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Sample records for ailurus fulgens fulgens

  1. Tyzzer's disease in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Langan, J; Bemis, D; Harbo, S; Pollock, C; Schumacher, J

    2000-12-01

    A debilitated 9-yr-old female red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) with a recent history of corticosteroid administration displayed anorexia, depression, and diarrhea for 2 days. Blood work revealed a moderate nonregenerative anemia, leukocytosis, hypokalemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Serology was negative for occult heartworm, Toxoplasma gondii, feline leukemia virus, feline infectious peritonitis, feline immunodeficiency virus, and canine distemper virus. Electron microscopy of the feces demonstrated corona-like virus particles. The panda died 3 days after initial presentation. Histologic findings included multifocal, acute, hepatic necrosis and diffuse, necrotizing colitis. Liver and colon lesions contained intracellular, curved, spore-forming, gram-negative, silver-positive rods morphologically consistent with Clostridium piliforme. This panda most likely contracted Tyzzer's disease subsequent to having a compromised immune system after corticosteroid administration and concurrent disease.

  2. [Osteomyelitis and papillary renal adenoma in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens)].

    PubMed

    Kummerfeld, M; Knieriem, A; Wohlsein, P

    2008-11-01

    A 13 year-old female Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) kept in a zoological garden was euthanatized due to poor general condition. Pathological examination revealed a chronic bacterial ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis and osteomyelitis at the lower jaw with subsequent pyogranulomatous pneumonia and diffuse hydropic degeneration of the liver. Additionally, in the kidney a papillary renal adenoma was found. Immunohistochemistry revealed an expression of cytokeratins 8 and/or 19 indicating an origin from the renal tubular epithelium.

  3. Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetance, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. PMID:24467661

  4. Mosaic 35,X/36,XY karyotype and intersex in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Reddacliff, G L; Halnan, C R; Martin, I C

    1993-01-01

    A zoo-bred Himalayan red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) was diagnosed as a presumptive intersex on clinical examination at 4-mo-of-age. The phenotype was predominantly female but showed a large anogenital distance and bilateral ischial swellings. Based on cytogenetic evaluation, the karyotype was mos35,X/36,XY, with 50% of each cell type. A grossly normal uterus and oviducts were seen with laparoscopic examination, while the gonads were smooth-surfaced, with a ramifying vascular pattern. On histopathologic examination the bulk of the gonads consisted of clumps of poorly differentiated cells, with just a thin rim of ovarian tissue under the region covered by the fimbriae of the oviduct.

  5. Polycystic kidneys in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2013-09-01

    An intact adult male 14.3-yr-old red panda (Ailurus fulgens) presented for health examination with a history of slowly progressing loss of body condition. Abdominal radiographs revealed a truncated abdomen with poor serosal abdominal detail and multiple areas of spondylosis with some collapsed intervertebral disc spaces. On computed tomography, multiple ovoid hypoattenuating lesions were seen in the left and right kidneys. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed multiple cystic lesions in the kidneys concurrent with pancreatic cysts on histopathology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, polycystic kidneys have not been reported in this species.

  6. Chromobacteriosis in a Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani).

    PubMed

    Dyer, N W; Krogh, D F; DeVold, R; Wilson, S L; White, D G

    2000-03-01

    An adult Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) transported by airplane from Florida to a North Dakota zoo died 1 week after arrival. Grossly, an interscapular abscess, subcutaneous inflammation, lymphadenitis, and pulmonary abscesses were observed. Microscopic findings included necrotizing inflammation in liver, lung, lymph node, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum was cultured from the interscapular abscess, liver, lung, and spleen and was injected into Swiss Webster mice. These mice died 18 hours postinoculation, and C. violaceum was cultured from liver, lung, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum is a sporadically reported but highly virulent pathogenic bacterium of both animals and humans typically found as a soil and water inhabitant of tropical and subtropical regions.

  7. Chromobacteriosis in a Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani).

    PubMed

    Dyer, N W; Krogh, D F; DeVold, R; Wilson, S L; White, D G

    2000-03-01

    An adult Chinese red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) transported by airplane from Florida to a North Dakota zoo died 1 week after arrival. Grossly, an interscapular abscess, subcutaneous inflammation, lymphadenitis, and pulmonary abscesses were observed. Microscopic findings included necrotizing inflammation in liver, lung, lymph node, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum was cultured from the interscapular abscess, liver, lung, and spleen and was injected into Swiss Webster mice. These mice died 18 hours postinoculation, and C. violaceum was cultured from liver, lung, and spleen. Chromobacterium violaceum is a sporadically reported but highly virulent pathogenic bacterium of both animals and humans typically found as a soil and water inhabitant of tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:10730953

  8. Pneumonia from Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Gibbons, Lynda M; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Wenzlow, Nanny; Redrobe, Sharon P

    2009-03-01

    A 9-year-old, male, captive red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) in an urban zoo in the United Kingdom presented with respiratory distress and weight loss. The animal was euthanatized, and a postmortem examination was performed. The lungs were diffusely consolidated with extensive mineralization. Microscopically, there was extensive obliteration of normal pulmonary architecture by sheets and coalescing nodules of partially mineralized fibrous tissue and granulomatous inflammation centered on large numbers of nematode larvae and eggs. First stage nematode larvae were isolated from lung tissue and were characterized as Angiostrongylus vasorum on the basis of their morphology and sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the entire second internal transcribed spacer. Although A. vasorum has previously been reported in red pandas in a zoological collection in Denmark, this study is the first reported case in the United Kingdom and occurs against a background of geographical spread and increased incidence of disease in domestic and wild canids. Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered a differential diagnosis for respiratory disease in the red panda and taken into account when planning parasite and pest control programs for zoological collections.

  9. Excretion profiles of some reproductive steroids in the faeces of captive Nepalese red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Spanner, A; Stone, G M; Schultz, D

    1997-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected up to once daily from three female Nepalese red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) prior to, during, and after the expected 1995 breeding season. Radioimmunoassay of faecal progestins and oestrogens showed hormone profiles that suggest that this species is a seasonally polyoestrous, induced ovulator. Examination of faecal extracts following high pressure liquid chromatography and using antisera of high specificity, demonstrated at least five faecal progestins but only one major oestrogen, probably oestradiol. Samples from males were collected up to once weekly during the breeding season in 1996, and androgens measured by radioimmunoassay. Faecal androgens fluctuated widely for all males.

  10. Avascular necrosis of the femoral heads in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens): possible Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

    PubMed

    Delclaux, María; Talavera, Covadonga; López, Manuel; Sánchez, Jose Miguel; García, María Isabel

    2002-09-01

    A 17-mo-old captive-born female red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) presented with a sudden onset of lameness in its left hind leg was diagnosed radiographically as having possible severe, bilateral Legg-Calve-Perthes disease with fracture of the great trochanter of the left femur. Surgical repair of the fracture was performed using pins and a tension band wire through a lateral approach to the hip. This is the first case reported at Madrid Zoo-Aquarium, where 63 individuals have been bred over 15 yr.

  11. Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two Red Panda Cubs (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Zoll, W M; Needle, D B; French, S J; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Langohr, I; Agnew, D

    2015-01-01

    Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp. TEM of cardiac muscle and lung revealed numerous intracellular apicomplexan protozoa within parasitophorous vacuoles. PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of partial 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region confirmed a Sarcocystis spp. that shared 99% sequence homology to Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis dasypi. This represents the first report of sarcocystosis in red pandas. The histopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural findings are supportive of vertical transmission resulting in fatal disseminated disease.

  12. Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two Red Panda Cubs (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Zoll, W M; Needle, D B; French, S J; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Langohr, I; Agnew, D

    2015-01-01

    Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp. TEM of cardiac muscle and lung revealed numerous intracellular apicomplexan protozoa within parasitophorous vacuoles. PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of partial 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region confirmed a Sarcocystis spp. that shared 99% sequence homology to Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis dasypi. This represents the first report of sarcocystosis in red pandas. The histopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural findings are supportive of vertical transmission resulting in fatal disseminated disease. PMID:26054654

  13. Current husbandry of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in zoos.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, P; Zidar, J; White, D; Westander, J; Andersson, M

    2010-01-01

    The endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is held in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how red pandas are kept and managed in captivity and to compare it with the management guidelines. Sixty-nine zoos, mainly from Europe but also from North America and Australia/New Zealand, responded to our survey. The results revealed that in general zoos follow the management guidelines for most of the investigated issues. The average enclosure is almost four times larger than the minimum size recommended by the management guidelines, although seven zoos have smaller enclosures. About half the zoos do not follow the guidelines concerning visitor access and number of nest boxes. Other issues that may compromise animal welfare include proximity of neighboring carnivore species and placement of nest boxes.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Slattery, J P; O'Brien, S J

    1995-01-01

    The phylogenetic placement of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has been an evolutionary enigma since their original descriptions in the nineteenth century. A series of recent molecular analyses led to a consensus that the giant panda's ancestors were derived from early bears (Ursidae), but left unsettled the phylogenetic relationship of the red panda. Previous molecular and morphological phylogenies were inconclusive and varied among placement of the red panda within the raccoon family (Procyonidae), within the bear family (Ursidae), or in a separate family of carnivores equidistant between the two. To examine a relatively ancient (circa 20-30 million years before the present, MYBP) phylogenetic divergence, we used two slowly evolving genetic markers: mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence and 592 fibroblast proteins resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different carnivore outgroup species, including dog (Canidae: Canis familiaris), cat (Felidae: Felis catus), fanaloka (Viverridae: Fossa fossa), and mongoose (Herpestidae: Galidia elegans), were selected to identify the root of the phylogenetic topologies. Phylogenetic reconstruction by distance-based methods, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood clearly indicate a distinct bifurcation forming the Ursidae and the Procyonidae. Further, our data consistently place the red panda as an early divergence within the Procyonidae radiation and confirm the inclusion of giant panda in the Ursidae lineage.

  15. Non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Beaulah Budithi, Neema Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Yalla, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Upashna; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-09-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. Efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. This study aimed to standardize Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to monitor reproductive (Progesterone metabolite, Testosterone) and stress hormone (Cortisol) in red panda. For this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a period of one year from Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, India. HPLC confirmed the presence of immunoreactive 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, testosterone and cortisol metabolites in faecal samples. Using 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one EIA, we were able to monitor reproduction and detect pregnancy in one of the females, which successfully conceived and delivered during the study period. We were also able to monitor testosterone and cortisol in faecal samples of the red panda. Faecal testosterone levels were found in higher concentration in breeding season than in non-breeding season. Faecal cortisol concentrations showed a negative relationship with ambient temperature and peaked during winter months in all animals. Standardization of EIAs and faecal hormone monitoring would facilitate red panda conservation breeding programs in India and elsewhere.

  16. Non-invasive monitoring of reproductive and stress hormones in the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Beaulah Budithi, Neema Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Yalla, Suneel Kumar; Rai, Upashna; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2016-09-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) is classified as endangered due to its declining population, habitat fragmentation and poaching. Efforts are being made to breed them in captivity as part of nationwide conservation breeding program. This study aimed to standardize Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) to monitor reproductive (Progesterone metabolite, Testosterone) and stress hormone (Cortisol) in red panda. For this purpose, we collected 1471 faecal samples from four females and one male over a period of one year from Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling, India. HPLC confirmed the presence of immunoreactive 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one, testosterone and cortisol metabolites in faecal samples. Using 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one EIA, we were able to monitor reproduction and detect pregnancy in one of the females, which successfully conceived and delivered during the study period. We were also able to monitor testosterone and cortisol in faecal samples of the red panda. Faecal testosterone levels were found in higher concentration in breeding season than in non-breeding season. Faecal cortisol concentrations showed a negative relationship with ambient temperature and peaked during winter months in all animals. Standardization of EIAs and faecal hormone monitoring would facilitate red panda conservation breeding programs in India and elsewhere. PMID:27481551

  17. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteriosis with T-cell Lymphoma in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Fuke, N; Hirai, T; Makimura, N; Goto, Y; Habibi, W A; Ito, S; Trang, N T; Koshino, K; Takeda, M; Yamaguchi, R

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) became emaciated and died. Necropsy examination revealed systemic lymphadenomegaly. The liver, lungs and left kidney contained multifocal yellow nodules. Microscopical examination revealed granulomatous inflammation in the liver, lungs, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes, with numerous acid-fast bacilli. Sequencing of genetic material isolated from the tissues classified the pathogen as Mycobacterium gastri. Lymphoma was found in the liver, lungs, kidney and lymph nodes. The neoplastic cells were strongly labelled for expression of CD3, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen by immunohistochemistry. This is the first report of M. gastri infection with T-cell lymphoma in a red panda.

  18. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-12-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III-V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented.

  19. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-01-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III–V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented. PMID:19930516

  20. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Barton, Michael; Holmgren, Jennifer; Tang, Samuel Y

    2009-12-01

    Within the order Carnivora, the phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is contentious, with morphological and molecular studies supporting a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for the forelimb of Ailurus, based on the dissection of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA. The red panda forelimb is characterized by a number of primitive features, including the lack of m. rhomboideus profundus, a humeral insertion for m. cleidobrachialis, the presence of mm. brachioradialis, articularis humeri and coracobrachialis, a single muscle belly for m. extensor digitorum lateralis with tendons to digits III-V, four mm. lumbricales, and the presence of mm. flexor digitorum brevis manus, adductores digiti I, II and V, and abductor digiti I and V. Red pandas resemble Ailuropoda, mustelids and some procyonids in possessing a soft tissue origin of m. flexor digitorum superficialis. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and procyonids in having a variable presence of m. biceps brachii caput breve. Furthermore, Ailurus and some ursids lack m. rhomboideus capitis. The forelimb muscle maps from this study represent a valuable resource for analyzing the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids and some notes on the Miocene ailurid, Simocyon batalleri, are presented. PMID:19930516

  1. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteriosis with T-cell Lymphoma in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Fuke, N; Hirai, T; Makimura, N; Goto, Y; Habibi, W A; Ito, S; Trang, N T; Koshino, K; Takeda, M; Yamaguchi, R

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) became emaciated and died. Necropsy examination revealed systemic lymphadenomegaly. The liver, lungs and left kidney contained multifocal yellow nodules. Microscopical examination revealed granulomatous inflammation in the liver, lungs, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes, with numerous acid-fast bacilli. Sequencing of genetic material isolated from the tissues classified the pathogen as Mycobacterium gastri. Lymphoma was found in the liver, lungs, kidney and lymph nodes. The neoplastic cells were strongly labelled for expression of CD3, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen by immunohistochemistry. This is the first report of M. gastri infection with T-cell lymphoma in a red panda. PMID:27421619

  2. Clinical implications of infection with a novel metastrongyloid species in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Willesen, Jakob L; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Wiinberg, Bo; Monrad, Jesper; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-06-01

    In a recent survey, 30% of the European red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population was found to be infected with a newly discovered metastrongyloid nematode. In a following prospective study, four naturally infected captive-bred red pandas infected with this parasite were examined and compared with two uninfected control animals. On clinical examination, no abnormalities were detected with respect to vital parameters and cardiovascular system in all six examined animals. Similarly, few and nonspecific changes were recorded on serum biochemistry. No changes on pulmonary pattern were noted on thoracic radiographs. Vertebral heart scores were between 7.2 to 8.6, and no difference was noted between infected and control animals. Two animals had slightly prolonged clotting time and reaction time on thromboelastography but not likely to be of clinical relevance. In conclusion, infection with the newly identified metastrongyloid nematode in the red pandas seems to have little or no clinical importance.

  3. Sequence analysis of a canine parvovirus isolated from a red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Loeffler, I Kati; Li, Ming; Tian, Kegong; Wei, Fuwen

    2007-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) was first recognized in the late 1970 s in dogs and has mutated and spread throughout the world in canid and felid species since then. In this study, a novel CPV was isolated from the endangered red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein VP2 gene classified the red panda parvovirus (RPPV) as a CPV-2a type. Substitution of Val for Gly at the conserved 300 residue in RPPV presents an unusual variation in the CPV-2a amino acid sequence and is further evidence for the continuing evolution of the virus. The 300 residue is important in distinguishing the antigenicity and host range of CPVs. The clinical significance and population impact of RPPV infection in captive red pandas in China is unknown and is an important topic for future research.

  4. Clinical implications of infection with a novel metastrongyloid species in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Willesen, Jakob L; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Wiinberg, Bo; Monrad, Jesper; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-06-01

    In a recent survey, 30% of the European red panda (Ailurus fulgens) population was found to be infected with a newly discovered metastrongyloid nematode. In a following prospective study, four naturally infected captive-bred red pandas infected with this parasite were examined and compared with two uninfected control animals. On clinical examination, no abnormalities were detected with respect to vital parameters and cardiovascular system in all six examined animals. Similarly, few and nonspecific changes were recorded on serum biochemistry. No changes on pulmonary pattern were noted on thoracic radiographs. Vertebral heart scores were between 7.2 to 8.6, and no difference was noted between infected and control animals. Two animals had slightly prolonged clotting time and reaction time on thromboelastography but not likely to be of clinical relevance. In conclusion, infection with the newly identified metastrongyloid nematode in the red pandas seems to have little or no clinical importance. PMID:22779231

  5. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-11-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids.

  6. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids. PMID:19014366

  7. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-11-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids. PMID:19014366

  8. Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Neiffer, Donald L; Klein, Edwin C; Calle, Paul P; Linn, Michael; Terrell, Scott P; Walker, Rodney L; Todd, Donna; Vice, Carol C; Marks, Steven K

    2002-09-01

    Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2.7-mg/kg doses of melarsomine dihydrochloride administered in the epaxial musculature as a treatment for filarid nematodes. One otter had a suspected Dirofilaria immitis infection, the other had a confirmed D. lutrae infection, and the red panda had a confirmed Dirofilaria sp. infection, presumably with D. immitis. Postmortem examinations revealed similar gross lesions, although they were less severe in the red panda. The trachea and primary bronchi contained abundant foamy fluid, the lungs were mottled with areas of consolidation, and the pulmonary parenchyma exuded abundant fluid at the cut section. Histologic evaluation revealed acute pulmonary edema, which resulted in respiratory failure and death. There may have been direct pulmonary cellular toxicity of melarsomine dihydrochloride or a severe systemic anaphylactic reaction to antigens released after parasite death. An idiosyncratic drug reaction or a low therapeutic index of melarsomine probably caused the death of the three individuals. Melarsomine dihydrochloride use should be avoided in North American river otters and red pandas.

  9. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  10. [Comparative chromosome painting shows the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a highly conserved karyotype].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Yang, Feng-Tang

    2002-02-01

    We have established a comparative chromosome map between red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) and dog by chromosome painting with biotin-labelled chromosome-specific probes of the dog. Dog probes specific for the 38 automates delineated 71 homologous segments in the metaphase chromosomes of red panda. Of the 38 autosomal paints, 18 probes each delineated one homologous segment in red panda genome, while the other 20 ones each detected two to five homologous segments. The dog X chromosome-specific paint delineated the whole X chromosome of the red panda. The results indicate that at least 28 fissions (breaks), 49 fusions and 4 inversions were needed to "convert" the dog karyotype to that of the red panda, suggesting that extensive chromosome rearrangements differentiate the karyotypes of red panda and dog. Based on the established comparative chromosome homologies of dog and domestic cat, we could infer that there were 26 segments of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. Comparative analysis of the distribution patterns of conserved segments defined by dog paints in red panda and domestic cat genomes revealed at least 2 cryptic inversions in two large chromosomal regions of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. The karyotype of red panda shows high degree of homology with that of domestic cat.

  11. Fibroblast cell line establishment, cryopreservation and interspecies embryos reconstruction in red panda ( Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Liu, Jianming; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Meiling; Fang, Junshun; Han, Wei; Zhang, Zhizhong; Liu, Ya; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-05-01

    In evolution, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher level phylogeny of arctoides carnivore mammals. The red panda inhabits certain Asian countries only and its numbers are decreasing. Therefore, the development of feasible ways to preserve this species is necessary. Genetic resource cryopreservation and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have been used extensively to rescue this endangered species. The present study describes the establishment, for the first time, of a red panda ear fibroblast cell line, which was then cryopreserved, thawed and cultured. Through micromanipulation, interspecies embryos were reconstructed using the cryopreserved-thawed fibroblasts of the red panda as the donor and rabbit oocytes as recipients. A total of 194 enucleated rabbit oocytes were reconstructed with red panda ear fibroblasts; enucleated oocytes were activated without fusion as the control. The results show that the fibroblast cell line was established successfully by tissue culture and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Supplementation with 20% fetal bovine serum and 8% dimethyl sulphoxide in basic medium facilitated the cryopreservation. The interspecies embryos were successfully reconstructed. The cleavage, morulae and blastocyst rates after in vitro culture were 71, 47 and 23% (31/194), respectively. This study indicated that a somatic cell line could be established and cryopreserved from red panda and that rabbit cytoplast supports mitotic cleavage of the red panda karyoplasts and is capable of reprogramming the nucleus to achieve blastocysts.

  12. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb. PMID:26244684

  13. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wei, Fuwen; Goossens, Benoît; Feng, Zuojian; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Bruford, Michael W; Funk, Stephan M

    2005-07-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species and its present distribution is restricted to isolated mountain ranges in western China (Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet provinces) and the Himalayan Mountains chain of Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Burma. To examine the evolutionary history across its current range, and to assess the genetic divergence among current subspecies and population structure among different geographic locations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) and cytochrome (cyt) b gene for 41 individuals in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China, and Burma. 25 CR haplotypes (10 for cyt b) were identified from 11 geographic locations. Only three haplotypes were shared among sample localities, including one among current subspecies. Nine haplotypes were shared with the study of Su et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1070]. CR haplotype diversity was high (0.95+/-0.02) and nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was relatively low (0.018+/-0.009). Phylogenetic confirmed trees show a shallow pattern with very little structure or statistical robustness. The application of two coalescent-based tests for population growth allowed us to interpret this phylogeny as the result of a recent population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure in both data sets. The lack of significant differentiation between subspecies does not indicate the presence of evolutionary significant units. We suggest that the present population structure has resulted from habitat fragmentation and expansion from glacial refugia. Due to its habitat requirements it is likely that the red panda has undergone bottlenecks and population expansions several times in the recent past. The present population may exhibit a pattern reminiscent of a relatively recent population expansion. PMID:15904858

  14. Mitochondrial phylogeography and subspecific variation in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wei, Fuwen; Goossens, Benoît; Feng, Zuojian; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Bruford, Michael W; Funk, Stephan M

    2005-07-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species and its present distribution is restricted to isolated mountain ranges in western China (Sichuan, Yunnan, and Tibet provinces) and the Himalayan Mountains chain of Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Burma. To examine the evolutionary history across its current range, and to assess the genetic divergence among current subspecies and population structure among different geographic locations, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA from the control region (CR) and cytochrome (cyt) b gene for 41 individuals in Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet of China, and Burma. 25 CR haplotypes (10 for cyt b) were identified from 11 geographic locations. Only three haplotypes were shared among sample localities, including one among current subspecies. Nine haplotypes were shared with the study of Su et al. [Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 (2001) 1070]. CR haplotype diversity was high (0.95+/-0.02) and nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was relatively low (0.018+/-0.009). Phylogenetic confirmed trees show a shallow pattern with very little structure or statistical robustness. The application of two coalescent-based tests for population growth allowed us to interpret this phylogeny as the result of a recent population expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and nested clade analysis failed to detect significant geographic structure in both data sets. The lack of significant differentiation between subspecies does not indicate the presence of evolutionary significant units. We suggest that the present population structure has resulted from habitat fragmentation and expansion from glacial refugia. Due to its habitat requirements it is likely that the red panda has undergone bottlenecks and population expansions several times in the recent past. The present population may exhibit a pattern reminiscent of a relatively recent population expansion.

  15. Diversity and prevalence of metastrongyloid nematodes infecting the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in European zoos.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Meyland-Smith, Frederik; Willesen, Jakob L; Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Monrad, Jesper

    2010-09-20

    Metastrongyloid induced pneumonia has been described sporadically in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens). Early descriptions in pandas recently imported to the USA from China involved parasites morphologically similar to Angiostrongylus spp. and Crenosomatidae. More recently, four cases of severe verminous pneumonia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum have been reported from European zoos. A coprological survey of the red panda population within European zoos was conducted in 2008. Faecal samples from 115 pandas originating from 54 zoos were collected on 3 consecutive days. Using Baermann technique, 40 animals (35%) from 20 zoos (37%) were found to shed metastrongyloid first stage larvae (L(1)). Based on their morphology and size, the L(1) observed could be divided into three morphologically distinct types: (1) a Crenosoma sp. type (n=5, overall prevalence: 4.3%), (2) an A. vasorum type (n=3, 2.6%), and (3) an unidentified metastrongyloid species, similar to, but morphologically distinct from A. vasorum (n=32, 27.8%). Further confirmation of species identification was provided by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, which confirmed three different species. The novel Crenosoma species was most genetically analogous to Crenosoma mephitidis and the unidentified metastrongyloid species was most similar to Stenurus minor and Torynurus convulutus. Routine and quarantine health care of red pandas in captivity should take account of the risk of Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma infection in endemic areas, but should also be cognisant of the widespread presence of an apparently less pathogenic species of lungworm. The identity of the two potentially novel species is subject to further work.

  16. The use of intermittent positive pressure ventilation to differentiate pneumonia from atelectasis during anesthesia in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Phair, Kristen; West, Gary; Biller, David

    2010-12-01

    Radiography is a valuable tool for assessment of pulmonary disease. Specifically, radiographs utilizing positive pressure ventilation can distinguish between anesthesia-induced atelectasis and pulmonary disease when survey radiographs are ambiguous. Positive pressure ventilation can be used to radiographically prove or disprove pulmonary disease. This is of particular clinical importance when working with exotic, zoo, or wildlife species because the majority of these patients require general anesthesia to perform physical examinations and diagnostics such as radiography safely and efficiently. This report is a case example of pulmonary disease in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens) and demonstrates how positive pressure ventilation verified both the presence of pulmonary disease and the eventual resolution of the disease. Anesthetized patients on gas anesthesia will rapidly become atelectic. Through the use of positive pressure ventilation, anesthesia-induced atelectasis and true pulmonary disease can readily be distinguished. This is a technique that should not be overlooked when performing thoracic radiography in zoo species.

  17. The use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Koeppel, Katja N; Barrows, Michelle; Visser, Katherine

    2014-01-15

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. PMID:24100162

  18. The use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Koeppel, Katja N; Barrows, Michelle; Visser, Katherine

    2014-01-15

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants.

  19. Serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China with implications for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, I Kati; Howard, JoGayle; Montali, Richard J; Hayek, Lee-Ann; Dubovi, Edward; Zhang, Zhihe; Yan, Qigui; Guo, Wanzhu; Wildt, David E

    2007-12-01

    Conservation strategies for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. This study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. Serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans were measured in 44 samples taken from 19 giant pandas between 1998 and 2003 at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan, China. Seroassays also included samples obtained in 2003 from eight red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) housed at the same institution. All individuals had been vaccinated with a Chinese canine vaccine that included modified live CDV, CPV, CAV, CCV, and CPIV. Positive antibody titers were found only against CDV, CPV, and T. gondii. Sera were negative for antibodies against the other six pathogens. Results indicate that the quality of the vaccine may not be reliable and that it should not be considered protective or safe in giant pandas and red pandas. Positive antibody titers against T. gondii were found in seven of the 19 giant pandas. The clinical, subclinical, or epidemiologic significance of infection with these pathogens via natural exposure or from modified live vaccines in giant pandas is unknown. Research in this area is imperative to sustaining a viable population of giant pandas and other endangered species.

  20. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CAPTIVE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS) POPULATION, 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Delaski, Kristina M; Ramsay, Edward; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    Red pandas ( Ailurus fulgens ) are managed as captive populations in both North America and Europe. Regular review of pathology reports is a useful tool for developing veterinary care and husbandry strategies for such populations. Though thorough pathology reviews have been conducted for the European studbook, the North American population has not been reviewed similarly until now. Complete gross and histopathology reports were requested from institutions holding red pandas that died during 1992 through 2012 (n = 530), and reports were received for 95.8% of the individuals, including full necropsy records for 366 red pandas. These reports were classified by subspecies, gender, and age, then reviewed for primary cause of death and secondary pathological findings. A substantial portion of the deaths (40.2%) were neonates (<30 days of age). In both neonatal and juvenile (age = 31-365 days) animals, pneumonia was the most common cause of death. In adult (age = 366 days-10 yr) and geriatric red pandas (age >10 yr), cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death. Renal disease and gastrointestinal disease also were common pathologic findings in adult and geriatric animals. These findings suggest that stress associated with captivity and husbandry practices, including those associated with social, environmental, and nutritional conditions, may contribute to immune and cardiovascular pathologies, and other common necropsy findings.

  1. Genetic diversity and population history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence variations.

    PubMed

    Su, B; Fu, Y; Wang, Y; Jin, L; Chakraborty, R

    2001-06-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is one of the flagship species in worldwide conservation and is of special interest in evolutionary studies due to its taxonomic uniqueness. We sequenced a 236-bp fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop region in a sample of 53 red pandas from two populations in southwestern China. Seventeen polymorphic sites were found, together with a total of 25 haplotypes, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the red panda. However, no obvious genetic divergence was detected between the Sichuan and Yunnan populations. The consensus phylogenetic tree of the 25 haplotypes was starlike. The pairwise mismatch distribution fitted into a pattern of populations undergoing expansion. Furthermore, Fu's F(S) test of neutrality was significant for the total population (F(S) = -7.573), which also suggests a recent population expansion. Interestingly, the effective population size in the Sichuan population was both larger and more stable than that in the Yunnan population, implying a southward expansion from Sichuan to Yunnan.

  2. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CAPTIVE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS) POPULATION, 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Delaski, Kristina M; Ramsay, Edward; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    Red pandas ( Ailurus fulgens ) are managed as captive populations in both North America and Europe. Regular review of pathology reports is a useful tool for developing veterinary care and husbandry strategies for such populations. Though thorough pathology reviews have been conducted for the European studbook, the North American population has not been reviewed similarly until now. Complete gross and histopathology reports were requested from institutions holding red pandas that died during 1992 through 2012 (n = 530), and reports were received for 95.8% of the individuals, including full necropsy records for 366 red pandas. These reports were classified by subspecies, gender, and age, then reviewed for primary cause of death and secondary pathological findings. A substantial portion of the deaths (40.2%) were neonates (<30 days of age). In both neonatal and juvenile (age = 31-365 days) animals, pneumonia was the most common cause of death. In adult (age = 366 days-10 yr) and geriatric red pandas (age >10 yr), cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death. Renal disease and gastrointestinal disease also were common pathologic findings in adult and geriatric animals. These findings suggest that stress associated with captivity and husbandry practices, including those associated with social, environmental, and nutritional conditions, may contribute to immune and cardiovascular pathologies, and other common necropsy findings. PMID:26667534

  3. Genetic structuring and recent demographic history of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yibo; Guo, Yu; Qi, Dunwu; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Wu, Hua; Bruford, Michael W; Wei, Fuwen

    2011-07-01

    Clarification of the genetic structure and population history of a species can shed light on the impacts of landscapes, historical climate change and contemporary human activities and thus enables evidence-based conservation decisions for endangered organisms. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species distributing at the edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline, thus representing a good model to test the influences of the above-mentioned factors on a plateau edge species. We combined nine microsatellite loci and 551 bp of mitochondrial control region (mtDNA CR) to explore the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. A total of 123 individuals were sampled from 23 locations across five populations. High levels of genetic variation were identified for both mtDNA and microsatellites. Phylogeographic analyses indicated little geographic structure, suggesting historically wide gene flow. However, microsatellite-based Bayesian clustering clearly identified three groups (Qionglai-Liangshan, Xiaoxiangling and Gaoligong-Tibet). A significant isolation-by-distance pattern was detected only after removing Xiaoxiangling. For mtDNA data, there was no statistical support for a historical population expansion or contraction for the whole sample or any population except Xiaoxiangling where a signal of contraction was detected. However, Bayesian simulations of population history using microsatellite data did pinpoint population declines for Qionglai, Xiaoxiangling and Gaoligong, demonstrating significant influences of human activity on demography. The unique history of the Xiaoxiangling population plays a critical role in shaping the genetic structure of this species, and large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation is hampering gene flow among populations. The implications of our findings for the biogeography of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, subspecies classification and

  4. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Hu, Xiong-Feng; Wang, Hui-Bao; Zhang, Long-Xian; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and opportunistic enteric pathogen triggering diarrhea and enteric disease in humans and animals. Despite extensive research on this pathogen, the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in precious wild animals of giant and red pandas have not been reported. In the present study, 82 faecal specimens were collected from 46 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 36 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in the northwest of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an overall infection rate of 10.98% (9/82) was observed in pandas, with 8.70% (4/46) for giant pandas, and 13.89% (5/36) for red pandas. Two ITS genotypes were identified: the novel genotype I-like (n=4) and genotype EbpC (n=5). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) showed that nine, six, six and nine positive products were amplified and sequenced successfully at four respective loci. A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that the genotype EbpC fell into 1d of group 1 of zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype I-like was clustered into group 2. The present study firstly indicated the presence of E. bieneusi in giant and red pandas, and these results suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to effectively protect pandas and humans from infecting E. bieneusi in China. PMID:26079276

  5. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ge-Ru; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Hu, Xiong-Feng; Wang, Hui-Bao; Zhang, Long-Xian; Yu, San-Ke

    2015-08-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and opportunistic enteric pathogen triggering diarrhea and enteric disease in humans and animals. Despite extensive research on this pathogen, the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi infection in precious wild animals of giant and red pandas have not been reported. In the present study, 82 faecal specimens were collected from 46 giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 36 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in the northwest of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an overall infection rate of 10.98% (9/82) was observed in pandas, with 8.70% (4/46) for giant pandas, and 13.89% (5/36) for red pandas. Two ITS genotypes were identified: the novel genotype I-like (n=4) and genotype EbpC (n=5). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) employing three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) showed that nine, six, six and nine positive products were amplified and sequenced successfully at four respective loci. A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that the genotype EbpC fell into 1d of group 1 of zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype I-like was clustered into group 2. The present study firstly indicated the presence of E. bieneusi in giant and red pandas, and these results suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to effectively protect pandas and humans from infecting E. bieneusi in China.

  6. Characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanli; Zhao, Jiangchao; Han, Shushu; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Jiandong; Si, Xiaohui; Yang, Benqing; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16) and captive (n = 6) red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo.

  7. Characterization of the gut microbiota in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanli; Zhao, Jiangchao; Han, Shushu; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Jiandong; Si, Xiaohui; Yang, Benqing; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16) and captive (n = 6) red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo. PMID:24498390

  8. Characterization of the Gut Microbiota in the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shushu; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Jiandong; Si, Xiaohui; Yang, Benqing; Yang, Mingyao; Xu, Huailiang; Li, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The red panda is the only living species of the genus Ailurus. Like giant pandas, red pandas are also highly specialized to feed mainly on highly fibrous bamboo. Although several studies have focused on the gut microbiota in the giant panda, little is known about the gut microbiota of the red panda. In this study, we characterized the fecal microbiota from both wild (n = 16) and captive (n = 6) red pandas using a pyrosequecing based approach targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Distinct bacterial communities were observed between the two groups based on both membership and structure. Wild red pandas maintained significantly higher community diversity, richness and evenness than captive red pandas, the communities of which were skewed and dominated by taxa associated with Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis of the top 50 OTUs revealed that 10 of them were related to known cellulose degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the gut microbiota of the red panda. Our data suggest that, similar to the giant panda, the gut microbiota in the red panda might also play important roles in the digestion of bamboo. PMID:24498390

  9. Implications of the functional anatomy of the hand and forearm of Ailurus fulgens (Carnivora, Ailuridae) for the evolution of the 'false-thumb' in pandas.

    PubMed

    Antón, Mauricio; Salesa, Manuel J; Pastor, Juan F; Peigné, Stéphane; Morales, Jorge

    2006-12-01

    Both the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) possess a 'false-thumb', actually an enlarged radial sesamoid bone, which contributes to the gripping action of the hand. These species are not closely related, however, as one is an ursid and the other an ailurid, so the fact that they share this adaptation implies a remarkable convergence. We studied the functional anatomy of this structure in the red panda, comparing it with existing descriptions of the grasping mechanism in both pandas. Previous interpretations of the radial sesamoid in Ailurus as a rod-like structure without direct articulation to the wrist bones are inaccurate. There are various important differences between the red panda and the giant panda. In the former, the lesser development of the radial sesamoid, its connection with the flexor retinaculum, the presence of an insertion of the muscle abductor pollicis longus in the first metacarpal, which enhances its supinatory action, and the presence of a muscle flexor brevis digitorum manus point to thin-branch climbing features serving as an exaptation to the more recent role of the red panda hand in the manipulation of bamboo.

  10. Morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; du Plessis, W M; Groenewald, H B; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-12-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.

  11. A multilocus analysis provides evidence for more than one species within Eugenes fulgens (Aves: Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Beltrán, Luz E; Hernández-Baños, Blanca E

    2015-09-01

    The status of subspecies in systematic zoology is the focus of controversy. Recent studies use DNA sequences to evaluate the status of subspecies within species complexes and to recognize and delimit species. Here, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships, the taxonomic status of the proposed subspecies, and the species limits of the monotypic hummingbird genus Eugenes (E. fulgens with traditionally recognized subspecies E. f. fulgens, E. f. viridiceps, and E. f. spectabilis), using nuclear (Beta Fibrinogen BFib, Ornithine Decarboxylase ODC, and Muscle Skeletal Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MUSK) and mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 ND2, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 ND4, and Control Region CR) markers. We performed Bayesian and Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography analyses and found genetic differences between the three groups, suggesting the existence of two cryptic species (E. fulgens and E. viridiceps) and one phenotypically differentiated species (E. spectabilis). Our analyses show that the E. viridiceps and E. fulgens groups are more closely related with one another than with E. spectabilis. PMID:25982690

  12. Effect of Potentilla fulgens on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Saio, Valrielyn; Syiem, Donkupar; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) root traditionally used as a folk remedy by local health practitioners of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya was investigated for its effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Significant increase in levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decrease in activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed under diabetic condition. Intraperitoneal administration of methanol extract of P. fulgens roots at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight to male swiss albino diabetic mice for 14 days caused significant reduction in the elevated TBARS level, while increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in diabetic mice. Maximum reduction in TBARS level was observed in liver tissue (75%, p<0.001). Kidney exhibited the highest elevation in the activity for catalase (68%, p<0.001) and superoxide dismutase (29%, p<0.001) while maximum increase in glutathione peroxidase activity was seen in brain (50%, p<0.001). The effects of P. fulgens was compared against known antioxidant, vitamin C. Results indicate that Potentilla fulgens methanolic root extract can reduce free radical mediated oxidative stress in experimental diabetes mellitus. PMID:24826032

  13. Gastric dilitation-volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Agnew, Dalen; Paperd, Deborah W; Harrison, Tara M

    2014-06-01

    A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings.

  14. Gastric dilitation-volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Agnew, Dalen; Paperd, Deborah W; Harrison, Tara M

    2014-06-01

    A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings. PMID:24521795

  15. Gastric Dilitation-Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    SCHLANSER, Justin R.; AGNEW, Dalen; PAPERD, Deborah W.; HARRISON, Tara M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings. PMID:24521795

  16. Digestive enzymes in juvenile green abalone, Haliotis fulgens, fed natural food.

    PubMed

    García-Carreño, F L; Navarrete del Toro, M A; Serviere-Zaragoza, E

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes responsible for the digestion of food protein by juvenile green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) were studied when fed algae or a sea grass (Phyllospadix torreyi) naturally occurring in the habitat. The effect of food on the composition and activity of the enzymes was also evaluated. Acid, serine proteinases and aminopeptidases, as confirmed by pH profile of activity, specific inhibition and synthetic substrate hydrolysis were found in the digestive organs of juvenile green abalone. Algae and sea grass differentially affected the digestive system in abalone. PMID:12524042

  17. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tangpu, Vareishang; Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The roots of Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. (Rosaceae) have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in Northeast India to treat diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and protective effects of P. fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice. Materials and Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhea in mice, using four experimental models, that is the measurement of fecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enteropooling assay, and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100-3200 mg/kg). In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrheal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared with 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant antidiarrheal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for protection from diarrhea. PMID:26401356

  18. Ultrastructural and biochemical alterations in rats exposed to crude extract of Carex baccans and Potentilla fulgens.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bishnupada; Giri, Bikash Ranjan; Chetia, Mitali; Swargiary, Ananta

    2012-10-01

    The use of plants as a source of medicine is an important component of the health care system in rural India. Carex baccans (Cyperaceae) and Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) have been known since ancient times in northeast India for their antitumor, antidiabetic, and antihelmintic properties. The present study was designed to determine the subacute toxicity profile of the root tuber extract of C. baccans and root-peel extract of P. fulgens in Wistar rats. The subacute oral toxicity was conducted using sublethal doses of 40, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 mgkg-1 body weights. Surface topographical and ultrastructural observations of liver and intestinal microvilli showed remarkable deformation and disruption, accompanied by quantitative changes in the liver enzymes, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in comparison to those of the control group. Apoptotic cell death was observed in the liver cells of rats exposed to both of the plant extracts. A significant increase in splenic lymphocyte count was also observed in rats exposed to the highest concentration of both extracts. The results showed that consumption of the plant extracts at higher doses may cause toxicological effect if treatment continues for a long time.

  19. Antennal regulation of migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P; Srygley, Robert B; Dudley, Robert

    2010-06-23

    Migrating insects use their sensory systems to acquire local and global cues about their surroundings. Previous research on tethered insects suggests that, in addition to vision and cephalic bristles, insects use antennal mechanosensory feedback to maintain their airspeeds. Owing to the large displacements of migratory insects and difficulties inherent in tracking single individuals, the roles of these sensory inputs have never been tested in freely migrating insects. We tracked individual uraniid moths (Urania fulgens) as they migrated diurnally over the Panama Canal, and measured airspeeds and orientation for individuals with either intact or amputated flagella. Consistent with prior observations that antennal input is necessary for flight control, 59 per cent of the experimental moths could not fly after flagella amputation. The remaining fraction (41%) was flight-capable and maintained its prior airspeeds despite severe reduction in antennal input. Thus, maintenance of airspeeds may not involve antennal input alone, and is probably mediated by other modalities. Moths with amputated flagella could not recover their proper migratory orientations, suggesting that antennal integrity is necessary for long-distance navigation.

  20. Antennal regulation of migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens.

    PubMed

    Sane, Sanjay P; Srygley, Robert B; Dudley, Robert

    2010-06-23

    Migrating insects use their sensory systems to acquire local and global cues about their surroundings. Previous research on tethered insects suggests that, in addition to vision and cephalic bristles, insects use antennal mechanosensory feedback to maintain their airspeeds. Owing to the large displacements of migratory insects and difficulties inherent in tracking single individuals, the roles of these sensory inputs have never been tested in freely migrating insects. We tracked individual uraniid moths (Urania fulgens) as they migrated diurnally over the Panama Canal, and measured airspeeds and orientation for individuals with either intact or amputated flagella. Consistent with prior observations that antennal input is necessary for flight control, 59 per cent of the experimental moths could not fly after flagella amputation. The remaining fraction (41%) was flight-capable and maintained its prior airspeeds despite severe reduction in antennal input. Thus, maintenance of airspeeds may not involve antennal input alone, and is probably mediated by other modalities. Moths with amputated flagella could not recover their proper migratory orientations, suggesting that antennal integrity is necessary for long-distance navigation. PMID:20181558

  1. Serosurvey of infectious disease agents of carnivores in captive red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Wei, Fuwen; Li, Ming; Dubovi, Edward J; Loeffler, I Kati

    2007-03-01

    The future of the endangered red panda (Ailurusfulgens) depends in part on the development of protective measures against infectious diseases. The present study is a first step toward improved understanding of infectious diseases in the species' home regions. Serum samples obtained from 73 red pandas in 10 captive facilities in southwest, east, and northeast China from October to December 2004 were tested for antibodies against nine common infectious pathogens of carnivores. Antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine adenovirus (CAV) in the three facilities in which red pandas were vaccinated were highly variable. The CAV titer in one vaccinated red panda was high enough to suggest infection with the field virus following vaccination. Together with anecdotal reports of vaccine-associated morbidity and mortality, our results suggest that the Chinese vaccine is not suitable for this species. In the seven unvaccinated groups, CDV titers were low and occurred in 20-100% of the animals; antibody titers against CPV were found in seven of eight areas. Only one of 61 and two of 61 unvaccinated red pandas had CAV and canine coronavirus titers, respectively, and these titers were all low. Positive titers to Toxoplasma gondii were found in four locations (33-94% seropositive); the titers in 52% of seropositive individuals were of a magnitude consistent with active disease in other species (1:1,024 to > or = 1:4,096). One red panda in each of three locations was seropositive for Neospora caninum. Antibodies against canine herpesvirus and Brucella canis were not detected in any of the samples. Only one of the 73 red pandas had a weak positive influenza A titer. The results of this study emphasize the need for research on and protection against infectious diseases of red pandas and other endangered species in China.

  2. An ARMS-based technique for sex determination of red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhi; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Shen, Fujun; Zhang, Wenping; Yue, Bisong

    2011-03-01

    Molecular sexing is a key component in the investigation of wild populations. In this study, we developed a fast, accurate and reliable amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) technique for sex determination of red panda based on the exon 4 of the ZFX/ZFY gene. The amplicons were distinguished simply by agarose gel electrophoresis, exhibiting one fragment in females (X: 300 bp) and two in males (X: 300 bp, Y: 166 bp). Robustness of this ARMS system was confirmed by testing both 43 captive red pandas using DNA samples with known-sex and 10 wild red pandas using faecal DNA samples with unknown sex.

  3. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Yue; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a global epidemic parasite and one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in animals and humans. Despite extensive research on this parasite group, little is known about rates of Cryptosporidium infection in lesser pandas. In this study, we use molecular diagnostic tools to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species in the lesser panda. Using a PCR approach, we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in fecal samples collected from 110 captive lesser pandas held throughout China (approximately one third of the captive population). We determined Cryptosporidium species via a BLAST comparison of our sequences against those of published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. We report that captive lesser pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni, at a prevalence of 6.36 % (7/110). The present investigation revealed the existence of C. andersoni infection in captive lesser panda and suggested that proper control measures should be taken carefully to protect the welfare of zoo workers and visitors. PMID:25563613

  4. Bio-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. and its therapeutic evaluation as anticancer and antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Tripathy, Debabrata; Choudhary, Alka; Aili, Pavan Kumar; Chatterjee, Anupam; Singh, Inder Pal; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from the medicinal plant, Potentilla fulgens and evaluation of its anticancer and antimicrobial properties. The various parts of P. fulgens were screened and the root extract was found to have the highest potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The root extracts were able to quickly reduce Ag(+) to Ag(0) and stabilized the nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry and further characterized using Zeta sizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron microscopic study showed that the size of the nanoparticle was in the range of 10 to 15 nm and spherical in shape. The studies of phytochemical analysis of nanoparticles indicated that the adsorbed components on the surface of nanoparticles were mainly flavonoid in nature. Furthermore, nanoparticles were evaluated as cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and 0.2 to 12 μg/mL nanoparticles showed good toxicity. The IC50 value of nanoparticles was found to be 4.91 and 8.23 μg/mL against MCF-7 and U-87 cell lines, respectively. Additionally, the apoptotic effect of synthesized nanoparticles on normal and cancer cells was studied using trypan blue assay and flow-cytometric analysis. The results indicate the synthesized nanoparticle ability to kill cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nanoparticles also exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26042698

  5. Treatment and prevention of natural heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infections in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) with selamectin and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jingchao; Fu, Yan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Chengdong; Luo, Li; Liu, Li; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-06-01

    Ten of the 48 red pandas in the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Sichuan province, China, died in 2006 after prolonged periods of depression, weight loss, and mucocutaneous membrane xanthochromia. During postmortem examination, live heartworms were found in the right cardiac ventricles and pulmonary arteries of all 10 animals. Selamectin and ivermectin were used for clinical prophylaxis in the remaining red pandas between December 2006 and November 2010. We observed a gradual decrease in morbidity and mortality during this period. As a consequence of our prophylaxis program, dirofilariosis did not occur in the remaining red pandas at Chengdu Research Base during 2010. PMID:22306025

  6. Treatment and prevention of natural heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infections in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) with selamectin and ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jingchao; Fu, Yan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Chengdong; Luo, Li; Liu, Li; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-06-01

    Ten of the 48 red pandas in the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Sichuan province, China, died in 2006 after prolonged periods of depression, weight loss, and mucocutaneous membrane xanthochromia. During postmortem examination, live heartworms were found in the right cardiac ventricles and pulmonary arteries of all 10 animals. Selamectin and ivermectin were used for clinical prophylaxis in the remaining red pandas between December 2006 and November 2010. We observed a gradual decrease in morbidity and mortality during this period. As a consequence of our prophylaxis program, dirofilariosis did not occur in the remaining red pandas at Chengdu Research Base during 2010.

  7. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Cheng; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Jia-Yin; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Guo, Wei; Xu, Mu-Qi; Mai, Bi-Xian; Weit, Fu-Wen

    2008-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated in captive giant and red panda tissues from China. The total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in tissues ranged from 16.3 to 888 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 24.8 to 854 ng/g lw, and 16.4 to 2158 ng/g lw, respectively. p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH were major OCP contaminants. PCBs 99, 118, 153/132, 170, 180, and 209 were the major contributing congeners determined. Among PBDEs, congener BDE-209 was the most frequent and abundant, followed by BDE-206, BDE-208, BDE-207, BDE-203, BDE-47, and BDE-153. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was detected in 87 and 71% of the giant and red panda samples with concentrations up to 863 ng/g lw, respectively. The remarkable levels and dominance of BDE-209 and DeBDethane may relate to significant production, usage, or disposal of BFRs in China. The positive significant correlation between concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in captive pandas may suggest that the exposure routes of PBDEs and PCBs to panda are similar. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of DeBDethane in captive wildlife samples. Therefore, further studies are warranted to better understand DeBDethane production, transport, uptake, and toxicological effect.

  8. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks.

  9. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks. PMID:24718096

  10. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J.; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks. PMID:24718096

  11. Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas.

    PubMed

    Salesa, Manuel J; Antón, Mauricio; Peigné, Stéphane; Morales, Jorge

    2006-01-10

    The "false thumb" of pandas is a carpal bone, the radial sesamoid, which has been enlarged and functions as an opposable thumb. If the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) are not closely related, their sharing of this adaptation implies a remarkable convergence. The discovery of previously unknown postcranial remains of a Miocene red panda relative, Simocyon batalleri, from the Spanish site of Batallones-1 (Madrid), now shows that this animal had a false thumb. The radial sesamoid of S. batalleri shows similarities with that of the red panda, which supports a sister-group relationship and indicates independent evolution in both pandas. The fossils from Batallones-1 reveal S. batalleri as a puma-sized, semiarboreal carnivore with a moderately hypercarnivore diet. These data suggest that the false thumbs of S. batalleri and Ailurus fulgens were probably inherited from a primitive member of the red panda family (Ailuridae), which lacked the red panda's specializations for herbivory but shared its arboreal adaptations. Thus, it seems that, whereas the false thumb of the giant panda probably evolved for manipulating bamboo, the false thumbs of the red panda and of S. batalleri more likely evolved as an aid for arboreal locomotion, with the red panda secondarily developing its ability for item manipulation and thus producing one of the most dramatic cases of convergence among vertebrates.

  12. Phylogeny of the caniform carnivora: evidence from multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2006-05-01

    The monophyletic group Caniformia in the order Carnivora currently comprises seven families whose relationships remain contentious. The phylogenetic positions of the two panda species within the Caniformia have also been evolutionary puzzles over the past decades, especially for Ailurus fulgens (the red panda). Here, new nuclear sequences from two introns of the beta-fibrinogen gene (beta-fibrinogen introns 4 and 7) and a complete mitochondrial (mt) gene (ND2) from 17 caniform representatives were explored for their utilities in resolving higher-level relationships in the Caniformia. In addition, two previously available nuclear (IRBP exon 1 and TTR intron 1) data sets were also combined and analyzed simultaneously with the newly obtained sequence data in this study. Combined analyses of four nuclear and one mt genes (4417 bp) recover a branching order in which almost all nodes were strongly supported. The present analyses provide evidence in favor of Ailurus fulgens as the closest taxon to the procyonid-mustelid (i.e., Musteloidea sensu stricto) clade, followed by pinnipeds (i.e., Otariidae and Phocidae), Ursidae (including Ailuropoda melanoleuca), and Canidae, the most basal lineage in the Caniformia. The potential utilities of different genes in the context of caniform phylogeny were also evaluated, with special attention to the previously unexplored beta-fibrinogen intron 4 and 7 genes.

  13. Influence of climate on the survivorship of neonatal red pandas in captivity.

    PubMed

    Princée, Frank P G; Glatston, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Red pandas, Ailurus fulgens, are popular exhibit animals in zoos. It is clear from data in the global studbook that there is considerable variation in their breeding success in different zoos. Population managers have long suspected that environmental temperature plays a key role in these differences. It is generally thought that this species, which is so well adapted to life in the cold damp climate of the mid-altitude forests of the Himalayas, has a problem coping with warmer climates. However, this hypothesis has not been tested until now. Using data extracted from the global studbook, we have demonstrated that climate at the location of birth has a clear impact on the survival of infant red pandas. PMID:26849175

  14. Clinical trials with canine distemper vaccines in exotic carnivores.

    PubMed

    Montali, R J; Bartz, C R; Teare, J A; Allen, J T; Appel, M J; Bush, M

    1983-12-01

    Two types of killed canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine and a modified-live CDV vaccine were clinically evaluated in four species of exotic carnivores. In 16 trials in which 13 red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) were given the killed vaccine, only 1 animal had a virus-neutralization titer that exceeded 1:100. A red panda given modified-live CDV vaccine deemed safe for gray foxes and ferrets died of bacterial pneumonia 16 days later. There was no pathologic evidence of canine distemper in that panda. The same modified-live vaccine proved to be immunogenic and safe in 12 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), 5 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and 3 fennec foxes (Fennecus zerda) in which virus-neutralization titers often exceeded 1:512 and persisted for several months after vaccination.

  15. Influence of climate on the survivorship of neonatal red pandas in captivity.

    PubMed

    Princée, Frank P G; Glatston, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Red pandas, Ailurus fulgens, are popular exhibit animals in zoos. It is clear from data in the global studbook that there is considerable variation in their breeding success in different zoos. Population managers have long suspected that environmental temperature plays a key role in these differences. It is generally thought that this species, which is so well adapted to life in the cold damp climate of the mid-altitude forests of the Himalayas, has a problem coping with warmer climates. However, this hypothesis has not been tested until now. Using data extracted from the global studbook, we have demonstrated that climate at the location of birth has a clear impact on the survival of infant red pandas.

  16. Filarial dermatitis in a striped skunk.

    PubMed

    Saito, E K; Little, S E

    1997-10-01

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Kansas (USA) with severe diffuse dermatitis characterized by extensive alopecic areas, thickened skin, and multiple, scattered cutaneous abscesses on the dorsal aspect of the head, neck, and trunk was submitted for diagnostic evaluation. More than 50 nematodes identified as Filaria taxideae were found in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Histologic examination of the skin revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional larvated nematode eggs, moderate orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, and mild acanthosis. The lesions resemble those reported from badgers (Taxidea taxus) and a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) with dermatitis caused by Filaria taxideae. Although F. taxideae has been previously collected from skunks, this is the first report of filarid dermatitis caused by this nematode in a striped skunk.

  17. A comparison of the primary structures of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 from giant panda, red panda, black bear and dog.

    PubMed

    Liang, S P; Zhang, L X

    1987-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase isozymes M4 have been isolated and purified from red panda (Ailurus fulgens), black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and dog (Canis familiars) by affinity chromatography and compared with that from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Experimental results have shown that the N-termini, C-termini and the molecular weights of LDH-M subunits of red panda, black bear and dog are the same as those of the LDH-M subunit of giant panda. Analysis and comparison of HPLC peptide maps from the tryptic digests of the isozymes of red panda, black bear and dog have shown that most of their peptide fragments had the same retention time and amino acid composition as the corresponding peptide fragments from giant panda. Fragments with different retention times and/or amino acid compositions were sequenced. Careful examination of those variant amino acid residues demonstrated clearly that the primary structure of giant panda LDH-M subunit is unique and it appears that the giant panda might be classified as an independent family.

  18. The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Fu, Beiyuan; Ying, Tian; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

    2002-01-01

    Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. In total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 pairs of homologous chromosomal segments in the respective genomes of American mink, yellow-throated marten. Old World badger, ferret badger and red panda. Reciprocal painting between stone marten and cat delineated 21 pairs of homologous segments shared in both stone marten and cat genomes. The chromosomal painting results indicate that most chromosomes of these species are highly conserved and show one-to-one correspondence with stone marten and cat chromosomes or chromosomal arms, and that only a few interchromosomal rearrangements (Robertsonian fusions and fissions) have occurred during species radiation. By comparing the distribution patterns of conserved chromosomal segments in both these species and the putative ancestral carnivore karyotype, we have reconstructed the pathway of karyotype evolution of these species from the putative 2n = 42 ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between the red panda and mustelids. The homology data presented in these maps will allow us to transfer the cat gene mapping data to other unmapped carnivore species.

  19. Phylogenetic inference and comparative evolution of a complex microsatellite and its flanking regions in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Roura, Xavier; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Saeki, Midori; Marmi, Josep

    2005-06-01

    We sequenced locus Mel 08, with complex short repetitive motifs, in 24 carnivore species belonging to five different families in order to explore mutational changes in the region in the context of locus and species evolution. This non-coding locus includes up to four different parts or repetitive motifs showing size variability. The variability consists of repeat additions and deletions; substitutions, insertions and/or deletions creating interruptions in the repeat; and substitutions, insertions and deletions in the flanking regions. The locus has different repeat expansions in different carnivore subfamilies. We hypothesize that the complexity of this locus is due to a high mutation rate at an ancestral DNA sequence and, thus, prompts the emergence of repeats at mutational hotspots. High levels of homoplasy were evident, with nine electromorphs representing 28 haplotypes never shared across species. The variability in flanking regions was informative for phylogenetic inference and their evolutionary content. Tree topologies were congruent with relevant hypotheses on current conflicts in carnivore phylogenies, such as: (i) the monophyly of Lutrinae, (ii) the paraphyly of Mustelinae, (iii) the basal position of the Eurasian badger, Meles meles , in the Mustelidae, (iv) the classification of skunks as a separate family, Mephitidae, and (v) the placement of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens , as a monotypic family, Ailuridae, at a basal position in the Musteloidea.

  20. Century-Old DNA Barcodes Reveal Phylogenetic Placement of the Extinct Jamaican Sunset Moth, Urania sloanus Cramer (Lepidoptera: Uraniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Vazrick; Schmidt, B. Christian; Prosser, Sean; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the DNA barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene from a specimen of the extinct Jamaican sunset moth, Urania sloanus, places this species as a sister to the Central American U. fulgens. We found that all Urania F. species were closely related (<2.8% maximum divergence at COI), with the Cuban endemic U. boisduvalii appearing as sister to the rest. The low divergence in DNA barcodes and genitalic structures indicate that the Cuban U. poeyi and eastern Brazilian U. brasiliensis are geographic segregates of U. fulgens and U. leilus respectively, so the former two taxa are accordingly recognized as subspecies. PMID:27764148

  1. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Dorji, Sangay; Vernes, Karl; Rajaratnam, Rajanathan

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl), with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa) forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  2. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Stirling, J; Griffith, M; Blair, I; Cormican, M; Dooley, J S G; Goldsmith, C E; Glover, S G; Loughrey, A; Lowery, C J; Matsuda, M; McClurg, R; McCorry, K; McDowell, D; McMahon, A; Cherie Millar, B; Nagano, Y; Rao, J R; Rooney, P J; Smyth, M; Snelling, W J; Xu, J; Moore, J E

    2008-04-01

    Faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, as well as Arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in Belfast Zoological Gardens, during July-September 2006. Thermophilic campylobacters including Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (11 of 44; 25%). Yersinia spp. were isolated from seven animal species (seven of 44; 15.9%) and included, Yersinia enterocolitica (five of seven isolates; 71.4%) and one isolate each of Yersinia frederiksenii and Yersinia kristensenii. Only one isolate of Salmonella was obtained throughout the entire study, which was an isolate of Salmonella dublin (O 1,9,12: H g, p), originating from tiger faeces after enrichment. None of the animal species found in public contact areas of the zoo were positive for any gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. Also, water from the lake in the centre of the grounds, was examined for the same bacterial pathogens and was found to contain C. jejuni. This study is the first report on the isolation of a number of important bacterial pathogens from a variety of novel host species, C. jejuni from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), C. lari from a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), Y. kristensenii from a vicugna (Vicugna vicugna) and Y. enterocolitica from a maned wolf and red panda (Ailurus fulgens). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the faeces of animals in public contact areas of the zoo were not positive for the bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens examined. This is reassuring for the public health of visitors, particularly children, who enjoy this educational and recreational resource.

  4. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Dorji, Sangay; Vernes, Karl; Rajaratnam, Rajanathan

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl), with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa) forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas. PMID:22039497

  5. Habitat Correlates of the Red Panda in the Temperate Forests of Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Dorji, Sangay; Vernes, Karl; Rajaratnam, Rajanathan

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110–4,389 m above sea level (asl), with the majority of records between 2,400–3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa) forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas. PMID:22039497

  6. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  7. Review of the odd chrysidid genus Loboscelidia Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Loboscelidiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Kimsey, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including Loboscelidia cinnamonea (Borneo), Loboscelidia fulgens (Viet Nam), Loboscelidia fulva (Thailand), Loboscelidia incompleta (India), Loboscelidia kafae (Borneo), Loboscelidia laminata (Viet Nam), Loboscelidia meifungae (Borneo), Loboscelidia nasiformis (Thailand), Loboscelidia nitidula (Thailand), Loboscelidia pecki (Viet Nam), and Loboscelidia sisik (Borneo). A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given. PMID:22933852

  8. Temporal stability of bacterial symbionts in a temperate ascidian

    PubMed Central

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier; Espluga, Roger; Erwin, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    In temperate seas, both bacterioplankton communities and invertebrate lifecycles follow a seasonal pattern. To investigate whether the bacterial community associated with the Mediterranean ascidian Didemnum fulgens exhibited similar variations, we monitored its bacterial community structure monthly for over a year using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analyses based on a nearly full length fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. D. fulgens harbored a bacterial consortium typical of ascidians, including numerous members of the phylum Proteobacteria, and a few members of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria. The overall bacterial community in D. fulgens had a distinct signature from the surrounding seawater and was stable over time and across seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Bacterial symbionts were also observed around animal cells in the tunic of adult individuals and in the inner tunic of D. fulgens larvae by transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that, as seen for sponges and corals, some species of ascidians host stable and unique bacterial communities that are at least partially inherited by their progeny by vertical transmission. PMID:26441944

  9. A new species of inseminating seasonal killifish of the Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex from southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex is a morphologically homogeneous killifish group, endemic from an area encompassing southern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay. It presently comprises four valid species: C. melanotaenia, the type species of the genus, and C. fulgens, C. intimus, and C. nigrovittatus. New information Cynopoecilus feltrini, n. sp., from the lower Tubarão river basin, southern Brazil, is distinguished from all congeners of the C. melanotaenia complex by having frontal E-scales medially overlapped, branchiostegal region orangish red in males and dorsum with few dark brown spots above opercular region. A phylogenetic tree derived from the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (681 bp) indicates that C. feltrini is a member of the clade that includes all species of the C. melanotaenia complex except C. melanotaenia, as well as that C. feltrini is the sister group of a clade comprising C. fulgens and C. nigrovittatus. PMID:27099548

  10. Reproductive biology and pollination mechanisms of Epidendrum secundum (Orchidaceae). Floral variation: a consequence of natural hybridization?

    PubMed

    Pansarin, E R; Amaral, M C E

    2008-03-01

    The phenology, flower morphology, pollination mechanism and reproductive biology of Epidendrum secundum were studied in a semi-deciduous forest at the Serra do Japi (SJ), and in the Atlantic rain forest of Picinguaba, both natural reserves in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. E. secundum flowers all year round, with a flowering peak between September and January. This species is either a lithophytic or terrestrial herb in the SJ, whereas, in Picinguaba, it grows mainly in disturbed areas along roadsides. E. secundum is pollinated by several species of diurnal Lepidoptera at both study sites. In Picinguaba, where E. secundum is sympatric with E. fulgens and both share the same pollinators, pollen transference between these two species was recorded. E. secundum is self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. It is inter-compatible with E. fulgens, producing fertile seeds. In contrast to the population of the SJ, in the Picinguaba region, floral morphology is quite variable among plants and some individuals present flowers with characteristics in-between both sympatric species, suggesting that natural hybridization occasionally occurs. The anthropogenic perturbation is probably the cause of the occurrence of E. secundum in the Picinguaba region, enabling its contact with E. fulgens.

  11. Deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Minami, Shinji; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Sinaga, Martua H; Hiyama, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    Few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic Southeast Asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order Carnivora. This peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (Procyonidae) or bears (Ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. Recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red panda to a clade of procyonids and mustelids (weasels, otters, martens, badgers, and allies), but have failed to unambiguously resolve the position of this species relative to mephitids (skunks and stink badgers). We examined the relationship of the red panda to other extant species of the carnivoran suborder Caniformia using a set of concatenated approximately 5.5-kb sequences from protein-coding exons of five nuclear genes. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the red panda as the closest living relative of a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae to the exclusion of Mephitidae. These three families together with the red panda (which is classified here as a single extant species of a distinct family, Ailuridae) compose the superfamily Musteloidea, a clade strongly supported by all our phylogenetic analyses as sister to the monophyletic Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, walruses). The approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Templeton topology tests rejected (P<0.05) each of all possible alternative hypotheses about the relationships among the red panda and mephitids, procyonids, and mustelids. We also estimated divergence times for the red panda's lineage and ones of other caniform taxa, as well as the ages of the first appearance datums for the crown and total clades of musteloids and the total clades of the red panda, mephitids, procyonids, and mustelids. Bayesian relaxed molecular-clock analysis using combined

  12. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  13. Deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Minami, Shinji; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Sinaga, Martua H; Hiyama, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    Few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic Southeast Asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order Carnivora. This peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (Procyonidae) or bears (Ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. Recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red panda to a clade of procyonids and mustelids (weasels, otters, martens, badgers, and allies), but have failed to unambiguously resolve the position of this species relative to mephitids (skunks and stink badgers). We examined the relationship of the red panda to other extant species of the carnivoran suborder Caniformia using a set of concatenated approximately 5.5-kb sequences from protein-coding exons of five nuclear genes. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the red panda as the closest living relative of a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae to the exclusion of Mephitidae. These three families together with the red panda (which is classified here as a single extant species of a distinct family, Ailuridae) compose the superfamily Musteloidea, a clade strongly supported by all our phylogenetic analyses as sister to the monophyletic Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, walruses). The approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Templeton topology tests rejected (P<0.05) each of all possible alternative hypotheses about the relationships among the red panda and mephitids, procyonids, and mustelids. We also estimated divergence times for the red panda's lineage and ones of other caniform taxa, as well as the ages of the first appearance datums for the crown and total clades of musteloids and the total clades of the red panda, mephitids, procyonids, and mustelids. Bayesian relaxed molecular-clock analysis using combined

  14. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  15. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  16. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  17. Mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae) from Neotropical birds

    PubMed Central

    Andre V., Bochkov; Ivan, Literak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of parasitic mites of the genus Neharpyrhynchus Fain (Acariformes, Harpirhynchidae) are described from Neotropical birds: Neharpyrhynchus chlorospingus sp. n. from Chlorospingus pileatus (Passeriformes, Emberizidae) from Costa Rica, Neharpyrhynchus mironovi sp. n. from Dacnys cayana (Passeriformes, Thraupidae) and Neharpyrhynchus tangara sp. n. from Tangara cayana (Thraupidae) both from Brazil. Neharpyrhynchus trochilinus (Fain) is recorded from 3 new host species of the family Trochilidae (Apodiformes), Panterpe insignis and Eugenes fulgens from Costa Rica, and Amazilia lactea from Brazil. Emended diagnosis of the genus and a key to species are provided; all records of Neharpyrhynchus species are summarized. PMID:21594083

  18. [Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico].

    PubMed

    Partida Lara, Ruth; Enríquez, Paula L; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis; Lara, Carlos; Martínez Ico, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Hummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush) from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes fulgens), and their abundance varied among habitats (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001). Seven plant species were visited for hummingbirds and showed the highest number of flower species during dry season. Bush had the highest blossom. Fuchsia paniculata had the highest blossom period but only was visited by H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea was the only species visited for all hummingbird species. The only positive association was E. fulgens abundance with P.a membranacea bloom (r(S)=0.93, p=0.02). Hummingbird abundance fluctuations in this study are determined for interactions with floral resources and their habitat distribution. PMID:23342516

  19. Evidence of apoptosis in Raillietina echinobothrida induced by methanolic extracts of three traditional medicinal plants of Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Giri, Bikash Ranjan; Roy, Bishnupada; Sinha Babu, Santi Prasad

    2013-08-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants in terms of anthelmintic properties are known since time immemorial in India, particularly among natives of the Northeast India. However, only sporadic and scarce reports on scientific validation of these plants are available. The present study was conducted on the cestode Raillietina echinobothrida, to establish whether the anthelmintic activity of Potentilla fulgens, Alpinia nigra and Millettia pachycarpa was mediated by apoptosis or not. Light microscopic observation following MTT assay revealed the highest percentage of inhibition of viability among the worms by methanol extract of M. pachycarpa (89.33%), followed by A. nigra (65%) and P. fulgens (37%). Ultrastructural observations revealed swelling of mitochondria, disruption of mitochondrial membrane, vacuolization of mitochondria, appearance of apoptotic bodies in the cytoplasm, disintegration of nuclear membrane and nucleolus were very common throughout the tegument. DAPI stained specimens showed typical morphology of apoptosis, like nuclear condensation and fragmentation in the extracts treated parasites. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential was also recorded in the treated groups. Confirmatory TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation assay of the extracts treated parasites also confirmed the apoptotic nature of cell death and is concluded to be responsible for paralysis and death of the parasite. PMID:23680183

  20. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the

  1. The distribution and life cycle of the dinoflagellate Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Dinophyceae, Noctilucales) in the northeastern English Channel.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Souissi, Sami

    2007-03-01

    The distribution of Spatulodinium (= Gymnodinium) pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J. Cachon & M. Cachon has been investigated for eight years (1998-2005) in the northeastern English Channel, type locality of the species and its immature stages. The species can be found after the spring diatom bloom from late May to October. The highest abundance was found in June 2004 after the Phaeocystis bloom. Exceptionally, the Phaeocystis bloom was absent in 2005 and only several specimens of S. pseudonoctiluca were observed. The immature and mature stages of Spatulodinium nearly always co-occurred. No other kofoidiniaceans such as Kofoidinium or Pomatodinium were observed. The first stages of the development of Spatulodinium can easily confuse with gymnodiniaceans. The transformation of the stage 'D', which has been described as Gymnodinium lebouriae (= G. fulgens) or Gymnodinium conicum (= G. viridis), into the mature stage, is illustrated. The stage 'D' originates from a cluster of pairs of smaller cells joined by an elongate episome. In the boreal Atlantic Ocean, Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca, a single species whose life stages are often reported as separate species, is especially adapted to a strongly fluctuant environment.

  2. MAD phasing with krypton.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Ellis, P; Kresge, N; Soltis, S M

    2001-02-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of Kr-edge MAD on frozen crystals as a routine method for structure determination are reported. Approximately 50% of protein crystals can be successfully derivatized by pressurization with the noble gases xenon or krypton. While Xe has produced many useful derivatives for MIR phasing over the last several years, the Xe edges (K edge = 34.6 keV, L(I) = 5.5 keV) are not easily accessible for MAD studies. As the Kr K edge (14.3 keV) is accessible on most MAD beamlines, Kr derivatization provides the additional opportunity to conduct a MAD experiment and obtain phases using only a single crystal. This paper describes the phasing of two proteins using Kr MAD: the 17 kDa Fe protein myoglobin (Mb) from sperm whale (Physeter catodon) and an 18 kDa protein (SP18) from green abalone (Haliotis fulgens). Three-wavelength data were collected at SSRL beamline 9-2 from crystals of Mb and SP18 incubated in 2.76 MPa of Kr gas for 2 min, depressurized and then flash-frozen in a stream of nitrogen gas at 100 K. MAD phases were calculated using the program SHARP and the resulting density improved with wARP. The final maps for both Mb and SP18 were of excellent quality.

  3. Influence of normal daytime fat deposition on laboratory measurements of torpor use in territorial versus nonterritorial hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Powers, Donald R; Brown, Alison R; Van Hook, Jessamyn A

    2003-01-01

    Fat deposition and torpor use in hummingbirds exhibiting distinct foraging styles should vary. We predicted that dominant territorial hummingbirds will use torpor less than subordinate nonterritorial species because unrestricted access to energy by territory owners allows for fat storage. Entry into torpor was monitored using open-flow respirometry on hummingbirds allowed to accumulate fat normally during the day. Fat accumulation was measured by solvent fat extraction. Territorial blue-throated hummingbirds (Lampornis clemenciae) had the highest fat accumulation and used torpor only 17% of the time. Fat storage by L. clemenciae averaged 26% of lean dry mass (LDM) in 1995 and 18% in 1996, similar to that measured for other nonmigratory birds. Fat storage by magnificent hummingbirds (Eugenes fulgens; trapliner) and black-chinned hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri; nectar robber) averaged 19% and 16% of LDM, respectively, and they used torpor frequently (64% and 92% of the time, respectively). All species initiated torpor if total body fat dropped below 10% of LDM, indicating the existence of a torpor threshold. The ability of L. clemenciae to store enough fat to support nighttime metabolism is likely an important benefit of territoriality. Likewise, frequent torpor use by subordinates suggests that natural restrictions to energy intake can impact their energy budget, necessitating energy conservation by use of torpor.

  4. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  5. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections. PMID:27255321

  6. Optimal strategies for insects migrating in the flight boundary layer: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Srygley, Robert B; Dudley, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Directed aerial displacement requires that a volant organism's airspeed exceeds ambient wind speed. For biologically relevant altitudes, wind speed increases exponentially with increased height above the ground. Thus, dispersal of most insects is influenced by atmospheric conditions. However, insects that fly close to the Earth's surface displace within the flight boundary layer where insect airspeeds are relatively high. Over the past 17 years, we have studied boundary-layer insects by following individuals as they migrate across the Caribbean Sea and the Panama Canal. Although most migrants evade either drought or cold, nymphalid and pierid butterflies migrate across Panama near the onset of the rainy season. Dragonflies of the genus Pantala migrate in October concurrently with frontal weather systems. Migrating the furthest and thereby being the most difficult to study, the diurnal moth Urania fulgens migrates between Central and South America. Migratory butterflies and dragonflies are capable of directed movement towards a preferred compass direction in variable winds, whereas the moths drift with winds over water. Butterflies orient using both global and local cues. Consistent with optimal migration theory, butterflies and dragonflies adjust their flight speeds in ways that maximize migratory distance traveled per unit fuel, whereas the moths do not. Moreover, only butterflies adjust their flight speed in relation to endogenous fat reserves. It is likely that these insects use optic flow to gauge their speed and drift, and thus must migrate where sufficient detail in the Earth's surface is visible to them. The abilities of butterflies and dragonflies to adjust their airspeed over water indicate sophisticated control and guidance systems pertaining to migration.

  7. DNA hybridization evidence for the principal lineages of hummingbirds (Aves:Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, R; Kirsch, J A; Matheus, J C

    1997-03-01

    The spectacular evolutionary radiation of hummingbirds (Trochilidae) has served as a model system for many biological studies. To begin to provide a historical context for these investigations, we generated a complete matrix of DNA hybridization distances among 26 hummingbirds and an outgroup swift (Chaetura pelagica) to determine the principal hummingbird lineages. FITCH topologies estimated from symmetrized delta TmH-C values and subjected to various validation methods (bootstrapping, weighted jackknifing, branch length significance) indicated a fundamental split between hermit (Eutoxeres aquila, Threnetes ruckeri; Phaethornithinae) and nonhermit (Trochilinae) hummingbirds, and provided strong support for six principal nonhermit clades with the following branching order: (1) a predominantly lowland group comprising caribs (Eulampis holosericeus) and relatives (Androdon aequatorialis and Heliothryx barroti) with violet-ears (Colibri coruscans) and relatives (Doryfera ludovicae); (2) an Andean-associated clade of highly polytypic taxa (Eriocnemis, Heliodoxa, and Coeligena); (3) a second endemic Andean clade (Oreotrochilus chimborazo, Aglaiocercus coelestis, and Lesbia victoriae) paired with thorntails (Popelairia conversii); (4) emeralds and relatives (Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Amazilia tzacatl, Thalurania colombica, Orthorhyncus cristatus and Campylopterus villaviscensio); (5) mountain-gems (Lampornis clemenciae and Eugenes fulgens); and (6) tiny bee-like forms (Archilochus colubris, Myrtis fanny, Acestrura mulsant, and Philodice mitchellii). Corresponding analyses on a matrix of unsymmetrized delta values gave similar support for these relationships except that the branching order of the two Andean clades (2, 3 above) was unresolved. In general, subsidiary relationships were consistent and well supported by both matrices, sometimes revealing surprising associations between forms that differ dramatically in plumage and bill morphology. Our results also reveal some

  8. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis) and its effect in territorial contest resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mendiola-Islas, Verónica; Corcuera, Pablo; Valverde, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as “owners win.” We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis) in a fir forest from central Mexico. Methods Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models) were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity). Results In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens) or the green violetear hummingbird (Colibri thalassinus) on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Discussion Initially, the rule that “the resident always wins” was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to specific circumstances

  9. Optimal strategies for insects migrating in the flight boundary layer: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Srygley, Robert B; Dudley, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Directed aerial displacement requires that a volant organism's airspeed exceeds ambient wind speed. For biologically relevant altitudes, wind speed increases exponentially with increased height above the ground. Thus, dispersal of most insects is influenced by atmospheric conditions. However, insects that fly close to the Earth's surface displace within the flight boundary layer where insect airspeeds are relatively high. Over the past 17 years, we have studied boundary-layer insects by following individuals as they migrate across the Caribbean Sea and the Panama Canal. Although most migrants evade either drought or cold, nymphalid and pierid butterflies migrate across Panama near the onset of the rainy season. Dragonflies of the genus Pantala migrate in October concurrently with frontal weather systems. Migrating the furthest and thereby being the most difficult to study, the diurnal moth Urania fulgens migrates between Central and South America. Migratory butterflies and dragonflies are capable of directed movement towards a preferred compass direction in variable winds, whereas the moths drift with winds over water. Butterflies orient using both global and local cues. Consistent with optimal migration theory, butterflies and dragonflies adjust their flight speeds in ways that maximize migratory distance traveled per unit fuel, whereas the moths do not. Moreover, only butterflies adjust their flight speed in relation to endogenous fat reserves. It is likely that these insects use optic flow to gauge their speed and drift, and thus must migrate where sufficient detail in the Earth's surface is visible to them. The abilities of butterflies and dragonflies to adjust their airspeed over water indicate sophisticated control and guidance systems pertaining to migration. PMID:21669778

  10. DNA hybridization evidence for the principal lineages of hummingbirds (Aves:Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, R; Kirsch, J A; Matheus, J C

    1997-03-01

    The spectacular evolutionary radiation of hummingbirds (Trochilidae) has served as a model system for many biological studies. To begin to provide a historical context for these investigations, we generated a complete matrix of DNA hybridization distances among 26 hummingbirds and an outgroup swift (Chaetura pelagica) to determine the principal hummingbird lineages. FITCH topologies estimated from symmetrized delta TmH-C values and subjected to various validation methods (bootstrapping, weighted jackknifing, branch length significance) indicated a fundamental split between hermit (Eutoxeres aquila, Threnetes ruckeri; Phaethornithinae) and nonhermit (Trochilinae) hummingbirds, and provided strong support for six principal nonhermit clades with the following branching order: (1) a predominantly lowland group comprising caribs (Eulampis holosericeus) and relatives (Androdon aequatorialis and Heliothryx barroti) with violet-ears (Colibri coruscans) and relatives (Doryfera ludovicae); (2) an Andean-associated clade of highly polytypic taxa (Eriocnemis, Heliodoxa, and Coeligena); (3) a second endemic Andean clade (Oreotrochilus chimborazo, Aglaiocercus coelestis, and Lesbia victoriae) paired with thorntails (Popelairia conversii); (4) emeralds and relatives (Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Amazilia tzacatl, Thalurania colombica, Orthorhyncus cristatus and Campylopterus villaviscensio); (5) mountain-gems (Lampornis clemenciae and Eugenes fulgens); and (6) tiny bee-like forms (Archilochus colubris, Myrtis fanny, Acestrura mulsant, and Philodice mitchellii). Corresponding analyses on a matrix of unsymmetrized delta values gave similar support for these relationships except that the branching order of the two Andean clades (2, 3 above) was unresolved. In general, subsidiary relationships were consistent and well supported by both matrices, sometimes revealing surprising associations between forms that differ dramatically in plumage and bill morphology. Our results also reveal some

  11. Analysis of Genomic DNAs from Nine Rosaceae Species Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiu; Lang, Tao; Fan, Shuguo; Chen, Wen; Zang, Deqing; Chen, Jing; Shi, Minzhen

    2015-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of genomic DNA was used to determine genetic relationships and species identification of nine plants from three subfamilies of Rosaceae. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the SERS spectra were obtained by using a nanosilver collosol at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. Adenine and ribodesose were the active sites of genomic DNAs in the silver surface-enhanced Raman spectra. The strong peak at 714 cm(-1) was assigned to the stretching vibration of adenine, the strong peak at 1011cm(-1) contributed to the stretching vibration of the deoxyribose and the scissoring vibrations of cytosine, and the strong peak at 625 cm(-1) is the stretching vibration of glycosidic bond and the scissoring vibrations of guanine. The three-dimensional plot of the first, second, and third principal components showed that the nine species could be classified into three categories (three subfamilies), consistent with the traditional classification. The model of the hierarchical cluster combined with the principal component of the second derivative was more reasonable. The results of the cluster analysis showed that apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and cherry (Prunus seudocerasus Lindl.) were clustered into one category (Prunoideae); firethorn (Firethorn fortuneana Li.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), apple (Malus pumila Mill.), and crabapple (Malus hallianna Koehne.) were clustered into a second category (Pomoideae); and potentilla (Potentilla fulgens Wall.), rose (Rosa chinensis Jacd.), and strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis Duchesne.) were clustered into a third category (Rosoideae). These classifications were in accordance with the traditional classification with a correction rate of clustering of 100%. The correct rate of species identification was 100%. These five main results indicate that the genetic relationship and species identification of nine Rosaceae species could be determined by using SERS spectra of their genomic DNAs. PMID:26555541

  12. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Insectivora Talpidae Desmana moschata and Galemys pyrenaicus. Dog Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris. Ermine... ......do ......do Helictis moschata and Helictis personata. Panda ......do Procyonidae Ailurus...

  13. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Insectivora Talpidae Desmana moschata and Galemys pyrenaicus. Dog Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris. Ermine... ......do ......do Helictis moschata and Helictis personata. Panda ......do Procyonidae Ailurus...

  14. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    sites. Lichen species are also analysed to investigate the variability within their morphological and physiological traits and whether this is site specific. From the transplant experiment lichen samples are analysed to find whether lichen species can readily switch their photobiont to a locally adapted symbiont and whether the morphological and physiological parameters change in order to acclimatise to the new conditions. This work is currently ongoing and here the initial results from the lichen species Psora decipiens, Fulgensia fulgens (green algal lichens) and Peltigera rufescens (cyanolichen) are presented.

  15. Image analysis techniques. The problem of the quantitative evaluation of thechromatin ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Maraldi, N M; Marinelli, F; Squarzoni, S; Santi, S; Barbieri, M

    1991-02-01

    these images and especially to those referring to nuclei, is limited by several drawbacks: i) the thin section represents only a small fraction of the nuclear volume entirely visible in optical microscope specimens; ii) the identification of nucleosomes, of the solenoid fibres and of the higher levels of compaction of the heterochromatin is not thinsectioned specimens; iii) the differences between heterochromatin and euchromatin are based only on their grey level but do not reveal possible variations of their structural organization. Therefore, the applications of image analysis to the nuclear content does not utilzes the high resolution power of e.m. images and simply quantify the areas occupied by electron-dense chromatin with respect to the more electron-transparent ones. This result is less significative of those obtainable by optical microscopy, since the electron staining is not quantitative as the Fulgen reaction. On the other hand, the following problems still remain unresolved and should be clarified only by the use of quantitative image analysis: ultrastructural organization of the different types of heterochromatin (1); relationships between gene activation, transcription and chromatin decondensation; chromatin arrangement transformation induced by exogenous agents. In order to face these problems, in the last years we applied image analysis to cell or tissue specimens frozen in liquid nitrogen and then fractured in order to expose the inner content of the nucleus (Fig. 1). The obtained metal replicas represent very suitable specimens for digitalized image elaboration, since the fibers which give rise to the chromatin domains are exposed by the fracturing and evidentiated by the shadowing as black dots with a clear white shadow (Fig. 2). Therefore, their size and shape can be quantitatively evaluated by a digital image processor; in this vay the structural elements of the chromatin fibres are also detectable inside a fractured nucleus and their relative

  16. Higher level relationships of the arctoid Carnivora based on sequence data and "total evidence".

    PubMed

    Vrana, P B; Milinkovitch, M C; Powell, J R; Wheeler, W C

    1994-03-01

    The relationships of the lesser or red panda, Ailurus, have remained elusive even as any doubts about the identity of the giant panda as a bear have been erased. While usually classified as a member of the Procyonidae (raccoons), recent anatomical studies have suggested that the red panda may not fall in any of the arctoid carnivore families but instead may reflect an early offshoot of the lineage leading to ursids (bears) and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses). Sequence data from the cytochrome b and 12S genes for multiple representatives of all relevant families support this hypothesis. Such a systematic position makes this threatened species particularly worthy of conservation. Sequence data alone, as well as a combined analysis of the sequence and anatomical data, strongly support a single origin of pinnipeds and their aquatic adaptations, lending some resolution to the general disagreement about familial relationships in this group. These molecular data also support canids as the basal members of this caniform clade, but are unresolved with respect to whether mustelids or procyonids constitute the sister group to the (ursid, pinniped, Ailurus) clade. There is support for the notion that skunks are a genetically divergent and possibly nonmustelid lineage.

  17. Higher level relationships of the arctoid Carnivora based on sequence data and "total evidence".

    PubMed

    Vrana, P B; Milinkovitch, M C; Powell, J R; Wheeler, W C

    1994-03-01

    The relationships of the lesser or red panda, Ailurus, have remained elusive even as any doubts about the identity of the giant panda as a bear have been erased. While usually classified as a member of the Procyonidae (raccoons), recent anatomical studies have suggested that the red panda may not fall in any of the arctoid carnivore families but instead may reflect an early offshoot of the lineage leading to ursids (bears) and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses). Sequence data from the cytochrome b and 12S genes for multiple representatives of all relevant families support this hypothesis. Such a systematic position makes this threatened species particularly worthy of conservation. Sequence data alone, as well as a combined analysis of the sequence and anatomical data, strongly support a single origin of pinnipeds and their aquatic adaptations, lending some resolution to the general disagreement about familial relationships in this group. These molecular data also support canids as the basal members of this caniform clade, but are unresolved with respect to whether mustelids or procyonids constitute the sister group to the (ursid, pinniped, Ailurus) clade. There is support for the notion that skunks are a genetically divergent and possibly nonmustelid lineage. PMID:8025729

  18. Phylogenetic relationships within caniform carnivores based on analyses of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Ledje, C; Arnason, U

    1996-12-01

    The complete 12S rRNA gene of 32 carnivore species, including four feliforms and 28 caniforms, was sequenced. The sequences were aligned on the basis of their secondary structures and used in phylogenetic analyses that addressed several evolutionary relationships within the Caniformia. The analyses showed an unresolved polytomy of the basic caniform clades; pinnipeds, mustelids, procyonids, skunks, Ailurus (lesser panda), ursids, and canids. The polytomy indicates a major diversification of caniforms during a relatively short period of time. The lesser panda was distinct from other caniforms, suggesting its inclusion in a monotypic family, Ailuridae. The giant panda and the bears were joined on the same branch. The skunks are traditionally included in the family Mustelidae. The present analysis, however, showed a less close molecular relationship between the skunks and the remaining Mustelidae (sensu stricto) than between Mustelidae (sensu stricto) and Procyonidae, making Mustelidae (sensu lato) paraphyletic. The results suggest that the skunks should be included in a separate family, Mephitidae. Within the Pinnipedia, the grouping of walrus, sea lions, and fur seals was strongly supported. Analyses of a combined set of 12S rRNA and cytochrome b data were generally consistent with the findings based on each gene. PMID:8995061

  19. Phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): congruence vs incompatibility among multiple data sets.

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the higher-level phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora, using a conditional data combination (CDC) approach to analyzing multiple data sets. New nucleotide sequences (851 base pairs from intron I of the transthyretin gene) among 22 representatives of the 11 families of Carnivora were generated and analyzed in concert with, and comparison to, other mitochondrial and morphological character data. Conditional data combination analyses of the four independent data sets (transthyretin intron I, cytochrome b, partial 12S rRNA, and morphology) indicate that the phylogenetic results derived from each generally agree, with two exceptions. The first exception, signal heterogeneity in comparisons involving transthyretin and morphology, provides an example where phylogenetic conclusions drawn from total evidence analyses may differ from conclusions drawn from CDC analyses. The second exception demonstrates that while a CDC method may reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity for a particular partition, including that partition in combined analyses, may nevertheless provide an overall increase in phylogenetic signal, in terms of nodal support for most associations, without altering the topology derived from the combined homogeneous data partitions. Phylogenetic reconstruction among the feliform families supports a sister-group relationship between the hyaenas (Hyaenidae) and mongooses (Herpestidae) and places the African palm civet (Nandinia) as basal to all other living Feliformia. Among the caniform families, CDC analyses strongly support the previously enigmatic red panda (Ailurus) as a monotypic lineage that is sister to Musteloidea sensu stricto (mustelids plus procyonids), in addition to pinniped monophyly and a sister-group relationship between the walrus and sea lions.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the carnivora (mammalia): assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships.

    PubMed

    Flynn, John J; Finarelli, John A; Zehr, Sarah; Hsu, Johnny; Nedbal, Michael A

    2005-04-01

    This study analyzed 76 species of Carnivora using a concatenated sequence of 6243 bp from six genes (nuclear TR-i-I, TBG, and IRBP; mitochondrial ND2, CYTB, and 12S rRNA), representing the most comprehensive sampling yet undertaken for reconstructing the phylogeny of this clade. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods were remarkably congruent in topologies observed and in nodal support measures. We recovered all of the higher level carnivoran clades that had been robustly supported in previous analyses (by analyses of morphological and molecular data), including the monophyly of Caniformia, Feliformia, Arctoidea, Pinnipedia, Musteloidea, Procyonidae + Mustelidae sensu stricto, and a clade of (Hyaenidae + (Herpestidae + Malagasy carnivorans)). All of the traditional "families," with the exception of Viverridae and Mustelidae, were robustly supported as monophyletic groups. We further have determined the relative positions of the major lineages within the Caniformia, which previous studies could not resolve, including the first robust support for the phylogenetic position of marine carnivorans (Pinnipedia) within the Arctoidea (as the sister-group to musteloids [sensu lato], with ursids as their sister group). Within the pinnipeds, Odobenidae (walrus) was more closely allied with otariids (sea lions/fur seals) than with phocids ("true" seals). In addition, we recovered a monophyletic clade of skunks and stink badgers (Mephitidae) and resolved the topology of musteloid interrelationships as: Ailurus (Mephitidae (Procyonidae, Mustelidae [sensu stricto])). This pattern of interrelationships of living caniforms suggests a novel inference that large body size may have been the primitive condition for Arctoidea, with secondary size reduction evolving later in some musteloids. Within Mustelidae, Bayesian analyses are unambiguous in supporting otter monophyly (Lutrinae), and in both MP and Bayesian analyses Martes is paraphyletic with respect to Gulo and Eira, as has been