARKED BY WHITE ELECTRICAL CORD IN LOWER LEFT CENTER - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  2. VIEW OF SOUTHERNMOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN-MOST OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS, LOCATED BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMN, WITH ADJACENT PIPING, LEVEL -27’, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  3. VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 77710A, LOOKING WEST. LABORATORY WING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 777-10A, LOOKING WEST. LABORATORY WING AND MAIN ENTRANCE ON RIGHT; MULTISTORY REACTOR WING IN LEFT BACKGROUND - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  4. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  5. TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TILTING TABLE AREA, PDP ROOM, LEVEL +27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TILTING TABLE, MARKED BY WHITE ELECTRICAL CORD - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  6. VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND, LEVEL 0’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  7. VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP, LEVEL 0’, WITH LTR TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP, LEVEL 0’, WITH LTR TANK TOP ON LEFT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. CRANE AND VERTICAL HOISTING ELEMENTS AT TOP - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  8. VIEW OF PDP ROOM AT LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PDP ROOM AT LEVEL +27’, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD TILTING TABLE AREA. PART OF SHEAVE RACK FOR PDP IN LOWER LEFT - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  9. VIEW OF 77710A REACTOR WING, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF 777-10A REACTOR WING, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DOOR TO PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE ROOM AND LABORATORY WING ON RIGHT IN BACKGROUND - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  10. VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP AT LEVEL 0’, WITH VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PDP TANK TOP AT LEVEL 0’, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND AND PART OF SHEAVE RACK ABOVE THE TANK, LOOKING NORTH - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  11. ARCHITECTURAL, 777M, PHYSICS ASSEMBLY LABORATORY BUILDING, PLAN OF +13’1” AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL, 777-M, PHYSICS ASSEMBLY LABORATORY BUILDING, PLAN OF +13’-1” AND +27’-0” FLOOR LEVELS (W157114) - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  12. ARCHITECTURAL, 777M, PHYSICS ASSEMBLY LABORATORY BUILDING, EQUIPMENT ARRANGEMENT – SECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL, 777-M, PHYSICS ASSEMBLY LABORATORY BUILDING, EQUIPMENT ARRANGEMENT – SECTIONS “B” AND “C” (W157132) - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  13. VIEW OF GRAPHITE BLOCK SHIELDING WALL (NOT IN ORIGINAL LOCATION), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GRAPHITE BLOCK SHIELDING WALL (NOT IN ORIGINAL LOCATION), LEVEL -15’, LABORATORY/OFFICE WING, SHOWING COOLING WATER PUMPS, LOOKING WEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  14. VIEW OF PDP AND LTR CONTROL PANEL (LEFT) AND HEAVY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PDP AND LTR CONTROL PANEL (LEFT) AND HEAVY WATER CONTROL PANEL (RIGHT) AT SOUTH END OF PDP CONTROL ROOM, LEVEL 0’, LOOKING SOUTH - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  15. VIEW OF WATER SUPPLY TANK FOR THE PRESSURIZED SUBCRITICAL EXPERIMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WATER SUPPLY TANK FOR THE PRESSURIZED SUBCRITICAL EXPERIMENT (PSE), LOCATED IN STAIRWELL ADJACENT TO SP-SE ROOM, LEVEL -15’, LOOKING NORTH - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  16. 75 FR 16335 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC.... SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace at Mount Pleasant, SC, to accommodate Standard... establishes Class E airspace at Mount Pleasant, SC, to provide controlled airspace extending upward from...

  17. 75 FR 57216 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bamberg, SC, to accommodate the additional... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC to provide...

  18. 76 FR 52290 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Pelion, SC, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures... as it would amend Class E airspace at Lexington County Airport at Pelion, Pelion, SC. Lists...

  19. 75 FR 52654 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bamberg, SC, to accommodate the additional... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC to provide...

  20. Cancer screening in the USA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Once screening for cancer has been shown to be effective, reducing cancer morbidity and mortality in the population depends on the successful delivery of mass screening. Today, screening for cancer may be achieved through the organized delivery of services, or unsystematically, by individual referral for screening at intervals which are not necessarily optimal or regularly spaced. Organized screening is distinguished from unsystematic screening primarily on the basis of how the offer of screening occurs--whether by invitation, issued from centralized population registers or coincidently, depending on individuals seeking screening on their own, or having providers initiate screening during visits for care for other reasons. This manuscript describes cancer screening in the USA, which for most Americans is unsystematic. While this model can achieve many of the goals of screening, these goals are achieved at a greater cost, less efficiently, and without the assurance of full participation of the entire, eligible population. In order to achieve the fullest potential of cancer screening in the most cost-effective manner, screening should be organized, with attention to monitoring the fullest performance of the programme from recruitment to follow-up. PMID:17227643

  1. Study of structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in rocksalt and zincblende structure: A DFT approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Vikas Verma, U. P.

    2015-08-28

    In this paper, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of ScN and ScAs in zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases. We have employed the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-APW) method within the density functional theory (DFT). Generalized gradient approximation (GGA), due to Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) has been used to estimate the exchange-correlation functional. Our band structure results for ScN shows the metallic nature, whereas ScAs shows the semiconducting behavior. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data.

  2. 45Sc Solid State NMR studies of the silicides Sc TSi ( T=Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmening, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Fehse, Constanze M.; Sebastian, C. Peter; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    The silicides Sc TSi ( T=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) were synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The structures of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. These silicides crystallize with the TiNiSi type, space group Pnma. No systematic influences of the 45Sc isotropic magnetic shift and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling parameters on various structural distortion parameters calculated from the crystal structure data can be detected. 45Sc MAS-NMR data suggest systematic trends in the local electronic structure probed by the scandium atoms: both the electric field gradients and the isotropic magnetic shifts relative to a 0.2 M aqueous Sc(NO 3) 3 solution decrease with increasing valence electron concentration and within each T group the isotropic magnetic shift decreases monotonically with increasing atomic number. The 45Sc nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants are generally well reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code.

  3. "Dancing inside the ball": the structures and nonlinear optical properties of three Sc2S@C3v(8)-C82 isomers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-Wei; Gao, Ying; Wang, Li-Jie; Xu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Shi-Ling; Su, Zhong-Min

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the crystal structures and electrochemical properties of the isomers (Sc2S "trapped" in C82) have been reported, in which the Sc2S is located inside the different positions of the C82 cage. In the present work, three isomers of endohedral metallofullerenes Sc2S@C3v(8)-C82 (A, B, and C) have been designed to explore the effect of the position of Sc2S on their interaction energies and nonlinear optical properties. Among three isomers, the Sc2S is located in different positions of the C82 cage: the angles of Sc-S-Sc in A, B, and C are 104.9, 114.8, and 115.7°, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of natural bond orbital (NBO) charge indicates that the electron-transfer is from the Sc2S to the adjacent carbon atoms of the C82 cage. The interaction energy of B is the smallest among three isomers which is -226.2 kcal mol(-1). It was worth mentioning that their first hyperpolarizabilities (β tot) were studied, we found that their β tot values were related to the positions of Sc2S: C (2100) > B (1191) > A (947 au). We hope that the present work can provide a new strategy to promote the nonlinear optical properties of endohedral metallofullerenes by changing the positions of the encapsulated molecular. Graphical abstract Three isomers of endohedral metallofullerenes Sc2S@C3v(8)-C82 (A, B, and C) have been designed to explore the position effect of Sc2S on the interaction energies and nonlinear optical properties. Among three isomers, the Sc2S in B has the most stable position. Significantly, the first hyperpolarizability is related to the position of Sc2S inside the C82 cage, which provides a novel strategy to enhance the first hyperpolarizability by the Sc2S revolving inside the C82 cage.

  4. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  5. Acid-base chemistry in the formation of Mackay-type icosahedral clusters: μ3-acidity analysis of Sc-rich phases of the Sc-Ir system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiming; Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-05-19

    The crystal structures of intermetallic phases offer a wealth of geometrical features (helices, multishelled clusters, and host-guest motifs) whose formation has yet to be explained or predicted by chemical theory. A recently developed extension of the acid-base concept to metallic systems, the μ3-acidity model, provides an avenue for developing this understanding for intermetallics formed from transition metals. In this Article, we illustrate how this approach can be used to understand one of the most striking geometrical entities to emerge in intermetallic chemistry, the Mackay cluster of icosahedral quasicrystals. We present μ3-acidity analyses, based on DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations, for a series of Sc-Ir intermetallics: ScIr (CsCl-type), Sc2Ir (Ti2Ni-type), Sc11Ir4, and the Mackay cluster containing phases Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7. We begin by illustrating that a μ3-acidity model correctly predicts that each of these phases is stable relative to disproportionation into their neighboring compounds when a common set of Hückel parameters and d-orbital occupancies is used. Next, we explain these results by developing a relationship between the distance distribution of homoatomic contacts within an atom's coordination sphere and the μ3-neutralization it experiences. For a given average homoatomic distance, the role of heteroatomic contacts is higher when the distribution of homoatomic contacts is narrower. This effect is key to the strength of the acid-base neutralization of the Sc-rich phases, where the Sc atoms find a scarcity of Ir atoms from which to obtain neutralization. Under these circumstances, Sc-Ir contacts should be maximized, whereas the number and distance variations of the Sc-Sc contacts should be minimized. These expectations are borne out by the observed crystal structures. In particular, the Mackay clusters of Sc57Ir13 and Sc44Ir7, in which a central Ir atom is icosahedrally coordinated by a pentagonal dodecahedral array of face-sharing Sc

  6. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. PMID:27033804

  7. Evidence for Luni - Solar mn and Solar Cycle sc Signals in Australian Rainfall Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Robert G.; Vines, Robert G.

    1996-11-01

    Spectrum analysis of 308 yearly sampled Australian rainfall series yields evidence for two terms with periods 18.3 +/- 1.8 and 10.5 +/-0.7 years in 270 and 182 instances, respectively. The long-period term is statistically significant at a confidence level of 99.9 per cent. They are identified as the 18.6-year luni-solar Mn and 10-11-year solar cycle Sc signals previously reported in other climate data such as American and South African rainfall, tree-rings world-wide, rainfall indices, air temperature world-wide, air pressure world-wide, sea-level world-wide, river flow, American crop yields and livestock/poultry production, European fish catches and dates of wine harvest, varves, thunderstorm occurrence, Earth rotation, and volcanic eruptions. In eastern Australia, Mn wave minima were in phase with epochs 1880.3 and 1898.9 (epochs are dates of maxima in tidal forcing). At mid-epoch 1908.2, epoch 1917.5, and mid-epoch 1926.8 virtually all luni-solar wavetrains experienced a 180° change in phase. Thus, by 1936.1 virtually all the waves were out of phase with the epoch, a correlation that continued at epochs 1954.7 and 1973.3. An entirely analogous phenomenon occurred in USA rainfall data, but it occurred in the third quarter of our century. The contribution of the Mn and Sc signals to total variance in the raw data is on average 19 per cent. This is of course highly unrealistic - and when the power in the raw data from 8 to 2 years is filtered out prior to analysis, and the variance contribution of the signals to filtered data compared over a common frequency interval (periods 30 to 8 years), their variance contribution increases dramatically to a mean of 89 per cent. Currie carried out similar analyses for six sets of climate data comprising over 3200 records and found the mean variance contribution of signals to filtered data over a common bandwidth varied from 67 to 81 per cent. Thus, the spectrum of climate at decadal and duo- decadal periods is strongly

  8. Characteristics of SC Coil Configuration for EDS Maglev to Reduce Leakage Flux with Strengthened Magnetomotive Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Toshiaki; Sasakawa, Takashi

    Vehicles of superconducting maglev system are suspended and driven by superconducting (SC) coils, which have strong magnetic field, and their passenger cabin must be shielded from leakage flux by the SC coils. In order to reduce the leakage flux, we have studied an improved configuration of SC coils, which has small size coils on its end. This configuration can reduce the environmental magnetic field, so that it can strengthen the magnetomotive force of SC coils. This paper describes the characteristics of levitation, guidance and propulsion performance at strengthening the magnetomotive force on the improved configuration of SC coils.

  9. Isolation and spectroscopic properties of Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], Sc[sub 2]C[sub 82], and Sc[sub 2]C[sub 84

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Hisanori; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Sato, Hiroyasu; Saito, Yahachi ); Ohkohchi, Masato; Ando, Yoshinori )

    1993-04-29

    The endohedral discandium fullerenes, Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], Sc[sub 2]C[sub 82], and Sc[sub 2]C[sub 84], have been isolated for the first time from soot prepared by the arc burning of Sc[sub 2]O[sub 3]/graphite composite rods. The separation and isolation of the metallofullerenes from various hollow fullerenes have been realized by using a two-stage high-performance liquid chromatography. Laser-desorption time-of-flight mass analyses of the present samples confirm the isolation of the discandium fullerenes. The discandium fullerene, Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], has been newly found in this study. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the isolated Sc[sub 2]C[sub 74], Sc[sub 2]C[sub 82], and Sc[sub 2]C[sub 84] reveal several salient features which are totally absent in those of the corresponding hollow fullerenes such as C[sub 76], C[sub 78], C[sub 82], and C[sub 84]. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Time-dependent variation of composition of SC1 solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Isao; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Ryuta, Jiro; Kishimoto, Mikio; Shingyouji, Takayuki

    1993-09-01

    We investigated the time-dependent variation of composition of NH4OH/H2O2/H2O mixture, the standard cleaning 1 (SC1) solution in the RCA cleaning process. The NH4OH concentration decreased with time and that of H2O2 was almost constant. It was clarified that the decrease rate of NH4OH concentration depended on the temperature and H2O2 concentration in the SC1 solution. As the temperature was raised, the decrease rate accelerated. Conversely, as H2O2 concentration was raised, the rate decelerated. It is concluded that the hydrogen bond between NH3 and H2O2 prevents NH3 evaporation.

  11. Total mercury, methylmercury, and selected elements in soils of the Fishing Brook watershed, Hamilton County, New York, and the McTier Creek watershed, Aiken County, South Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an element of on-going concern for human and aquatic health. Mercury sequestered in upland and wetland soils represents a source that may contribute to mercury contamination in sensitive ecosystems. An improved understanding of mercury cycling in stream ecosystems requires identification and quantification of mercury speciation and transport dynamics in upland and wetland soils within a watershed. This report presents data for soils collected in 2008 from two small watersheds in New York and South Carolina. In New York, 163 samples were taken from multiple depths or soil horizons at 70 separate locations near Fishing Brook, located in Hamilton County. At McTier Creek, in Aiken County, South Carolina, 81 samples from various soil horizons or soil depths were collected from 24 locations. Sample locations within each watershed were selected to characterize soil geochemistry in distinct land-cover compartments. Soils were analyzed for total mercury, selenium, total and carbonate carbon, and 42 other elements. A subset of the samples was also analyzed for methylmercury.

  12. Hydrogeologic investigation and establishment of a permanent multi-observational well network in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Eight-year interim report (1986-1994). Volume 1 cluster-site description

    SciTech Connect

    Gellici, J.A.; Reed, R.H.; Logan, W.R.; Aadland, R.K.; Simones, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Division (SCWRD), in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is conducting a hydrogeologic investigation of the ground-water system(s) peripheral to the Savannah River Site. The study area is located in the Southeastern Coastal Plain hydrogeologic province in Aiken, Allendale and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Ground-water movement, quality, and availability are being evaluated in order to better protect and manage this valuable regional resource. The investigation involves a well-cluster system comparable to the one constructed on the SRS. Cluster sites are situated outside the SRS on the basis of study objectives, proximity to the plant`s borders, land availability, and for the optimization of hydrogeologic control. One to three wells are completed into each major aquifer, and at each cluster site, at least one borehole is continuously cored and geophysically logged from land surface to at least 10 feet into unweathered bedrock. Data collected from the ongoing study include 146 paleontologic and palynologic age dates, 100 x-ray diffraction analyses of clay and bulk mineralogy, 442 sieve analyses, 6,040 feet of detailed core description, mineral composition and porosity determined from thin-section analyses, and continuous water-level data. This report is a compilation and interpretation of the {open_quotes}C-well{close_quotes} data that have been generated from the project and that will be used to model and characterize the aquifers and confining units in the region.

  13. 33 CFR 110.173 - Port of Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port of Charleston, SC. 110.173... 32°45′34″ N., 79°52′12″ W. (2) Commercial Anchorage B. This anchorage is located adjacent to the... located 1800 yards, 118° true from St. Michaels Church Spire and has a diameter of 500 yards....

  14. 33 CFR 110.173 - Port of Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Port of Charleston, SC. 110.173... 32°45′34″ N., 79°52′12″ W. (2) Commercial Anchorage B. This anchorage is located adjacent to the... located 1800 yards, 118° true from St. Michaels Church Spire and has a diameter of 500 yards....

  15. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  16. Improved input and output couplers for SC acceleration structure

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Latina, A.; Lunin, A.; Poloubotko, V.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Different couplers are described that allow the reduction of both transverse wake potential and RF kick in the SC acceleration structure of ILC. A simple rotation of the couplers reducing the RF kick and transverse wake kick is discussed for both the main linac and bunch compressors, along with possible limitations of this method. Designs of a coupler unit are presented which preserve axial symmetry of the structure, and provide reduced both the RF kick and transverse wake field.

  17. A Further Study of the Products of Sc and Dioxygen Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Zhou, Mingfei; Andrews, Lester; Johnson, J. R. Tobias; Panas, Itai; Snis, Anders; Roos, Bjoern O.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The products of the reaction of Sc and dioxygen have been reinvestigated. By adding the electron-trapping molecule CC14, additional information about the IR spectra has been obtained, as well as the observation of new bands. New ab initio calculations are also performed on possible products of the Sc plus O2 reaction. The previously observed band at 722.5 per cm is assigned as the b2 mode of ScO2(-). Bands arising from ScO(+), Sc(O2)(+), and(O2)ScO are also assigned. We are still unable to assign any bands to OScO. The problems associated with the computational study of ScO2 are discussed.

  18. Scandium(III) complexes of monophosphorus acid DOTA analogues: a thermodynamic and radiolabelling study with (44)Sc from cyclotron and from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator.

    PubMed

    Kerdjoudj, R; Pniok, M; Alliot, C; Kubíček, V; Havlíčková, J; Rösch, F; Hermann, P; Huclier-Markai, S

    2016-01-28

    The complexation ability of DOTA analogs bearing one methylenephosphonic (DO3AP) or methylenephosphinic (DO3AP(PrA) and DO3AP(ABn)) acid pendant arm toward scandium was evaluated. Stability constants of their scandium(iii) complexes were determined by potentiometry combined with (45)Sc NMR spectroscopy. The stability constants of the monophosphinate analogues are somewhat lower than that of the Sc-DOTA complex. The phosphorus acid moiety interacts with trivalent scandium even in very acidic solutions forming out-of-cage complexes; the strong affinity of the phosphonate group to Sc(iii) precludes stability constant determination of the Sc-DO3AP complex. These results were compared with those obtained by the free-ion selective radiotracer extraction (FISRE) method which is suitable for trace concentrations. FISRE underestimated the stability constants but their relative order was preserved. Nonetheless, as this method is experimentally simple, it is suitable for a quick relative comparison of stability constant values under trace concentrations. Radiolabelling of the ligands with (44)Sc was performed using the radioisotope from two sources, a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator and (44m)Sc/(44)Sc from a cyclotron. The best radiolabelling conditions for the ligands were pH = 4, 70 °C and 20 min which were, however, not superior to those of the parent DOTA. Nonetheless, in vitro behaviour of the Sc(iii) complexes in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum showed sufficient stability of (44)Sc complexes of these ligands for in vivo applications. PET images and ex vivo biodistribution of the (44)Sc-DO3AP complex performed on healthy Wistar male rats showed no specific bone uptake and rapid clearance through urine.

  19. Scandium(III) complexes of monophosphorus acid DOTA analogues: a thermodynamic and radiolabelling study with (44)Sc from cyclotron and from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator.

    PubMed

    Kerdjoudj, R; Pniok, M; Alliot, C; Kubíček, V; Havlíčková, J; Rösch, F; Hermann, P; Huclier-Markai, S

    2016-01-28

    The complexation ability of DOTA analogs bearing one methylenephosphonic (DO3AP) or methylenephosphinic (DO3AP(PrA) and DO3AP(ABn)) acid pendant arm toward scandium was evaluated. Stability constants of their scandium(iii) complexes were determined by potentiometry combined with (45)Sc NMR spectroscopy. The stability constants of the monophosphinate analogues are somewhat lower than that of the Sc-DOTA complex. The phosphorus acid moiety interacts with trivalent scandium even in very acidic solutions forming out-of-cage complexes; the strong affinity of the phosphonate group to Sc(iii) precludes stability constant determination of the Sc-DO3AP complex. These results were compared with those obtained by the free-ion selective radiotracer extraction (FISRE) method which is suitable for trace concentrations. FISRE underestimated the stability constants but their relative order was preserved. Nonetheless, as this method is experimentally simple, it is suitable for a quick relative comparison of stability constant values under trace concentrations. Radiolabelling of the ligands with (44)Sc was performed using the radioisotope from two sources, a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator and (44m)Sc/(44)Sc from a cyclotron. The best radiolabelling conditions for the ligands were pH = 4, 70 °C and 20 min which were, however, not superior to those of the parent DOTA. Nonetheless, in vitro behaviour of the Sc(iii) complexes in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum showed sufficient stability of (44)Sc complexes of these ligands for in vivo applications. PET images and ex vivo biodistribution of the (44)Sc-DO3AP complex performed on healthy Wistar male rats showed no specific bone uptake and rapid clearance through urine. PMID:26675416

  20. Hydrophobins Sc3 and Sc4 gene expression in mounds, fruiting bodies and vegetative hyphae of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Robertson, Deborah L; Leonard, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    An abnormal growth form called mound has been hypothesized to be a neoplasm in the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune. An alternative hypothesis is that mounds represent some unusual developmental form in the fruiting body morphogenetic pathway. Hydrophobin proteins have been found in fruiting bodies where they line the surface of gas exchange pores and function to keep the pores hydrophobic. To further determine possible relationships between mounds and fruiting bodies, mound tissue was examined for gas exchange pores and the presence of hydrophobins. Cryoscanning electron microscopic images revealed the presence of channels in mound tissue and presumptive hydrophobin rodlets similar to the air channels in fruiting bodies. Hydrophobin gene expression was also measured in mound tissue using quantitative real-time PCR and showed both monokaryotic and dikaryotic mound tissue exhibited high expression of the dikaryotic specific Sc4 hydrophobin gene. In contrast, Sc4 hydrophobin expression was barely detectable in monokaryotic fruiting bodies. The expression of Sc4 hydrophobin genes in mounds suggests mound development uses this aspect of the dikaryotic fruiting developmental pathway.

  1. SQUID measurements of MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Han-Jong; Constantin, Costel; Wang, Kangkang; Chinchore, Abhijit; Smith, Arthur; Markert, John

    2009-03-01

    We report SQUID magnetic measurements on N-rich and N-poor MnxSc(1-x)N and Fe0.1Sc0.9N films grown on ScN(001)/MgO(001) substrates by radio frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Ferromagnetism is present in both the Mn doped (x ranging from 3 to 15%) and the Fe doped ScN samples. Measurements on N-poor Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N (x=15%) show Curie temperatures of 383 K and 361 K, respectively. The Fe0.1Sc0.9N film shows a Curie temperature above 350 K as well. Further studies will be required to determine the origin of the ferromagnetism and the Curie temperature of the remaining MnxSc(1-x)N films. This work is supported by: Seton Hall: University Research Council; Ohio University: DOE-BES Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46317 and NSF Grant No. 0730257; and UT Austin: NSF Grant Nos. DMR-0605828 and DGE-0549417, Welch Foundation Grant No. F-1191.

  2. Agricultural Virtual Water Flows in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Dang, Q.; Lin, X.

    2014-12-01

    Global virtual water trade is an important research topic that has yielded several interesting insights. In this paper, we present a comprehensive assessment of virtual water flows within the USA, a country with global importance as a major agricultural producer and trade power. This is the first study of domestic virtual water flows based upon intra-national food flow data and it provides insight into how the properties of virtual water flows vary across scales. We find that both the value and volume of food flows within the USA are roughly equivalent to half that of international flows. However, USA food flows are more water intensive than international food trade, due to the higher fraction of water-intensive meat trade within the USA. The USA virtual water flow network is more social, homogeneous, and equitable than the global virtual water trade network, although it is still not perfectly equitable. Importantly, a core group of U.S. States is central to the network structure, indicating that both domestic and international trade may be vulnerable to disruptive climate or economic shocks in these U.S. States.

  3. On 3d bonding in the transition metal trimers - The electronic structure of equilateral triangle Ca3, Sc3, Sc3(+), and Ti3(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that transition metals and transition metal (TM) compounds are currently of considerable interest because of their relevance to catalysis and to materials science problems such as hydrogen embrittlement and crack propagation in metals. The present paper is concerned with complete active space Self-Consistent Field (SCF) externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) calculations for the low-lying states of Sc3 and Sc3(+). A comparison is conducted regarding the bonding in the Ca3, Sc3, and Cu3 molecules. This comparison makes it possible to predict general trends for the TM trimers. Attention is given to the qualitative features of the bonding in the TM trimers, the basis sets and other technical details of the calculations, the calculated results for Sc3 and Sc3(+), and conclusions from this work.

  4. Directed evolution of human scFvs in DT40 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Alfred W.Y.; Williams, Gareth T.; Rada, Cristina; Sale, Julian E.

    2016-01-01

    Cells that constitutively diversify their immunoglobulin genes can be used for selection of novel antibodies and for refining existing affinities and specificities. Here, we report an adaptation of the chicken DT40 system wherein its capacity for somatic hypermutation is harnessed to evolve human antibodies expressed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Expression of membrane-anchored scFvs from within the rearranged Igλ locus created self-diversifying scFv libraries from which we could both select scFvs of a desired specificity and evolve both the specificity and affinity of existing scFvs by iterative expansion and selection. From these scFvs, we were able to create fully human IgG antibodies with nanomolar affinities. We further enhanced the functionality of the system by creating a pool of DT40 scFv lines with high levels of mutation driven by the overexpression of a hyperactive variant of activation-induced deaminase. From this library, we successfully isolated scFvs that bound the spliceosome factor CWC15 and the cytokine human IFNγ. Our results demonstrate the flexibility and utility of DT40 for rapid generation of scFv repertoires and efficient selection, evolution and affinity maturation of scFv specificities. PMID:26519451

  5. Directed evolution of human scFvs in DT40 cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Alfred W Y; Williams, Gareth T; Rada, Cristina; Sale, Julian E

    2016-02-01

    Cells that constitutively diversify their immunoglobulin genes can be used for selection of novel antibodies and for refining existing affinities and specificities. Here, we report an adaptation of the chicken DT40 system wherein its capacity for somatic hypermutation is harnessed to evolve human antibodies expressed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Expression of membrane-anchored scFvs from within the rearranged Igλ locus created self-diversifying scFv libraries from which we could both select scFvs of a desired specificity and evolve both the specificity and affinity of existing scFvs by iterative expansion and selection. From these scFvs, we were able to create fully human IgG antibodies with nanomolar affinities. We further enhanced the functionality of the system by creating a pool of DT40 scFv lines with high levels of mutation driven by the overexpression of a hyperactive variant of activation-induced deaminase. From this library, we successfully isolated scFvs that bound the spliceosome factor CWC15 and the cytokine human IFNγ. Our results demonstrate the flexibility and utility of DT40 for rapid generation of scFv repertoires and efficient selection, evolution and affinity maturation of scFv specificities.

  6. Electronic and optical properties of ScN and (Sc,Mn)N thin films deposited by reactive DC-magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Bivas; Naik, Gururaj; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Drachev, Vladimir P.; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Sands, Timothy D.

    2013-08-14

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is a rocksalt semiconductor that has attracted significant attention from various researchers for a diverse range of applications. Motivated by the prospect of using its interesting electronic structure for optoelectronic and dilute magnetic semiconductor applications, we present detailed studies of the electronic transport and optical properties of ScN and its alloys with manganese nitride (MnN). Our results suggest (a) dilute manganese doping in ScN compensates for the high n-type carrier concentrations arising due to oxygen impurities and (b) an n-type to p-type carrier type transition occurs at a composition between 5.8% and 11% Mn on Sc sites. In terms of its optical properties, our analysis clearly indicates direct and indirect bandgap absorption edges of ScN located at 2.04 eV and 1.18 eV, respectively. In addition to the direct gap absorption edge, (Sc,Mn)N samples also show Mn-defect induced electronic absorption. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature from ScN films exhibit a yellowish-green emission corresponding to direct gap radiative recombination. Direct gap recombination is not expected given the smaller indirect gap. A possible role of high excitation intensities in suppressing relaxation and recombination across the indirect bandgap is suspected. Raman spectroscopic and ellipsometric characterization of the dielectric permittivities of ScN and (Sc,Mn)N are also presented to assist in understanding the potential of ScN for optoelectronic applications.

  7. A 45Sc-NMR and DFT calculation study of crystalline scandium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuniger, Thomas; Hofmann, Andreas J.; Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Hoch, Constantin; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    A series of scandium compounds, namely ScPO4, ScOF, Li3Sc(BO3)2, and CaSc2O4, were prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and then characterised by powder X-ray diffraction and solid-state 45Sc-NMR spectroscopy. By computer fitting, the quadrupolar interaction parameters χ and η, as well as the isotropic chemical shifts δiso were extracted from the NMR spectra. For comparison and site assignment of 45Sc, density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the EFG tensor were carried out with the CASTEP code. For the compounds with a well-defined formal coordination number (CN), a convincing linear correlation between CN and isotropic chemical shift could be established.

  8. Synthesis and Superconducting Properties of a Hexagonal Phosphide ScRhP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inohara, Takumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yamakawa, Youichi; Takenaka, Koshi

    2016-09-01

    We report the synthesis and superconducting properties of the ternary phosphide ScRhP. The crystal structure of ScRhP is determined to be the ordered Fe2P type with the hexagonal Pbar{6}2m space group by powder X-ray diffraction experiments. Resistivity, magnetization, and heat capacity data indicate that ScRhP is a bulk superconductor with a transition temperature Tc of 2 K. This Tc is lower than that of its 5d analogue, ScIrP (Tc = 3.4 K), although ScRhP is found to have larger electronic density of states at the Fermi energy and a higher Debye temperature than those of ScIrP.

  9. Preparation and characterization of Sc doped MgB2 wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Burdusel, M.

    2016-09-01

    The in-situ technique was used to manufacture scandium (Sc) doped MgB2 wires in a composite Cu-Nb sheath. After reaction at 700 °C, at most 1 at.% Mg was replaced by Sc in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its superconducting transition temperature. For higher Sc concentrations in the nominal composition, the formation of Sc-rich impurity phases was evidenced by SEM/EDS observations. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are weakly dependant on the Sc content. It is believed that these effects are related more to modifications of the thermal behaviour of the precursor powders revealed by DTA measurements than to actual doping. The best performance was obtained in a wire with Mg:Sc = 0.995_0.005 atomic ratio.

  10. Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA _ Implicit (ScIFEi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, James E.; Bomarito, Geoffrey F.; Heber, Gerd; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable Implementation of Finite Elements by NASA (ScIFEN) is a parallel finite element analysis code written in C++. ScIFEN is designed to provide scalable solutions to computational mechanics problems. It supports a variety of finite element types, nonlinear material models, and boundary conditions. This report provides an overview of ScIFEi (\\Sci-Fi"), the implicit solid mechanics driver within ScIFEN. A description of ScIFEi's capabilities is provided, including an overview of the tools and features that accompany the software as well as a description of the input and output le formats. Results from several problems are included, demonstrating the efficiency and scalability of ScIFEi by comparing to finite element analysis using a commercial code.

  11. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrP(Sc)). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrP(Sc)-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrP(Sc) and depletion of PrP(C).

  12. Growth and characterization of Sc-doped EuO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Altendorf, S. G.; Reisner, A.; Chang, C. F.; Hollmann, N.; Rata, A. D.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2014-02-03

    The preparation of 3d-transition metal-doped EuO thin films by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated using the example of Sc doping. The Sc-doped EuO samples display a good crystalline structure, despite the relatively small ionic radius of the dopant. The Sc doping leads to an enhancement of the Curie temperature to up to 125 K, remarkably similar to previous observations on lanthanide-doped EuO.

  13. Dilute Magnetic and Electronic Properties of MnxSc(1-x)N/ScN(001)/MgO(001) Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Costel; Wang, Kangkang; Chinchore, Abhijit; Smith, Arthur; Chia, Han-Jong; Markert, John

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we report the magnetic and electronic properties of MnxSc(1-x)N films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Recently, theoretical calculations predicted a Curie temperature above 350 K for ScN films with up to 20% Mn impurity concentrations[1]. The magnetic hysteresis data suggests ferromagnetic behavior for Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N films with Curie temperatures of 383 K and 361 K, respectively. Furthermore, the measured electron concentrations for the Mn0.03Sc0.97N and Mn0.15Sc0.85N films are 6.51x10^19 cm-3 and 6.17x10^19 cm-3, respectively. These measured carrier concentration agree well with the prediction of Herwadkar et al. that ferromagnetism above room temperature in MnxSc(1-x)N should be possible by keeping the electron concentration below 10^20 cm-3. This work is supported by: Seton Hall: University Research Council; Ohio University: DOE-BES Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46317 and NSF Grant No. 0730257; and UT Austin: NSF Grant Nos. DMR-0605828 and DGE-0549417, Welch Foundation Grant No. F-1191. [1] A. Herwadkar (et al.), Phys. Rev. B 77, 134433 (2008).

  14. Structure, phase composition, and strengthening of cast Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Alekseeva, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and phase composition of Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys containing 0.3 wt % Sc, up to 10 wt % Ca, and up to 10 wt % Mg have been investigated in the cast state and state after heat treatment. It has been shown that only binary phases Al4Ca, Al3Sc, and Al3Mg2 can be in equilibrium with the aluminum solid solution. It has been found that the maximum strengthening effect caused by the precipitation of Al3Sc nanoparticles for all investigated alloys is attained after annealing at 300-350°C.

  15. Endohedral metallofullerene Sc3NC@C82: A theoretical prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Ya; Sun, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Cui-Yan; Wang, Dong-Lai

    2014-10-01

    All nine IPR C82 isomers and two non-IPR C82 isomers (C2v(39705) and Cs(39663)) are considered to explore that which one has the more possibility of encapsulating Sc3NC cluster in the C82 fullerene. Significantly, the favorable binding energies and large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps suggest two non-IPR Sc3NC@C2v(39705)sbnd C82 and Sc3NC@Cs(39663)sbnd C82 should be found among the possible structures of Sc3NC@C82. Furthermore, Raman spectra and 13C NMR spectra have also been explored to assist future experimental characterization.

  16. Screening of high-affinity scFvs from a ribosome displayed library using BIAcore biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Wang, Zhongkang; Nian, Siji; Yin, Youping; Chen, Gang; Xia, Yuxian

    2009-02-01

    An experimental protocol was developed to screen high-affinity single-chain Fv antibody fragments (scFvs) from a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) immunized ribosome display library using BIAcore biosensor. The screening methods involved immobilizing antigen [lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Xac] on sensor chip HPA and then unpurified expression products of scFvs flowing over the immobilized sensor chip. The affinity-improved scFvs were selected based on dissociation rate constants (k (d)). Thirty-five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-positive scFvs were analyzed by BIAcore, and three of those (scFv A1, B2, and C5) with lower k (d) were screened. To demonstrate the accuracy of the screening method, the three scFvs were expressed in Escherichia coli HB2151 and purified. The purified scFvs were subsequently further identified according to association rate and affinity constants. The results showed that the three scFvs (A1, B2, and C5) had high affinity for LPS of Xac (3.51 x 10(-11), 1.13 x 10(-10), 5.06 x 10(-10) M, respectively). Furthermore, the scFv B2 was highly specific for LPS of Xac and had no any cross-reactions with bovine serum albumin and LPS from Xac-related bacteria. This provided evidence that the information from the BIAcore screening assay could be accurate. PMID:18574567

  17. Discover the U.S.A.!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Michele

    2000-01-01

    Describes Discover the USA, an interdisciplinary unit for middle school students that uses trip-planning software and World Wide Web-based resources to teach organizational, research, writing, computer, and practical math and geography skills. Students plan a 1-month road trip in the United States, then take the trip, keeping records of routes,…

  18. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  19. The USA PATRIOT Act: Archival Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkaus-Randall, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    In October 2001, Congress passed the USA PATRIOT Act to strengthen the ability of the U.S. government to combat terrorism. Unfortunately, some sections of the Act strike at core values and practices of libraries and archives, especially in the areas of record keeping, privacy, confidentiality, security, and access to the collections. This article…

  20. Powassan Meningoencephalitis, New York, New York, USA

    PubMed Central

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Whittier, Susan; Kulas, Karen; Kramer, Laura D.; Flam, Robin; Roberts, James Kirkland; Tsiouris, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Disease caused by Powassan virus (POWV), a tick-borne flavivirus, ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurologic compromise and death. Two cases of POWV meningoencephalitis in New York, USA, highlight diagnostic techniques, neurologic outcomes, and the effect of POWV on communities to which it is endemic. PMID:23969017

  1. Kids Voting USA: Bringing Out the Vote.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Sydele E.

    1997-01-01

    Kids Voting USA is a grass roots, community-driven voter education program. A Kids Voting community must mobilize corporate sponsors, election officials, media representatives, and administrative staff to print curricula, train teachers, prepare students, welcome them to polling precincts, and count and report their votes. Children become…

  2. Thermoelectric Transport in a ZrN/ScN Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Bian, Zhixi; Singh, Rajeev; Shakouri, Ali; Wortman, Robert; Rawat, Vijay; Sands, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Metal/semiconductor superlattices have the potential for a high thermoelectric figure of merit. The thermopower of these structures can be enhanced by controlling the barrier height using high-energy electron filtering. In addition, phonon scattering at interfaces can reduce the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity. In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental studies of the thermoelectric transport in ZrN/ScN metal/semiconductor superlattices. Preliminary measurement results show an exponential increase in the cross-plane electrical conductivity with increasing temperature, which indicates the presence of the barrier. Fit of the Boltzmann transport-based model with the data indicates a barrier height of 280 meV. The cross-plane Seebeck coefficient of the sample is also measured by combining Seebeck voltage transient measurements with the thermal imaging technique. A Seebeck coefficient of 820 μV/K at room temperature is extracted, which is in good agreement with the simulation result of 800 μV/K. Theoretical calculations predict that the ZrN/ScN structure can exhibit a ZT of 1.5 at 1300 K assuming lateral momentum is conserved and that a ZT of 3 is achievable if the lateral momentum is not conserved.

  3. Structural transformations in Sc/Si multilayers irradiated by EUVlasers

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, D.L.; Zubarev, E.N.; Pershyn, Y.P.; Sevryukova, V.A.; Kondratenko, V.V.; Vinogradov, A.V.; Artioukov, I.A.; Uspenskiy, Y.A.; Grisham, M.; Vaschenko, G.; Menoni, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2007-08-21

    Multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) are keyelements for numerous applications of coherent EUV sources such as newtabletop lasers and free-electron lasers. However the field ofapplications is limited by the radiation and thermal stability of themultilayers. Taking into account the growing power of EUV sources thestability of the optics becomes crucial. To overcome this problem it isnecessary to study the degradation of multilayers and try to increasetheir temporal and thermal stability. In this paper we report the resultsof detailed study of structural changes in Sc/Simultilayers when exposedto intense EUV laser pulses. Various types of surface damage such asmelting, boiling, shockwave creation and ablation were observed asirradiation fluencies increase. Cross-sectional TEM study revealed thatthe layer structure was completely destroyed in the upper part ofmultilayer, but still survived below. The layers adjacent tothe substrateremained intact even through the multilayer surface melted down, thoughthe structure of the layers beneath the molten zone was noticeablychanged. The layer structure in this thermally affected zone is similarto that of isothermally annealed samples. All stages of scandium silicideformation such as interdiffusion, solid-state amorphization, silicidecrystallization, etc., are present in the thermally affected zone. Itindicates a thermal nature of the damage mechanism. The tungstendiffusion barriers were applied to the scandium/silicon interfaces. Itwas shown that the barriers inhibited interdiffusion and increased thethermal stability of Sc/Si mirrors.

  4. The ASCI Network for SC 2000: Gigabyte Per Second Networking

    SciTech Connect

    PRATT, THOMAS J.; NAEGLE, JOHN H.; MARTINEZ JR., LUIS G.; HU, TAN CHANG; MILLER, MARC M.; BARNABY, MARTY L.; ADAMS, ROGER L.; KLAUS, EDWARD J.

    2001-11-01

    This document highlights the Discom's Distance computing and communication team activities at the 2000 Supercomputing conference in Dallas Texas. This conference is sponsored by the IEEE and ACM. Sandia's participation in the conference has now spanned a decade, for the last five years Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab have come together at the conference under the DOE's ASCI, Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiatives, Program rubric to demonstrate ASCI's emerging capabilities in computational science and our combined expertise in high performance computer science and communication networking developments within the program. At SC 2000, DISCOM demonstrated an infrastructure. DISCOM2 uses this forum to demonstrate and focus communication and pre-standard implementation of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the first gigabyte per second data IP network transfer application, and VPN technology that enabled a remote Distributed Resource Management tools demonstration. Additionally a national OC48 POS network was constructed to support applications running between the show floor and home facilities. This network created the opportunity to test PSE's Parallel File Transfer Protocol (PFTP) across a network that had similar speed and distances as the then proposed DISCOM WAN. The SCINET SC2000 showcased wireless networking and the networking team had the opportunity to explore this emerging technology while on the booth. This paper documents those accomplishments, discusses the details of their convention exhibit floor. We also supported the production networking needs of the implementation, and describes how these demonstrations supports DISCOM overall strategies in high performance computing networking.

  5. Magnetic Ordering in FeSc2 S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, K. W.; Morey, J. R.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    FeSc2S4 is a cubic spinel where orbitally active Fe2+ ions occupy the A-site diamond sublattice. Despite a high spin (S=2) state and Curie Weiss temperature of 45 K thermodynamic measurements show no indication of a phase transition and the material has been proposed as a unique example of a spin-orbital liquid. This ground state might arise from competition between on site spin-orbit coupling and Kugel-Khomskii exchange. We report neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of FeSc2S4 which bring this picture into question. They reveal a previously unreported magnetically ordered state below 11 K. No structural distortions are visible with neutron or x-ray scattering. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic excitation spectrum was also explored and found to be minimal. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544.

  6. Quantum Criticality in FeSc2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ish, Daniel; Balents, Leon

    2015-03-01

    Despite possessing a local spin 2 moment on the iron site and a Curie-Weiss temperature of 45 K , the A site spinel FeSc2S4 does not magnetically order down to 50mK. Previous theoretical work by Chen and Balents advanced an explanation for this observation in the form of the ``J2- λ'' model which places FeSc2S4 close to a quantum critical point on the disordered side of a quantum phase transition between a Néel ordered phase and a ``Spin-Orbital Liquid'' in which spins and orbitals are entangled, quenching the magnetization. We present new theoretical studies of the optical properties of the J2- λ model, including a computation of the dispersion relation for the quasiparticle excitations and the form of the collective response to electric field. We argue that the latter directly probes a low energy excitation continuum characteristic of quantum criticality, and that our results reinforce the consistency of this model with experiment.

  7. Dynamic polarizabilities and hyperfine-structure constants for Sc2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Narendra Nath; Roy, Sourav; Deshmukh, P. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we calculate dynamic polarizabilities and hyperfine-structure A and B constants of a few low-lying states for Sc2 +. The sum-over-states technique is applied to calculate the polarizabilities of the 3 d 2D3 /2 ,3 d 2D5 /2 , and 4 s 2S1 /2 states. The most important and correlation sensitive part of the sum is calculated using a highly correlated relativistic coupled-cluster theory. The remaining part of the sum is calculated using a lower-order many-body perturbation theory and the Dirac-Fock theory. Present dynamic polarizabilities are important to investigate the Stark shifts in the 4 s 2S1 /2 - 3 d 2D5 /2 and 4 s 2S1 /2 - 3 d 2D3 /2 clock transitions of Sc2 +. Magic wavelengths for zero Stark shifts corresponding to these transitions are found in the vacuum-ultraviolet region. The coupled-cluster theory is used to estimate the hyperfine A and B constants with a very high accuracy.

  8. 78 FR 49270 - Information Collection; MyUSA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ..., and as detailed in the MyUSA System of Records Notice ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-05/pdf... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; MyUSA AGENCY: Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies... request to review and approve a new information collection requirement regarding MyUSA. DATES:...

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Louis I. Schwartz, Photographer August, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Louis I. Schwartz, Photographer August, 1963 NORTHEAST CORNER OF YARD. - Robinson-Aiken Necessary Building, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Louis I. Schwartz, Photographer July, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Louis I. Schwartz, Photographer July, 1958 VIEW FROM NORTHWEST. - Robinson-Aiken Slave Building & Kitchens, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Louis I. Schwartz, Photographer July, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Louis I. Schwartz, Photographer July, 1962 SLAVE BUILDING AND KITCHENS. - Robinson-Aiken Slave Building & Kitchens, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  12. Scandium-44: benefits of a long-lived PET radionuclide available from the (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    PubMed

    Roesch, F

    2012-07-01

    (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generators are of interest for molecular imaging. The 3.97 hours half-life of (44)Sc and its high positron branching of 94.27% may stimulate the application of (44)Sc-labeled PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review describes the current status of (44)Ti production, (44)Ti/(44)Sc radionuclide generator development, post-processing of generator eluates towards medical application, identification of ligands adequate to Sc(III) co-ordination chemistry, proof-of-principle labeling of (44)Sc-DOTA-octreotides, investigation of in vitro and in vivo parameters, and initial applications for molecular imaging - both in small animals and humans.

  13. Effect of cage charges on multiphoton absorptions: first-principles study on metallofullerenes Sc(2)C(2)@C(68) and Sc(3)N@C(68).

    PubMed

    Cheng, W-D; Hu, H; Wu, D-S; Wang, J-Y; Huang, S-P; Xe, Z; Zhang, H

    2009-05-21

    A combined method of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and sum-overstate (SOS) formula was implemented to model multiphoton absorption spectra, including two-photon absorption (2PA) and three-photon absorption (3PA), of Sc(2)C(2)@C(68) and Sc(3)N@C(68) endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs). This method has been proved to be effective by comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of trans-4,4'-bis[diphenylamino]stilbene. It was found that the multiphoton absorption cross sections were larger for Sc(2)C(2)@C(68) than that of Sc(3)N@C(68). The electronic origin of multiphoton absorption has been identified with respect to the molecular orbitals involved in charge transfer process. It shows that the increase of pi-charges on the cage of C(68) results in a large multiphoton absorption cross section in EMFs.

  14. Valence band offsets of Sc x Ga1‑x N/AlN and Sc x Ga1‑x N/GaN heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, H. C. L.; Goff, L. E.; Palgrave, R. G.; Beere, H. E.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Moram, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The valence band offsets of Sc x Ga1‑x N/AlN heterojunctions were measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to increase from 0.42 eV to 0.95 eV as the Sc content x increased from 0 to 0.15. The increase in valence band offset with increasing x is attributed to the corresponding increase in spontaneous polarization of the wurtzite structure. The Sc x Ga1‑x N/AlN heterojunction is type I, similar to other III-nitride-based heterojunctions. The data also indicate that a type II staggered heterojunction, which can enhance spatial charge separation, could be formed if Sc x Ga1‑x N is grown on GaN.

  15. NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes under internal dry reforming of simulated biogas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratori, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes were operated by directly feeding a fuel mixture of CH 4, CO 2 and N 2 (CH 4 to CO 2 ratio of 3:2). Stable operation under constant current load (200 mA cm -2) was achieved with a NiO-ScSZ type anode during 200 h operating hours at 900 °C. Less stable operation occurred with a Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ type anode. In the case of SOFC with Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ as the anode, the methane reforming activity was higher than that with NiO-ScSZ. This was explained by change in the microstructure promoting reforming reactions. However, the addition of MgO resulted in degradation of electrochemical performance due to increase in ohmic resistance of the anode material during operation.

  16. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  17. Covalent and oriented immobilization of scFv antibody fragments via an engineered glycan moiety.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuejun; Hortigüela, María J; Robin, Sylvain; Lin, Heng; Li, Yajie; Moran, Anthony P; Wang, Wenxin; Wall, J Gerard

    2013-01-14

    Antibody-derived fragments have enormous potential application in solid-phase assays such as biomarker detection and protein purification. Controlled orientation of the immobilized antibody molecules is a critical requirement for the sensitivity and efficacy of such assays. We present an approach for covalent, correctly oriented attachment of scFv antibody fragments on solid supports. Glycosylated scFvs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the C-terminal, binding pocket-distal glycan tag was oxidized for covalent attachment to amine-functionalized beads. The glycosylated scFvs could be immobilized at salt concentrations that precluded nonspecific adsorption of unglycosylated molecules and the covalently attached antibody fragments exhibited 4-fold higher functional activity than ionically adsorbed scFvs. The glyco-tethered scFvs were stable in NaCl concentrations that removed greater than 90% of adsorbed scFvs and they exhibited improved stability of antigen binding over both adsorbed scFvs and soluble, nonimmobilized scFvs in accelerated degradation tests. The simple expression and immobilization approach reported is likely to find broad application in in vitro antibody tests.

  18. 76 FR 77727 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... August 22, 2011 amending Class E airspace at Lexington County Airport at Pelion, Pelion, SC, is being... August 22, 2011, a NPRM was published in the Federal Register amending Class E airspace at Pelion, SC to...-21827), is hereby withdrawn. Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  19. 76 FR 12298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orangeburg, SC...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Orangeburg, SC, to accommodate the additional... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Orangeburg Municipal Airport, Orangeburg,...

  20. 75 FR 32268 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC... Register April 1, 2010 that establishes Class E airspace at Mt Pleasant Regional Airport-Faison Field, Mount Pleasant, SC. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC, June 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  1. 76 FR 38582 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Clemson, SC AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Clemson, SC, as a runway extension requires amended Standard... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  2. Structural and electronic studies of metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs-C72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Wang, Taishan; Wu, Jingyi; Feng, Lai; Xiang, Junfeng; Ma, Yihan; Zhang, Zhuxia; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

    2013-07-01

    We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed.We present a metal carbide clusterfullerene Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72, whose structure has been baffling for many years. A motional endohedral Sc2C2 cluster, special molecule geometry and electronic structure were found in Sc2C2@Cs(10528)-C72. The paramagnetic Sc2C2@Cs-C72 anion radical was successfully prepared by a chemical reduction method and hyperfine couplings in the ESR spectrum were observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, HPLC chromatogram, and DFT calculations. CCDC 917712. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01739g

  3. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., Executive Secretary to the OCS SC, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 381 Elden Street, Mail Stop...

  4. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  5. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  6. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  7. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  8. 33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; Atlantic Ocean, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...

  9. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  10. 33 CFR 165.T07-0161 - Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC. 165.T07-0161 Section 165.T07-0161 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....T07-0161 Safety Zone; Xterra Swim, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated area. The following regulated...

  11. Operation of SC5 rapid scan particle spectrometer on SCATHA satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Hardy, D. A.; Cohen, H. A.; Feynman, J.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The SC5 rapid scan particle spectrometer, operating on the SCATHA satellite, is discussed. SC5 in-orbit operation and reduction of electrostatic analyzer (ESA) spectra are addressed. ESA data summaries from ion and electron gun operations are explained. Data from gun operations show how the satellite potential responds and provide information on the various time constants involved.

  12. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia... 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and...

  13. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. 334.470 Section 334.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area...

  14. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. 334.470 Section 334.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area...

  15. Final Report for DOE Grant Number DE-SC0001481

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Edison

    2013-12-02

    This report covers research activities, major results and publications supported by DE-SC-000-1481. This project was funded by the DOE OFES-NNSA HEDLP program. It was a joint research program between Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin. The physics of relativistic plasmas was investigated in the context of ultra-intense laser irradiation of high-Z solid targets. Laser experiments using the Texas Petawatt Laser were performed in the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Numerical simulations of laser-plasma interactions were performed using Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell codes to design and support these experiments. Astrophysical applications of these results were also investigated.

  16. Running Tests of a Combined SC Type Linear Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    In the superconducting maglev system, it is important to develop a non-contact on-board power source without environmental pollution such as noise and exhaust gas. We have studied a combined SC (Superconducting Coil) type linear generator as the most realistic system. The linear generator system has improved to increase output, power factor and measuring equipment. In this paper, the linear generator system is experimented in running tests on the Yamanashi Test line. We can supply power of 25kW to half a car in the speed range 400km/h to 500km/h. A good correlation is recognized between the analysis and measurement in the running tests. This linear generator system can be expected to be applicable in the practical use

  17. The shape of the Sc2(μ2-S) unit trapped in C82: crystallographic, computational, and electrochemical studies of the isomers, Sc2(μ2-S)@C(s)(6)-C82 and Sc2(μ2-S)@C(3v)(8)-C82.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Brandon Q; Chen, Ning; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Mackey, Mary A; Stevenson, Steven; Echegoyen, Luis; Poblet, Josep M; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L

    2011-05-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) and Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(3v)(8)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) reveal that both contain fully ordered fullerene cages. The crystallographic data for Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) show two remarkable features: the presence of two slightly different cage sites and a fully ordered molecule Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) in one of these sites. The Sc-S-Sc angles in Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) (113.84(3)°) and Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(3v)(8)-C(82) differ (97.34(13)°). This is the first case where the nature and structure of the fullerene cage isomer exerts a demonstrable effect on the geometry of the cluster contained within. Computational studies have shown that, among the nine isomers that follow the isolated pentagon rule for C(82), the cage stability changes markedly between 0 and 250 K, but the C(s)(6)-C(82) cage is preferred at temperatures ≥250 °C when using the energies obtained with the free encapsulated model (FEM). However, the C(3v)(8)-C(82) cage is preferred at temperatures ≥250 °C using the energies obtained by rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator (RRHO) approximation. These results corroborate the fact that both cages are observed and likely to trap the Sc(2)(μ(2)-S) cluster, whereas earlier FEM and RRHO calculations predicted only the C(s)(6)-C(82) cage is likely to trap the Sc(2)(μ(2)-O) cluster. We also compare the recently published electrochemistry of the sulfide-containing Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) to that of corresponding oxide-containing Sc(2)(μ(2)-O)@C(s)(6)-C(82). PMID:21473581

  18. Electronic structures and optical properties of two-dimensional ScN and YN nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Wen-Jin; Liu, Li-Min E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Peng, Ping E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn

    2014-03-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit different electronic properties than their bulk materials. Here, we present a systematic study of 2D tetragonal materials of ScN and YN using density functional theory calculations. Several thermodynamically stable 2D tetragonal structures were determined, and such novel tetragonal structures have good electronic and optical properties. Both bulk ScN and YN are indirect band gap semiconductors while the electronic structures of 2D ScN and YN are indirect gap semiconductors, with band gaps of 0.62–2.21 eV. The calculated optical spectra suggest that 2D tetragonal ScN and YN nanosheets have high visible light absorption efficiency. These electronic properties indicate that 2D ScN and YN have great potential for applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  19. The Successive OH Binding Energies of Sc(OH)n+ for n=1-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The geometries of Sc(OH)n+, for n = 1-3, have been optimized using density functional theory, in conjunction with the B3LYP hybrid functional. The zero-point energies are computed at the same level of theory. The successive OH bond energies have been computed at the CCSD(T) level for ScOH+ and Sc(OH)2+. The computed result for ScOD+ is in excellent agreement with the recent experiment of Armentrout and co-workers. There is a dramatic drop for the third OH, because Sc+ has only two valence electrons and therefore the bonding changes when the third OH is added. The difference between the B3LYP and CCSD(T) OH binding energies for the first two OH groups is discussed.

  20. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data. PMID:19265212

  1. Composition measurement of epitaxial Sc x Ga1-x N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, H. C. L.; Goff, L. E.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Pereira, S.; Palgrave, R. G.; Davies, R. J.; Beere, H. E.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Moram, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Four different methods for measuring the compositions of epitaxial Sc x Ga1-x N films were assessed and compared to determine which was the most reliable and accurate. The compositions of epitaxial Sc x Ga1-x N films with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.26 were measured directly using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and indirectly using c lattice parameter measurements from x-ray diffraction and c/a ratio measurements from electron diffraction patterns. RBS measurements were taken as a standard reference. XPS was found to underestimate the Sc content, whereas c lattice parameter and c/a ratio were not reliable for composition determination due to the unknown degree of strain relaxation in the film. However, the Sc flux used during growth was found to relate linearly with x and could be used to estimate the Sc content.

  2. Sc(2)MgGa(2) and Y(2)MgGa(2).

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Martin; Andersson, Yvonne

    2009-03-01

    Scandium magnesium gallide, Sc(2)MgGa(2), and yttrium magnesium gallide, Y(2)MgGa(2), were synthesized from the corresponding elements by heating under an argon atmosphere in an induction furnace. These intermetallic compounds crystallize in the tetragonal Mo(2)FeB(2)-type structure. All three crystallographically unique atoms occupy special positions and the site symmetries of (Sc/Y, Ga) and Mg are m2m and 4/m, respectively. The coordinations around Sc/Y, Mg and Ga are pentagonal (Sc/Y), tetragonal (Mg) and triangular (Ga) prisms, with four (Mg) or three (Ga) additional capping atoms leading to the coordination numbers [10], [8+4] and [6+3], respectively. The crystal structure of Sc(2)MgGa(2 )was determined from single-crystal diffraction intensities and the isostructural Y(2)MgGa(2) was identified from powder diffraction data.

  3. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  4. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  5. Motion Parameters Determination of the SC and Phobos in the Project Phobos-Grunt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akim, E. L.; Stepanyants, V. A.; Tuchin, A. G.; Shishov, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    The SC "Phobos-Grunt" flight is planned to 2009 in Russia with the purpose to deliver to the Earth the soil samples of the Mars satellite Phobos. The mission will pass under the following scheme [1-4]: the SC flight from the Earth to the Mars, the SC transit on the Mars satellite orbit, the motion round the Mars on the observation orbit and on the quasi-synchronous one [5], landing on Phobos, taking of a ground and start in the direction to the Earth. The implementation of complicated dynamical operations in the Phobos vicinity is foreseen by the project. The SC will be in a disturbance sphere of gravitational fields from the Sun, the Mars and the Phobos. The SC orbit determination is carried out on a totality of trajectory measurements executed from ground tracking stations and measurements of autonomous systems onboard space vehicle relatively the Phobos. As ground measurements the radio engineering measurements of range and range rate are used. There are possible as onboard optical observations of the Phobos by a television system and ranges from the SC up to the Phobos surface by laser locator. As soon as the Phobos orbit accuracy is insufficient for a solution of a problem of landing its orbit determination will be carried out together with determination of the SC orbit. Therefore the algorithms for joint improving of initial conditions of the SC and the Phobos are necessary to determine parameters of the SC relative the Phobos motion within a single dynamical motion model. After putting on the martial satellite orbit, on the Phobos observation orbit, on the quasi-synchronous orbit in the Phobos vicinity the equipment guidance and the following process of the SC orbit determination relatively Phobos requires a priori knowledge of the Phobos orbit parameters with sufficiently high precision. These parameters should be obtained beforehand using both all modern observations and historical ones.

  6. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  7. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements.

  8. Flow cytometry-based methods for assessing soluble scFv activities and detecting pathogen antigens in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung'u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-04-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.

  9. Flow Cytometry-Based Methods for Assessing Soluble scFv Activities and Detecting Antigens in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sean A.; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung'u, Joseph; Büscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao; Baird, Cheryl; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. Alimiting step in the isolation of scFv from non-immune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeast-displayed and -secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of their ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv to identify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind non-overlapping or non-competing epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast-displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries. PMID:19953671

  10. Downregulation of the Musca domestica peptidoglycan recognition protein SC (PGRP-SC) leads to overexpression of antimicrobial peptides and tardy pupation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yifu; Tang, Ting; Gu, Jihai; Sun, Lingling; Gao, Xiaobin; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Xiaochun; Liu, Fengsong; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-10-01

    PGRP (peptidoglycan recognition protein) is a conserved protein family that recognizes the peptidoglycan in bacterial cell wall and causes the activation of various innate immune responses. Previous studies have reported that PGRP-SCs in Drosophila dampen the activation of Immune Deficiency (Imd) pathway to microbial infection, and participate in the lifespan extension of the insects. To facilitate understanding the function of PGRP-SCs from an evolutionary angle, we identified and functionally characterized the PGRP-SC gene in the housefly Musca domestica, a species that has adapted to a septic environment much harsher than the natural habitat of Drosophila. The gene designated as MdPGRP-SC was found most abundantly expressed in the 3rd instar larvae, and is expressed at this developmental stage predominantly in the gut. MdPGRP-SC was virtually unchanged in whole larvae after a septic injury at the second larval instar, while two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), diptericin and attacin, were upregulated in the first 24h but not later. Through dsRNA microinjection, MdPGRP-SC was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), and caused the significant increased expression of diptericin and attacin. The pupation of MdPGRP-SC-depleted larvae was severely suppressed compared to controls. Opposite to the expression trend of MdPGRP-SC, a spontaneous active expression of diptericin and attacin was found in pre-pupae but not in third instar larvae. Taken together, our study reveals that downregulation of MdPGRP-SC leads to the overexpression of the AMPs, and is involved in the larvae-to-pupa transition of housefly.

  11. 76 FR 77727 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Proposed Establishment of Class E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Columbia, SC, and Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pelion, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Columbia, SC by removing Corporate Airport from the airspace designation, and would establish Class...

  12. Differential dynamics of splicing factor SC35 during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Parnaik, Veena K

    2008-09-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing factors are enriched in nuclear domains termed interchromatin granule clusters or nuclear speckles. During mitosis, nuclear speckles are disassembled by metaphase and reassembled in telophase in structures termed mitotic interchromatin granules (MIGs). We analysed the dynamics of the splicing factor SC35 in interphase and mitotic cells. In HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SC35, this was localized in speckles during interphase and dispersed in metaphase. In telophase, GFP-SC35 was highly enriched within telophase nuclei and also detected in MIGs. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that the mobility of GFP-SC35 was distinct in different mitotic compartments. Interestingly, the mobility of GFP-SC35 was 3-fold higher in the cytoplasm of metaphase cells compared with interphase speckles, the nucleoplasm or MIGs. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) caused changes in the organization of nuclear compartments such as nuclear speckles and nucleoli, with corresponding changes in the mobility of GFP-SC35 and GFP-fibrillarin. Our results suggest that the dynamics of SC35 are significantly influenced by the organization of the compartment in which it is localized during the cell cycle.

  13. Study of metal film coating on Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix impregnated cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Taguchi, S.; Aida, T.; Kawase, S.

    Electron emission and surface properties of the Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix impregnated cathode coated with Ir, Os, Pt and Mo are studied. The cathode is composed of porous body of a metal matrix (5 wt% Sc 2O 3 in W) and an impregnant of 4BaO·CaO·Al 23, on which metal films of about 500 nm are evaporated. Sc atoms do not appear on the film surface even after prolonged heating at 1150°C, and the coated cathodes do not show the emission anomaly usually seen for Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix cathodes. The Mo film, however, alloys easily with W in a short heat treatment time and the Sc atoms are distributed nonuniformly over the surface. The Mo coated cathode does show the emission anomaly. A simple coating with Sc film on the ordinary W matrix cathode reveals neither the surface properties nor the emission properties of Sc 2O 3 mixed matrix cathodes.

  14. Final Technical Report – DOE Grant DE-SC0005904

    SciTech Connect

    Dear, Jody

    2013-10-23

    DOE grant DE-SC0005904 was allocated to fund the faculty development, curriculum development and travel to support the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System’s (CSUS) Initiative for Nanotechnology-related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development. DOE grant DE-SC0005072 was also awarded for this program. In 2010, CSUS had identified the establishment of nanotechnology programs and infrastructure as a priority. At that time, the system set the goal of establishing an academic initiative in nanotechnology for the CSUS, beginning with the development of a series of courses at the graduate level. Implementation was planned via a collaborative effort including faculty from all four of the CSUS campuses. The CSUS Nanotechnology Working Group [CSUS NWG] was established to accomplish this goal. A faculty member from the Physics Department at Southern Connecticut State University [SCSU] was assigned the task of organizing and coordinating the work of the CSUS NWG. Representatives from each of the four CSUS campuses were appointed to join the CSUS NWG with the following initial representation: SCSU [Physics and Biology], Western Connecticut State University (WCSU) [Chemistry], Eastern Connecticut State University (ECSU) [Chemistry] and Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) [Chemistry. As a further outcome it was determined that this collaborative effort would lead to the establishment of a formal nanotechnology center, serving as the nucleus of CSUS student and faculty learning and research. This CSUS Nanotechnology Center [CSUS-NC] was to be located at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU). The goal of this grant was to provide funding for curriculum and faculty development necessary to facilitate the development and implementation of a collaborative Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology for the Connecticut State University System. This outcome has been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the Graduate

  15. EngenuitySC Commercialization and Entrepreneurial Training Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Meghan; Hutton, Katherine R

    2012-12-31

    A team led by EngenuitySC has performed education and outreach on development of advanced energy markets that will enable wider use of clean energy technologies. This report details the efforts that have made significant advances to improve the market place through education, outreach, and increased communications between industry members. The project resulted in two self-funded industry clusters known as the Fuel Cell Collaborative and NuHub. This project has focused on building and strengthening the leading clean energy clusters in South Carolina: nuclear energy and fuel cell technologies. For the nuclear industry, a new cluster was developed that is now known as NuHub. This cluster has already engaged over 25 nuclear industry leaders or suppliers, four public sector partners, six community economic development foundations, and nearly ten academic partners in a 175 mile radius between Augusta, Georgia and Charlotte, North Carolina. Our outreach has touched over 2,000 stakeholders through the website alone, not including the public audiences and members of the business community reached through news stories and releases that were distributed to over 620 print and online publications. NuHub has established a formal leadership structure, developed subcommittees to focus on industry issues, instituted educational programs for the workforce, and created an industry funding structure that will sustain the industry cluster and mission. NuHub has participated in a wide-variety of community building and outreach activities since its formation under this grant. In the two years since its creation in 2010, we have initiated efforts focused in four main areas that correlate with the four NuHub subcommittees including: innovation, workforce development, industry engagement, and marketing and communications. NuHub successfully raised over $160,000 in both public and private funding, which has supported work to grow the cluster and engage partners including NuScale, Fluor, and

  16. SC-41930: An inhibitor of leukotriene B4-stimulated human neutrophil functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, B.S.; Villani-Price, D.; Keith, R.H.; Zemaitis, J.M.; Bauer, R.F.; Leonard, R.; Djuric, S.W.; Shone, R.L. )

    1989-12-01

    SC-41930 was evaluated for effects on human neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation. At concentrations up to 100 microM, SC-41930 alone exhibited no effect on neutrophil migration, but dose-dependently inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in a modified Boyden chamber. Concentrations of SC-41930 from 0.3 microM to 3 microM competitively inhibited LTB4-induced chemotaxis with a pA2 value of 6.35. While inactive at 10 microM against C5a-induced chemotaxis, SC-41930 inhibited N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced chemotaxis, with 10 times less potency than against LTB4-induced chemotaxis. SC-41930 inhibited (3H)LTB4 and (3H)fMLP binding to their receptor sites on human neutrophils with KD values of 0.2 microM and 2 microM, respectively. SC-41930 also inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis induced by 20-OH LTB or 12(R)-HETE. At concentrations up to 10 microM, SC-41930 alone did not cause neutrophil degranulation, but inhibited LTB4-induced degranulation in a noncompetitive manner. SC-41930 also inhibited fMLP- or C5a-induced degranulation, but was about 8 and 10 times less effective for fMLP and C5a, respectively. The results indicate that SC-41930 is a human neutrophil LTB4 receptor antagonist with greater specificity for LTB4 than for fMLP or C5a receptors.

  17. Radiolabeling of DOTATOC with the long-lived positron emitter 44Sc.

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Marek; Majkowska-Pilip, Agnieszka; Loktionova, Natalia S; Eppard, Elisabeth; Roesch, Frank

    2012-06-01

    The positron-emitting radionuclide (44)Sc with a half-life of 3.97 h and a β(+) branching of 94.3% is of potential interest for clinical PET. As so far it is available from a (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator in Mainz, where long-lived (44)Ti decays to no-carrier-added (nca) (44)Sc. The (44)Sc is a trivalent metal cation and should be suitable for complexation with many well established bifunctional chelators conjugated to peptides or other molecular targeting vectors. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the potential of (44)Sc for labeling of DOTA-conjugated peptides. DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide (DOTATOC) was used as a model molecule to study and optimize labeling procedure. Reaction parameters such as buffer conditions, concentration of peptide, pH range, reaction temperature and time were optimized. Addition of 21 nmol of DOTATOC to (44)Sc in ammonium acetate buffer pH 4.0 provided labeling yields >98% within 25 min of heating in an oil-bath at 95°C. This time can be reduced to 3 min only by applying microwave supported heating. (44)Sc-DOTATOC was found to be stable in 0.9% NaCl, PBS pH 7.4, fetal calf and human serums, and also in the presence of competing metal cations (Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+)), as well as other ligand competitors, like EDTA and DTPA, even after almost 25 h incubation at 37°C. Present study shows that nca (44)Sc forms stable complexes with the macrocyclic ligand DOTA and that (44)Sc-DOTATOC and analog targeting vectors may be synthesized for further preclinical and clinical investigations.

  18. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 170 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes that were distinct from one another and from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, the scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigen. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support.

  19. Syntheses and structures of Li{sub 3}ScF{sub 6} and high pressure LiScF{sub 4-}, luminescence properties of LiScF{sub 4}, a new phase in the system LiF-ScF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, A.K.; Koehler, J. . E-mail: J.Koehler@fkf.mpg.de; Balog, P.; Weber, J.

    2005-09-15

    Colorless single crystals of Li{sub 3}ScF{sub 6} have been prepared by reacting the binary components LiF and ScF{sub 3} at 820{sup o}C for 16h in argon atmosphere. This complex fluoride is the only stable phase in the system LiF-ScF{sub 3} under ambient pressure. According to a structure refinement based on single crystal X-ray diffraction data it crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P3-bar c1 with a=8.78.3(1)A and c=9.518(1)A. The new structure of Li{sub 3}ScF{sub 6} is a filled variant of the Na{sub 2}GeF{sub 6} type structure and can be described in terms of a hexagonal close packing of fluorine in which 2/3 of the octahedral holes are occupied by Sc and Li. High pressure/high temperature studies of the system LiF-ScF{sub 3} show that the new phase LiScF{sub 4} is formed at around 5.5GPa and 575{sup o}C. According to Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray diffraction data LiScF{sub 4} adopts the Scheelite type structure (space group I4{sub 1}/a) with a=4.980(1)A and c=10.074(1)A. A sample of LiScF{sub 4} doped with 1% Er exhibits an intense luminescence in the far IR region.

  20. Effects of Al3(Sc,Zr) and Shear Band Formation on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongfeng; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Jiang; Wei, Lili; Qu, Jiping; Liu, Lele

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of Al-6Mg-0.25Sc-0.1Zr alloy (wt.%) during annealing were investigated by means of uniaxial tensile testing, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The results show that a large number of micro and grain-scale shear bands form in this alloy after cold rolling. As the tensile-loading force rises, strain softening would generate in shear bands, resulting in the occurrence of shear banding fracture in cold-rolled Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys. Recrystallization takes place preferentially in shear bands during annealing. Due to the formation of coarse-grain bands constructed by new subgrains, recrystallization softening tends to occur in these regions. During low-temperature annealing, recrystallization is inhibited by nano-scale Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates which exert significant coherency strengthening and modulus hardening. However, the strengthening effect of Al3(Sc,Zr) decreases with the increasing of particle diameter at elevated annealing temperature. The mechanical properties of the recrystallized Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy decrease to a minimum level, and the fracture plane exhibits pure ductile fracture characteristics.

  1. On nd bonding in the transition metal trimers: Comparison of Sc3 and Y3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    CASSCF/CCI calculations are presented for the low-lying states of Y3. Comparison of the wave functions for Y3 and Sc3 indicates substantial 4d-5p hybridization in Y3, but little 3d-4p hybridization in Sc3. The increased 4d-5p hybridization leads to stabilization of 4dpi bonding with respect to 4dsigma bonding for equilateral triangle Y3, and also leads to 4d-5p bonding for linear geometries. These effects lead to a different ordering of states for equilateral triangle geometries and a smaller excitation energy to the linear configuration for Y3 as compared to Sc3.

  2. Relationship between solar wind dynamic pressure and amplitude of geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Tohru; Shinbori, Atsuki

    2016-05-01

    The local time variation of geomagnetic sudden commencements (SCs) has not been taken into account in the Siscoe's linear relationship which connects the SC amplitude with the corresponding dynamic pressure variation of the solar wind. By considering the physical background of SC, we studied which local time is best to extract the information of the solar wind dynamic pressure and concluded that the SC amplitude at 4-5 h local time of middle- and low-latitude stations most directly reflects the dynamic pressure effect. This result is used to re-check the order of magnitude of the largest 3 SCs observed since 1868.

  3. The Fifth Annual Sc2.0 and Synthetic Genomes Conference: Synthetic Genomes in High Gear.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roy S K; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-09-16

    The Sc2.0 project is perhaps the largest synthetic biology project in the public domain, and ultimately aims to construct a new version of the humble brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each year, the Sc2.0 consortium gather to discuss progress in this ambitious project and highlight new developments at the forefront of synthetic genome engineering. This viewpoint summarizes some of the key moments of the 2016 conference, including updates on the Sc2.0 project itself, mammalian synthetic biology, DNA assembly automation, HGP-Write and a panel discussion on the social and ethical perspectives of synthetic biology. PMID:27633830

  4. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-21

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 10(3) and 1.07 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 2.19 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m(-1) K(-1) based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m(-1) K(-1). The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m(-1) K(-1) (107 W m(-1) K(-1)). Based on their excellent

  5. Promising electron mobility and high thermal conductivity in Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xian-Hu; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yuhong; Huang, Qing; He, Jian; Francisco, Joseph S; Luo, Kan; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-21

    MXenes, the new 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, have recently attracted extensive attention due to their diverse applications and excellent performances. However, the thermal and electrical properties of most MXene materials are yet to be studied. In this work, we investigate the electrical and thermal properties of semiconducting Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes using first-principles calculations. Both of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes are determined to show excellent carrier mobilities. The electron mobility in the Sc2CF2 MXene is found to be strongly anisotropic at room temperature, with values of 5.03 × 10(3) and 1.07 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The predicted electron mobility in the zigzag direction of the Sc2CF2 is nearly four-fold that in the armchair direction of the promising semiconductor phosphorene. In contrast to Sc2CF2, Sc2C(OH)2 presents approximately isotropic electron mobility. The values at room temperature in the zigzag and armchair directions are calculated as 2.06 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 2.19 × 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In regard to the thermal properties, the thermal conductivities of the Sc2CT2 (T = F, OH) MXenes have been determined. The predicted values are higher than those of most metals and semiconducting low-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2 and phosphorene. In particular, the room-temperature thermal conductivity along the Sc2CF2 armchair direction has been determined to be as high as 472 W m(-1) K(-1) based on a flake length of 5 μm, which is even higher than that of the best traditional conductor silver. The corresponding value in the zigzag direction of Sc2CF2 is calculated to be 178 W m(-1) K(-1). The thermal conductivity in Sc2C(OH)2 is less anisotropic and lower compared to that in Sc2CF2. The room-temperature value in the armchair (zigzag) direction is determined to be 173 W m(-1) K(-1) (107 W m(-1) K(-1)). Based on their excellent

  6. Display and selection of scFv antibodies on HEK-293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mitchell; Pastan, Ira

    2009-01-01

    We describe a human cell display strategy to isolate high affinity single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) specific for CD22 for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Our strategy uses flow cytometry and human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK-293T) cells that are widely used for transient protein expression. Flow cytometry enhances the screen's sensitivity thereby allowing us to isolate high affinity scFvs. Using human cell display one could isolate and engineer scFvs, single domains, Fabs or whole IgGs for increased affinity and other biological functions. PMID:19554290

  7. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements. PMID:26701659

  8. Lanthanide-doped NaScF4 nanoprobes: crystal structure, optical spectroscopy and biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yu; Tu, Datao; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Yongsheng; Kong, Jintao; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-06-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. The biotinylated NaScF4:Er3+/Yb3+ NPs were demonstrated for their applications as a heterogeneous UC luminescence bioprobe to detect avidin with a detection limit of 180 pM. After bioconjugation with amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs also exhibited specific recognition of cancer cells overexpressed with uPA receptor (uPAR, an important marker of tumor biology and metastasis), showing great potentials in tumor-targeted bioimaging.Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+)-doped inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as potential luminescent bioprobes have been attracting tremendous interest because of their unique upconversion (UC) and downconversion (DC) luminescence properties. NaScF4, as an important host material, has been rarely reported and its crystal structure remains unclear. Herein, based on the single crystal X-ray diffraction, the space group of NaScF4 crystals was determined to be P31 containing multiple sites of Sc3+ with crystallographic site symmetry of C1, which was verified by high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Eu3+ at low temperature (10 K). Furthermore, monodisperse and size-controllable NaScF4:Ln3+ NPs were synthesized via a facile thermal

  9. Cape Cod, Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA (42.0N, 70.0W) is a national seashore recreation area with many fine resorts and summer estate homes. Geologically, the cape is a deposit of earth and stone called a terminal moraine, left by the great Pleistocene glaciers of about 20,000 years ago. The through canal at the base of the cape is a manmade feature for waterborne traffic and is part of the Intercoastal Canal network. The cape actually begins south of the canal.

  10. Advanced propulsion activities in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, P. W.

    Advances in propulsion system performance are necessary to meet the projected requirements of future launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, satellites and planetary spacecraft. Ongoing U.S. space propulsion research programs are aggressively pursuing the development of the technology to meet these requirements. This paper reviews advanced propulsion research in the USA. Work accomplished in 1985 and future plans for ongoing research programs are discussed. Theoretical and experimental research programs and system studies of augmented hydrazine, arcjet, magnetoplasma dynamic thruster, ion thruster, metastable chemical, solar thermal, light sail, microwave and laser propulsion, nuclear fission rockets, and fusion and antimatter propulsion systems are addressed.

  11. The stellar content of the nuclear regions of Sc galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnrose, B. E.

    1976-01-01

    Stellar-population syntheses based on absolute spectral energy distributions over the wavelength range from 3300 to 10,400 A are used to determine the stellar content of the nuclear regions of seven nearby Sc galaxies (NGC 628, 1073, 1084, 1637, 2903, 4321, and 5194). A linear-programming procedure is employed to construct models of the overall stellar populations whose spectra closely match those of the seven galaxies. Absolute measurements of the emission-line spectra of the nuclear regions are also provided. It is found that: (1) intrinsic reddening is probably present in each nuclear region; (2) the upper main sequence is substantially populated in most of the models; (3) the lower main sequence contributes insignificantly to the luminosity in all optimal solutions; (4) substantial contributions are made by evolved M stars at long wavelengths in all the models; (5) the model photometric M/L ratios are low, of the order of unity; and (6) the O-B stars arising naturally in the population models are just sufficient to provide the observed nuclear ionization in all the galaxies except NGC 5194, which may be collisionally ionized. The properties of the nuclear regions are shown to be consistent with the existence of a common initial mass function for star formation and a variety of time dependences for the star-formation process. A possibly significant correlation is noted between nuclear stellar content and overall dynamical properties in four of the galaxies.

  12. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... call center services related to customer care and technical support. The Department's Notice was..., Virginia location of StarTek USA, Inc. supplied call center services such as sales and technical support... period, a decline in customer sales, and were impacted by an increase in imports of call center...

  13. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium–Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes—Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80 and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the TiIV/TiIII Redox Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B.; Samoylova, Nataliya A.; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Balch, Alan L.; Popov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc–Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4C2@C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3C2@C80, isomers of Sc2C2@C82, and the family Sc2C2n (2n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3CH@C80. The Sc–Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2TiC@C2n (2n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2TiC2@C2n (2n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80, and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80, were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2TiC@Ih-C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2TiC- and Sc2TiC2-containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster–cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  14. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Timothy C; Ahnesjö, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R; Sharpe, Michael B; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C

    2009-11-01

    The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  15. Low-dimensional ScO2 with tunable electronic and magnetic properties: first-principles studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Wu, Jian; Yin, Wen-Jin; Zhang, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their appealing properties for device applications. In this work, we explored the structure stability, electronic structure and magnetism of low-dimensional scandium dioxides, ScO2, by using the first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate that bulk ScO2, monolayers and nanoribbons (NRs) are thermodynamically stable, implying a high possibility of fabricating ScO2 nanocrystals in experiments. Despite the metallic characteristics of bulk ScO2, low-dimensional ScO2 possesses various electronic behaviors that can be further modulated by crystal structure and dimensionality. The results also show that the ground states of ScO2 monolayers and NRs are ferromagnetic (FM) with about 1 μ B per ScO2 formula. Our studies expand a new realm in low-dimensional TMDs, with tunable electronic and magnetic properties. PMID:26571138

  16. Low-dimensional ScO2 with tunable electronic and magnetic properties: first-principles studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Wu, Jian; Yin, Wen-Jin; Zhang, Yan-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their appealing properties for device applications. In this work, we explored the structure stability, electronic structure and magnetism of low-dimensional scandium dioxides, ScO2, by using the first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate that bulk ScO2, monolayers and nanoribbons (NRs) are thermodynamically stable, implying a high possibility of fabricating ScO2 nanocrystals in experiments. Despite the metallic characteristics of bulk ScO2, low-dimensional ScO2 possesses various electronic behaviors that can be further modulated by crystal structure and dimensionality. The results also show that the ground states of ScO2 monolayers and NRs are ferromagnetic (FM) with about 1 μ B per ScO2 formula. Our studies expand a new realm in low-dimensional TMDs, with tunable electronic and magnetic properties.

  17. Stability of the ternary perovskites Sc3EN (E=B,Al,Ga,In) from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylushkin, A. S.; Höglund, C.; Birch, J.; Czigány, Zs.; Hultman, L.; Simak, S. I.; Alling, B.; Tasnádi, F.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    Mechanical and thermodynamic stability of the isoelectronic ternary inverse perovskites Sc3EN (E=B,Al,Ga,In) has been studied from first principles. We confirm stability of recently synthesized cubic phases Sc3AlN and Sc3InN , and predict the stability of cubic Sc3GaN and a triclinic phase aP20- Sc3BN . Substantial phonon softening in Sc3AlN and Sc3GaN is observed indicating a possibility that structural defects could form readily. In accord, our experiments show that magnetron sputter deposited films contain regions with high density of nonperiodic stacking faults along the ⟨111⟩ growth direction. We suggest that defect-free crystals may exhibit anomalies in the carrier properties, promising for electronic applications.

  18. Magnetic properties of ErSc2N@C80, Er2ScN@C80 and Er3N@C80 fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Archana; Dantelle, Geraldine; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Watt, Andrew A. R.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

    2008-12-01

    The magnetic properties of ErScN@C, ErScN@C and ErN@C metallofullerenes are characterized in the temperature range 2 to 300 K up to a magnetic field of 7 T. The magnetic susceptibility of these fullerenes follows the Curie-Weiss law. The fitting parameters to the Curie-Weiss law provide an effective magnetic moment μ of Er ion in each of the fullerenes. The magnetic moment decreases with the increase in number of Er ions inside the cage. This is related to crystal-field effects, intramolecular interactions and the local quenching of the angular momentum of the ion within the fullerene cage.

  19. Electronic structure of Sc 2AC (A=Al, Ga, In, Tl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Music, Denis; Sun, Zhimei; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2005-02-01

    Using ab initio calculations, we have studied Sc 2AC with A=Al, Ga, In and Tl. We show that C 2p and Sc 3d as well as A p and Sc 3d states are hybridized, but the antibonding states in the vicinity of the Fermi level weaken the overall bonding. In terms of the chemical bonding, the influence of the size of the A element is minute. Furthermore, the bulk modulus of the corresponding binary transition metal carbide is not conserved in these phases. Therefore, Sc 2AC can be classified as weakly coupled MAX phases according to Sun and co-workers [Z. Sun, D. Music, R. Ahuja, S. Li, J.M. Schneider, Phys. Rev. B 70 (2004) 092102]. It is our ambition that these calculations will stimulate experimental research on these compounds.

  20. Thortveitite and associated Sc-bearing minerals from Ravalli County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Birmingham, S.D.; Demartin, F.; Pilati, T.; Gramaccioli, C.M.; Lichte, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    The rare Sc mineral thortveitite, (Sc,Y)2Si2O7, occurs as ??m- to mm-sized crystals in fluorite-bearing granitic pegmatites and the host melagabbro within the Crystal Mountain fluorite deposit, Ravalli County, Montana. Thortveitite is found as colorless and clear to smoky and translucent, subhedral to euhedral prisms up to 3 mm in length in the massive fluroite, as mm-sized anhedra to subhedra in diopside and edenite, and as ??m-sized droplet-like crystals in actinolite. Micrometric textures suggest that some thortveitite exsolved from actinolite, which contains between 1.2 and 2.9 wt.% Sc2O3. The source of the Sc is believed to be magmatic. The physical, optical and crystallographic properties of thortveitite are described. -from Authors

  1. Radioiodination and biodistribution of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 and its scFv fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubaštová, H.; Kleinova, V.; Seifert, D.; Fišer, M.; Kranda, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 and its scFv fragment to specifically bind to the C-end of the class III beta-tubulin makes these preparations useful as potential diagnostics for in vivo determination of neurodegenerative diseases that entail degradation of neuronal cytoskeleton. To examine this hypothesis, TU-20 and its scFv were labelled with 125I and their properties were extensively investigated. TU-20 and its scFv were labelled via chloramine-T with the yield 90 95% and 64 78%, respectively. Their quality control, performed by an ELISA and gel electrophoresis, determined adequate properties for further studies. The in vitro experiment, involving autoradiography and immunohistochemistry of mice’ brain slices, enabled confirmation of preserved immunospecificity of the radiolabelled substances. Finally, the in vivo biodistribution proved differences in elimination of either TU-20, scFv TU-20, or iodide from the mice.

  2. Production of scFv-Conjugated Affinity Silk Powder by Transgenic Silkworm Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsuru; Kojima, Katsura; Sakuma, Chisato; Murakami, Maria; Aratani, Eriko; Takenouchi, Takato; Tamada, Yasushi; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Bombyx mori (silkworm) silk proteins are being utilized as unique biomaterials for medical applications. Chemical modification or post-conjugation of bioactive ligands expand the applicability of silk proteins; however, the processes are elaborate and costly. In this study, we used transgenic silkworm technology to develop single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-conjugated silk fibroin. The cocoons of the transgenic silkworm contain fibroin L-chain linked with scFv as a fusion protein. After dissolving the cocoons in lithium bromide, the silk solution was dialyzed, concentrated, freeze-dried, and crushed into powder. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that the scFv domain retains its specific binding activity to the target molecule after multiple processing steps. These results strongly suggest the promise of scFv-conjugated silk fibroin as an alternative affinity reagent, which can be manufactured using transgenic silkworm technology at lower cost than traditional affinity carriers. PMID:22496833

  3. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy, Michigan. The workers provided office, engineering and sales... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  4. Expression of recombinant human anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Yao, N; Ai, L; Dong, Y Y; Liu, X M; Wang, D Z; Wang, N; Li, X W; Wang, F W; Li, Xk; Li, H Y; Jiang, C

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α scFv-Fc was expressed in TKO mutant Arabidopsis thaliana seeds using plant-specific codons. Immunoblotting using a human IgG1 antibody detected the expression of anti-TNF-α proteins in plants. Results from qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the time of harvest significantly affected the protein yield and quality. Our results indicate that the Phaseolus vulgaris β-phaseolin promoter directed anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc expression in A. thaliana seeds, with a maximum yield obtained at 20-days of development. Although the yield of anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc protein was not very high, accumulation of recombinant proteins in seeds is an attractive and simple method that can be used to purify biologically active anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc. PMID:27420937

  5. Anatomical, physiological and experimental factors affecting the bioavailability of sc administered large biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous route of administration is highly desirable for protein therapeutics. It improves patient compliance and quality of life1,2, while reducing healthcare cost2. Recent evidence also suggests that sc administration of protein therapeutics can increase tolerability to some treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) by administering it subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy SCIG), which will reduce fluctuation in plasma drug concentration3. Furthermore, sc administration may reduce the risk of systemic infections associated with iv infusion1,2. This route, however, has its challenges especially for large multi-domain proteins. Poor bioavailability and poor scalability from preclinical models are often cited. This commentary will discuss barriers to sc absorption as well as physiological and experimental factors that could affect pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered large protein therapeutics in preclinical models. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model is proposed as a potential tool to address the issue of scalability of sc pharmacokinetic from preclinical models to humans PMID:25411114

  6. Hybrid Three-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Thick Composite Architectures in Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, Mark; Quabili, Ashiq; Yen, Chian-Fong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three 3-dimensional (3-D) woven composite materials were examined to determine how yarn tow configurations affect the flexural response of the structure. Woven fabric preforms were manufactured with a Z-fiber architecture in 2-3 in. thicknesses. These preforms contained S-2 Glass (AGY, Aiken, SC, USA), carbon, and Twaron (Teijin Aramid, Arnhem, The Netherlands) yarns in different architectures creating a hybrid material system. Due to the thickness of the material, these samples required a significant span length (30 in.). The results showed a change in the strength and degradation after failure with the addition of carbon layers in tension.

  7. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  8. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.H.; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.; Wurster, S.; Sartory, B.; Hofer, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  9. Estimate of the influence of thermophysical parameter deviations on SC thermal regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yu. V.; Rassamakin, B. M.; Taranova, T. A.; Khoroshylov, V. S.

    The necessity of accurate information on actual values of thermophysical properties for the SC with passive thermal control system is substantiated. On the basis of the telemetry information from the temperature sensors of the AUOS-SM-KF SC, the degradation of black enamel AK-512 is analyzed using inverse-scattering method as well as effective thermal conductivity of honeycomb panel and embedded heat-pipes is evaluated.

  10. SC35 promotes sustainable stress-induced alternative splicing of neuronal acetylcholinesterase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Meshorer, E; Bryk, B; Toiber, D; Cohen, J; Podoly, E; Dori, A; Soreq, H

    2005-11-01

    Long-lasting alternative splicing of neuronal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) pre-mRNA occurs during neuronal development and following stress, altering synaptic properties. To explore the corresponding molecular events, we sought to identify mRNAs encoding for abundant splicing factors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following stress. Here we show elevated levels of the splicing factor SC35 in stressed as compared with naïve mice. In cotransfections of COS-1 and HEK293 cells with an AChE minigene allowing 3' splice variations, SC35 facilitated a shift from the primary AChE-S to the stress-induced AChE-R variant, while ASF/SF2 caused the opposite effect. Transfection with chimeric constructs comprising of SC35 and ASF/SF2 RRM/RS domains identified the SC35 RRM as responsible for AChE mRNA's alternative splicing. In poststress PFC neurons, increased SC35 mRNA and protein levels coincided with selective increase in AChE-R mRNA. In the developing mouse embryo, cortical progenitor cells in the ventricular zone displayed transient SC35 elevation concomitant with dominance of AChE-R over AChE-S mRNA. Finally, transgenic mice overexpressing human AChE-R, but not those overexpressing AChE-S, showed significant elevation in neuronal SC35 levels, suggesting a reciprocal reinforcement process. Together, these findings point to an interactive relationship of SC35 with cholinergic signals in the long-lasting consequences of stress on nervous system plasticity and development.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Haemophilus parasuis Serotype 11 Strain SC1401

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ke; Jin, Jin; Wen, Xintian; He, Lvqin; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis, a normal Gram-negative bacterium, may cause Glässer’s disease and pneumonia in pigs. This study aims to identify the genes related to natural competence of the serotype 11 strain SC1401, which frequently shows competence and high pathogenicity. SC1401 shows many differences from strains without natural competence within the molecular basis. We performed complete genome sequencing together with restriction modification system analysis to lay the foundation for later study. PMID:27445368

  12. Original Research: Use of hydroxyurea and phlebotomy in pediatric patients with hemoglobin SC disease

    PubMed Central

    Summarell, Carly C Ginter

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is an excellent therapeutic agent for the pharmacological induction of HbF in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, all completed clinical trials of hydroxyurea have excluded patients with hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease. HbSC differs significantly in pathophysiology from HbSS, as HbC does not sickle, but instead causes cellular dehydration which potentiates sickling of HbS. Many severely affected HbSC patients have been placed on hydroxyurea on a case by case basis, but there are no large scale prospective data on safety or efficacy of hydroxyurea in this subset of patients with SCD. Here, we report a case series of 14 pediatric patients with HbSC treated to maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with hydroxyurea. Those who failed to show clinical improvement after at least six months at MTD were offered phlebotomy in addition to hydroxyurea. Five out of 11 patients with HbSC who achieved MTD failed to demonstrate clinical improvement on hydroxyurea. Of the four placed on dual hydroxyurea and phlebotomy therapy, all showed at least partial clinical improvement. Percent dense red blood cells (%DRBC) were measured via an ADVIA hematology analyzer. A marked rise in percent dense cells preceded clinical complications in three patients. Dual therapy with hydroxyurea and phlebotomy may be an effective approach to patients with HbSC that do not experience improvement with hydroxyurea alone. Monitoring of %DRBC may predict adverse events and aid in assessing hydroxyurea compliance. Large scale clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea and hydroxyurea with phlebotomy in patients with HbSC disease. PMID:26993671

  13. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  14. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  15. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  16. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  17. 46 CFR 7.60 - Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. 7.60 Section 7.60... Atlantic Coast § 7.60 Cape Fear, NC to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity to Cape Fear to latitude 33°49.5′ N. longitude 78°03.7′ W. (Cape Fear River Entrance Lighted...

  18. New Black Fungus Gnats (Diptera, Sciaridae) of North America Part I. Genus Scatopsciara Edwards, 1927.

    PubMed

    Mohrig, Werner; Kauschke, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In the Nearctic region the genus Scatopsciara includes 37 species. Herein these species are diagnosed, keyed and distribution data provided. Twenty six species are known exclusively from the Nearctic region. Eleven species have a Holarctic distribution. Nineteen species are described as new for science. These are: Scatopsciara abedabunae sp. n. (USA, Canada), Sc. adsilae sp. n. (USA), Sc. alawae sp. n. (USA), Sc. awanatae sp. n. (USA), Sc. awinitae sp. n. (USA, Canada), Sc. catoriae sp. n. (USA), Sc. chenoae sp. n. (USA), Sc. inesae sp. n. (USA), Sc. itumae sp. n. (USA), Sc. miakodae sp. n. (USA), Sc. praealawae sp. n. (USA), Sc. praeawanatae sp. n. (USA), Sc. subawanatae sp. n. (USA), Sc. subdendrotica sp. n. (Canada), Sc. subfratercula sp. n. (Canada), Sc. subgrossa (USA), Sc. subitumae sp. n. (USA), Sc. submiakodae sp. n. (USA) and Sc. tricuspidatula sp. n. (USA).        The following five species are new for North America: Scatopsciara curviforceps Bukowski & Lengersdorf, 1936, Sc. geophila Tuomikoski, 1960, Sc. neglecta Menzel & Mohrig 1998, Sc. subciliata Tuomikoski, 1960 and Sc. ventrospinula Mohrig & Mamaev, 1983. Six species, included in Corynoptera so far were transferred to the genus Scatopsciara. These are Sc. armigera (Vilkamaa & Hippa, 2006), Sc. fratercula (Vilkamaa & Hippa, 2006), Sc. robustior (Vilkamaa & Hippa, 2006), Sc. vagula (Tuomikoski, 1960), Sc. fera (Mohrig & Heller, 1992) (in Heller & Mohrig, 1992) and Sc. nyxa (Mohrig & Menzel, 1992). PMID:27615682

  19. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware

  20. Detergents modify proteinase K resistance of PrP Sc in different transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

    PubMed

    Breyer, Johanna; Wemheuer, Wiebke M; Wrede, Arne; Graham, Catherine; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brenig, Bertram; Richt, Jürgen A; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J

    2012-05-25

    Prion diseases are diagnosed by the detection of their proteinase K-resistant prion protein fragment (PrP(Sc)). Various biochemical protocols use different detergents for the tissue preparation. We found that the resistance of PrP(Sc) against proteinase K may vary strongly with the detergent used. In our study, we investigated the influence of the most commonly used detergents on eight different TSE agents derived from different species and distinct prion disease forms. For a high throughput we used a membrane adsorption assay to detect small amounts of prion aggregates, as well as Western blotting. Tissue lysates were prepared using DOC, SLS, SDS or Triton X-100 in different concentrations and these were digested with various amounts of proteinase K. Detergents are able to enhance or diminish the detectability of PrP(Sc) after proteinase K digestion. Depending on the kind of detergent, its concentration - but also on the host species that developed the TSE and the disease form or prion type - the detectability of PrP(Sc) can be very different. The results obtained here may be helpful during the development or improvement of a PrP(Sc) detection method and they point towards a detergent effect that can be additionally used for decontamination purposes. A plausible explanation for the detergent effects described in this article could be an interaction with the lipids associated with PrP(Sc) that may stabilize the aggregates.

  1. Evolution of magnetoelectric properties of Sc-diluted TbMnO3.

    PubMed

    Cuartero, V; Blasco, J; García, J; Stankiewicz, J; Subías, G; Rodriguez-Velamazán, J A; Ritter, C

    2013-05-15

    The magnetoelectric properties of the TbMn(1-x)Sc(x)O3 series have been studied at low temperatures by means of heat capacity, magnetic measurements and impedance spectroscopy. TbMnO3 exhibits as expected three transitions upon lowering the temperature corresponding to the magnetic ordering of the two sublattices (Mn and Tb) and the ferroelectric transition. Ferroelectricity disappears with Sc dilution for x > 0.1 because the non-collinear magnetic arrangement is destroyed. The dilution of Mn with a non-magnetic ion is also detrimental to the magnetic ordering of both Mn and Tb sublattices. The system evolves to a magnetic glassy state for the intermediate compositions. Formal TbScO3 shows Sc-deficiency and long range magnetic ordering of Tb(3+) moments in the ab-plane brought by the direct interaction between Tb(3+) ions. This ordering is different from the one found in TbMnO3 due to the lack of magnetic coupling between Tb- and Mn-sublattices. A small substitution of Sc by Mn in TbScO3 destroys the Tb ordering giving rise to a magnetic glass behaviour. This effect is ascribed to the partial polarization of Tb sublattice by the paramagnetic Mn which competes with the direct Tb-Tb exchange. PMID:23604245

  2. Antagonistic factors control the unproductive splicing of SC35 terminal intron

    PubMed Central

    Dreumont, Natacha; Hardy, Sara; Behm-Ansmant, Isabelle; Kister, Liliane; Branlant, Christiane; Stévenin, James; Bourgeois, Cyril F.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated in part by variations in the relative concentrations of a variety of factors, including serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins. The SR protein SC35 self-regulates its expression by stimulating unproductive splicing events in the 3′ untranslated region of its own pre-mRNA. Using various minigene constructs containing the terminal retained intron and flanking exons, we identified in the highly conserved last exon a number of exonic splicing enhancer elements responding specifically to SC35, and showed an inverse correlation between affinity of SC35 and enhancer strength. The enhancer region, which is included in a long stem loop, also contains repressor elements, and is recognized by other RNA-binding proteins, notably hnRNP H protein and TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43). Finally, in vitro and in cellulo experiments indicated that hnRNP H and TDP-43 antagonize the binding of SC35 to the terminal exon and specifically repress the use of SC35 terminal 3′ splice site. Our study provides new information about the molecular mechanisms of SC35-mediated splicing activation. It also highlights the existence of a complex network of self- and cross-regulatory mechanisms between splicing regulators, which controls their homeostasis and offers many ways of modulating their concentration in response to the cellular environment. PMID:19965769

  3. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  4. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1‑x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  5. Study on the Photorefractive Properties of Sc, in Co-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaopeng; Xu, Shiwen; Xu, Yuheng; Wang, Rui

    The Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals co-doped with 0.5 mol% Sc2O3 and 0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mol% In2O3 were grown by the Czochralski method. The structure of the crystals was measured by infrared spectra. The mechanism of the shift of OH- absorption peak was investigated. The photo-damage resistance ability of Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals was observed by the straightly observing transmission facula distortion method. The Sc:In:LiNbO3 waveguide substrates were fabricated by the proton exchange technique using benzoic acid as the proton source. The photo-damage thresholds of these y-cut waveguide substrates were measured by the m-line method. The results measured by the two methods above all show that the photo-damage resistance ability of Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals increases two orders of magnitude in comparison with that of pure LiNbO3 crystals. The mechanism of the enhancement of the photo-damage resistance ability of Sc:In:LiNbO3 crystals is discussed by Li-vacancy model.

  6. Refolded scFv Antibody Fragment against Myoglobin Shows Rapid Reaction Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Wan; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myung Kyu; Paek, Se-Hwan; Woo, Eui-Jeon

    2014-01-01

    Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the VH–VL sequence with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10−4 M−1·s−1 and 6.29 × 10−3 s−1, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 107 M−1 (kon/koff), maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor. PMID:25530617

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy control of the structural, optical, and electronic properties of ScN(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Arthur R.; AL-Brithen, Hamad A. H.; Ingram, David C.; Gall, Daniel

    2001-08-15

    Scandium nitride (001) oriented layers have been grown on magnesium oxide (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy using a rf-plasma source and a scandium effusion cell. The Sc/N flux ratio is found to be critical in determining the structural, optical, and electronic properties of the grown epitaxial layers. A distinct transition occurs at the point where the Sc/N flux ratio equals 1, which defines the line between N-rich and Sc-rich growth. Under N-rich conditions, the growth is epitaxial, and the surface morphology is characterized by a densely packed array of square-shaped plateaus and four-faced pyramids with the terraces between steps being atomically smooth. The films are stoichiometric and transparent with a direct optical transition at 2.15 eV. Under Sc-rich conditions, the growth is also epitaxial, but the morphology is dominated by spiral growth mounds. The morphology change is consistent with increased surface diffusion due to a Sc-rich surface. Excess Sc leads to understoichiometric layers with N vacancies which act as donors. The increased carrier density results in an optical reflection edge at 1 eV, absorption below the 2.15 eV band gap, and a drop in electrical resistivity. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Unraveling the Sc(3+) Hydration Geometry: The Strange Case of the Far-Coordinated Water Molecule.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Valentina; D'Angelo, Paola

    2016-07-01

    The hydration structure and dynamics of Sc(3+) in aqueous solution have been investigated using a combined approach based on quantum mechanical (QM) calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. An effective Sc-water two-body potential has been generated from QM calculations and then used in the MD simulation of Sc(3+) in water, and the reliability of the entire procedure has been assessed by comparing the theoretical structural results with the EXAFS experimental data. The outstanding outcome of this work is that the Sc(3+) ion forms a well-defined capped square antiprism (SAP) complex in aqueous solution, where the eight water molecules closest to the ion are located at the vertexes of a SAP polyhedron, while the ninth water molecule occupying the capping position is unusually found at a very long distance from the ion. This far-coordinated water molecule possesses a degree of structure comparable with the other first shell molecules surrounding the ion at much shorter distances, and its presence gave us the unique opportunity to easily identify the geometry of the Sc(3+) coordination polyhedron. Despite very strong ion-water interactions, the Sc(3+) hydration shell is very labile, as the far-coordinated ligand allows first shell water molecules to easily exchange their positions both inside the solvation shell and with the rest of the solvent molecules. PMID:27300102

  9. Past and Future: NSF PAARE at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    We review our progress to date and the path forward under the NSF program 'Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)'. Our project 'A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)' was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort and in August 2014 we received a second award (POCA II) to continue for another three years. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. We present our recent publications which include educational courseware in cosmology, a study of long-period variables using Kepler and spectroscopic variability of peculiar stars. Our graduate student successes include support for two females who have completed their Ph.Ds. in astronomy plus two additional students from underrepresented groups who have received their M.S. degrees in astronomy but are continuing their doctoral work in related fields. At SC State we have graduated 3 physics majors with the astronomy option with five more in the pipeline and review the challenges and obstacles faced along the way. We discuss our strategic plan for POCA II, which is based on lessons learned under POCA and moves us forward to the follow-on period when our efforts will be sustained by other resources.Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  10. State of the art of multicell SC cavities and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel

    2002-08-01

    Superconducting cavity technology has made major progresses in the last decade with the introduction of high purity niobium on an industrial scale and, at the same time, by an improved understanding of the limiting processes in cavity performance, such as multipacting, field emission loading and thermal break-down. Multicell niobium cavities for beta = 1 particle acceleration, e.g. for the TESLA project, are routinely exceeding gradients of Eacc = 20 MV/m after the application of surface preparation techniques such as buffered chemical polishing or electropolishing, high pressure ultrapure water rinsing, UHV heat treatment and clean room assembly. The successes of the technology for beta = 1 accelerators has triggered a whole set of possible future applications for beta < 1 particle acceleration such as spallation neutron sources (SNS, ESS), transmutation of nuclear waste (TRASCO, ASH) or rare isotopes (RIA). The most advanced of these projects is SNS now under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper will review the technical solutions adopted to advance SRF technology and their impact on cavity performance, based on the SNS prototyping efforts. 2K at these high gradients are no longer out of reach. For the accelerator builder the challenge remains to come up with a good and reasonable design, which takes into account the status of the technology and does not over-estimate the achievable cavity performances in a large assembly such as, e.g., a multi-cavity cryo-module. In the following the criteria for multi-cell sc cavity design are reviewed and it is attempted to give a snapshot of the present status of multi-cell cavity performances.

  11. The Properties of Globular Cluster ESO452-SC11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, A. S. M.; Phelps, R. L.; Briley, M. M.; Friel, E. D.

    2005-12-01

    The globular cluster ESO452-SC11 has been observed using Johnson V and Cousin I filters and PSF photometry has been performed. The resulting color-magnitude diagrams were compared to theoretical isochrones to derive the cluster's age, overall chemical composition, and distance modulus. These isochrone models include those published by Girardi et al., Bergbusch & VandenBerg with BVRI color-Teff relations as described by VandenBerg & Clem, and Demarque et al. (known as the Yale isochrones). From the Yale isochrones, it is estimated that the cluster has an age 9-11 Gyr, a metallicity [Fe/H] between -1.4 and -1.0 dex, and a distance modulus (m-M)V =16.10-16.31 mag resulting in a heliocentric distance of 7.3-7.5 kpc. Using the Bergbusch & VandenBerg models, it is estimated that the cluster has an age of 11-13 Gyr, with an iron-to hydrogen ratio between -1.3 and -0.8 dex, a distance modulus (m-M)V =15.87-16.12 mag, and a heliocentric distance between 7.0-7.2 kpc. The Girardi isochrone models yield a derived age of 13-16 Gyr, metallicity between -1.3 and -0.4 dex, distance modulus (m-M)V =15.59-16.19 mag, and heliocentric distance between 6.6-7.1 kpc. The derived parameters from these models are consistent for metallicity [Fe/H] between -1.3 and -1.0 dex, reddening E(V-I) =0.70 - 0.76, and (m-M)V =16.10 - 16.12 mag. A.C. would like to acknowledge the HACU National Internship program for supporting the data analysis portion of this research.

  12. FY2015 Analysis of the Teamwork USA Program. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…

  13. School Psychology Research and Scholarship: USA Status, International Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strein, William; Cramer, Katurah; Lawser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Addresses questions regarding research in school psychology by coding all of the articles published from 1994-1998 in the main USA school psychology journals and in "School Psychology International." Assessment-related topics and research on clinical/personality issues dominated the USA literature, while clinical/personality and professional…

  14. 75 FR 9592 - National Grid USA; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid USA; Notice of Filing February 24, 2010. Take notice that on February 10, 2010, National Grid USA submitted a request for waiver of certain FERC Form No. 1...

  15. Basque Diaspora in the USA and Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasagabaster, David

    2008-01-01

    The Basques first immigrated on a large scale to the USA during the Gold Rush of 1848. After immigrating to the USA, they settled in pockets throughout the West, especially in California, Nevada and Idaho, and it is currently estimated that more than 35,000 Basque-Americans live in these three states. This represents one of the largest…

  16. 77 FR 76006 - Star Networks USA, LLC; Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Star Networks USA, LLC; Complaint AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission ACTION: Publication... of Star Networks USA, LLC.\\1\\ \\1\\ Chairman Inez M. Tenenbaum and Commissioner Robert S. Adler voted..., Secretary. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION In the Matter of STAR NETWORKS...

  17. 76 FR 35715 - Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ..., 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-15443 Filed 6-17-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13577 of June 15, 2011 Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative By the... consistent information, and removing unnecessary obstacles to investment. Sec. 2. SelectUSA Initiative....

  18. Why Does the USA Dominate University League Tables?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei; Shankar, Sriram; Tang, Kam Ki

    2011-01-01

    According to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the world's top 500 universities are located in only 38 countries, with the USA alone having 157 of them. This article investigates the socioeconomic determinants of the wide performance gap between countries, and whether the USA's dominance is largely due to its economic power. A large…

  19. Comparative Review of UK-USA Industry-University Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore significant historical changes, legislation and policy in the UK and USA from the 1960s to present day relating to university-industry relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a review of papers, reports and policy documents from the UK and USA drawing comparisons of…

  20. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF WROUGHT IRON STAIR ON EXTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF WROUGHT IRON STAIR ON EXTERIOR OF NORTH ELEVATION OF 1865 MACHINE SHOP. SAME VIEW AS HAER NO. SC-27-B-2. - Graniteville Mill, Machine Shop, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  1. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF WROUGHT IRON STAIR ON EXTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF WROUGHT IRON STAIR ON EXTERIOR OF NORTH ELEVATION OF 1865 MACHINE SHOP. SAME VIEW AS HAER NO. SC-27-B-4 (CT). - Graniteville Mill, Machine Shop, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  2. LiNbO3-Type Oxide (Tl(1-x)Sc(x))ScO3: High-Pressure Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electronic Properties.

    PubMed

    Belik, Alexei A; Yi, Wei; Kumagai, Yu; Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2016-02-15

    We investigate the synthesis of a thallium scandate, TlScO3, under high-pressure (6-7.7 GPa) and high-temperature (1373-1773 K) conditions. At 6 GPa, a LiNbO3-type phase appears in a narrow temperature range and in mixtures with other phases. At 7.7 GPa and 1673 K, a new LiNbO3-type oxide is found with a composition of (Tl(1-x)Sc(x))ScO3 and x ≈ 0.26 as determined by structural analysis from X-ray powder diffraction data. It crystallizes in space group R3c (No. 161) with lattice parameters of a = 5.50283(7) Å and c = 14.4606(2) Å. It is stable at least up to 800 K at ambient pressure. The point-charge model gives an electric polarization of 60 μC/cm(2). First-principles calculations show that centrosymmetric ilmenite-type and polar LiNbO3-type structures of stoichiometric TlScO3 have almost the same lowest energy, and the next stable structure is a GdFeO3-type perovskite structure. PMID:26840839

  3. The germanides ScTGe (T = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, Au) - Structure and 45Sc solid state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heying, Birgit; Haverkamp, Sandra; Rodewald, Ute Ch; Eckert, Hellmut; Peter, Sebastian C.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The germanides ScTGe (T = Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, Au) were obtained in X-ray pure form by arc-melting of the elements. The structures of the members with T = Co, Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, and Pt were refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The germanides with T = Cu, Ru, Pd, Ag crystallize with the hexagonal ZrNiAl type structure, space group P 6 bar 2m and those with T = Co, Ni, Rh, Ir, Pt adopt the orthorhombic TiNiSi type. ScAuGe is isotypic with NdPtSb. All germanides exhibit single scandium sites. A simple systematization of the structure type according to the valence electron concentration is not possible. The 45Sc solid state NMR parameters (Knight shifts and nuclear electric quadrupole coupling constants) of those members crystallizing in the TiNiSi structure show systematic trends as a function of valence electron concentration number. Furthermore, within each T-group the Knight shift decreases with increasing atomic number; this correlation also includes previously published results on the isotypic silicide family. The 45Sc quadrupolar interaction tensor components are generally well-reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code.

  4. SU-E-T-293: Simplifying Assumption for Determining Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    King, R; Cheung, A; Anderson, R; Thompson, G; Fletcher, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Scp(mlc,jaw) is a two-dimensional function of collimator field size and effective field size. Conventionally, Scp(mlc,jaw) is treated as separable into components Sc(jaw) and Sp(mlc). Scp(mlc=jaw) is measured in phantom and Sc(jaw) is measured in air with Sp=Scp/Sc. Ideally, Sc and Sp would be able to predict measured values of Scp(mlc,jaw) for all combinations of mlc and jaw. However, ideal Sc and Sp functions do not exist and a measured two-dimensional Scp dataset cannot be decomposed into a unique pair of one-dimensional functions.If the output functions Sc(jaw) and Sp(mlc) were equal to each other and thus each equal to Scp(mlc=jaw){sup 0.5}, this condition would lead to a simpler measurement process by eliminating the need for in-air measurements. Without the distorting effect of the buildup-cap, small-field measurement would be limited only by the dimensions of the detector and would thus be improved by this simplification of the output functions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate an assumption that Sc=Sp. Methods: For a 6 MV x-ray beam, Sc and Sp were determined both by the conventional method and as Scp(mlc=jaw){sup 0.5}. Square field benchmark values of Scp(mlc,jaw) were then measured across the range from 2×2 to 29×29. Both Sc and Sp functions were then evaluated as to their ability to predict these measurements. Results: Both methods produced qualitatively similar results with <4% error for all cases and >3% error in 1 case. The conventional method produced 2 cases with >2% error, while the squareroot method produced only 1 such case. Conclusion: Though it would need to be validated for any specific beam to which it might be applied, under the conditions studied, the simplifying assumption that Sc = Sp is justified.

  5. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  6. Living donor liver transplantation in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter T W; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007

  7. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  8. Vibrational structure of endohedral fullerene Sc3N@C78 (D3h'): evidence for a strong coupling between the Sc3N cluster and C78 cage.

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Popov, Alexey; Dunsch, Lothar

    2006-08-11

    The vibrational structure of the endohedral cluster fullerene Sc(3)N@C(78) is studied by FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and DFT-based quantum chemical calculations. Remarkably good agreement between experimental and calculated spectra is achieved and a full assignment of the Sc(3)N-based vibrational modes is given. Significant differences in the vibrational structure of the endohedral cluster fullerene Sc(3)N@C(78) and the empty, charged C(78) (6-): 5 (D(3h)') are rationalized by the strong coupling between the Sc(3)N cluster and the fullerene cage. This coupling has its origin in a significant overlap of the Sc(3)N and C(78) molecular orbitals, and causes atomic-charge and bond-length redistributions compared to the neutral C(78) and the C(78) (6-) anion. An ionic model is not sufficient to describe the electronic, geometric and vibrational structure of the Sc(3)N@C(78) nitride cluster fullerene.

  9. Imaging Mantle Discontinuities Beneath North America Using ScS Reverberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebel, K. A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Courtier, A. M.; Lekic, V.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities are rapid changes in velocity and density over depth that arise from mechanisms such as changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. Seismic imaging of discontinuities complements information provided by seismic tomography and is important for understanding the dynamics and the structure of the mantle. For example, imaging variations in the depth and sharpness of discontinuities can trace underlying variations in temperature and composition in the mantle. We use ScSScS precursors and ScS postcursors (ScS reverberations) to map the depth and sharpness of upper- and mid- mantle discontinuities beneath North America. To observe the reverberations, we collected broadband data recordings of earthquakes with depth > 300 km, source moment magnitude ≥ 5.5, and location < 60 degrees of EarthScope USArray stations. Two primary source regions met our qualifications: earthquakes from the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America, and earthquakes from the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Sea of Okhotsk. Our dataset consists of ~15 deep focus earthquakes that have well defined ScS and ScSScS arrivals. We use array processing to generate vespagrams for detecting the ScS reverberations. Seismic energy falling at the appropriate slowness and travel time for reflections from upper- and mid- mantle discontinuities is migrated to depth. We use the resulting ScS reverberation derived reflectivity profiles to obtain estimates for discontinuity depth and impedance contrast in the regions falling between the source and array. We can use this information to image parts of the mantle under North America. Preliminary results indicate presence of multiple discontinuities in the upper mantle, including the 410 km discontinuity, a complex 660 km discontinuity, and intermittent mid-mantle discontinuities at 800-900 km depth.

  10. SC-46275: a potent and highly selective agonist at the EP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Savage, M A; Moummi, C; Karabatsos, P J; Lanthorn, T H

    1993-12-01

    The agonist properties of SC-46275 have been investigated in EP receptor subtype-specific smooth muscle assays. In the isolated guinea pig vas deferens (GPVD), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), via the EP3 receptor, potently inhibited electrically induced contractions with an EC50 of 5.4 +/- 1.1 nM. Sulprostone and misoprostol were both potent relaxers of the GPVD yielding EC50s of 1.6 +/- 0.4 nM and 4.3 +/- 0.9 nM, respectively, while butaprost (10,000 nM) was inactive. SC-46275 was by far the most potent agonist in the GPVD exhibiting an EC50 of 0.04 +/- 0.02 nM. PGE2, via the EP1 receptor, stimulates contractions in the longitudinal muscle layer of the guinea pig ileum (GPIL) with an EC50 of 74.4 +/- 10.6 nM. SC-46275 was extremely weak in this preparation, generating only 33% of the maximal PGE2 effect at 30,000 nM. The circular muscle layer of guinea pig ileum (GPIC) is responsive to inhibition of electrically stimulated contractions by PGE2 (EC50 = 179.6 +/- 20.8 nM) via the EP2 receptor. SC-46275 (up to 10,000 nM) was completely inactive in this preparation. We conclude from these findings that SC-46275 is a very potent and highly selective EP3 receptor agonist. SC-46275 should prove to be an extremely valuable tool in probing the physiological significance of EP3 receptors. The high potency of SC-46275 at the EP3 receptor may account for its antisecretory and cytoprotective actions, while its lack of activity at the EP1 or EP2 sites may explain its very weak diarrheagenic potential.

  11. Evaluation of the difficulty of crystallization of organic compounds using the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Daiki; Ida, Yasuo; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the case of solvent selection, supersolubility is an index for improving crystallization behavior. However, supersolubility is affected by kinetic factors such as the cooling rate. An index for suitable solvent selection is needed. The supersaturation ratio (S) is one of the operation design indices of controlling crystallization behavior such as supersolubility. The S at 298 K (S298) of the pharmaceutical compounds theophylline, noscapine, clotrimazole, indomethacin, carbamazepine, naproxene and tolbutamide were measured in ethanol using a polythermal method. If the compound had a large lnS298, the cooling rate strongly affected the temperature of the cloud point in the cooling crystallization method. In order to estimate the crystallization behavior without the cooling rate effect, the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc) was proposed. Sc at 298 K (Sc298) was calculated from dissolution/cloud points at 0 K/min extrapolated from that of several heating/cooling rates to remove the kinetic effects on S. The lnSc298 values of theophylline, noscapine and clotrimazole were estimated in acetonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. The lnSc298 value of clotrimazole was the largest in all solvents. The results showed that lnSc298 was a simple index which could be used to evaluate the crystallization behavior resulting from the interaction between the solvent and the compound. In conclusion, the proposed lnSc298 should be useful for comparing the difficulty of crystallization which indicates how we should obtain desired crystals within a certain finite time period for development API in the manufacturing field without considering the effect of the heating/cooling rate.

  12. Human monoclonal ScFv that inhibits cellular entry and metalloprotease activity of tetanus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sookrung, Nitat; Kulkeaw, Kasem; Seesuay, Watee; Kongngoen, Thida; Chongsa-nguan, Manas; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2010-03-01

    Tetanus is a deadly disease of warm blooded animals and humans caused by an exotoxin called tetanospasmin or tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by anaerobic bacterium named Clostridium tetani TeNT is an A-B toxin; each molecule consists of a heavy chain (HC) containing cellular receptor binding domain and a light chain (LC) with zinc metalloprotease activity. TeNT produced in the infected tissue by the bacteria grown under anaerobic condition binds to ganglioside receptors of peripheral nerve, and endocytosed. The A subunit exits from the endosome and undergoes a retrograde transport via the nerve axon to the spinal cord. This highly toxic enzyme specifically cleaves one of the nerve cell SNARE proteins, i.e., synaptobrevin, resulting in inhibition of the release of neurotransmitters (glycine and GABA) from inhibitory interneuron causing spastic paralysis, the characteristic of tetanus. Current treatment mainstay of human tetanus is by passively administering anti-tetanus toxin produced from animals immunized with adjuvanted tetanus toxoid (TT). There are several obstacles in production and use of the animal derived therapeutic antibody especially the allergic reaction and serum sickness induced by the host immune response to the foreign protein. The animal antibody, mainly IgG, blocks nerve cell entry of the TeNT but does not neutralize the TeNT protease activity per se and cannot reverse the tetanus symptoms. In this study, fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) were produced from a human antibody phage display library. TT was used as antigen in a single round phage bio-panning to select phage clones that display TT bound-HuScFv from the library. HuScFv from 4 selected huscfv-phagemid transformed E. coli clones inhibited binding of the native TeNT to retinoic acid pulsed human neuroblastoma cells when used at the molecular TeNT:HuScFv ratio of 1:100. HuScFv from one of the 4 clones also inhibited the TeNT mediated cleavage of recombinant

  13. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones.

  14. Wound-healing effect of micronized sacchachitin (mSC) nanogel on corneal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ray-Neng; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Ling-Chun; Ho, Hsiu-O; Lui, Shiao-Chuan; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Su, Ching-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The extraction residue of the Ganoderma fruiting body, named sacchachitin, has been demonstrated to have the potential to enhance cutaneous wound healing by inducing cell proliferation. In this study, a nanogel formed from micronized sacchachitin (mSC) was investigated for the potential treatment of superficial chemical corneal burns. Reportedly, mSC has been produced successfully and its chemical properties confirmed, and physical and rheological properties characterized. An in vitro cell proliferation study has revealed that at the concentrations of 200, 300, and 400 μg/mL, mSC nanogel significantly increased Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) cell proliferation after 24 hours of incubation. In cell migration assay, migration of SIRC cell to wound closure was observed after 24 hours of incubation with the addition of 200 μg/mL mSC of nanogel. In an animal study, acceleration of corneal wound healing was probably due to the inhibition of proteolysis. In conclusion, the findings of this study substantiate the potential application of sacchachitin in the form of mSC nanogel for the treatment of superficial corneal injuries. PMID:22956870

  15. Thermal conductivity of (Zr,W)N/ScN metal/semiconductor multilayers and superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rawat, Vijay; Sands, Timothy D.; Koh, Yee Kan; Cahill, David G.

    2009-01-15

    The cross-plane thermal conductivities of metal/semiconductor multilayers and epitaxial superlattices have been measured as a function of period by time-domain thermoreflectance at room temperature. (001)-oriented ZrN (metal)/ScN (semiconductor) multilayers and (Zr,W)N/ScN epitaxial superlattices with the rocksalt crystal structure were grown on (001)MgO substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. A distinct minimum in thermal conductivity at a period of {approx}6 nm is observed for ZrN/ScN multilayers. The minimum thermal conductivity of 5.25 W/m K is a factor of {approx}2.7 smaller than the mean of the thermal conductivities (including only the lattice contributions) of the values measured for films of the constituent materials, and approximately equal to the lattice component of the thermal conductivity of a Zr{sub 0.65}Sc{sub 0.35}N alloy film ({approx}5 W/m K). Alloying the ZrN layers with WN{sub x} reduces the lattice mismatch, yielding epitaxial (Zr,W)N/ScN superlattices. The addition of WN{sub x} also reduces the thermal conductivity to {approx}2 W/m K, a value that is sufficiently low to suggest promise for these materials as solid-state thermionic generators.

  16. Hardness and microstructural variation of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Sumiha; Strodahs, Ansis; Saghi, Zineb; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Burdet, Pierre; Hata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Midgley, Paul A; Kaneko, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Variations of Vickers hardness were observed in Al-Mg-Mn alloy and Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy at different ageing times, ranging from a peak value of 81.2 HV at 54 ks down to 67.4 HV at 360 ks, below the initial hardness value, 71.8 HV at 0 ks for the case of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy. Microstructures of samples at each ageing stage were examined carefully by transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions. The presence of different types, densities, and sizes of particles were observed dispersed spherical Al3Sc1-xZrx and also block-shaped Al3Sc precipitates growing along <100>Al with facets {100} and {110} of the precipitates. TEM analysis both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions, performed on various samples, confirmed the direct correlation between the hardness and the density of Al3Sc.

  17. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yuichi; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01 ± 0.10) up to 40 μm in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06 eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 1018-1020 cm-3, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284 cm2 V-1 s-1 at n = 3.7 × 1018 cm-3.

  18. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients. PMID:27485695

  19. Spinal Cord Infarction in Hemoglobin SC Disease as an Amusement Park Accident.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ryan; Raj, Ashok; Farber, Darren; Puri, Vinay; Bertolone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster. Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is an increasingly recognized cause of SCI after events that put strain on the axial skeleton, such as many amusement park rides. Although radiologic criteria for FCE have been proposed, FCE remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of SCI in a patient with HbSC and the first case of FCE after an amusement park accident. This case report highlights that HbSC may confound the differential diagnosis of SCI and aims to document an association with FCE in pediatric patients.

  20. Hardness and microstructural variation of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Ikeshita, Sumiha; Strodahs, Ansis; Saghi, Zineb; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Burdet, Pierre; Hata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Midgley, Paul A; Kaneko, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Variations of Vickers hardness were observed in Al-Mg-Mn alloy and Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy at different ageing times, ranging from a peak value of 81.2 HV at 54 ks down to 67.4 HV at 360 ks, below the initial hardness value, 71.8 HV at 0 ks for the case of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy. Microstructures of samples at each ageing stage were examined carefully by transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions. The presence of different types, densities, and sizes of particles were observed dispersed spherical Al3Sc1-xZrx and also block-shaped Al3Sc precipitates growing along <100>Al with facets {100} and {110} of the precipitates. TEM analysis both in two-dimensions and three-dimensions, performed on various samples, confirmed the direct correlation between the hardness and the density of Al3Sc. PMID:26748212

  1. Multi-channeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) based microfluidic device for explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Davis, Jasmine; Adams, André A; Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2015-11-01

    The development of explosives detection technologies has increased significantly over the years as environmental and national security agencies implement tighter pollution control measures and methods for improving homeland security. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), known primarily as a component in munitions, has been targeted for both its toxicity and carcinogenic properties that if present at high concentrations can be a detriment to both humans, marine and plant ecosystems. Enabling end users with environmental detection and monitoring systems capable of providing real-time, qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of these toxic compounds would be extremely beneficial. Reported herein is the development of a multi-channeled microfluidic device immobilized with single chain fragment variable (scFv) recombinant proteins specific for the explosive, TNT. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays performed under constant flow demonstrated trace level sensitivity and specificity for TNT. The utility of three multi-channeled devices immobilized with either (1) scFv recombinant protein, (2) biotinylated-scFv (bt-scFv) and (3) monoclonal anti-TNT (whole IgG molecule) were investigated and compared. Fluorescence dose response curves, crossreactivity measurements and limits of detection (LOD) for TNT were determined. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays for TNT in natural seawater demonstrated detection limits at sub-parts-per-billion levels (0.5 ppb) utilizing the microfluidic device with immobilized bt-scFv. PMID:26452845

  2. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafari, M. E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu; Gleiter, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Itou, M.; Peng, G.; Fang, Y. N.; Feng, T.; Hahn, H.; Kamali, S. E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu

    2015-09-28

    An amorphous alloy Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co.

  3. Multi-channeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) based microfluidic device for explosives detection.

    PubMed

    Charles, Paul T; Davis, Jasmine; Adams, André A; Anderson, George P; Liu, Jinny L; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W

    2015-11-01

    The development of explosives detection technologies has increased significantly over the years as environmental and national security agencies implement tighter pollution control measures and methods for improving homeland security. 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), known primarily as a component in munitions, has been targeted for both its toxicity and carcinogenic properties that if present at high concentrations can be a detriment to both humans, marine and plant ecosystems. Enabling end users with environmental detection and monitoring systems capable of providing real-time, qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of these toxic compounds would be extremely beneficial. Reported herein is the development of a multi-channeled microfluidic device immobilized with single chain fragment variable (scFv) recombinant proteins specific for the explosive, TNT. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays performed under constant flow demonstrated trace level sensitivity and specificity for TNT. The utility of three multi-channeled devices immobilized with either (1) scFv recombinant protein, (2) biotinylated-scFv (bt-scFv) and (3) monoclonal anti-TNT (whole IgG molecule) were investigated and compared. Fluorescence dose response curves, crossreactivity measurements and limits of detection (LOD) for TNT were determined. Fluorescence displacement immunoassays for TNT in natural seawater demonstrated detection limits at sub-parts-per-billion levels (0.5 ppb) utilizing the microfluidic device with immobilized bt-scFv.

  4. Isolation of anti-T cell receptor scFv mutants by yeast surface display.

    PubMed

    Kieke, M C; Cho, B K; Boder, E T; Kranz, D M; Wittrup, K D

    1997-11-01

    Yeast surface display and sorting by flow cytometry have been used to isolate mutants of an scFv that is specific for the Vbeta8 region of the T cell receptor. Selection was based on equilibrium binding by two fluorescently labeled probes, a soluble Vbeta8 domain and an antibody to the c-myc epitope tag present at the carboxy-terminus of the scFv. The mutants that were selected in this screen included a scFv with threefold increased affinity for the Vbeta8 and scFv clones that were bound with reduced affinities by the anti-c-myc antibody. The latter finding indicates that the yeast display system may be used to map conformational epitopes, which cannot be revealed by standard peptide screens. Equilibrium antigen binding constants were estimated within the surface display format, allowing screening of isolated mutants without necessitating subcloning and soluble expression. Only a relatively small library of yeast cells (3 x 10[5]) displaying randomly mutagenized scFv was screened to identify these mutants, indicating that this system will provide a powerful tool for engineering the binding properties of eucaryotic secreted and cell surface proteins.

  5. Density functional study of CO adsorption on Sc(n) (n=2-13) clusters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangfen; Wang, Jinlan; Lu, Yiming; Yang, Mingli

    2008-06-14

    The adsorption properties of a single CO molecule on Sc(n) (n=2-13) clusters are studied by means of a density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation. Two adsorption patterns are identified. Pattern a (n=3, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 12), CO binds to hollow site while Pattern b (n=5, 7, 9, 10, and 13), CO binds to bridge site accompanied by significantly lengthening of the Sc-Sc bond. The adsorption energy exhibits clear size-dependent variation and odd-even oscillation for n<10 and reach the peak at n=5, 7, and 9, implying their high chemical reactivity. Similar variations are noted in C-O bond length, vibrational frequency, and charge transferred between CO and the clusters. This can be understood in light of the adsorption pattern, the atomic motif, and the relative stability of the bare Sc clusters. Compared with the free Sc clusters, the magnetic nature remains upon adsorption except n=2, 4, 12, and 13. Particularly, the moments of n=13 reduce significantly from 19 to 5 micro(B), implying the adsorption plays an attenuation influence on the magnetism of the cluster.

  6. North American Society for the Study of Obesity--annual meeting. Emerging perspectives on obesity. 14-18 November 1999, Charleston, SC, USA.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, J C

    2000-02-01

    This meeting focused on the latest research and clinical developments in the field of obesity. Record high attendance emphasized the recognition of obesity as an emerging and exciting area of study, both from the basic science aspects as well as from a clinical standpoint. While presentations at the meeting emphasized the importance of retaining our current public health message of low-fat diets and exercise for obesity prevention and management, several novel approaches (both behavioral and pharmaceutical) were also presented. In animal models, the presentation of data on a novel obesity-related gene, beacon, was one of the highlights.

  7. Simulating Mercury And Methyl Mercury Stream Concentrations At Multiple Scales in a Wetland Influenced Coastal Plain Watershed (McTier Creek, SC, USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of Mechanistic Models to?Improve Understanding: Differential, mass balance, process-based Spatial and temporal resolution Necessary simplifications of system complexity Combing field monitoring and modeling efforts Balance between capturing complexity and maintaining...

  8. Public policies and the problematic USA population health profile.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2007-11-01

    International interest in the social determinants of health and their public policy antecedents is increasing. Despite evidence that the USA presents one of the worst population health profiles and public policy environments in support of health among wealthy developed nations - a result of systemic inequities in income, influence, and power - the USA public health gaze is firmly - and narrowly - focused on issues of access to health care, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare, and individual behavioral risk factors. Reasons for the USA's neglect of structural and public policy issues are explored and Ten Tips for American Public Health Researchers and Workers are presented.

  9. SC-228 Inclusion of DAA Warning Alert for TCAS Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This white paper summarizes NASA research results that have informed Special Committee 228 (SC-228) discussions and decisions regarding the inclusion of a warning-level alert within the detect and avoid (DAA) alerting structure for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). For UAS, the removal of the pilot from onboard the aircraft has eliminated the ability of the ground-based pilot in command (PIC) to use out-the-window visual information to make judgments about a potential threat of a loss of well clear with another aircraft. As a result, the DAA traffic display will be the primary source of information that the PIC can use to execute the three primary well clear functions: 1) detect a potential loss of well clear, 2) determine a resolution maneuver, and 3) upload that maneuver to the aircraft via the ground control station (GCS). In addition, pilots are required to coordinate with air traffic control (ATC) prior to maneuvering off of their approved flight plan. In determining an appropriate resolution maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear, the PIC must decide both when and how to maneuver, and both the timeliness and the accuracy (i.e., correctness) of the maneuver are critical to reducing the likelihood and/or severity of a loss of well clear. Alerting information is one of three critical components of the DAA display, along with traffic information elements (e.g., relative heading, speed and altitude) and maneuver guidance. Alerting information and maneuver guidance, in particular, have been found to have a significant impact, both statistically and practically, on pilots' ability to avoid and minimize the severity of losses of well clear While all three display components are key to pilots performing the traffic avoidance task of remaining well clear, in general, alerting information provides crucial information about when a resolution maneuver is required while maneuver guidance assists the pilot in determining how best to maneuver. A fundamental task of the DAA

  10. beta decay and isomeric properties of neutron-rich Ca and Sc isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, H. L.; Mantica, P. F.; Berryman, J. S.; Stoker, J. B.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kay, B. P.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Broda, R.; Cieplicka, N.; Fornal, B.; Grinyer, G. F.; Minamisono, K.; Hoteling, N.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.

    2010-07-15

    The isomeric and beta-decay properties of neutron-rich {sup 53-57}Sc and {sup 53,54}Ca nuclei near neutron number N=32 are reported, and the low-energy level schemes of {sup 53,54,56}Sc and {sup 53-57}Ti are presented. The low-energy level structures of the {sub 21}Sc isotopes are discussed in terms of the coupling of the valence 1f{sub 7/2} proton to states in the corresponding {sub 20}Ca cores. Implications with respect to the robustness of the N=32 subshell closure are discussed, as well as the repercussions for a possible N=34 subshell closure.

  11. High-temperature deformation and microstructural analysis for Si3N4-Sc2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheong, Deock-Soo; Sanders, William A.

    1990-01-01

    It was indicated that Si3N4 doped with Sc2O3 may exhibit high temperature mechanical properties superior to Si3N4 systems with various other oxide sintered additives. High temperature deformation of samples was studied by characterizing the microstructures before and after deformation. It was found that elements of the additive, such as Sc and O, exist in small amounts at very thin grain boundary layers and most of them stay in secondary phases at triple and multiple grain boundary junctions. These secondary phases are devitrified as crystalline Sc2Si2O7. Deformation of the samples was dominated by cavitational processes rather than movements of dislocations. Thus the excellent deformation resistance of the samples at high temperature can be attributed to the very small thickness of the grain boundary layers and the crystalline secondary phase.

  12. Bandgap in Al{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Ruopeng; Evans, Sarah R.; Gall, Daniel

    2013-03-18

    Aluminum scandium nitride (Al{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}N) layers deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering on sapphire 0001 substrates at 850 Degree-Sign C are epitaxial single-crystals for x {<=} 0.20. Their in-plane lattice constant increases linearly (3.111 + 0.744x A) while the out-of-plane constant remains at 4.989 {+-} 0.005 A. Optical absorption indicates a band gap of 6.15-9.32x eV and a linearly increasing density of defect states within the gap. The average bond angle decreases linearly with x, suggesting a trend towards the metastable hexagonal-ScN structure. However, an anomalous decrease at x = 0.20 indicates a structural instability which ultimately leads to phase separated rock-salt ScN grains for x > 0.4.

  13. Electronic structure of cubic ScF3 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, D.; Žguns, P.; Piskunov, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Purans, J.

    2016-07-01

    The ground state properties of cubic scandium trifluoride (ScF3) perovskite were studied using first-principles calculations. The electronic structure of ScF3 was determined by linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) and plane wave projector augmented-wave (PAW) methods using modified hybrid exchange-correlation functionals within the density functional theory (DFT). The comprehensive comparison of the results obtained by two methods is presented. Both methods allowed us to reproduce the lattice constant found experimentally in ScF3 at low temperatures and to predict its electronic structure in good agreement with known experimental valence-band photoelectron and F 1s x-ray absorption spectra.

  14. The OGLE-II event sc5_2859: a classical nova outburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, C.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gould, A.; Smith, M. C.; Wagner, R. M.; Albert, J. N.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, É.; Bareyre, P.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Blanc, G.; Charlot, X.; Coutures, C.; Ferlet, R.; Fouqué, P.; Goldman, B.; Graff, D.; Gros, M.; Haissinski, J.; Hamadache, C.; de Kat, J.; Leguillou, L.; Lesquoy, É.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Marquette, J. B.; Maurice, É.; Maury, A.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau, O.; Prévot, L.; Rahal, Y. R.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tisserand, P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux, L.; Zylberajch, S.

    2006-04-01

    Context: .The OGLE-II event sc5_2859 was previously identified as the third longest microlensing event ever observed. Aims: .Additional photometric observations from the EROS (Expérience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) survey and spectroscopic observations of the candidate star are used to test the microlensing hypothesis. Methods: .The combined OGLE and EROS data provide a high quality coverage of the light curve. The colour of the sc5_2859 event is seen to change with time. A spectrum taken in 2003 exhibits a strong Hα emission line. Results: .The additionnal data show that the OGLE-II sc5_2859 event is actually a classical nova outburst.

  15. Microstructural evolution in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys during short-time homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; He, Chun-nian; Li, Gen; Meng, Xin; Shi, Chun-sheng; Zhao, Nai-qin

    2015-05-01

    Microstructural evolution in a new kind of aluminum (Al) alloy with the chemical composition of Al-8.82Zn-2.08Mg-0.80Cu-0.31Sc-0.3Zr was investigated. It is found that the secondary phase MgZn2 is completely dissolved into the matrix during a short homogenization treatment (470°C, 1 h), while the primary phase Al3(Sc,Zr) remains stable. This is due to Sc and Zr additions into the Al alloy, high Zn/Mg mass ratio, and low Cu content. The experimental findings fit well with the results calculated by the homogenization diffusion kinetics equation. The alloy shows an excellent mechanical performance after the short homogenization process followed by hot-extrusion and T6 treatment. Consequently, a good combination of low energy consumption and favorable mechanical properties is obtained.

  16. Sc3CH@C80: selective (13)C enrichment of the central carbon atom.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Rosenkranz, Marco; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-05-01

    Sc3CH@C80 is synthesized and characterized by (1)H, (13)C, and (45)Sc NMR. A large negative chemical shift of the proton, -11.73 ppm in the Ih and -8.79 ppm in the D5h C80 cage isomers, is found. (13)C satellites in the (1)H NMR spectrum enabled indirect determination of the (13)C chemical shift for the central carbon at 173 ± 1 ppm. Intensity of the satellites allowed determination of the (13)C content for the central carbon atom. This unique possibility is applied to analyze the cluster/cage (13)C distribution in mechanistic studies employing either (13)CH4 or (13)C powder to enrich Sc3CH@C80 with (13)C. PMID:27109443

  17. Pressure Induced Structural Phase Transition of ScC and YC: A FP-LAPW Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Pooja; Pagare, G.; Chouhan, S. S.; Sanyal, S. P.; Rajagopalan, M.

    2011-07-01

    The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method has been used to investigate systematically the structural and electronic properties of non-magnetic NaCl-type ScC and YC. We predict a B1 to B2 structural phase transition at 127.8 and 80.4 GPa for ScC and YC, respectively and the structural parameters such as lattice constant, bulk modulus are reported. The band structures and density of states at ambient as well as at high pressure are computed. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the structural phase transition of ScC and YC, for which no experimental work has been reported so far.

  18. Sc3CH@C80: selective 13C enrichment of the central carbon atom†

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Katrin; Rosenkranz, Marco; Popov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Sc3CH@C80 is synthesized and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 45Sc NMR. A large negative chemical shift of the proton, −11.73 ppm in the Ih and −8.79 ppm in the D5h C80 cage isomers, is found. 13C satellites in the 1H NMR spectrum enabled indirect determination of the 13C chemical shift for the central carbon at 173 ± 1 ppm. Intensity of the satellites allowed determination of the 13C content for the central carbon atom. This unique possibility is applied to analyze the cluster/cage 13C distribution in mechanistic studies employing either 13CH4 or 13C powder to enrich Sc3CH@C80 with 13C. PMID:27109443

  19. Dislocation Core Structure and Peierls Stress of B2-Based AlSc in {110} Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. R.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhang, T.; Tian, Y. X.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhu, H. Z.

    2016-10-01

    The core structure and Peierls stress of <100>, <110>, and <111> dislocations in {110} plane of B2-based AlSc (B2-AlSc) have been investigated using improved dislocation equations combined with the generalized stacking fault (GSF) energy. The truncated approximation method is utilized to construct the dissociated and undissociated dislocations in AlSc, then the effects of dislocation angles on the elastic strain energy and misfit energy are presented. Specifically, with increasing dislocation angle, the misfit energy, elastic strain energy, and total energy, and their corresponding stresses, decrease on the <100>{110} and <110>{110} slip systems. However, for <111>{110} dislocation, all energies and corresponding stresses exhibit the relationship 0° > 54.7° > 35.3° > 90°. The misfit energy is always smaller than the elastic strain energy, even by one or two orders of magnitude, and their phases are always opposite.

  20. Biodistribution of the Radiolabeled Anti III {beta}-Tubulin scFv Fragment in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinova, Veronika; Svecova, H.; Chaloupkova, H.; Kranda, K.; Fiser, M.

    2007-11-26

    For studies of new potential radiopharmaceutical such as radiolabeled compound, the biodistribution exoeriments are essential to describe behavior of the substance in organism. The specific binding of the scFv fragment of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 to the C-end of the class III {beta}-tubulin makes this substance useful as a potential diagnostics for in vivo neurodegenerative diseases determination. To examine this hypothesis, scFv was radio-labeled with {sup 125}I and {sup 123}I, and its biochemical properties were studied. The in vivo bio-distribution confirmed the expected elimination behavior of the radio-labeled scFv TU-20 in mice. The bi-exponential model for two-phase clearance to determine short phase half-life t{sub 1/2{alpha}} and long phase half-life t{sub 1/2{beta}} values was used to evaluate the experimental data.

  1. Electronic shell structures of Russian-doll-style Sc 4C 2@C 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhifan; Kah, Cherno B.; Wang, Xiao-Qian

    2011-04-01

    We have studied the electronic properties of a 'Russian-doll'-style endohedral fullerene Sc 4C 2@C 80 based on first-principles density-functional calculations coupled with many-body GW correction. Our calculation results yield a GW rectified gap of 1.8 eV for the 'Russian doll' structured Sc 4C 2@C 80, in very good conformity with experimental observed value of 1.6 eV. The calculated electronic characteristics of the Russian-doll fullerene reveal distinct shell structures, which are embellished in the GW approach. The analysis of vibrational frequency demonstrates profound hybridizations associated with the interactions between the Sc 4C 2 core and C 80 shell.

  2. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida (USA).

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Walter F; Rice, Clifford P; Schaffer, Bruce

    2014-01-15

    The atmosphere is an important transport route for semi-volatile pesticides like endosulfan. Deposition, which depends on physical-chemical properties, use patterns, and climatic conditions, can occur at local, regional, and global scales. Adverse human and ecological impact may result. We measured endosulfan wet deposition in precipitation over a 4-year period within an area of high agricultural use in Southern Florida (USA) and in nearby Biscayne and Everglades National Parks. Endosulfan's two isomers and degradate, endosulfan sulfate, were detected at high frequency with the order of detection and concentration being β-endosulfan>α-endosulfan>endosulfan sulfate. Within the agricultural area, detection frequency (55 to 98%) mean concentrations (5 to 87 ng L(-1)) and total daily deposition (200 ng m(-2) day(-1)) exceeded values at other sites by 5 to 30-fold. Strong seasonal trends were also observed with values at all monitored sites significantly higher during peak endosulfan use periods when vegetable crops were produced. Relatively high deposition in the crop production area and observations that concentrations exceeded aquatic life toxicity thresholds at all sites indicated that endosulfan volatilization and wet deposition are of ecotoxicological concern to the region. This study emphasizes the need to include localized volatilization and deposition of endosulfan and other semi-volatile pesticides in risk assessments in Southern Florida and other areas with similar climatic and crop production profiles.

  3. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, J.P.; Pool, D.R.; Konieczki, A.D.; Carpenter, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000 m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6 m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2 m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods.

  4. Southwestern USA Drought over Multiple Millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzer, M. W.; Kipfmueller, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Severe to extreme drought conditions currently exist across much of the American West. There is increasing concern that climate change may be worsening droughts in the West and particularly the Southwest. Thus, it is important to understand the role of natural variability and to place current conditions in a long-term context. We present a tree-ring derived reconstruction of regional-scale precipitation for the Southwestern USA over several millennia. A network of 48 tree-ring chronologies from California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado was used. All of the chronologies are at least 1,000 years long. The network was subjected to data reduction through PCA and a "nested" multiple linear regression reconstruction approach. The regression model was able to capture 72% of the variance in September-August precipitation over the last 1,000 years and 53% of the variance over the first millennium of the Common Era. Variance captured and spatial coverage further declined back in time as the shorter chronologies dropped out of the model, eventually reaching 24% of variance captured at 3250 BC. Results show regional droughts on decadal- to multi-decadal scales have been prominent and persistent phenomena in the region over the last several millennia. Anthropogenic warming is likely to exacerbate the effects of future droughts on human and other biotic populations.

  5. Expression of sclerostin scFv and the effect of sclerostin scFv on healing of osteoporotic femur fracture in rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Ni, Jie; Hou, Yu; Ding, Lixiang; Zhang, Licheng; Jiang, Hua

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease characterized by low bone mass with deterioration of the bony microstructure which leads to both bone brittleness and increased risk of fracture. Sclerostin is a protein encoded by the SOST gene which is specifically expressed in osteocyte. Monoclonal antibodies of sclerostin can promote bone formation by antagonizing its inhibitory action. However, the effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies to exert such effects are limited by the large molecular mass and high immunogenicity. Here, we report that we purified a high immune affinity, single-chain antibody of SOST: SOST-single-chain Fv (scFv). Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of the variable regions of the heavy- and light-chain gene from a secretory anti-SOST antibody was performed. Animal experiments showed that SOST-scFv promoted bone healing in a rat model of osteoporosis.

  6. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Bivas; Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F.; Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens; Sands, Timothy D.

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  7. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  8. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks. PMID:18328644

  9. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA.

    PubMed

    Van De Griend, Philip; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Alvis, Bret; DeMartino, Mary; Heilmann, Kristopher; Doern, Gary; Winokur, Patricia; Vonstein, Diana DeSalvo; Diekema, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    We performed antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing on invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates (n = 1,666) submitted to the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory during 1999-2006 as part of a statewide surveillance system. All USA300 and USA400 isolates were resistant to USA300 or USA400 increased significantly from 1999-2005 through 2006 (p<0.0001). During 2006, the incidence of invasive community-associated (CA)-MRSA infections was highest in the summer (p = 0.0004). Age <69 years was associated with an increased risk for invasive CA-MRSA infection (odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.06-12.64), and hospital exposure was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.51). PMID:19861049

  10. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  11. Applications of Monitored Natural Attenuation in the USA (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is widely applied in the USA to control the risk associated with ground water contamination from chlorinated solvents such a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). MNA relies on the natural processes of degradation, sorption an...

  12. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks.

  13. Conversion of scFv peptide-binding specificity for crystal chaperone development

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Jennifer C.; Culver, Jeffrey A.; Drury, Jason E.; Motani, Rakesh S.; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2012-02-07

    In spite of advances in protein expression and purification over the last decade, many proteins remain recalcitrant to structure determination by X-ray crystallography. One emerging tactic to obtain high-quality protein crystals for structure determination, particularly in the case of membrane proteins, involves co-crystallization with a protein-specific antibody fragment. Here, we report the development of new recombinant single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) capable of binding a specific epitope that can be introduced into internal loops of client proteins. The previously crystallized hexa-histidine-specific 3D5 scFv antibody was modified in the complementary determining region and by random mutagenesis, in conjunction with phage display, to yield scFvs with new biochemical characteristics and binding specificity. Selected variants include those specific for the hexa-histidine peptide with increased expression, solubility (up to 16.6 mg/ml) and sub-micromolar affinity, and those with new specificity for the EE hexa-peptide (EYMPME) and nanomolar affinity. Complexes of one such chaperone with model proteins harboring either an internal or a terminal EE tag were isolated by gel filtration. The 3.1 {angstrom} resolution structure of this chaperone reveals a binding surface complementary to the EE peptide and a {approx}52 {angstrom} channel in the crystal lattice. Notably, in spite of 85% sequence identity, and nearly identical crystallization conditions, the engineered scFv crystallizes in a different space group than the parent 3D5 scFv, and utilizes two new crystal contacts. These engineered scFvs represent a new class of chaperones that may eliminate the need for de novo identification of candidate chaperones from large antibody libraries.

  14. Electronic structure of Sc C[sub 60]. An ab initio theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Odom, G.K.; Scuseria, G.E. )

    1994-08-11

    We have studied the electronic structure of Sc C[sub 60] at the self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock (SCF-HF) level of theory employing a double-zeta (DZ) basis set. Binding energies have also been calculated employing a hybrid of HF and density functional theory (herein denoted as HF-BLYP). Several electronic states in C[sub 50] and C[sub 30] symmetry were considered. A double-minimum configuration is found for the open-shell [sup 4]A[sub 2] electronic ground state in C[sub 50] symmetry. The lowest energy minimum has Sc located 1.175 [angstrom] away from the center of the cage, approaching a C[sub 60] pentagon along a C[sub 5] axis. Bonding between the Sc atom and the cage occurs by donation of the 4s electrons to the lowest unoccupied orbital of C[sub 60] and by 3d electron interaction with the antibonding orbital associated with the five double bonds radiating from the pentagon closest to Sc ([approximately] 2.5 [angstrom]). The other local minimum has Sc located at the center of the cage and is predicted to be 1.2 eV higher in energy at the highest level of theory employed in this work (DZ/HF-BLYP). The energy barrier for moving Sc from the center of the cage to the lowest energy position is predicted to be 0.1 eV at the same level of theory. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. High-level expression of a phage display-derived scFv in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Leonardo M; Lee, Frank; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Batt, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Numerous techniques are available for investigating protein-ligand interactions. The phage display technique is one such method routinely used to identify antibody-antigen interactions and has the benefit of being easily adaptable to high-throughput screening platforms. Once identified, antigen-binding domains on fragment antibodies or single-chain fragment antibodies (scFv) can be expressed and purified for further studies. In this chapter, we describe a method for high-level expression of a phage display-derived scFv in Pichia pastoris. The phage display-derived antibody A33scFv recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein (designated A33) expressed in colon cancer that serves as a target antigen for radioimmunoimaging and/or immunotherapy of human colon cancer. The expression and purification of A33scFv was optimized for the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. P. pastoris with a Mut(S) phenotype was selected to express A33scFv under regulation of the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter. Here we describe a large-scale fed-batch fermentation process with an efficient online closed-loop methanol control for the production of the recombinant protein. Purification of A33scFv from clarified culture medium was done using a two-step chromatographic procedure using anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, resulting in a final product with more than 90% purity. This chapter provides protocols that can be used as a base for process development of recombinant protein expression in P. pastoris and purification of these proteins for use in further functionality studies and in diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  16. 78 FR 14400 - Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of... company's outstanding shares. Southern USA's securities are quoted on the OTC Link, operated by...

  17. On the electron affinities of the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    For the Ca, Sc, Ti, and Y atoms calculations are performed for the ground states of the neutrals and the ground and several low-lying excited states of the negative ions. Overall, the computed electron affinities are in good accord with experiment. The calculations show the rapid stabilization of the 3d orbital relative to the 4p as the nuclear charge increases. The 3F0 and 3D0 terms are found to be close in energy in Sc(-) and in Y(-). This confirms earlier speculation that some of the peaks in the photodetachment spectra of Y(-) originate from the bound excited 3F0 term of Y(-).

  18. Hot Deformation Of Si(3)N(4) Doped With Sc(2)O(3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheong, Deock-Soo; Sanders, William A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes preparation, microstructural properties, and high-temperature deformation behavior of Si(3)N(4) doped with Sc(2)O(3). Powders of Si(3)N(4) with small additions of Sc(2)O(3) sintered under nitrogen overpressures to full density; expensive hot pressing or hot isostatic pressing not necessary to attain full density. Test of bars indicate high strengths at high temperatures and excellent time-dependent strength properties. Useful for fabrication of hot-section components of automotive gas-turbine engines.

  19. On the electron affinities of the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    For the Ca, Sc, Ti and Y atoms calculations are performed for the ground states of the neutrals and the ground and several low-lying excited states of the negative ions. Overall the computed electron affinities are in good accord with experiment. The calculations show the rapid stabilization of the 3d orbital relative to the 4p as the nuclear charge increases. The 3F(0) and 3D(0) terms are found to be close in energy in Sc(-) and in Y(-). This confirms earlier speculation that some of the peaks in the photodetachment spectra of Y(-) originate from the bound excited 3F(0) term of Y(-).

  20. Electronic structure of ScN determined using optical spectroscopy, photoemission, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, D.; Sta''dele, M.; Ja''rrendahl, K.; Petrov, I.; Desjardins, P.; Haasch, R. T.; Lee, T.-Y.; Greene, J. E.

    2001-03-15

    Experimental and ab initio computational methods are employed to conclusively show that ScN is a semiconductor rather than a semimetal; i.e., there is a gap between the N 2p and the Sc 3d bands. Previous experimental investigators reported, in agreement with band structure calculations showing a band overlap of 0.2 eV, that ScN is a semimetal while others concluded that it is a semiconductor with a band gap larger than 2 eV. We have grown high quality, single crystalline ScN layers on MgO(001) and on TiN(001) buffer layers on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition. ScN optical properties were determined by transmission, reflection, and spectroscopic ellipsometry while in-situ x-ray and ultraviolet valence band photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the density of states (DOS) below the Fermi level. The measured DOS exhibits peaks at 3.8 and 5.2 eV stemming from the N 2p bands and at 15.3 eV due to the N 2s bands. The imaginary part of the measured dielectric function {epsilon}{sub 2} consists of two primary features due to direct X- and {Gamma}-point transitions at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.8 eV, respectively. For comparison, the ScN band structure was calculated using an ab initio Kohn--Sham approach which treats the exchange interactions exactly within density-functional theory. Calculated DOS and the complex dielectric function are in good agreement with our ScN valence-band photoelectron spectra and measured optical properties, respectively. We conclude, combining experimental and computational results, that ScN is a semiconductor with an indirect {Gamma}--X bandgap of 1.3{+-}0.3eV and a direct X-point gap of 2.4{+-}0.3eV.

  1. Synergistic Antivascular and Antitumor Efficacy with Combined Cediranib and SC6889 in Intracranial Mouse Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Merryl R.; Kukino, Ayaka; Tran, Huong; Schabel, Matthias C.; Springer, Charles S.; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Woltjer, Randall L.; Pike, Martin M.

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis remains extremely poor for malignant glioma. Targeted therapeutic approaches, including single agent anti-angiogenic and proteasome inhibition strategies, have not resulted in sustained anti-glioma clinical efficacy. We tested the anti-glioma efficacy of the anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cediranib and the novel proteasome inhibitor SC68896, in combination and as single agents. To assess anti-angiogenic effects and evaluate efficacy we employed 4C8 intracranial mouse glioma and a dual-bolus perfusion MRI approach to measure Ktrans, relative cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBF, rCBV), and relative mean transit time (rMTT) in combination with anatomical MRI measurements of tumor growth. While single agent cediranib or SC68896 treatment did not alter tumor growth or survival, combined cediranib/SC68896 significantly delayed tumor growth and increased median survival by 2-fold, compared to untreated. This was accompanied by substantially increased tumor necrosis in the cediranib/SC68896 group (p<0.01), not observed with single agent treatments. Mean vessel density was significantly lower, and mean vessel lumen area was significantly higher, for the combined cediranib/SC68896 group versus untreated. Consistent with our previous findings, cediranib alone did not significantly alter mean tumor rCBF, rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. In contrast, SC68896 reduced rCBF in comparison to untreated, but without concomitant reductions in rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. Importantly, combined cediranib/SC68896 substantially reduced rCBF, rCBV. rMTT, and Ktrans. A novel analysis of Ktrans/rCBV suggests that changes in Ktrans with time and/or treatment are related to altered total vascular surface area. The data suggest that combined cediranib/SC68896 induced potent anti-angiogenic effects, resulting in increased vascular efficiency and reduced extravasation, consistent with a process of vascular normalization. The study represents the first demonstration that the

  2. Single-crystal structure determination of Zr 50Sc 12O 118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurst, K.; Schweda, E.; Bevan, D. J. M.; Mohyla, J.; Wallwork, K. S.; Hofmann, M.

    2003-11-01

    Colorless plates of Zr 50Sc 12O 118 have been produced by firing zirconia with scandia at temperatures above 1000 °C and cooling slowly. The resulting crystals were heavily twinned. The unit cell is rhombohedral with space group R 3¯ and lattice constants a=1981.70(5) and c=1805.59(6) pm. The structure is fluorite-related anion-deficient. Within the cell there are 18 vacancies on oxygen positions. A further neutron time of flight study revealed an almost statistical distribution of Zr and Sc on the cation positions.

  3. Population of positive-parity states in {sup 53}Sc through one-proton knockout.

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cook, J. M.; Deacon, A. N.; Dinca, D.-C.; Freeman, S. J.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P. G.; Kay, B. P.; Mantica, P. F.; Mueller, W. F.; Terry, J. R.; Tostevin, J. A.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Michigan State Univ.; Univ. of Manchester; Univ. of Surrey

    2010-02-01

    The one-proton knockout reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 54}Ti,{sup 53}Sc+{gamma})X at 72 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The location of the first 3/2{sup -} state at 2110(3) keV was confirmed, and new {gamma}-ray transitions were observed at 1111(2), 1273(2), 1539(4), and 2495(5) keV. Large spectroscopic strength to excited states in {sup 53}Sc was found and attributed to the knockout of sd-shell protons.

  4. Population of positive-parity states in {sup 53}Sc through one-proton knockout

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Glasmacher, T.; Hansen, P. G.; Terry, J. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Bazin, D.; Mueller, W. F.; Deacon, A. N.; Freeman, S. J.; Kay, B. P.; Mantica, P. F.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2010-02-15

    The one-proton knockout reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 54}Ti,{sup 53}Sc+{gamma})X at 72 MeV/nucleon has been measured. The location of the first 3/2{sup -} state at 2110(3) keV was confirmed, and new {gamma}-ray transitions were observed at 1111(2), 1273(2), 1539(4), and 2495(5) keV. Large spectroscopic strength to excited states in {sup 53}Sc was found and attributed to the knockout of sd-shell protons.

  5. Characterizing coal beds in western Kentucky with the Al-La-Sc coherent triad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chyi, L.L.; Medlin, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Cyclic sedimentation and lateral facies changes make coal bed correlations inconclusive and difficult. This uncertainty can be further complicated if a coal basin has been structurally deformed. Coal macerals can be studied to indicate the nature and degree of coalification. Their use in coal bed correlation, however, is limited. Most of the trace elements and their ratios that have been studied show significant within-bed lateral and stratigraphic variations, and thus are not effective in correlating coal beds regionally. Geochemically coherent groups of elements, such as rare earth elements (REE) and platinum group elements (PGE), appear to be highly differentiated in coal-forming environments. Geochemical coherent elemental triads appear to be useful for coal bed identification or fingerprinting. The best triad which was demonstrated to be effective in coal bed characterization in western Kentucky, is that of Al, La and Sc. These three elements are highly correlated with one another and they can be determined accurately and simultaneously with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The elemental triad Al-La-Sc is used to identify and fingerprint three key coal beds in western Kentucky: the Springfield (western Kentucky No. 9), the Davis (western Kentucky No. 6), and the Mining City and Dawson Springs are both considered to be the No. 4 coal bed in western Kentucky). Four distinct groupings can be recognized by use of the Al-La-Sc triad. The Dawson Springs coals have the highest Al/(La + Sc) ratios, followed by the Springfield, the Davis and the Mining City. The Mining City coal bed generally has the highest La/Sc ratio. However, the Dawson Springs is not correlated with the Mining City using the triad analysis, even though they have reportedly similar stratigraphic positions in the western Kentucky coal basin. The Al-La-Sc triad appears to be effective in discriminating between the Springfield and the Davis coal beds throughout the entire Illinois

  6. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  7. Synergistic Antivascular and Antitumor Efficacy with Combined Cediranib and SC6889 in Intracranial Mouse Glioma.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Merryl R; Kukino, Ayaka; Tran, Huong; Schabel, Matthias C; Springer, Charles S; Gillespie, G Yancey; Grafe, Marjorie R; Woltjer, Randall L; Pike, Martin M

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis remains extremely poor for malignant glioma. Targeted therapeutic approaches, including single agent anti-angiogenic and proteasome inhibition strategies, have not resulted in sustained anti-glioma clinical efficacy. We tested the anti-glioma efficacy of the anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cediranib and the novel proteasome inhibitor SC68896, in combination and as single agents. To assess anti-angiogenic effects and evaluate efficacy we employed 4C8 intracranial mouse glioma and a dual-bolus perfusion MRI approach to measure Ktrans, relative cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBF, rCBV), and relative mean transit time (rMTT) in combination with anatomical MRI measurements of tumor growth. While single agent cediranib or SC68896 treatment did not alter tumor growth or survival, combined cediranib/SC68896 significantly delayed tumor growth and increased median survival by 2-fold, compared to untreated. This was accompanied by substantially increased tumor necrosis in the cediranib/SC68896 group (p<0.01), not observed with single agent treatments. Mean vessel density was significantly lower, and mean vessel lumen area was significantly higher, for the combined cediranib/SC68896 group versus untreated. Consistent with our previous findings, cediranib alone did not significantly alter mean tumor rCBF, rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. In contrast, SC68896 reduced rCBF in comparison to untreated, but without concomitant reductions in rCBV, rMTT, or Ktrans. Importantly, combined cediranib/SC68896 substantially reduced rCBF, rCBV. rMTT, and Ktrans. A novel analysis of Ktrans/rCBV suggests that changes in Ktrans with time and/or treatment are related to altered total vascular surface area. The data suggest that combined cediranib/SC68896 induced potent anti-angiogenic effects, resulting in increased vascular efficiency and reduced extravasation, consistent with a process of vascular normalization. The study represents the first demonstration that the

  8. Structure of singly terminated DyScO3 (110) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kleibeuker, Josee; Kuiper, Bouwe; Harkema, S.; Blank, Dave H. A.; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus; Tinnemans, P.; Vlieg, E.; Rossen, P. B.; Siemons, Wolter; Portale, G.; Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the polar surface of singly terminated DyScO{sub 3} (110) crystals by reflective high-energy electron diffraction, surface x-ray diffraction and angle-resolved mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions. These techniques show that the surfaces are (1 x 1) reconstructed, which points to the absence of ordered cation vacancies at the surface. The best surfaces were obtained after a selective chemical wet etch. We suggest that for ScO{sub 2} terminated surfaces, adsorbates, or oxygen vacancies are most likely to occur in order to overcome the polarity difference between stoichiometric bulk crystal and vacuum.

  9. Magnesium regulation of the beta-receptor-adenylate cyclase complex. II. Sc3+ as a Mg2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Maguire, M E

    1982-09-01

    Sc3+ bears the same relationship to Mg2+ as La3+ to Ca2+, a similar ionic radius but increased charge. Therefore, the possibility was investigated that Sc3+ would be a Mg2+ antagonist at Mg2+ sites on the beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase complex of the murine S49 lymphoma cell. Sc3+ is consistently much more potent than La3+ in inhibiting adenylate cyclase regardless of the mode of activation. IC50 values for Sc3+ of 10-30 microM were observed, whereas those for La3+ were about 300 microM. However, Sc3+ does not block the ability of Mg2+ to increase beta-receptor affinity for agonist nor alter agonist affinity by itself. Furthermore, Sc3+ is a weak inhibitor of the beta-receptor-mediated inhibition of Mg2+ influx. In cyc- S49 membranes, in which the catalytic subunit of cyclase cannot interact with the nucleotide-coupling protein(s), Sc3+ is as potent as in wild-type S49 membranes and again more potent than La3+. Substrate kinetics show that Sc3+, like Mg2+, modulates adenylate cyclase activity by affecting the Vmax without altering the Km for substrate. The data suggest that Sc3+ is a specific antagonist of Mg2+ at the Mg2+ site on the catalytic subunit and support the suggestion that there are two distinct sites for Mg2+ with different functions, one site on the coupling protein(s) and one on the catalytic subunit. It was also found that an apparent complex of Sc3+ and F-, ScF4-, is a potent inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, with an IC50 of 3 microM. PMID:6292689

  10. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling. PMID:25821419

  11. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Annie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

  12. In the presence of fluoride, free Sc³⁺ is not a good predictor of Sc bioaccumulation by two unicellular algae: possible role of fluoro-complexes.

    PubMed

    Crémazy, Anne; Campbell, Peter G C; Fortin, Claude

    2014-08-19

    We investigated the effect of fluoride complexation on scandium accumulation by two unicellular algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This trivalent metal was selected for its chemical similarities with aluminum and for its convenient radioisotope (Sc-46), which can be used as a tracer in short-term bioaccumulation studies. Scandium surface-bound concentrations (Sc(ads)) and uptake fluxes (J(int)) were estimated in the two algae over short-term (<1 h) exposures at pH 5 and in the presence of 0 to 40 μM F(-). Although the computed proportion of dissolved Sc(3+) dropped from 20% to 0.01% over this [F(-)] range, Sc(ads) and J(int) values for both algae decreased only slightly, suggesting a participation of Sc fluoro-complexes in both processes. Surface adsorption and uptake of fluoride complexes with aluminum have been reported in the literature. These observations are not taken into account by current models for trace metal bioaccumulation (e.g., the biotic ligand model). Results from a previous study, where the effects of pH on Sc uptake were investigated, suggested that Sc hydroxo-complexes were internalized by C. reinhardtii. There is thus growing evidence that the free ion concentration may not be adequate to predict the accumulation of Sc (and potentially of other trivalent metals) in aquatic organisms.

  13. Sc2@C3v(8)-C82 vs. Sc2C2@C3v(8)-C82: drastic effect of C2 capture on the redox properties of scandium metallofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroki; Lu, Xing; Iiduka, Yuko; Mizorogi, Naomi; Slanina, Zdenek; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2012-01-30

    We describe the first example of scandium dimetallofullerenes, Sc(2)@C(3v)(8)-C(82), which has the same cage as the previously assigned scandium carbide cluster fullerene Sc(2)C(2)@C(3v)(8)-C(82) but they exhibit distinctly different electronic configurations and electronic behaviours, confirming the drastic influence of the internal C(2) unit.

  14. Experimental study of the incorporation of Li, Sc, Al and other trace elements into olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Kevin J.; Wood, Bernard J.

    2010-04-01

    We performed a series of synthesis experiments at 1 atm pressure to investigate the substitution mechanisms of 1+ and 3+ ions into olivine. Forsterite crystals were grown from bulk compositions that contained the element of interest (e.g. Li) and different amounts of additional single trace elements. By working at constant (major element) liquid composition and temperature we eliminated all compositional effects other than those due to the trace elements. Mineral-melt pairs were then analysed to determine the compositional-dependence of the partition coefficient ( D), which corresponds to {[element]}/{[element]}, and where [element] refers to weight concentration of the element in the respective phase. We find that Li forms a stable coupled substitution with Sc and, at above ˜500 ppm Sc in the crystal, Li + and Sc 3+ ions form an ordered neutral complex ([LiSc]). This complex dissociates at lower trace element concentrations and a second, concentration-independent, mechanism begins to dominate. This second solution mechanism is most likely 2Li + ⇔ Mg 2+ where one of the Li atoms is in an interstitial position in the crystal lattice. Natural olivines show Li contents slightly greater than Sc (on an atomic basis), indicating that both substitution mechanisms are significant. Unlike Sc, Al does not appear to form a stable complex with Li in the olivine structure. Sodium is highly incompatible in olivine with DNaFo-melt of ˜0.00015-0.03. Olivine-liquid partitioning of Na + is independent of Sc 3+ or Al 3+ concentration. This indicates that the coupled substitution of Na + with any 3+ ions is unlikely. Instead, the relevant substitution mechanism appears to be 2Na + ⇔ Mg 2+. Although independent of 3+ ion concentration, DNaFo-melt is inversely correlated with the Li concentration of both melts and crystals, implying that Na competes (unsuccessfully) with Li to replace Mg in the olivine structure. Aluminium is highly incompatible in forsterite DAlFo-melt=0.006±0

  15. Fish mercury distribution in Massachusetts, USA lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Hutcheson, M.S.; West, C.R.; Pancorbo, O.; Hulme, K.; Cooperman, A.; DeCesare, G.; Isaac, R.; Screpetis, A.

    1999-07-01

    The sediment, water, and three species of fish from 24 of Massachusetts' (relatively) least-impacted water bodies were sampled to determine the patterns of variation in edible tissue mercury concentrations and the relationships of these patterns to characteristics of the water, sediment, and water bodies (lake, wetland, and watershed areas). Sampling was apportioned among three different ecological subregions and among lakes of differing trophic status. The authors sought to partition the variance to discover if these broadly defined concepts are suitable predictors of mercury levels in fish. Average muscle mercury concentrations were 0.15 mg/kg wet weight in the bottom-feeding brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus); 0.31 mg/kg in the omnivorous yellow perch (Perca flavescens); and 0.39 mg/kg in the predaceous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Statistically significant differences in fish mercury concentrations between ecological subregions in Massachusetts, USA, existed only in yellow perch. The productivity level of the lakes (as deduced from Carlson's Trophic Status Index) was not a strong predictor of tissue mercury concentrations in any species. pH was a highly (inversely) correlated environmental variable with yellow perch and brown bullhead tissue mercury. Largemouth bass tissue mercury concentrations were most highly correlated with the weight of the fish (+), lake size (+), and source area sizes (+). Properties of individual lakes appear more important for determining fish tissue mercury concentrations than do small-scale ecoregional differences. Species that show major mercury variation with size or trophic level may not be good choices for use in evaluating the importance of environmental variables.

  16. The Newporte impact structure, North Dakota, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W.U.

    1995-12-31

    The 3-km-diameter Newporte structure is located close to the USA - Canada border in North Dakota, in the Williston Basin. The structure is currently covered by about 3 km of various supracrustal rock formations and was first studied in the course of hydrocarbon exploration in the late 1970s. The structure is situated in Precambrian crystalline basement, which is highly fractured and brecciated. Detailed petrographic and geochemical studies of rock samples from the Duerre 43-5, the Mott 14-34, and the Wisdahl 23 -10 drill cores show the presence of three types of breccias: a mainly granite-derived breccia, a predominantly (meta) sediment-derived breccia, and a mixed breccia type. Quartz grains (as well as a few rare feldspar grains) from all three breccia types show planar deformation features (PDFs) with up to five sets per grain. Measurements of the crystallographic orientations of the PDFs show predominantly (10{bar 1}3) ({omega}) and (10{bar 1}2) ({pi}) orientations, which are characteristic of shock metamorphism and indicate peak shock pressures in excess of 12 GPa. The major and trace element composition of the target rocks (granitoid and sedimentary rocks) and the fragmental impact breccias was measured. All three rock types (sediments, granitoids, and breccias) show a wide compositional range. Mixing calculations were performed and yield results and are in general agreement with the petrographic observations, but the compositional similarity of the target rock components and their wide range in chemical composition make unambiguous mixing calculations difficult. The results of our study confirm the impact origin of the Newporte structure. 43 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  18. Intracellular scFvs against the viral E6 oncoprotein provoke apoptosis in human papillomavirus-positive cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, Magali; Boulade-Ladame, Charlotte; Mailly, Laurent; Weiss, Etienne; Orfanoudakis, Georges; Deryckere, Francois . E-mail: francois.deryckere@esbs.u-strasbg.fr

    2007-09-21

    The E6 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (16E6) is involved in the tumorigenesis of human cervical cells by targeting numerous cellular proteins. We have designed a strategy for neutralizing 16E6 based on the intracellular expression of single-chain Fv antibodies (scFvs) specific to 16E6. Recombinant adenovirus vectors were constructed to allow expression of two 16E6-binding scFvs and one 16E6-non-binding scFv in HPV16-positive and -negative cells. Expression of the scFvs provoked two types of effects: (i) inhibition of proliferation of all cell lines tested, this aspecific toxicity being likely due to the aggregation of unfolded scFvs; and (ii) apoptosis observed only in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines after expression of 16E6-binding scFvs, this specific effect being proportional to the intracellular solubility of the scFvs. These data demonstrate the feasibility of intracellular immunization with anti-16E6 scFvs and highlight the importance of the solubility of the intracellular antibodies.

  19. On the Structural and Luminescent Properties of the ScTa(1-x)Nb(x)O(4) System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brixner, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Diagrams and tables supplement textual information regarding the structure of ScNbo-4 and its observed and calculated d-values; excitation and emission spectra and cell constants for the ScTa(1-x)NB(x)O(4) system. (CS)

  20. Successful engineering of a highly potent single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) bispecific antibody to target disialoganglioside (GD2) positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; Santich, Brian H; Xu, Hong; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Huse, Morgan; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2016-06-01

    Engineering potent bispecific antibodies from single-chain variable fragments (scFv) remains difficult due to the inherent instability and insufficient binding of scFv's compared to their parental immunoglobulin format. Previously, we described a scFv-based bispecific antibody (scBA) against disialoganglioside (GD2) based on the anti-GD2 murine 5F11-scFv and the anti-CD3 huOKT3-scFv (5F11-scBA). In this study, we substituted the 5F11-scFv with the higher affinity (13-fold) hu3F8-scFv to form hu3F8-scBA. With this modification, hu3F8-scBA redirected T cells to kill GD2(+) cancer cell lines with up to 5,000-fold higher potency (femtomolar EC50) compared with 5F11-scBA (picomolar EC50) in cytotoxicity assays, even against target cells with low GD2 densities. Furthermore, hu3F8-scBA induced stronger T-cell activation than 5F11-scBA, as measured by Ca(2+) flux and cytokine release. Additionally, in vivo, hu3F8-scBA suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mice survival much more effectively than 5F11-scBA, in both neuroblastoma and melanoma xenograft models. We conclude that the functional properties of scBA's can be increased substantially by relatively modest increases in antigen affinity.

  1. Successful engineering of a highly potent single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) bispecific antibody to target disialoganglioside (GD2) positive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming; Santich, Brian H.; Xu, Hong; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Huse, Morgan; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Engineering potent bispecific antibodies from single-chain variable fragments (scFv) remains difficult due to the inherent instability and insufficient binding of scFv's compared to their parental immunoglobulin format. Previously, we described a scFv-based bispecific antibody (scBA) against disialoganglioside (GD2) based on the anti-GD2 murine 5F11-scFv and the anti-CD3 huOKT3-scFv (5F11-scBA). In this study, we substituted the 5F11-scFv with the higher affinity (13-fold) hu3F8-scFv to form hu3F8-scBA. With this modification, hu3F8-scBA redirected T cells to kill GD2(+) cancer cell lines with up to 5,000-fold higher potency (femtomolar EC50) compared with 5F11-scBA (picomolar EC50) in cytotoxicity assays, even against target cells with low GD2 densities. Furthermore, hu3F8-scBA induced stronger T-cell activation than 5F11-scBA, as measured by Ca2+ flux and cytokine release. Additionally, in vivo, hu3F8-scBA suppressed tumor growth and prolonged mice survival much more effectively than 5F11-scBA, in both neuroblastoma and melanoma xenograft models. We conclude that the functional properties of scBA's can be increased substantially by relatively modest increases in antigen affinity. PMID:27471647

  2. Spatial variations in the relationships between land use and water quality across an urbanization gradient in the watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

  3. USA300 and USA500 Clonal Lineages of Staphylococcus aureus Do Not Produce a Capsular Polysaccharide Due to Conserved Mutations in the cap5 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Read, Timothy D.; Sieth, Julia; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Dobbins, Ginette; David, Michael Z.; Kumar, Neha; Eells, Samantha J.; Miller, Loren G.; Boxrud, David J.; Chambers, Henry F.; Lynfield, Ruth; Lee, Jean C.; Daum, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The surface capsular polysaccharide (CP) is a virulence factor that has been used as an antigen in several successful vaccines against bacterial pathogens. A vaccine has not yet been licensed against Staphylococcus aureus, although two multicomponent vaccines that contain CP antigens are in clinical trials. In this study, we evaluated CP production in USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates that have become the predominant community-associated MRSA clones in the United States. We found that all 167 USA300 MRSA and 50 USA300 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were CP negative (CP−). Moreover, all 16 USA500 isolates, which have been postulated to be the progenitor lineage of USA300, were also CP−. Whole-genome sequence analysis of 146 CP− USA300 MRSA isolates revealed they all carry a cap5 locus with 4 conserved mutations compared with strain Newman. Genetic complementation experiments revealed that three of these mutations (in the cap5 promoter, cap5D nucleotide 994, and cap5E nucleotide 223) ablated CP production in USA300 and that Cap5E75 Asp, located in the coenzyme-binding domain, is essential for capsule production. All but three USA300 MSSA isolates had the same four cap5 mutations found in USA300 MRSA isolates. Most isolates with a USA500 pulsotype carried three of these four USA300-specific mutations, suggesting the fourth mutation occurred in the USA300 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis of the cap loci of our USA300 isolates as well as publicly available genomes from 41 other sequence types revealed that the USA300-specific cap5 mutations arose sequentially in S. aureus in a common ancestor of USA300 and USA500 isolates. PMID:25852165

  4. Expression of functional single-chain variable domain fragment antibody (scFv) against mycotoxin zearalenone in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2008-10-01

    A synthetic gene coding for single-chain variable domain fragment antibody against mycotoxin zearalenone (scFv-ZEN) has been designed, constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The native scFv-ZEN sequence was optimized to Pichia preference codon usage. The expression level of codon-optimized scFv-ZEN was slightly higher than that of native scFv-ZEN, and its maximum yield reached 328 mg total protein/l in flask culture. The binding activities of two selected clones to ZEN using surface plasmon resonance analysis were comparable or better than that of monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate the potential of soluble scFv-ZEN for developing a rapid and affordable immunoassay for detection of ZEN in food and feedstuff. PMID:18575809

  5. Single Step Stone-Wales Transformation Linking Two Thermodynamically Stable Sc2O@C78 Isomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei; Li, Meng-Yang; Guo, Yi-Jun; Zhao, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Among the very recently reported dimetallic oxide fullerenes Sc2O@C2n (n = 35-47), a representative Sc2O@C78 still lacks of further characterizations. Herein, a systematical investigation on Sc2O@C78 has been performed by density functional theory combined with statistical thermodynamic studies. Two isolated pentagon rule (IPR) satisfying isomers, Sc2O@D3h(24109)-C78 and Sc2O@C2v(24107)-C78, are disclosed to possess prominent thermodynamic stabilities at the temperature region of fullerene formation. Significantly, these two structures are related by a single Stone-Wales transformation. Moreover, bonding critical points, bond orders, and delocalization indices have been analyzed to uncover covalent interactions in both isomers. In addition, (13)C NMR spectra and UV-vis-NIR adsorptions of the two stable structures are introduced to assist experimental identification and characterization in the future. PMID:26909549

  6. Spontaneous emission from ScF in a supersonic mixing flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, D. R.; Cool, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of the two reactions: Sc + F2 yields ScF(asterisk) + F and Y + Cl2 yields YCl(asterisk) + Cl. Experiments were designed for studying the reactions under the relatively high pressure conditions (5-20 torr) appropriate for chemical laser operation. A shock tube was used to provide a short duration flow through a supersonic nozzle array. Shock wave heating is used to dissociate the ScCl3 or YCl3 at temperatures of about 6000 K, before the gases are accelerated and expanded through the supersonic nozzle array. The expanded primary flow is then mixed with a secondary flow of F2 introduced through slots at the trailing edge of each nozzle blade. Graphs show the temporal behavior of the visible spontaneous emission over the range from 3000 to 9000 A for a typical test condition, a microdensitometer tracing of the visible emission over the range from 4000 to 7000 A, and the spontaneous emission from ScF(asterisk) obtained by computer image processing of intensity data.

  7. Atomic structure and phason modes of the Sc-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Euchner, Holger; Pay Gómez, Cesar; Bosak, Alexei; Fertey, Pierre; de Boissieu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    The detailed atomic structure of the binary icosahedral (i) ScZn7.33 quasicrystal has been investigated by means of high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and absolute scale measurements of diffuse scattering. The average atomic structure has been solved using the measured Bragg intensity data based on a six-dimensional model that is isostructural to the i-YbCd5.7 one. The structure is described with a quasiperiodic packing of large Tsai-type rhombic triacontahedron clusters and double Friauf polyhedra (DFP), both resulting from a close-packing of a large (Sc) and a small (Zn) atom. The difference in chemical composition between i-ScZn7.33 and i-YbCd5.7 was found to lie in the icosahedron shell and the DFP where in i-ScZn7.33 chemical disorder occurs on the large atom sites, which induces a significant distortion to the structure units. The intensity in reciprocal space displays a substantial amount of diffuse scattering with anisotropic distribution, located around the strong Bragg peaks, that can be fully interpreted as resulting from phason fluctuations, with a ratio of the phason elastic constants K 2/K 1 = -0.53, i.e. close to a threefold instability limit. This induces a relatively large perpendicular (or phason) Debye-Waller factor, which explains the vanishing of 'high-Q perp' reflections. PMID:27437112

  8. Iterative Suboptimal Maximum Likelihood Receiver for Nonlinearly Distorted SC-FDMA Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazda, Juraj; Deumal, Marc; Bergada, Pau; Drotár, Peter; Kocur, Dušan; Galajda, Pavol

    2011-11-01

    Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) is the modulation scheme being employed in the uplink of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and will also be employed in the upcoming fourth generation (4G) system LTE Advanced. The main advantage of using SC-FDMA in the uplink in opposite to the traditional orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDM) is its lower sensitivity to nonlinear amplification. Nevertheless, the strict requirements of 4G systems suggest that techniques to reduce sensitivity even further should be introduced. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of nonlinearities in SC-FDMA and present an iterative receiver scheme to reduce the error probability of SC-FDMA systems undergoing nonlinear amplification. The technique consists in successive estimation and compensation of both the nonlinear distortion and the non-constant attenuation and rotation introduced by the transmitter high power amplifier (HPA). Simulation results expressed by the bit error rate (BER), the error vector magnitude (EVM) and the total degradation (TD) show that the proposed iterative receiver provides a significant performance improvement.

  9. 76 FR 35086 - Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, SC; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, SC; Notice of Appointment of Receiver... as sole Receiver for Atlantic Bank & Trust, Charleston, South Carolina, (OTS No. 18016) on June...

  10. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... status of the BOEMRE and its activities. There will be a presentation on Alternative Energy Programs... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation...

  11. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process. PMID:26764487

  12. Insilico analysis of three different tag polypeptides with dual roles in scFv antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mozafar; Nejatollahi, Foroogh; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Zarei, Neda

    2016-08-01

    Single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies are composed of variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) domains that are joined by a polypeptide linker. Typically, [(Gly4Ser) n] sequence is used as a linker to retain the integrity of the antigen-binding domain. Due to its low immunogenicity, this sequence cannot be used as a tag for scFv detection and purification. Several evidences have shown that the addition of an N or C-terminal tag for scFv detection and purification will result in the decreased expression and binding capacity of this antibody fragment. In this study, we substituted the traditional linker (GGGGS) with His-tag, C-myc or E-tag sequences through molecular modeling. Stability and integrity of all models were assessed by molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Based on MD simulation analysis, the model containing E-tag sequence as a linker indicated more stability compared to other molecules. The results suggest that E-tag not only can be substituted for the traditional linker, also eliminates the necessity of using additional tag for scFv detection and purification. PMID:27113782

  13. DOE Award # DE-SC0008085 Close-Out Report for UIUC Portion of Grant

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Kristina Anderson; DeLucia, Evan H

    2014-11-20

    This is the final technical report for the University of Illinois (UIUC) portion of grant # SC0008085 (CARBON DYNAMICS OF FOREST RECOVERY UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE: FORCINGS, FEEDBACKS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EARTH SYSTEM MODELING), which closed June 14, 2014. The grant remains active at the Smithsonian.

  14. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Aerin; Shin, Jung Won; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process.

  15. 77 FR 15258 - Special Local Regulations; Patriot Challenge Kayak Race, Ashley River, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Challenge Kayak Race, Ashley River, Charleston, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 79571). We received no... available in the docket, are part of docket USCG-2011-1095 and are available online by going to http://www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2011-1095 in the ``Keyword'' box, and then clicking ``Search.'' This...

  16. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  17. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  18. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  19. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  20. 33 CFR 100.713 - Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Harborwalk Boat Race... Annual Harborwalk Boat Race; Sampit River, Georgetown, SC. (a) Definitions—(1) Regulated Area. The... nonparticipants. (2) After the termination of the Harborwalk Boat Race, and during intervals between...

  1. Thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance of HfN/ScN superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Schroeder, Jeremy; Koh, Yeekan

    2015-03-01

    Metal/semiconductor superlattices are known for their potential application as thermionic devices. Understanding thermal properties of such superlattices is essential for the design of new material structures and devices. Here, we measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity of HfN/ScN metal/semiconductor superlattices using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR). HfN/ScN superlattices with different period thickness (2nm to 24 nm) were grown on MgO substrate using reactive magnetron sputtering. We found that the minimum thermal conductivity is 4.3 W/m K when the period thickness is 6 nm. By changing the ratio of layer thickness of HfN and ScN (1:4 to 4:1), we studied the contributions electrons and phonons to the thermal conductivity of superlattices. Use a simple thermal resistance calculation, we extract the interfacial thermal conductance between HfN and ScN. The interfacial thermal conductance is 1.8 GW/m2 K, which is 3 times higher than that of AlN/GaN.

  2. 77 FR 51475 - Safety Zone; Apache Pier Labor Day Fireworks; Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Apache Pier in... life and property on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Myrtle Beach, SC... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of...

  3. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pickens Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pickens County, SC Pickens...--Exempt Abandonments to abandon approximately 8.5 miles of rail line between approximate milepost 0.0 (at... exemption procedure is appropriate, citing Union Pacific Railroad Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Ada...

  4. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  5. Facile Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed generation and successive aromatization of isobenzofuran from o-dicarbonylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Yuta; Kida, Tatsuya; Ureshino, Tomonari

    2011-08-01

    Isobenzofuran can be prepared from o-phthalaldehyde using hydrosilane. The formed isobenzofuran is trapped by an alkene via a Diels-Alder reaction. Further dehydration proceeds to furnish the conjugated aromatic compound. This multistep reaction was promoted by catalytic amounts of Sc(OTf)(3).

  6. 40 CFR 1066.835 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... major modifications affecting the solar simulation. Determine uniformity by measuring radiant energy... exhaust emissions while simulating an urban trip on a hot summer day. The provisions of 40 CFR part 86 and 40 CFR part 600 waive SC03 testing for some vehicles; in those cases, calculate SFTP...

  7. 76 FR 62439 - Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Complex, GA and SC; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... through a Federal Register notice on May 19, 2008 (73 FR 28838). Please see that notice for more about the... on September 15, 2010 (75 FR 56133). We received comments from State and Federal government agencies... Fish and Wildlife Service Savannah National Wildlife Refuge Complex, GA and SC; Final...

  8. Atomic structure and phason modes of the Sc-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Euchner, Holger; Pay Gómez, Cesar; Bosak, Alexei; Fertey, Pierre; de Boissieu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    The detailed atomic structure of the binary icosahedral (i) ScZn7.33 quasicrystal has been investigated by means of high-resolution synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and absolute scale measurements of diffuse scattering. The average atomic structure has been solved using the measured Bragg intensity data based on a six-dimensional model that is isostructural to the i-YbCd5.7 one. The structure is described with a quasiperiodic packing of large Tsai-type rhombic triacontahedron clusters and double Friauf polyhedra (DFP), both resulting from a close-packing of a large (Sc) and a small (Zn) atom. The difference in chemical composition between i-ScZn7.33 and i-YbCd5.7 was found to lie in the icosahedron shell and the DFP where in i-ScZn7.33 chemical disorder occurs on the large atom sites, which induces a significant distortion to the structure units. The intensity in reciprocal space displays a substantial amount of diffuse scattering with anisotropic distribution, located around the strong Bragg peaks, that can be fully interpreted as resulting from phason fluctuations, with a ratio of the phason elastic constants K 2/K 1 = -0.53, i.e. close to a threefold instability limit. This induces a relatively large perpendicular (or phason) Debye-Waller factor, which explains the vanishing of 'high-Q perp' reflections.

  9. Evaluating school obesity-related policies using surveillance tools: lessons from the ScOPE study.

    PubMed

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Kubik, Martha Y; Coulter, Sara; Davey, Cynthia S; MacLehose, Richard; Rode, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The evidence evaluating the association between school obestiy prevention policies and student weight is mixed. The lack of consistent findings may result, in part, from limited evaluation approaches. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the use of surveillance data to address methodological gaps and opportunities in the school policy evaluation literature using lessons from the School Obesity-Related Policy Evaluation (ScOPE) study. The ScOPE study uses a repeated, cross-sectional study design to evaluate the association between school food and activity policies in Minnesota and behavioral and weight status of youth attending those schools. Three surveillance tools are used to accomplish study goals: Minnesota School Health Profiles (2002-2012), Minnesota Student Survey (2001-2013), and National Center for Educational Statistics. The ScOPE study takes two broad steps. First, we assemble policy data across multiple years and monitor changes over time in school characteristics and the survey instrument(s), establish external validity, and describe trends and patterns in the distribution of policies. Second, we link policy data to student data on health behaviors and weight status, assess nonresponse bias, and identify cohorts of schools. To illustrate the potential for program evaluators, the process, challenges encountered, and solutions used in the ScOPE study are presented.

  10. 75 FR 30063 - Johns Manville, Engineered Products Division, Spartanburg, SC; Notice of Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Johns Manville, Engineered Products Division, Spartanburg, SC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated May 2, 2010, a petitioner requested...

  11. Final Report for Research supported by US DoE grant DE-SC0006721

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2014-08-27

    A final report is presented on research carried out by Alain J. Brizard (Principal Investigator) with funding provided by the U.S. DoE grant No. DE-SC0006721 during the period of 08/01/2011 to 07/31/2014.

  12. Stability of PrP**Sc from cattle inoculated with different BSE strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases are a class of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases, caused by an infectious protein, that afflict humans and other mammals. The infectious agent is a host encoded protein known as PrP that has adopted a misfolded conformation termed PrP**Sc. The diseases have been shown to manife...

  13. 78 FR 19100 - Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor; Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... populations of less than 50,000. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605(b) that this rule will not have... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor; Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 77 FR 19934 - Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... their fields, and governmental jurisdictions with populations of less than 50,000. The Coast Guard... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 76 FR 18389 - Safety Zones; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... fields, and governmental jurisdictions with populations of less than 50,000. The Coast Guard certifies... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  16. Diagnostic Implications of Markedly Elevated MMPI Sc Scale Scores for Nonhospitalized Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Kunce, Joseph T.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the personal adjustment of counseling center clients (N=60) whose highest Sc scale score on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was over 70. Results supported a continued need to delineate more precisely the significance of elevated MMPI scores for nonpsychiatric populations. (LLL)

  17. Fermilab's SC Accelerator Magnet Program for Future U.S. HEP Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm, Michael; Zlobin, Alexander; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The invention of SC accelerator magnets in the 1970s opened wide the possibilities for advancing the energy frontier of particle accelerators, while limiting the machine circumference and reducing their energy consumption. The successful development of SC accelerator magnets based on NbTi superconductor have made possible a proton-antiproton collider (Tevatron) at Fermilab, an electron-proton collider (HERA) at DESY, a relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL and recently a proton-proton collider (LHC) at CERN. Further technological innovations and inventions are required as the US HEP looks forward towards the post-LHC energy or/and intensity frontiers. A strong, goal oriented national SC accelerator magnet program must take on this challenge to provide a strong base for the future of HEP in the U.S. The results and experience obtained by Fermilab during the past 30 years will allow us to play a leadership role in the SC accelerator magnet development in the U.S., in particular, focusing on magnets for a Muon Collider/Neutrino Factory [1]-[2]. In this paper, we summarize the required Muon Collider magnet needs and challenges, summarize the technology advances in the Fermilab accelerator magnet development over the past few years, and present and discuss our vision and long-term plans for these Fermilab-supported accelerator initiatives.

  18. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  19. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  20. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  1. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  2. 33 CFR 165.708 - Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety/Security Zone; Charleston... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.708 Safety/Security Zone; Charleston Harbor and Cooper River, Charleston, SC....

  3. 33 CFR 110.72c - Lake Murray, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72c Lake Murray, S.C. (a) The area beginning at the 125 foot pier of the Columbia Sailing Club, approximately latitude 34°03′51″ N., longitude 81°13′37″...

  4. 33 CFR 110.72c - Lake Murray, S.C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72c Lake Murray, S.C. (a) The area beginning at the 125 foot pier of the Columbia Sailing Club, approximately latitude 34°03′51″ N., longitude 81°13′37″...

  5. 75 FR 8651 - Foreign-Trade Zone 21-Charleston, SC, Application for Subzone, Luigi Bormioli Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 21--Charleston, SC, Application for Subzone, Luigi Bormioli... Board) by the South Carolina State Ports Authority, grantee of FTZ 21, requesting...

  6. PGRP-SC2 promotes gut immune homeostasis to limit commensal dysbiosis and extend lifespan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Linlin; Karpac, Jason; Tran, Susan L; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-01-16

    Interactions between commensals and the host impact the metabolic and immune status of metazoans. Their deregulation is associated with age-related pathologies like chronic inflammation and cancer, especially in barrier epithelia. Maintaining a healthy commensal population by preserving innate immune homeostasis in such epithelia thus promises to promote health and longevity. Here, we show that, in the aging intestine of Drosophila, chronic activation of the transcription factor Foxo reduces expression of peptidoglycan recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2), a negative regulator of IMD/Relish innate immune signaling, and homolog of the anti-inflammatory molecules PGLYRP1-4. This repression causes deregulation of Rel/NFkB activity, resulting in commensal dysbiosis, stem cell hyperproliferation, and epithelial dysplasia. Restoring PGRP-SC2 expression in enterocytes of the intestinal epithelium, in turn, prevents dysbiosis, promotes tissue homeostasis, and extends lifespan. Our results highlight the importance of commensal control for lifespan of metazoans and identify SC-class PGRPs as longevity-promoting factors.

  7. Electronic Bands of ScC in the Region 620 - 720 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chiao-Wei; Merer, Anthony; Hsu, Yen-Chu

    2016-06-01

    ScC molecules have been observed by laser-induced fluorescence, following the reaction of laser-ablated scandium metal with acetylene under supersonic jet-cooled conditions. Rotational analyses have been carried out for about 40 bands of Sc{}12C and Sc{}13C in the region 14000 - 16000 cm-1. Two lower states are found, with Ω = 3/2 and 5/2, indicating that the ground state is ^4Π_i or ^2Δ. As yet we cannot distinguish between these alternatives, but note that the ground state of the isoelectronic YC molecule is ^4Π_i. The ground state bond length in ScC is 1.95{}_5 Å, and the vibrational frequency is 712 cm-1. At least eight electronic transitions occur in the region studied, the majority obeying the selection rule ΔΩ = +1. Rotational perturbations are widespread, consistent with a high density of excited electronic states. B. Simard, P.A. Hackett and W.J. Balfour, Chem. Phys. Lett., 230, 103 (1994).

  8. Superposition of quantum and classical rotational motions in Sc2C2@C84 fullerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, K. H.; Verberck, B.; Hulman, M.; Kuzmany, H.; Krause, M.

    2007-02-01

    The superposition of the quantum rotational motion (tunneling) of the encapsulated Sc2C2 complex with the classical rotational motion of the surrounding C84 molecule in a powder crystal of Sc2C2@C84 fullerite is investigated by theory. Since the quantum rotor is dragged along by the C84 molecule, any detection method which couples to the quantum rotor (in casu the C2 bond of the Sc2C2 complex) also probes the thermally excited classical motion (uniaxial rotational diffusion and stochastic meroaxial jumps) of the surrounding fullerene. The dynamic rotation-rotation response functions in frequency space are obtained as convolutions of quantum and classical dynamic correlation functions. The corresponding Raman scattering laws are derived, and the overall shape of the spectra and the width of the resonance lines are studied as functions of temperature. The results of the theory are confronted with experimental low-frequency Raman spectra on powder crystals of Sc2C2@C84 [M. Krause et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137403 (2004)]. The agreement of theory with experiment is very satisfactory in a broad temperature range.

  9. FOODWEB MODELING FOR PCBS IN THE TWELVEMILE CREEK ARM OF LAKE HARTWELL, GA/SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a series of studies on the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, SC, to examine the pollution of the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell by PCBs that were released from the site until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB c...

  10. 77 FR 27082 - StarTek USA, Inc., 244 Dundee Avenue, Greeley, CO; StarTek USA, Inc., 1250 H Street, Greeley, CO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... December 28, 2010, applicable to workers and former workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Greeley, Colorado. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on January 14, 2011 (76 FR 2717... Employment and Training Administration StarTek USA, Inc., 244 Dundee Avenue, Greeley, CO; StarTek USA,...

  11. Effect of the Pb(2+) lone electron pair in the structure and properties of the double perovskites Pb2Sc(Ti0.5Te0.5)O6 and Pb2Sc(Sc0.33Te0.66)O6: relaxor state due to intrinsic partial disorder.

    PubMed

    Larrégola, S A; Alonso, J A; Algueró, M; Jiménez, R; Suard, E; Porcher, F; Pedregosa, J C

    2010-06-01

    We describe the preparation, the crystal structure refined from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data, and study of the permittivity of two related double perovskites, Pb2Sc(Ti0.5Te0.5)O6 and Pb2Sc(Sc0.33Te0.66)O6. These compounds were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures; Rietveld refinements from room temperature NPD data show that the crystal structures are well defined in a cubic unit cell (space group Fm3m) with double parameter, a = 2a0 ≈ 8 Å. They contain a completely ordered array of ScO6 and (B,Te)O6 (B = Sc, Ti) octahedra sharing corners; the PbO12 polyhedra present an off-center displacement of the lead atoms along the [1 1 1] directions, due to the electrostatic repulsion between the Pb(2+) 6 s electron lone-pair and the Pb-O bonds of the cuboctahedron. Both compounds present a low temperature, highly dispersive maximum in permittivity, the position of which follows the Vogel-Fulcher relation with freezing temperatures of 156 and 99 K for Pb2Sc(Ti0.5Te0.5)O6 and Pb2Sc(Sc0.33Te0.66)O6, respectively, exhibiting a typical phenomenology of relaxors.

  12. A Global Record of Surface Earth Oxygenation from Sedimentary V/Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, C. B.; Schoene, B.; Johnston, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    One of the simplest methods to investigate changes in oxidation potential in geologic environments is to examine a pair of otherwise similar elements with dramatically different redox chemistry. The first-row transition metals Sc and V represent one such pair, with generally similar mass, radius, and ionization energies up to the trivalent redox state. However, as a d3 transition metal, Sc is limited to a maximum oxidation state of 3+, while d5 vanadium may be further oxidized to form tetravalent and pentavalent ions. Due to the greater incompatibility of pentavalent (relative to trivalent) metal cations in silicate melts, V/Sc ratio has been applied to the silicate rock record as a tracer of magma redox - indicating roughly constant mantle oxygen fugacity over Earth history1,2. As a result, the solid earth represents a boundary condition with constant V/Sc observed over geologic time1. However, oxidation state also affects the weathering, solubility, and coordination behaviour of V and Sc, resulting in a potential redox signal in the sedimentary V/Sc record. We apply the weighted bootstrap resampling approach of [2] to a geochemical dataset of ~87,000 sedimentary whole-rock analyses from the EarthChem portal3. The resulting trends reveal a 4 Gyr record of V/Sc redox chemistry, with the great oxidation event represented as an upward step ca. 2.5 Ga, and Phanerozoic variation suggestive of low oxygen in the early Paleozoic, increasing to twin maxima circa 270 Ma and 130 Ma, remarkably similar to that predicted by the COPSE model4, and broadly congruent with the Phanerozoic biochar record5. Li, Z.-X. A. & Lee, C.-T. A. EPSL 228, 483-493 (2004). Keller, C. B. & Schoene, B. Nature 485, 490-493 (2012). EarthChem Bergman, N. M. Am. J. Science 304, 397-437 (2004). Glasspool, I. J. & Scott, A. C. Nat. Geosci. 3, 627-630 (2010).

  13. Production, purification, and characterization of human scFv antibodies expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Jane M.; Gray, Sean A.; Siegel, Robert W.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2005-08-01

    Single chain (scFv) antibodies are used as affinity reagents for diagnostics, therapeutics, and proteomic analyses. The antibody discovery platform we use to identify novel antigen binders involves discovery, characterization, and production. The discovery and characterization components have previously been characterized but in order to fully utilize the capabilities of affinity reagents from our yeast surface display library, efforts were focused on developing a production component to obtain purified, soluble, and active scFvs. Instead of optimizing conditions to achieve maximum yield, efforts were focused on using a system that could quickly and easily produce and process hundreds of scFv antibodies. Heterologous protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli were evaluated for their ability to rapidly, efficaciously, and consistently produce scFv antibodies for use in downstream proteomic applications. Following purification, the binding activity of several scFv antibodies were quantified using a novel Biacore assay. All three systems produced soluble scFv antibodies which ranged in activity from 0-99%. scFv antibody yields from Saccharomyces, Pichia, and E. coli were 1.5-4.2, 0.4-7.3, and 0.63-16.4 mg L-1 culture, respectively. For our purposes, expression in E. coli proved to be the quickest and most consistent way to obtain and characterize purified scFv for downstream applications. The E. coli expression system was also used to compare scFv production levels from the periplasm, inclusion bodies, and culture media. The E. coli production system was then used to produce variants of several scFv to determine structure function relationships.

  14. In vivo imaging of prostate cancer using an anti-PSMA scFv fragment as a probe

    PubMed Central

    Mazzocco, Claire; Fracasso, Giulio; Germain-Genevois, Coralie; Dugot-Senant, Nathalie; Figini, Mariangela; Colombatti, Marco; Grenier, Nicolas; Couillaud, Franck

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate a fluorescent-labeled single chain variable fragment (scFv) of the anti-PSMA antibody as a specific probe for the detection of prostate cancer by in vivo fluorescence imaging. An orthotopic model of prostate cancer was generated by injecting LNCaP cells into the prostate lobe. ScFvD2B, a high affinity anti-PSMA antibody fragment, was labeled using a near-infrared fluorophore to generate a specific imaging probe (X770-scFvD2B). PSMA-unrelated scFv-X770 was used as a control. Probes were injected intravenously into mice with prostate tumors and fluorescence was monitored in vivo by fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). In vitro assays showed that X770-scFvD2B specifically bound to PSMA and was internalized in PSMA-expressing LNCaP cells. After intravenous injection, X770-scFvD2B was detected in vivo by FMT in the prostate region. On excised prostates the scFv probe co-localized with the cancer cells and was found in PSMA-expressing cells. The PSMA-unrelated scFv used as a control did not label the prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that scFvD2B is a high affinity contrast agent for in vivo detection of PSMA-expressing cells in the prostate. NIR-labeled scFvD2B could thus be further developed as a clinical probe for imaging-guided targeted biopsies. PMID:26996325

  15. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Yuichi Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-21

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01 ± 0.10) up to 40 μm in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06 eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at n = 3.7 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}.

  16. Development of Human-Like scFv-Fc Neutralizing Botulinum Neurotoxin E

    PubMed Central

    Miethe, Sebastian; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Liu, Yvonne; Chahboun, Siham; Korkeala, Hannu; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Pelat, Thibaut; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Hust, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are considered to be the most toxic substances known on earth and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food-poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agent by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and are listed among the six agents with the highest risk to be used as bioweapons. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of effective anti-botulism therapies to deal with the potential risk of exposure. Results In this study, a macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was immunized with recombinant light chain of BoNT/E3 and an immune phage display library was constructed. After a multi-step panning, several antibody fragments (scFv, single chain fragment variable) with nanomolar affinities were isolated, that inhibited the endopeptidase activity of pure BoNT/E3 in vitro by targeting its light chain. Furthermore, three scFv were confirmed to neutralize BoNT/E3 induced paralysis in an ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay. The most effective neutralization (20LD50/mL, BoNT/E3) was observed with scFv ELC18, with a minimum neutralizing concentration at 0.3 nM. Furthermore, ELC18 was highly effective in vivo when administered as an scFv-Fc construct. Complete protection of 1LD50 BoNT/E3 was observed with 1.6 ng/dose in the mouse flaccid paralysis assay. Conclusion These scFv-Fcs antibodies are the first recombinant antibodies neutralizing BoNT/E by targeting its light chain. The human-like nature of the isolated antibodies is predicting a good tolerance for further clinical development. PMID:26440796

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 47: Monte Carlo Simulation of Scp, Sc and Sp

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2014-08-15

    The in-water output ratio (Scp), in-air output ratio (Sc), and phantom scattering factor (Sp) are important parameters for radiotherapy dose calculation. Experimentally, Scp is obtained by measuring the dose rate ratio in water phantom, and Sc the water Kerma rate ratio in air. There is no method that allows direct measurement of Sp. Monte Carlo (MC) method has been used to simulate Scp and Sc in literatures, similar to experimental setup, but no MC direct simulation of Sp available yet to the best of our knowledge. We propose in this report a method of performing direct MC simulation of Sp. Starting from the definition, we derived that Sp of a clinical photon beam can be approximated by the ratio of the dose rates contributed from the primary beam for a given field size to the reference field size. Since only the primary beam is used, any Linac head scattering should be excluded from the simulation, which can be realized by using the incident electron as a scoring parameter for MU. We performed MC simulations for Scp, Sc and Sp. Scp matches well with golden beam data. Sp obtained by the proposed method agrees well with what is obtained using the traditional method, Sp=Scp/Sc. Since the smaller the field size, the more the primary beam dominates, our Sp simulation method is accurate for small field. By analyzing the calculated data, we found that this method can be used with no problem for large fields. The difference it introduced is clinically insignificant.

  18. The Elk Creek Carbonatite Complex, Nebraska (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, R. M.; Blessington, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Elk Creek carbonatite complex (ECCC) is a large Early Cambrian carbonatite-alkaline syenite complex located in SE Nebraska (USA). The carbonatite and related rocks are buried by more than 200 m of Pennsylvanian marine sedimentary rocks and Quaternary till. The pre-Pennsylvanian sub-crop is crudely circular in plan-view and exceeds 30 km2, making it one of the larger carbonatite complexes in North America. The rocks of the complex were intruded in Precambrian granite and gneiss on the eastern margin of the Mid-Continent rift where it has been offset by one of a series of southeasterly trending structures. The primary rock type in the ECCC is dolomite carbonatite. The dolomite carbonatite ranges from fine-grained flow-banded dolomite to a coarse-grained rock comprising large prismatic dolomite crystals. The central portion of the complex comprises a pipe-like intrusion of magnetite dolomite carbonatite and magnetite dolomite carbonatite breccia. Magnetite dolomite carbonatite is typically fine-grained and contains angular or rounded elongate fragments of dolomite carbonatite. Fragments of magnetite dolomite carbonatite are also included in dolomite carbonatite and other carbonatite rocks in the complex. Emplacement of a discreet pulse of reduced, iron-rich carbonatite magma was, therefore, a likely early event in the evolution of the ECCC. The magnetite is altered locally to hematite and other iron oxides. The oxidation ranges from a dusting of hematite to pervasive alteration to hematite and ferric oxyhydroxides and occurs to depths as much as 630 m below the modern land surface. Other volumetrically important rock types include apatite dolomite carbonatite and barite dolomite carbonatite. Both of these rock types are localized largely along fractures, occur later in the intrusive sequence, and may reflect exsolution of phosphates and sulfates with decreasing temperatures. The magnetite dolomite carbonatite hosts significant pyrochlore mineralization. Microprobe

  19. Modeling forest fire severity in California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Identifying areas at risk for fires whose severity is outside the natural fire regime will allow for targeted fuel reduction and mitigation to preserve ecosystem integrity. The probability of large fire occurrence has been successfully predicted and forecast using hydro-climate variables and statistical modeling techniques. We are employing similar statistical techniques to test the potential for predicting and forecasting forest fire severity for California, USA under current and future climate scenarios. We have a mapped fire severity dataset for forest fires spanning twenty-two years (1984-2006) for California as well as a suite of topographic and vegetation data layers from the Landfire project. Our hydro-climate dataset was developed using the VIC hydrologic model with the LDAS parameterization; we thus used the LDAS 1/8° grid to sample our fire severity, topographic and vegetation datasets. Initial exploratory analyses of the hydro-climate data show that low fractional fire severity is positively correlated to cumulative precipitation for the 12-month prior period and the 12-month period ending 6-month prior to the month of the fire, while moderate to high fractional severity is negatively correlated. Relationships opposite in sign, but comparative in magnitude, were found for cumulative adjusted moisture deficit for 12 months prior to the month of fire and the 12-month period ending 6 months prior to the fire. Additionally, fire area was positively correlated to both cumulative moisture deficit variables. Current year March and April snow water equivalent were negatively correlated to moderate and high fractional fire severity. Using only hydro-climate data predictors, we were

  20. Evolving plans for the USA National Phenology Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Breshears, David D.; Brewer, Carol A.; Frazer, Gary; Gross, John E.; Mazer, Susan J.; Reed, Bradley C.; Wilson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events, how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, and how they modulate the abundance, diversity, and interactions of organisms. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is currently being organized to engage federal agencies, environmental networks and field stations, educational institutions, and citizen scientists. The first USA-NPN planning workshop was held August 2005, in Tucson, Ariz. (Betancourt et al. [2005]; http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/Geography/npn/; by 1 June 2007, also see http://www.usanpn.org). With sponsorship from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and NASA, the second USA-NPN planning workshop was held at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee on 10–12 October 2006 to (1) develop lists of target species and observation protocols; (2) identify existing networks that could comprise the backbone of nationwide observations by 2008; (3) develop opportunities for education, citizen science, and outreach beginning in spring 2007; (4) design strategies for implementing the remote sensing component of USA-NPN; and (5) draft a data management and cyberinfrastructure plan.

  1. scVEGF Microbubble Ultrasound Contrast Agents: A Novel Probe for Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Christopher R., Anderson; Joshua J., Rychak; Marina, Backer; Joseph, Backer; Klaus, Ley; Alexander L., Klibanov

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel microbubble (MB) ultrasound contrast agent covalently coupled to a recombinant single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor construct (scVEGF) through uniform site-specific conjugation for ultrasound imaging of tumor angiogenesis. Methods Ligand conjugation to maleimide-bearing MB by thioether bonding was first validated with a fluorophore (BODIPY-cystine), and covalently bound dye was detected by fluorometry and flow cytometry. MBs were subsequently site-specifically conjugated to cysteine-containing Cys-tag in scVEGF, and bound scVEGF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Targeted adhesion of scVEGF-MB was investigated with in vitro parallel plate flow chamber assays with recombinant murine VEGFR-2 substrates and human VEGFR-2-expressing porcine endothelial cells (PAE/KDR). A wall-less ultrasound flow phantom, with flow channels coated with immobilized VEGFR-2, was used to detect adhesion of scVEGF-MB with contrast ultrasound imaging. A murine model of colon adenocarcinoma was used to assess retention of scVEGF-MB with contrast ultrasound imaging during tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Results Proof-of-principle of ligand conjugation to maleimide-bearing MB was demonstrated with a BODIPY-cysteine fluorophore. Conjugation of BODIPY to MB saturated at 10-fold molar excess BODIPY relative to maleimide groups on MB surfaces. MB reacted with scVEGF and led to the conjugation of 1.2 × 105 molecules scVEGF per MB. Functional adhesion of sc-VEGF-MB was shown in parallel plate flow chamber assays. At a shear stress of 1.0 dynes/cm2, scVEGF-MB exhibited 5-fold higher adhesion to both recombinant VEGFR-2 substrates and VEGFR-2-expressing endothelial cells compared with nontargeted control MB. Additionally, scVEGF-MB targeted to immobilized VEGFR-2 in an ultrasound flow phantom showed an 8-fold increase in mean acoustic signal relative to casein-coated control channels. In an in vivo model of tumor angiogenesis, scVEGF MB showed

  2. L-Arginine ethylester enhances in vitro amplification of PrP(Sc) in macaques with atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and enables presymptomatic detection of PrP(Sc) in the bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Y; Ono, F; Shimozaki, N; Shibata, H

    2016-02-12

    Protease-resistant, misfolded isoforms (PrP(Sc)) of a normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva, are expected to be useful diagnostic markers of prion diseases, and nonhuman primate models are suited for performing valid diagnostic tests for human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We developed an effective amplification method for PrP(Sc) derived from macaques infected with the atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) prion by using mouse brain homogenate as a substrate in the presence of polyanions and L-arginine ethylester. This method was highly sensitive and detected PrP(Sc) in infected brain homogenate diluted up to 10(10) by sequential amplification. This method in combination with PrP(Sc) precipitation by sodium phosphotungstic acid is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, urine, and plasma of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the L-BSE prion. Furthermore, PrP(Sc) was detectable in the saliva or urine samples as well as CSF samples obtained at the preclinical phases of the disease. Thus, our novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of bodily fluid leakage of PrP(Sc) in nonhuman primate models. PMID:26802462

  3. L-Arginine ethylester enhances in vitro amplification of PrP(Sc) in macaques with atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy and enables presymptomatic detection of PrP(Sc) in the bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Y; Ono, F; Shimozaki, N; Shibata, H

    2016-02-12

    Protease-resistant, misfolded isoforms (PrP(Sc)) of a normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in the bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva, are expected to be useful diagnostic markers of prion diseases, and nonhuman primate models are suited for performing valid diagnostic tests for human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We developed an effective amplification method for PrP(Sc) derived from macaques infected with the atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-BSE) prion by using mouse brain homogenate as a substrate in the presence of polyanions and L-arginine ethylester. This method was highly sensitive and detected PrP(Sc) in infected brain homogenate diluted up to 10(10) by sequential amplification. This method in combination with PrP(Sc) precipitation by sodium phosphotungstic acid is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc) contained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, urine, and plasma of macaques that have been intracerebrally inoculated with the L-BSE prion. Furthermore, PrP(Sc) was detectable in the saliva or urine samples as well as CSF samples obtained at the preclinical phases of the disease. Thus, our novel method may be useful for furthering the understanding of bodily fluid leakage of PrP(Sc) in nonhuman primate models.

  4. 41 CFR 102-38.370 - What does a holding agency do with property which cannot be sold by its SC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency do with property which cannot be sold by its SC? 102-38.370 Section 102-38.370 Public Contracts... § 102-38.370 What does a holding agency do with property which cannot be sold by its SC? All reasonable efforts must be afforded the SC to sell the property. If the property remains unsold after the time...

  5. 41 CFR 102-38.365 - Is a holding agency required to report property in “scrap” condition to its selected SC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required to report property in âscrapâ condition to its selected SC? 102-38.365 Section 102-38.365 Public... selected SC? No. Property which has no value except for its basic material content (scrap material) may be... agency should consult the SC(s) selected by the holding agency as to the feasibility of selling the...

  6. [Construction of anti-B7-H4-scFv library and screening and identification of anti-B7-H4-scFv].

    PubMed

    Shao, Luanluan; Xu, Chaochao; Ji, Hongshuai; Mao, Weiping; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Yanyan

    2016-09-01

    Objective To construct the ribosome display library of anti-B7-H4 extracellular domain, and select the antibody with high specificity. Methods The cDNA of B7-H4 extracellular domain was amplified from A549 cells by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). To express ectodomains of B7-H4, the sequence of B7-H4 gene, which encodes the B7-H4 extracellular domains, was inserted into plasmid pET-28a(+). The purified recombinant protein of B7-H4 extracellular domain was used to immunize BALB/c mice. The total RNA was extracted from the spleen of BALB/c mice which had been immunized with B7-H4 recombinant protein. The genes of VH, Vκ and VH/Vκ were amplified separately by RT-PCR and splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR). The gene of VH/ Vκ was ligated into pUM19-T vector and the ligated sample was transformed into competent E.coli DH5α. The resulting plasmid was isolated and then subjected to sequencing to verify the gene sequence. TNT(R)T7 Quick for PCR DNA kit was used to translate and screen the anti-B7-H4-scFv in vitro from the ribosome display library. Western blotting and an indirect ELISA were performed to detect the specificity of anti-B7-H4-scFv. Results The right sequences of VH, Vκ and VH/Vκ were acquired, which were 439, 680 and 1098 bp in length, respectively. The analysis of specificity demonstrated that the anti-B7-H4-scFv screened from the ribosome display library had a high specific combining ability with B7-H4. Conclusion The experiment has successively constructed the ribosome display library of anti-B7-H4 extracellular domain, and selected the anti-B7-H4-scFv which has a high specific binding ability with recombinant protein of B7-H4 extracelluar domain. PMID:27609584

  7. A drought severity climatology for the Carpathian Region using Sc-PDSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antofie, Tiberiu; Naumann, Gustavo; Spinoni, Jonathan; Weynants, Melanie; Szalai, Sandor; Szentimrey, Tamas; Bihari, Zita; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Monthly grids of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI) have been calculated for the period 1961-2010 for the Carpathian Region (17˚-27˚E, 44˚-50˚N) with a spatial resolution of 0.1˚x 0.1˚. Using the Sc-PDSI and the assumptions of the Palmer Drought Model (PDM), the approximated precipitation required for drought termination (achieved when the Sc-PDSI turns back above -0.5) and amelioration (achieved when the Sc-PDSI value turns back above -2.0) are computed for periods of 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. The Sc-PDSI is based on a modified version of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), first introduced by Palmer (1965) with the intent to measure the cumulative departure (related to local normal conditions) of moisture supply and demand. Due to its empirically derived climatic characteristic (K) and duration factors - limited to U.S. climatic conditions - Wells et al. (2004) improved it and transformed the PDSI into the Sc-PDSI, which is more appropriate for spatial comparisons in different climatic regions. The Sc-PDSI is based on the supply-and-demand concept of a complex water budget system based on precipitation and temperature records and also on the soil characteristics at any location. The inputs used in this study are the Available Water Capacity of the soil (AWC) derived from the soil texture (European Soil Database of JRC) with a spatial resolution of 0.1˚x0.1˚, Potential Evapo-Transpiration (PET), and 6 hydrological parameters of the soil water balance: recharge, runoff, loss, and their potential values (used in the calculation of Palmer's constants to define the normal climate for the specific location, i.e. the so called CAFEC). PET has been computed using the 0.1˚x 0.1˚ gridded monthly precipitation and mean temperature for 1961-2010 provided by the CARPATCLIM project in the framework of the construction of a Climate Atlas for the Carpathian Region. The Sc-PDSI focuses on the monthly anomalies of the soil moisture, thus it

  8. Assisted reproductive technology in the USA: Is more regulation needed?

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of assisted reproductive technologies is a contested area. Some jurisdictions, such as the UK and a number of Australian states, have comprehensive regulation of most aspects of assisted reproductive technologies; others, such as the USA, have taken a more piecemeal approach and rely on professional guidelines and the general regulation of medical practice to govern this area. It will be argued that such a laissez-faire approach is inadequate for regulating the complex area of assisted reproductive technologies. Two key examples, reducing multiple births and registers of donors and offspring, will be considered to illustrate the effects of the regulatory structure of assisted reproductive technologies in the USA on practice. It will be concluded that the regulatory structure in the USA fails to provide an adequate mechanism for ensuring the ethical and safe conduct of ART services, and that more comprehensive regulation is required.

  9. Assisted reproductive technology in the USA: Is more regulation needed?

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of assisted reproductive technologies is a contested area. Some jurisdictions, such as the UK and a number of Australian states, have comprehensive regulation of most aspects of assisted reproductive technologies; others, such as the USA, have taken a more piecemeal approach and rely on professional guidelines and the general regulation of medical practice to govern this area. It will be argued that such a laissez-faire approach is inadequate for regulating the complex area of assisted reproductive technologies. Two key examples, reducing multiple births and registers of donors and offspring, will be considered to illustrate the effects of the regulatory structure of assisted reproductive technologies in the USA on practice. It will be concluded that the regulatory structure in the USA fails to provide an adequate mechanism for ensuring the ethical and safe conduct of ART services, and that more comprehensive regulation is required. PMID:25171854

  10. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  11. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  12. Validity evaluation of Sc x Al1‑x N material constants based on SAW characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Yamazaki, Kenta; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed at examining the validity of material constants reported for use in surface acoustic wave (SAW) device simulations. First, based on the full set of material constants calculated by first principle, bulk acoustic wave velocities are calculated for Sc x Al1‑x N and compared with published experimental results. Then, the effects of the Sc x Al1‑x N material constants with different Sc content on acoustic characteristics are calculated and the influence of shear vibrations on SAW characteristics are recognized. Then, a series of SAW devices are fabricated on Sc x Al1‑x N film/Si substrate structure with various Cu and ScAlN thicknesses h Cu and h ScAlN, respectively, and measured variations of phase velocity V and effective electromechanical coupling factor K\\text{e}2 with these parameters are compared with the calculation. The fairly well-agreed results indicate a reliable set of Sc x Al1‑x N material constants for SAW device simulations.

  13. Production of in vivo biotinylated scFv specific to almond (Prunus dulcis) proteins by recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Alcocer, Marcos; Madrid, Raquel; García, Aina; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2016-06-10

    The methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris has demonstrated its suitability for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. As an eukaryotic organism P. pastoris presents a series of advantages at expression and processing of heterologous proteins when compared with Escherichia coli. In this work, P. pastoris has been used to express a scFv from a human synthetic library previously shown to bind almond proteins. In order to facilitate purification and post processing manipulations, the scFv was engineered with a C-terminal tag and biotinylated in vivo. After purification, biotinylated scFv were bound to avidin conjugated with HRP producing a multimeric scFv. The multimeric scFv showed to maintain their ability to recognize almond protein when assayed in ELISA, reaching a LOD of 470mgkg(-1). This study describes an easy method to produce large quantities of in vivo biotinylated scFv in P. pastoris. By substituting the enzyme or fluorochromes linked to avidin, it will be possible to generate a diverse number of multimeric scFv as probes to suit different analytical platforms in the detection of almond in food products. PMID:27085890

  14. Production of in vivo biotinylated scFv specific to almond (Prunus dulcis) proteins by recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Alcocer, Marcos; Madrid, Raquel; García, Aina; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2016-06-10

    The methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris has demonstrated its suitability for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. As an eukaryotic organism P. pastoris presents a series of advantages at expression and processing of heterologous proteins when compared with Escherichia coli. In this work, P. pastoris has been used to express a scFv from a human synthetic library previously shown to bind almond proteins. In order to facilitate purification and post processing manipulations, the scFv was engineered with a C-terminal tag and biotinylated in vivo. After purification, biotinylated scFv were bound to avidin conjugated with HRP producing a multimeric scFv. The multimeric scFv showed to maintain their ability to recognize almond protein when assayed in ELISA, reaching a LOD of 470mgkg(-1). This study describes an easy method to produce large quantities of in vivo biotinylated scFv in P. pastoris. By substituting the enzyme or fluorochromes linked to avidin, it will be possible to generate a diverse number of multimeric scFv as probes to suit different analytical platforms in the detection of almond in food products.

  15. Expression and Purification of the scFv from Hybridoma Cells Secreting a Monoclonal Antibody Against S Protein of PEDV

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinghe; Guo, Donghua; Feng, Li

    2013-01-01

    The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) were amplified by RT-PCR from the hybridoma 6E6, which secretes the monoclonal antibody against PEDV S protein. The VL and VH amplicons were combined using SOE-PCR by a 12 amino acid flexible linker (SSGGGGSGGGGS), which produced the scFv gene (named scFv/6E6). After sequence analysis, the scFv/6E6 gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1 with a GST-tag. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was successfully expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli by IPTG induction. Moreover, the recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was purified from the inclusion body form by the gel-cutting measure followed by electroelution and dialysis. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein reported here will provide some basis for further antiviral drug research based on the scFv molecule. PMID:23600505

  16. PKC-Theta is a Novel SC35 Splicing Factor Regulator in Response to T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    McCuaig, Robert Duncan; Dunn, Jennifer; Li, Jasmine; Masch, Antonia; Knaute, Tobias; Schutkowski, Mike; Zerweck, Johannes; Rao, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of nuclear pre-mRNA is essential for generating protein diversity and regulating gene expression. While many immunologically relevant genes undergo alternative splicing, the role of regulated splicing in T cell immune responses is largely unexplored, and the signaling pathways and splicing factors that regulate alternative splicing in T cells are poorly defined. Here, we show using a combination of Jurkat T cells, human primary T cells, and ex vivo naïve and effector virus-specific T cells isolated after influenza A virus infection that SC35 phosphorylation is induced in response to stimulatory signals. We show that SC35 colocalizes with RNA polymerase II in activated T cells and spatially overlaps with H3K27ac and H3K4me3, which mark transcriptionally active genes. Interestingly, SC35 remains coupled to the active histone marks in the absence of continuing stimulatory signals. We show for the first time that nuclear PKC-θ co-exists with SC35 in the context of the chromatin template and is a key regulator of SC35 in T cells, directly phosphorylating SC35 peptide residues at RNA recognition motif and RS domains. Collectively, our findings suggest that nuclear PKC-θ is a novel regulator of the key splicing factor SC35 in T cells. PMID:26594212

  17. Inoculation with Metal-Mobilizing Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. SC2b and Its Role in Rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  18. Structure, phase transition, and controllable thermal expansion behaviors of Sc(2-x)Fe(x)Mo₃O₁₂.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meimei; Liu, Xinzhi; Chen, Dongfeng; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yuntao

    2014-09-01

    The crystal structures, phase transition, and thermal expansion behaviors of solid solutions of Sc(2-x)Fe(x)Mo3O12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) have been examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). At room temperature, samples crystallize in a single orthorhombic structure for the compositions of x < 0.6 and monoclinic for x ≥ 0.6, respectively. DSC results indicate that the phase transition temperature from monoclinic to orthorhombic structure is enhanced by increasing the Fe(3+) content. High-temperature XRD and NPD results show that Sc(1.3)Fe(0.7)Mo3O12 exhibits near zero thermal expansion, and the volumetric coefficients of thermal expansion derived from XRD and NPD are 0.28 × 10(-6) °C(-1) (250-800 °C) and 0.65 × 10(-6) °C(-1) (227-427 °C), respectively. NPD results of Sc2Mo3O12 (x = 0) and Sc(1.3)Fe(0.7)Mo3O12 (x = 0.7) indicate that Fe substitution for Sc induces reduction of the mean Sc(Fe)-Mo nonbond distance and the different thermal variations of Sc(Fe)-O5-Mo2 and Sc(Fe)-O3-Mo2 bond angles. The correlation between the displacements of oxygen atoms and the variation of unit cell parameters was investigated in detail for Sc2Mo3O12. PMID:25140828

  19. Inoculation with Metal-Mobilizing Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. SC2b and Its Role in Rhizoremediation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain SC2b was isolated from the rhizosphere of Sedum plumbizincicola grown in lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mine soils and characterized as Bacillus sp. based on (1) morphological and biochemical characteristics and (2) partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Strain SC2b exhibited high levels of resistance to cadmium (Cd) (300 mg/L), Zn (730 mg/L), and Pb (1400 mg/L). This strain also showed various plant growth-promoting (PGP) features such as utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, solubilization of phosphate, and production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore. The strain mobilized high concentration of heavy metals from soils and exhibited different biosorption capacity toward the tested metal ions. Strain SC2b was further assessed for PGP activity by phytagar assay with a model plant Brassica napus. Inoculation of SC2b increased the biomass and vigor index of B. napus. Considering such potential, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of inoculating the metal-resistant PGPB SC2b on growth and uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb by S. plumbizincicola in metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Inoculation with SC2b elevated the shoot and root biomass and leaf chlorophyll content of S. plumbizincicola. Similarly, plants inoculated with SC2b demonstrated markedly higher Cd and Zn accumulation in the root and shoot system, indicating that SC2b enhanced Cd and Zn uptake by S. plumbizincicola through metal mobilization or plant-microbial mediated changes in chemical or biological soil properties. Data demonstrated that the PGPB Bacillus sp. SC2b might serve as a future biofertilizer and an effective metal mobilizing bioinoculant for rhizoremediation of metal polluted soils. PMID:26167758

  20. Generation of a Single Chain Antibody Variable Fragment (scFv) to Sense Selectively RhoB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chinestra, Patrick; Olichon, Aurélien; Medale-Giamarchi, Claire; Lajoie-Mazenc, Isabelle; Gence, Rémi; Inard, Cyril; Ligat, Laetitia; Faye, Jean-Charles; Favre, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Determining the cellular level of activated form of RhoGTPases is of key importance to understand their regulatory functions in cell physiopathology. We previously reported scFvC1, that selectively bind to the GTP-bound form of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC. In this present study we generate, by molecular evolution, a new phage library to isolate scFvs displaying high affinity and selectivity to RhoA and RhoB. Using phage display affinity maturation against the GTP-locked mutant RhoAL63, we isolated scFvs against RhoA active conformation that display Kd values at the nanomolar range, which corresponded to an increase of affinity of three orders of magnitude compared to scFvC1. Although a majority of these evolved scFvs remained selective towards the active conformation of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC, we identified some scFvs that bind to RhoA and RhoC but not to RhoB activated form. Alternatively, we performed a substractive panning towards RhoB, and isolated the scFvE3 exhibiting a 10 times higher affinity for RhoB than RhoA activated forms. We showed the peculiar ability of scFvE3 to detect RhoB but not RhoA GTP-bound form in cell extracts overexpressing Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor XPLN as well as in EGF stimulated HeLa cells. Our results demonstrated the ability of scFvs to distinguish RhoB from RhoA GTP-bound form and provide new selective tools to analyze the cell biology of RhoB GTPase regulation. PMID:25365345

  1. 44Sc: An Attractive Isotope for Peptide-Based PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression of integrin αvβ3 has been linked to tumor aggressiveness and metastasis in several cancer types. Because of its high affinity, peptides containing the arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) motif have been proven valuable vectors for noninvasive imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression and for targeted radionuclide therapy. In this study, we aim to develop a 44Sc-labeled RGD-based peptide for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin αvβ3 expression in a preclinical cancer model. High quality 44Sc (t1/2, 3.97 h; β+ branching ratio, 94.3%) was produced inexpensively in a cyclotron, via proton irradiation of natural Ca metal targets, and separated by extraction chromatography. A dimeric cyclic-RGD peptide, (cRGD)2, was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and radiolabeled with 44Sc in high yield (>90%) and specific activity (7.4 MBq/nmol). Serial PET imaging of mice bearing U87MG tumor xenografts showed elevated 44Sc-DOTA-(cRGD)2 uptake in the tumor tissue of 3.93 ± 1.19, 3.07 ± 1.17, and 3.00 ± 1.25 %ID/g at 0.5, 2, and 4 h postinjection, respectively (n = 3), which were validated by ex vivo biodistribution experiments. The integrin αvβ3 specificity of the tracer was corroborated, both in vitro and in vivo, by competitive cell binding and receptor blocking assays. These results parallel previously reported studies showing similar tumor targeting and pharmacokinetic profiles for dimeric cRGD peptides labeled with 64Cu or 68Ga. Our findings, together with the advantageous radionuclidic properties of 44Sc, capitalize on the relevance of this isotope as an attractive alternative isotope to more established radiometals for small molecule-based PET imaging, and as imaging surrogate of 47Sc in theranostic applications. PMID:25054618

  2. Hydroxyurea decreases hospitalizations in pediatric patients with Hb SC and Hb SB+ thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D; Patel, Rakeshkumar J; Palabindela, Prasannalaxmi; Bemrich-Stolz, Christina J; Howard, Thomas H; Hilliard, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Patients with hemoglobin SC (Hb SC) and hemoglobin SB+ (Hb SB+) thalassemia suffer from frequent hospitalizations yet strong evidence of a clinical benefit of hydroxyurea (HU) in this population is lacking. Patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain crisis are offered HU at our institution based on small cohort data and anecdotal benefit. This study identifies outcomes from a large cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU for 2 years. Materials and methods A retrospective review was conducted of 32 patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia who were treated with HU. We reviewed the number, and reasons for hospitalization in the 2 years prior to, and 2 years post-HU treatment as well as laboratory changes from baseline, over 1 year. Results Patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia started on HU for frequent pain, had a significant reduction in hospitalizations over 2 years as compared to the 2 years prior to HU initiation (mean total hospitalizations/year: pre-HU: 1.6 vs post-HU 0.4 hospitalizations, P<0.001; mean pain hospitalizations/year: pre-HU 1.5 vs post-HU 0.3 hospitalizations, P<0.001). Patients demonstrated hematologic changes including an increase in percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF) pre–post HU (4.5% to 7.7%, P=0.002), mean corpuscular volume (74 to 86 fL, P<0,0001), and decrease in absolute neutrophil count (5.0 to 3.2×109/L, P=0.007). Patients with higher doses of HU demonstrated the greatest reduction in hospitalizations but this was unrelated to absolute neutrophil count. Conclusion This cohort of patients with Hb SC and SB+ thalassemia provides additional support for using HU in patients with recurrent hospitalizations for pain. A large randomized multicenter trial of HU to reduce pain admissions should be conducted to confirm these data and provide much needed evidence based recommendations for this population. PMID:26719735

  3. Perspective on IUPAP-ICWIP conferences and USA Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Herman

    2015-04-01

    Starting in 1999, the (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) IUPAP, General Assembly, passed a resolution to form an IUPAP Working Group on Women in Physics. This lead to a number of international conferences that focused on analyzing the then current status of and progress in promoting women in physics for each country and world wide as well as sharing physics research progress and participation. I was twice a member of the USA delegation and participated in two of the last three of these conferences. I will present a perspective on the USA participation and contribution to the efforts of the conferences.

  4. Pharmaceutical production in space? The case of the USA.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J N; Beasley, L J; Goodrich, G E

    1989-07-01

    Globally, over $100 billion are spent annually on space goods and services. These include space shuttles, space stations ('factories'), transportation into space and materials processing in space (MPS). Many countries are involved, such as the USA, USSR, Japan and China. A current, fascinating area of space commerce--albeit in its infancy--is the production in space of vital pharmaceuticals such as urokinase, interferon and Factor VIII. This article discusses space-based pharmaceutical production, marketing-related obstacles and other concerns in the USA.

  5. The metallofullerene field-induced single-ion magnet HoSc2 N@C80.

    PubMed

    Dreiser, Jan; Westerström, Rasmus; Zhang, Yang; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar; Krämer, Karl; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Greber, Thomas

    2014-10-13

    The low-temperature magnetic properties of the endohedral metallofullerene HoSc2 N@C80 have been studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements reveal that this molecule exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization in a small applied field with timescales in the order of milliseconds. The equilibrium magnetic properties of HoSc2 N@C80 indicate strong magnetic anisotropy. The large differences in magnetization relaxation times between the present compound and the previously investigated DySc2 N@C80 are discussed. PMID:25164532

  6. Tunable charge-transport properties of I(h)-C80 endohedral metallofullerenes: investigation of La2@C80, Sc3N@C80, and Sc3C2@C80.

    PubMed

    Sato, Satoru; Seki, Shu; Luo, Guangfu; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Lu, Jing; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2012-07-18

    Fullerene crystals or films have drawn much interest because they are good candidates for use in the construction of electronic devices. The results of theoretical calculations revealed that the conductivity properties of I(h)-C(80) endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) vary depending on the encapsulated metal species. We experimentally investigated the solid-state structures and charge-carrier mobilities of I(h)-C(80) EMFs La(2)@C(80), Sc(3)N@C(80), and Sc(3)C(2)@C(80). The thin film of Sc(3)C(2)@C(80) exhibits a high electron mobility μ = 0.13 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) under normal temperature and atmospheric pressure, as determined using flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements. This electron mobility is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mobility of La(2)@C(80) or Sc(3)N@C(80).

  7. Unoccupied electronic resonances of Sc adsorbed on W(001) by k-resolved inverse photoemission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamouri, A.; Krainsky, I. L.; Petukhov, A. G.; Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Segall, B.

    1995-01-01

    Scandium adsorbed on the (001) face of tungsten has been studied using Auger-electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, k-resolved inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, work-function measurements, and relativistic-electronic-structure calculations. We find that the work function of W(001) does not decrease monotonically as a function of scandium adsorption but reaches a minimum value of Phi = 3.25 eV at 50% coverage. For a complete monolayer, an order 1 X 1 Sc overlayer is formed. Inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode was used to map the unoccupied energy levels of this overlayer along the bar-Gamma(bar-Mu) symmetry direction of the surface Brillouin zone. Local-density-functional calculations using the muffin-tin orbital method were performed for a 1 X 1 Sc overlayer on W and are compared with the experimental two-dimensional band structure.

  8. In situ TEM investigation of microstructural behavior of superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dám, Karel; Lejček, Pavel; Michalcová, Alena

    2013-02-15

    Dynamic changes in microstructure of the superplastic ultrafine-grained Al–3Mg–0.2Sc (wt.%) alloy refined by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). were observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy at temperatures up to 300 °C (annealing and tensile deformation) in order to simulate the initial stages of superplastic testing. It was found that the microstructure changes significantly during the preheating before the superplastic deformation, which was accompanied by decreased microhardness. During the deformation at 300 °C, high dislocation activity as well as motion of low-angle grain boundaries was observed while high-angle grain boundaries did not move due to the presence of scandium in the alloy. - Highlights: ► We performed in situ TEM annealing and straining on superplastic Al–Mg–Sc alloy. ► We simulated the conditions of early stages of superplastic testing. ► Significant changes in microstructure occur during preheating before deformation.

  9. Growth and characterization of iron scandium sulfide (FeSc2S4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, J. R.; Plumb, K. W.; Pasco, C. M.; Trump, B. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.

    2016-11-01

    Here we report successful growth of mm scale single crystals of stoichiometric FeSc2S4. Single crystal X-ray diffraction yields a cubic structure, spacegroup Fd 3 ̅ m , with a=10.5097(2) Å at T=110(2) K consistent with previous literature on polycrystalline samples. Models fit to the data reveal no detectable antisite mixing or deviations from the ideal stoichiometry. Heat capacity and dc magnetization measurements on the single crystals match those of high quality powder specimens. The novel traveling solvent crystal growth method presented in this work opens the door to studies requiring sizable single crystals of the candidate spin-orbital liquid FeSc2S4.

  10. Acute Splenic Sequestration Crisis in a 70-Year-Old Patient With Hemoglobin SC Disease

    PubMed Central

    Squiers, John J.; Edwards, Anthony G.; Parra, Alberto; Hofmann, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old African American female with a past medical history significant for chronic bilateral shoulder pain and reported sickle cell trait presented with acute-onset bilateral thoracolumbar pain radiating to her left arm. Two days after admission, Hematology was consulted for severely worsening microcytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the patient’s peripheral blood smear from admission revealed no cell sickling, spherocytes, or schistocytes. Some targeting was noted. A Coombs test was negative. The patient was eventually transferred to the medical intensive care unit in respiratory distress. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed a diagnosis of hemoglobin SC disease. A diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration crisis complicated by acute chest syndrome was crystallized, and red blood cell exchange transfusion was performed. Further research is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiology behind acute splenic sequestration crisis, and the role of splenectomy to treat hemoglobin SC disease patients should be better defined. PMID:27047980

  11. Understanding the reactivity of endohedral metallofullerenes: C78 versus Sc3N@C78.

    PubMed

    Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Solà, Miquel; Fernández, Israel

    2015-04-01

    The physical factors behind the reduced Diels-Alder reactivity of the Sc3N@C78 metallofullerene as compared with free C78 have been investigated in detail by means of computational tools. To this end, the reactions between 1,3-butadiene and free C78 and endohedral Sc3N@C78 have been analysed in terms of regioselectivity and reactivity by using the activation strain model of reactivity in combination with the energy decomposition analysis method. Additional factors such as the molecular orbital overlap or the aromaticity of the corresponding transition states have been also explored. Our results indicate that the lower reactivity of the metallofullerene finds its origin mainly in the less stabilizing interaction between the deformed reactants along the reaction coordinate induced by the triscandium nitride moiety.

  12. Which Is The Best Sandwich Compound? Hexaphenylbenzene Substituted By Sandwich Compounds Bearing Sc, Cr, and Fe.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Estrella; Martínez, Ana; Rios, Citlalli; Salcedo, Roberto

    2015-11-25

    The electronic properties of nine different hexaarylbenzene molecules substituted by sandwich compounds have been studied by applying density functional theory. Different structures and the particular electron donor power of these systems have been considered in order to analyze their oxidant capacity, using bis(ciclopentadienyl) scandium, ferrocene, and bis(benzene)chromium as sandwich compounds. Both monometallic and bimetallic combinations are investigated. According to the ionization energies and electron affinities, compounds with Cr are nucleophiles and represent the best electron donors, whereas compounds with Sc are electrophiles and represent the best electron acceptors. The worse electron donor or acceptor is hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene. This is very significant, as it implies that the very well-known electronic properties of hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene can be improved by substituting with other metals, such as Sc and Cr. This suggests several possible applications for these compounds. PMID:26528582

  13. Tensile Property of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W. T.; Yan, D. S.; Li, X. Y.; Rong, L. J.; Li, Y. Y.

    2006-03-01

    The tensile property and fracture characteristic of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy have been investigated at 77 K, 123 K, 173 K, 223 K and 300 K respectively. Both the strength and elongation improved with decreasing temperature from 300 K to 77 K, particularly between 123 K and 77 K. However, the reduction of area exhibited a maximum at around 173 K. The fractographs of tensile specimens show a completely dimple-type ductile mode of fracture at 77 K and mixed type of fracture at 300 K, and the primary Al3(Sc,Zr) and Al6(Mn,Fe) phases are responsible for void and crack initiation at their interface with the matrix at cryogenic temperature.

  14. Crystallite size-dependent phases in nanocrystalline ZrO(2)-Sc(2)O(3).

    PubMed

    Abdala, Paula M; Fantini, Márcia C A; Craievich, Aldo F; Lamas, Diego G

    2010-03-28

    ZrO(2)-10, 12 and 14 mol% Sc(2)O(3) nanopowders were prepared by using a nitrate-lysine gel-combustion synthesis. These materials were studied by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD) and Raman spectroscopy after calcination at different temperatures from 650 to 1200 degrees C, which led to samples with different average crystallite sizes, up to about 100 nm. The results from SXPD and Raman analyses indicate that, depending on Sc(2)O(3) content, the metastable t''-form of the tetragonal phase or the cubic phase are fully retained at room temperature in nanocrystalline powders, provided an average crystallite sizes lower than approximately 30 nm. By contrast, powders with larger average crystallite sizes exhibit the stable rhombohedral, beta and gamma, phases and do not retain or very partially retain the metastable t'' and cubic ones.

  15. High-Gradient Tests of the Single-Cell SC Cavity with a Feedback Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.; Solyak, N.; Wu, G.; Ge, M.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ozelis, J.; Rowe, A.; Avrakhov, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Rathke, J.

    2010-11-04

    Use of a superconducting (SC) traveling-wave accelerating (STWA) structure with a small phase advance per cell, rather than a standing-wave structure, may provide a significant increase in the accelerating gradient in the ILC linac [1]. For the same surface electric and magnetic fields, the STWA achieves an accelerating gradient 1.2 larger than TESLA-like standing-wave cavities. In addition, the STWA allows longer acceleration cavities, reducing the number of gaps between them. However, the STWA structure requires a SC feedback waveguide to return the few hundreds of MW of circulating RF power from the structure output to the structure input. A test single-cell cavity with feedback was designed and manufactured to demonstrate the possibility of proper processing to achieve a high accelerating gradient. The first results of high-gradient tests of a prototype 1.3 GHz single-cell cavity with feedback waveguide will be presented.

  16. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, H. M.; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Fontes, C. J.; Perry, T. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Brown, C. R. D.; Morton, J. W.; Hager, J. D.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi6O12 at 75 mg/cm3 density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV Te range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for Te = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectral sensitivity to Te changes of ˜3 eV.

  17. Supercritical CO2 direct cycle Gas Fast Reactor (SC-GFR) concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven Alan; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Al Rashdan, Ahmad; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Vernon, Milton E.; Fleming, Darryn D.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) direct cycle gas fast reactor (SC-GFR) concept. The SC-GFR reactor concept was developed to determine the feasibility of a right size reactor (RSR) type concept using S-CO{sub 2} as the working fluid in a direct cycle fast reactor. Scoping analyses were performed for a 200 to 400 MWth reactor and an S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Although a significant amount of work is still required, this type of reactor concept maintains some potentially significant advantages over ideal gas-cooled systems and liquid metal-cooled systems. The analyses presented in this report show that a relatively small long-life reactor core could be developed that maintains decay heat removal by natural circulation. The concept is based largely on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) commercial power plants operated in the United Kingdom and other GFR concepts.

  18. [Human amniotic epithelium (HAE) as a possible source of stem cells (SC)].

    PubMed

    García-López, Guadalupe; García-Castro, Irma Lydia; Avila-González, Daniela; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Díaz-Martínez, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    There have been major recent advances in the field of developmental biology due to the investigation on stem cells (SC). Stem cells are characterized by their capacity of auto-renewal and differentiation to different cellular phenotypes. Based on the developmental stage, they can be classified into two different types: embryonic SCs and adult SCs. It has been widely reported that several problems need to be resolved before their possible clinical applications. As a result, fetal membranes have been suggested as an alternative source of SCs. In the human amniotic epithelium, the presence of markers of pluripotent SC´s has been reported, and its capacity as a feeder layer for expansion of different SC types. Also, fetal membranes are a discarded product after delivery, and thus there are not any ethical issues related to its use. In conclusion, the human amniotic epithelium can be a strong candidate for regenerative medicine.

  19. High-reflectivity Cr/Sc multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stollberg, H.; Yulin, S.; Takman, P. A. C.; Hertz, H. M.

    2006-12-15

    The condenser is a critical component in compact water-window x-ray microscopes as it influences the exposure time via its efficiency and the resolution via its numerical aperture. Normal-incidence multilayer mirrors can reach large geometrical collection efficiencies and match the numerical aperture of the zone plate but require advanced processing for high total reflectivity. In the present article we demonstrate large-diameter normal-incidence spherical Cr/Sc multilayer condensers with high and uniform reflectivity. Dc-magnetron sputtering was used to deposit 300 bilayers of Cr/Sc with a predetermined d-spacing matching the {lambda}=3.374 nm operating wavelength on spherical substrates. The mirrors show a uniform reflectivity of {approx}3% over the full 58 mm diameter condenser area. With these mirrors an improvement in exposure time by a factor of 10 was achieved, thereby improving the performance of the compact x-ray microscope significantly.

  20. Anomalously high thermoelectric power factor in epitaxial ScN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kerdsongpanya, Sit; Zukauskaite, Agne; Jensen, Jens; Birch, Jens; Lu Jun; Hultman, Lars; Wingqvist, Gunilla; Eklund, Per; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2011-12-05

    Thermoelectric properties of ScN thin films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) wafers are reported. X-ray diffraction and elastic recoil detection analyses show that the composition of the films is close to stoichiometry with trace amounts ({approx}1 at. % in total) of C, O, and F. We found that the ScN thin-film exhibits a rather low electrical resistivity of {approx}2.94 {mu}{Omega}m, while its Seebeck coefficient is approximately {approx}-86 {mu}V/K at 800 K, yielding a power factor of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup -3} W/mK{sup 2}. This value is anomalously high for common transition-metal nitrides.