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Sample records for aim previous studies

  1. Nutrition education aimed at toddlers: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Weight problems in children are increasing at an alarming rate, especially among low-income populations. This concern requires effective strategies to promote healthy eating. A quasi-experiment was used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers (NEAT), aimed at enhancing parent-toddler feeding practices. The NEAT intervention comprises four nutrition lessons and structured reinforcements over 6 months. A convenience sample of 135 low-income families participated in the study up to the first data collection wave. Complete data were available for 43 parent-toddler dyads in the intervention and 53 dyads in the control group. The results show that, compared to the controls, caregivers exposed to the intervention had significantly higher knowledge scores concerning toddler feedings. No statistically significant differences were found for measures of child and parent mealtime behaviors. Because it is generally easier to change knowledge than actual behaviors, our study results demonstrate the need to focus on other avenues to enhance parents' ability to feed toddlers appropriately. PMID:16295151

  2. The EvA study: aims and strategy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Frankenberger, Marion; Heimbeck, Irene; Burggraf, Dorothe; Wjst, Matthias; Häussinger, Karl; Brightling, Chris; Gupta, Sumit; Parr, David; Subramanian, Deepak; Singh, Dave; Kolsum, Umme; Boschetto, Piera; Potena, Alfredo; Gorecka, Dorota; Nowinski, Adam; Barta, Imre; Döme, Balazs; Strausz, Janos; Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Welte, Tobias; Venge, Per; Gut, Ivo; Boland, Anne; Olaso, Robert; Hager, Jörg; Hiemstra, Pieter; Rabe, Klaus F; Unmüssig, Martina; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje

    2012-10-01

    The EvA study is a European Union-funded project under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), which aims at defining new markers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its subtypes. The acronym is derived from emphysema versus airway disease, indicating that the project targets these two main phenotypes of the disease. The EvA study is based on the concept that emphysema and airway disease are governed by different pathophysiological processes, are driven by different genes and have differential gene expression in the lung. To define these genes, patients and non-COPD controls are recruited for clinical examination, lung function analysis and computed tomography (CT) of the lung. CT scans are used to define the phenotypes based on lung density and airway wall thickness. This is followed by bronchoscopy in order to obtain samples from the airways and the alveoli. These tissue samples, along with blood samples, are then subjected to genome-wide expression and association analysis and markers linked to the phenotypes are identified. The population of the EvA study is different from other COPD study populations, since patients with current oral glucocorticoids, antibiotics and exacerbations or current smokers are excluded, such that the signals detected in the molecular analysis are due to the distinct inflammatory process of emphysema and airway disease in COPD. PMID:22441733

  3. Religious Studies, Religious Education and the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article interacts with a recent article by Denise Cush and Catherine Robinson in which they call for a new dialogue between religious studies in universities and religious education, and identify a number of developments in religious studies that have implications for the practice of religious education in schools. Cush and Robinson are…

  4. A Comparative Investigation of the Previous and New Secondary History Curriculum: The Issues of the Definition of the Aims and Objectives and the Selection of Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinc, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on history teaching in Turkey indicate that the previous versions of the history curriculum and the pedagogy of history in the country bear many problems and deficiencies. The problems of Turkish history curriculum mainly arise from the perspectives it takes and the selection of its content. Since 2003, there have been extensive…

  5. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  6. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  7. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  8. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers. The views of 378 and…

  9. Sleep Irregularity in the Previous Week Influences the First-Night Effect in Polysomnographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Hye; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Han, Changsu; Bok, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jung Ho; Lee, Eunil; Kim, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The first-night effect is a well-known phenomenon resulting from an individual's maladaptation to the unfamiliar environment of a sleep laboratory. However, there have been no direct reports of the effect of previous sleep patterns on the first-night effect. We aimed to investigate the effect the previous week's sleep pattern on the first-night effect. Methods Twenty-four young, healthy, male participants completed the study procedure. During one week prior to study, the participants kept sleep diaries and wore actigraphs to identify sleep-wake pattern. Two consecutive nights of polysomnography were conducted after that. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to compare sleep variables of the two nights. Variance (standard deviation) of sleep onset time during the previous week was used as an index of irregularity. A Kendall's ranked correlation analysis and a linear regression test were applied to detect correlation between sleep irregularity and the first-night effect measured by polysomnography. Results There were significant differences in the values of sleep efficiency (p=0.011) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p=0.006) between the two nights. Sleep efficiency was lower and WASO was higher on the first night as compared to the second night. Sleep irregularity in the previous week was negatively correlated with sleep efficiency (p<0.001) of the first night, but was not significantly correlated with any other sleep parameters. Conclusion We replicated the existence of the first-night effect commonly observed in sleep studies. Sleep irregularity in the previous week may influence the first-night effect in polysomnographic studies. PMID:27081381

  10. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  11. A Survival Association Study of 102 Polymorphisms Previously Associated with Survival Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingxiong; Werdyani, Salem; Shestopaloff, Konstantin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Green, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Several published studies identified associations of a number of polymorphisms with a variety of survival outcomes in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore 102 previously reported common genetic polymorphisms and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a colorectal cancer patient cohort from Newfoundland (n = 505). Genotypes were obtained using a genomewide SNP genotyping platform. For each polymorphism, the best possible genetic model was estimated for both overall survival and disease-free survival using a previously published approach. These SNPs were then analyzed under their genetic models by Cox regression method. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method. Univariate analysis results showed that RRM1-rs12806698, IFNGR1-rs1327474, DDX20-rs197412, and PTGS2-rs5275 polymorphisms were nominally associated with OS or DFS (p < 0.01). In stage-adjusted analysis, the nominal associations of DDX20-rs197412, PTGS2-rs5275, and HSPA5-rs391957 with DFS were detected. However, after FDR correction none of these polymorphisms remained significantly associated with the survival outcomes. We conclude that polymorphisms investigated in this study are not associated with OS or DFS in our colorectal cancer patient cohort. PMID:26064972

  12. Aiming for Positive Washback: A Case Study of International Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Shahrzad

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of creating positive washback by focusing on factors in the background of the test development process and anticipating the conditions most likely to lead to positive wash-back. The article reports on a multiphase empirical study investigating the washback effects of a needs-based test of spoken…

  13. Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Leslie R.

    1982-09-01

    Readily accepting that study abroad programmes may have as many differing forms and aims as there are participating institutions, and that by no means all programmes include academic content in their goals, I would nevertheless maintain: 1. that a sociological perspective is as necessary as the hitherto predominantly psychological approach in obtaining a balanced assessment of study abroad programmes;

  14. Surgeons' aims and pain assessment strategies when managing paediatric post-operative pain: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Twycross, Alison M; Williams, Anna M; Finley, G Allen

    2015-12-01

    Children experience moderate to severe pain post-operatively. Nurses have been found to have a variety of aims in this context. Surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain have not been explored. This qualitative study set out to explore paediatric surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain in one paediatric hospital in Canada. Consultant surgeons (n = 8) across various specialities took part in semi-structured interviews. Surgeons' overarching aim was to keep the child comfortable. Various definitions of comfortable were given, relating to the child's experience of pain itself and their ability to undertake activities of daily living. Children's behavioural pain cues seem to be a primary consideration when making treatment decisions. Parents' views regarding their child's pain were also seen as important, suggesting children may not be seen as competent to make decisions on their own behalf. The need to maintain a realistic approach was emphasised and pain management described as a balancing act. Surgeons may draw on both tacit and explicit knowledge when assessing children's pain. There appears to be an expectation among surgeons that some pain is to be expected post-operatively and that the diagnostic value of pain may, in some cases, supersede concerns for the child's pain experience. PMID:24728398

  15. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  16. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts.

    PubMed

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  17. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  18. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; McCarthy Persson, U; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. PMID:25913546

  19. NREL Study Finds U.S. Wind Energy Potential Triples Previous Estimates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times greater than previously estimated, according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study. The new analysis is based on the latest computer models and examines the wind potential at wind turbine hub heights of 80 meters and 100 meters. These hub heights, which reflect current and future models of wind turbines, are higher than those used in previous national estimates and are mainly responsible for the increased wind potential in the study.

  20. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  1. Anticipatory care planning and integration: a primary care pilot study aimed at reducing unplanned hospitalisation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adrian; Leak, Paul; Ritchie, Lewis D; Lee, Amanda J; Fielding, Shona

    2012-01-01

    Background Anticipatory care for older patients who are frail involves both case identification and proactive intervention to reduce hospitalisation. Aim To identify a population who were at risk of admission to hospital and to provide an anticipatory care plan (ACP) for them and to ascertain whether using primary and secondary care data to identify this population and then applying an ACP can help to reduce hospital admission rates. Design and setting Cohort study of a service intervention in a general practice and a primary care team in Scotland. Method The ACP sets out patients’ wishes in the event of a sudden deterioration in health. If admitted, a proactive approach was taken to transfer and discharge patients into the community. Cohorts were selected using the Nairn Case Finder, which matched patients in two practices for age, sex, multiple morbidity indexes, and secondary care outpatient and inpatient activity; 96 patients in each practice were studied for admission rate, occupied bed days and survival. Results Survivors from the ACP cohort (n = 80) had 510 fewer days in hospital than in the 12 months pre-intervention: a significant reduction of 52.0% (P = 0.020). There were 37 fewer admissions of the survivors from that cohort post-intervention than in the preceding 12 months, with a significant reduction of 42.5% (P = 0.002). Mortality rates in the two cohorts were similar, but the number of patients who died in hospital and the hospital bed days used in the last 3 months of life were significantly lower for the decedents with an ACP than for the controls who had died (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045 respectively). Conclusion This approach produced statistically significant reductions in unplanned hospitalisation for a cohort of patients with multiple morbidities. It demonstrates the potential for providing better care for patients as well as better value for health and social care services. It is of particular benefit in managing end-of-life care. PMID:22520788

  2. AIMS Library - A community resource for sorghum genomic studies and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum genome sequence is completed. A systematically mutagenized population linking gene function to sequence is becoming increasingly urgent. A project was initiated to develop an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) library using (EMS) ethyl methane sulfonate for sel...

  3. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Construction of a digital and physical mouse model aimed at the study of electrical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Optical methods have been used to investigate electrical injury on animal models such as live mice, rats, and rabbits. Here we introduce a completely digital phantom of a mouse, with the aim of investigating electrical injury through spectroscopic imaging techniques. The basis of our phantom is a three-dimensional digital mouse reconstructed from co-registered computed tomographic images and cryosection by a different group. Image processing algorithms were applied to make the model suitable to Finite Element Analysis of thermal and electrical transport. Our digital model is capable of simulating temperature, voltage, current changes along the animal body during and after electrical shocks.

  5. The role of previously untreated patient studies in understanding the development of FVIII inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carcao, M; Re, W; Ewenstein, B

    2016-01-01

    Development of inhibitors against factor VIII (FVIII), the major complication of haemophilia A treatment today, is influenced by multiple factors. Genetic (F8 mutation, family history, ethnicity, polymorphisms in immune modulating genes) and non-genetic (intensive exposure to FVIII, presence of pro-inflammatory signals as might occur with large bleeds, infections, surgery, or other immune stimulants [e.g. vaccines]) risk factors as well as their complex inter-relationships contribute to the inhibitor risk profile of haemophilia patients, particularly in the previously untreated patient (PUP) population. Studies in PUPs have been fundamental to furthering the understanding of FVIII inhibitor development, as well as discovering previously unappreciated risk factors. The multi-factorial nature of inhibitor development makes it difficult to ascertain the contribution of FVIII products in inhibitor development through individual PUP studies. Sufficiently powered studies of large cohorts may overcome these limitations but interpretations should be conducted cautiously. Proper design and implementation of PUP safety studies will become even more important with the introduction of new molecules, such as extended half-life or human cell-line derived FVIII that propose reduced immunogenicity. Despite these difficulties, carefully performed clinical studies in PUPs may provide important insights into the natural history of the immune response to FVIII and may suggest targets for intervention to reduce immunogenicity. PMID:26315604

  6. An fMRI Study of Neuronal Activation in Schizophrenia Patients with and without Previous Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune A.; Jørgensen, Hugo A.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI). Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention, and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients. PMID:23115554

  7. Special Programs Aimed at Reaching Children: S.P.A.R.C. Case Studies II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Adolph, Ed.; And Others

    This case study booklet, written by the program's counseling staff, evolved from five actual cases in which a psychologist and counselors were involved. Both the techniques and the results are specified in the hope that counselors and psychologists in other districts will attempt similar methods in helping children with deviant behavior problems.…

  8. [Comparative sonographic-anatomic studies aimed at demonstrating intrarenal fine structure].

    PubMed

    Zilch, H G; Posel, P

    1985-07-01

    The detailed structure of the kidneys was studied in 40 excised organs by means of high resolution sonography. It becomes possible to differentiate the details within the renal parenchyma and the sinus. Intrarenal vascular details can also be defined. The clinical relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:2992015

  9. New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw < 5.5. In a second phase, a sensitivity analysis of the different input options on hazard results has been carried out in order to have criteria for defining the branches of the logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations

  10. The use of HIV-1 integration site analysis information in clinical studies aiming at HIV cure.

    PubMed

    Kiselinova, Maja; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms for the establishment and the persistence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir remain to be completely defined. HIV-1 infection is characterised by the integration of the reverse transcribed proviral DNA into the host's genome. This integrated proviral DNA can remain replication silent, but a small part of it is fully competent to restart viral replication when treatment is interrupted. Hence, this replication-competent provirus is the cause of viral rebound and is called the viral reservoir. The exact site of proviral integration within the host's cellular chromosome may affect the transcriptional activity of HIV. Thanks to recent technological advances, HIV-1 integration site analysis has been used to assess HIV-1 reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals. Analysis of HIV-1 integration sites in infected individuals undergoing suppressive ART led to identification of expanded clonal cell populations, indicating that clonal proliferation of the proviral reservoir may contribute to the long-term persistence of viral reservoirs. Here we describe the findings of several clinical studies, where a comprehensive HIV-1 integration site analysis was performed. PMID:27482458

  11. Theoretical studies on 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol derivatives aimed at finding superior propellants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Lianjun; Wang, Guixiang; Du, Hongchen; Gong, Xuedong

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to find superior propellants, 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) and its -NO(2), -NH(2), -CN, -NC, -ONO(2), and -NF(2) derivatives were studied at the B3LYP/6-311++G level of density functional theory (DFT). Sensitivity was evaluated using bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The C-NO(2) bond appears to be the trigger bond during the thermolysis process for these compounds, except for the -ONO(2) and -NF(2) derivatives. Electrostatic potential results show that electron-withdrawing substituents make the charge imbalance more anomalous, which may change the strength of the bond, especially the weakest trigger bond. Most of the DDNP derivatives have the impact sensitivities that are higher than that of DDNP, making them favorable for use as solid propellants in micro-rockets. The theoretical densities (ρ), heats of formation (HOFs), detonation energies (Q), detonation pressures (P), and detonation velocities (D) of the compounds were estimated. The effects of various substituent groups on ρ, HOF, Q, D, and P were investigated. Some derivatives exhibit perfect detonation properties. The calculated relative specific impulses (I (r,sp)) of all compounds except for -NH(2) derivatives were higher than that of DDNP, and also meet the requirements of propellants. PMID:21805131

  12. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  13. Cardiac function associated with previous, current and repeated depression and anxiety symptoms in a healthy population: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Gustad, L T; Bjerkeset, O; Strand, L B; Janszky, I; Dalen, H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Symptoms of anxiety and depression often co-exist with cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about the association with left ventricular (LV) subclinical dysfunction. We aimed to study the cross-sectional associations of previous, current and repeated depression or anxiety symptoms, with sensitive indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, based on tissue Doppler (TD) and speckle tracking (ST) imaging methods. Methods A random selection of 1296 individuals free from known CVD, hypertension and diabetes were examined with echocardiography at baseline of the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, (HUNT3, 2006–2008). The primary outcomes were LV diastolic function (e′) and LV systolic function (longitudinal global strain). The primary exposures were self-report on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between outcomes and baseline exposures were available for 1034 (80%), and with previous and repeated exposures for 700 participants who also participated in HUNT2 (1995–1997). Results Previous and repeated depression symptoms, but not current depression, were linearly associated with a reduction in e′. The average sum of two repeated HADS-D scores 10 years apart had the strongest effect on e′ (−8.3%; 95% CI −13.9% to −2.7%) per 5 units. We observed a sex difference between depression symptoms and longitudinal global strain (p for interaction 0.019), where women had a marginal negative effect. Anxiety symptoms, neither previous, current nor repeated were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Conclusions In a healthy sample, confirmed free of CVD, past and repeated depression symptoms were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Thus, depression symptoms might represent a modifiable risk factor for future CVD. PMID:26925243

  14. Surgical Outcome in Patients Taking Concomitant or Recent Intake of Oral Isotretinoin: A Multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Omprakash Heggadahalli; Mysore, Venkataram; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thurakkal, Salim; Majid, Imran; Talwar, Suresh; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Chatterjee, Manas; Bhat, M Ramesh; Barua, Shyamanta; Ganjoo, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. Aim: To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Materials and Methods: Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2 laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. Results: No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. Conclusion: The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised. PMID:27398012

  15. A Review of Chemical Bonding Studies: Needs, Aims, Methods of Exploring Students' Conceptions, General Knowledge Claims and Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents a detailed thematic review of chemical bonding studies. To achieve this, a matrix is developed to summarize and present the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methods of exploring students' conceptions, general knowledge claims,…

  16. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male) across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A

  17. Identification of a new locus and validation of previously reported loci showing differential methylation associated with smoking. The REGICOR study.

    PubMed

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Salas, Lucas A; Vilahur, Nadia; Corella, Dolores; Muñoz, Dani; Segura, Antonio; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Moran, Sebastián; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Lopez-Farré, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of many diseases and could act through changes in DNA methylation patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the association between smoking and DNA methylation throughout the genome at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site level and genomic regions. A discovery cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was designed and included 645 individuals. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Smoking status was self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. We identified 66 differentially methylated CpG sites associated with smoking, located in 38 genes. In most of these CpG sites, we observed a trend among those quitting smoking to recover methylation levels typical of never smokers. A CpG site located in a novel smoking-associated gene (cg06394460 in LNX2) was hypomethylated in current smokers. Moreover, we validated two previously reported CpG sites (cg05886626 in THBS1, and cg24838345 in MTSS1) for their potential relation to atherosclerosis and cancer diseases, using several different approaches: CpG site methylation, gene expression, and plasma protein level determinations. Smoking was also associated with higher THBS1 gene expression but with lower levels of thrombospondin-1 in plasma. Finally, we identified differential methylation regions in 13 genes and in four non-coding RNAs. In summary, this study replicated previous findings and identified and validated a new CpG site located in LNX2 associated with smoking. PMID:26829059

  18. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146373

  19. Programmed defects study on masks for 45nm immersion lithography using the novel AIMS 45-193i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherübl, Thomas; Dürr, Arndt C.; Böhm, Klaus; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo; Strößner, Ulrich

    2007-02-01

    Mask manufacturing for the 45nm node for hyper NA lithography requires tight defect and printability control at small features sizes. The AIMS TM1 technology is a well established methodology to analyze printability of mask defects, repairs and critical features by scanner emulation. With the step towards hyper NA imaging by immersion lithography the AIMS TM technology has been faced with new challenges like vector effects, polarized illumination and tighter specs for repeatability and tool stability. These requirements pushed the development of an entirely new AIMS TM generation. The AIMS TM 45-193i has been designed and developed by Carl Zeiss to address these challenges. A new mechanical platform with a thermal and environmental control unit enables high tool stability. Thus a new class of specification becomes available. The 193nm optical beam path together with an improved beam homogenizer is dedicated to emulate scanners up to 1.4 NA. New features like polarized illumination and vector effect emulation make the AIMS TM 45- 193i a powerful tool for defect disposition and scanner emulation for 45nm immersion lithography. In this paper results from one of the first production tools will be presented. Aerial images from phase shifting and binary masks with different immersion relevant settings will be discussed. Also, data from a long term repeatability study performed on masks with programmed defects will be shown. This study demonstrates the tool's ability to perform defect disposition with high repeatability. It is found that the tool will fulfill the 45nm node requirements to perform mask qualification for production use.

  20. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  1. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C.; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  2. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  3. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph M.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Carlile, David J.; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  4. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  5. Blood Pressure Targets in CKD: Lessons Learned from SPRINT and Previous Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Gosmanova, Elvira O; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension management is one of the most common clinical tasks in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) disease, and CKD progression in this population. However, it is still debated, to what target(s) BP should be lowered in patients with signs of kidney damage. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) provided new and important information about the effects of lowering systolic BP to a target of <120 mmHg, which is lower than the levels currently recommended by the most guidelines (<140/90 mmHg). The SPRINT results were not only exciting but also surprising for many clinicians because evidence from well-conducted observational studies in CKD patient showed increased mortality in patients with CKD whose office systolic BP levels were <120 mmHg, as compared with systolic BP in 120-139 mmHg range. In the present review, we will discuss whether a systolic BP goal of <120 mmHg that was found to be beneficial for CV and all-cause mortality outcomes in the SPRINT can be generalized to the entire CKD population. PMID:27448402

  6. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf, Ali Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  7. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  8. Development of tag-free photoprobes for studies aimed at identifying the target of novel Group A Streptococcus antivirulence agents

    PubMed Central

    Yestrepsky, Bryan D.; Kretz, Colin A.; Xu, Yuanxi; Holmes, Autumn; Sun, Hongmin; Ginsburg, David; Larsen, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the identification and development of novel inhibitors of streptokinase (SK) expression by Group A Streptococcus (GAS), originating from a high throughput cell-based phenotypic screen. Although phenotypic screening is well-suited to identifying compounds that exert desired biological effects in potentially novel ways, it requires follow-up experiments to determine the macromolecular target(s) of active compounds. We therefore designed and synthesized several classes of chemical probes for target identification studies, guided by previously established structure-activity relationships. The probes were designed to first irreversibly photolabel target proteins in the intact bacteria, followed by cell lysis and click ligation with fluorescent tags to allow for visualization on SDS-PAGE gels. This stepwise, “tag-free” approach allows for a significant reduction in molecular weight and polar surface area compared to full-length fluorescent or biotinylated probes, potentially enhancing membrane permeability and the maintenance of activity. Of the seven probes produced, the three most biologically active were employed in preliminary target identification trials. Despite the potent activity of these probes, specific labeling events were not conclusively observed due to a considerable degree of nonspecific protein binding. Nevertheless, the successful synthesis of potent biologically active probe molecules will serve as a starting point for initiating more sensitive methods of probe-based target identification. PMID:24559768

  9. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study. PMID:3169095

  10. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  11. Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: A multicentric phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Vincenzo . E-mail: vvalentini@rm.unicatt.it; Morganti, Alessio G.; Gambacorta, M. Antonietta; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Doglietto, G. Battista; Coco, Claudio; De Paoli, Antonino; Rossi, Carlo; Di Russo, Annamaria; Valvo, Francesca; Bolzicco, Giampaolo; Dalla Palma, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and total mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma has significantly lowered the incidence of local recurrence. However, a new problem is represented by the patient with locally recurrent cancer who has received previous irradiation to the pelvis. In these patients, local recurrence is very often not easily resectable and reirradiation is expected to be associated with a high risk of late toxicity. The aim of this multicenter phase II study is to evaluate the response rate, resectability rate, local control, and treatment-related toxicity of preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically proven pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinoma, with the absence of extrapelvic disease or bony involvement and previous pelvic irradiation with doses {<=}55 Gy; age {>=}18 years; performance status (PS) (Karnofsky) {>=}60, and who gave institutional review board-approved written informed consent were treated by preoperative chemoradiation. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (PTV2) including the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus a 4-cm margin, with a dose of 30 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily with a minimum 6-h interval). A boost was delivered, with the same fractionation schedule, to a PTV1 including the GTV plus a 2-cm margin (10.8 Gy). During the radiation treatment, concurrent chemotherapy was delivered (5-fluorouracil, protracted intravenous infusion, 225 mg/m{sup 2}/day, 7 days per week). Four to 6 weeks after the end of chemoradiation, patients were evaluated for tumor resectability, and, when feasible, surgical resection of recurrence was performed between 6-8 weeks from the end of chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed to all patients, using Raltitrexed, 3 mg/square meter (sm), every 3 weeks, for a total of 5 cycles. Patients were staged using the computed tomography (CT)-based F

  12. Taking Triple Aim at the Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the USA, the Triple Aim is now being adopted in the healthcare systems of other advanced economies. Verma and Bhatia (2016) (V&B) argue that provincial governments in Canada now need to step up to the plate and lead on the implementation of a Triple Aim reform program here. Their proposals are wide ranging and ambitious, looking for governments to act as the "integrators" within the healthcare system, and lead the reforms. Our view is that, as a vision and set of goals for the healthcare system, the Triple Aim is all well and good, but as a pathway for system reform, as articulated by V&B, it misses the mark in at least three important respects. First, the emphasis on improvement driven by performance measurement and pay-for-performance is troubling and flies in the face of emerging evidence. Second, we know that scarcity can be recognized and managed, even in politically complex systems, and so we urge the Triple Aim proponents to embrace more fully notions of resource stewardship. Third, if we want to take seriously "population health" goals, we need to think very differently and consider broader health determinants; Triple Aim innovation targeted at healthcare systems will not deliver the goals. PMID:27009583

  13. A 3-Month Jump-Landing Training Program: A Feasibility Study Using the RE-AIM Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Inne; Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Mathieu, Niels; Van Schuerbeeck, Sander; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention program has become as important as determining the effectiveness of the intervention. Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a 3-month jump-landing training program in basketball players, using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National and regional basketball teams. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four teams of the second highest national division and regional basketball divisions in Flanders, Belgium, were randomly assigned (1:1) to a control group and intervention group. A total of 243 athletes (control group = 129, intervention group = 114), ages 15 to 41 years, volunteered. Intervention(s): All exercises in the intervention program followed a progressive development, emphasizing lower extremity alignment during jump-landing activities. Main Outcome Measure(s): The results of the process evaluation of the intervention program were based on the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. The injury incidence density, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Results: The participation rate of the total sample was 100% (reach). The hazard ratio was different between the intervention group and the control group (0.40 [95% confidence interval = 0.16, 0.99]; effectiveness). Of the 12 teams in the intervention group, 8 teams (66.7%) agreed to participate in the study (adoption). Eight of the participating coaches (66.7%) felt positively about the intervention program and stated that they had implemented the training sessions of the program as intended (implementation). All coaches except 1 (87.5%) intended to continue the intervention program the next season (maintenance). Conclusions: Compliance of the coaches in this coach-supervised jump-landing training program was high. In addition, the program was effective in preventing lower extremity injuries. PMID:23675788

  14. The FBI Takes Aim at AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Elliot

    1977-01-01

    The events and revelations before and since the arrest of Paul Skyhorse and Richard Mohawk (two American Indian Movement organizers charged with the 1974 murder of a taxi driver at AIM Camp 13) lead to the inevitable conclusion that these men are victims of a frame-up. (Author/JC)

  15. Theoretical investigation of hydrogen bonding between water and platinum(II): an atom in molecule (AIM) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Guiqiu; Chen, Dezhan

    2012-02-01

    Recently, Rizzato et al. [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 7440 (2010)] [1] reported a hydrogen-bonding-like interaction between a water molecule and a d8 metal ion (PtII) based on neutron diffraction, and provided the first crystallographic evidence for this interaction. We studied the hydrogen bonding of the O-H ... Pt interaction theoretically using atoms in molecule (AIM) and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) in the crystallographic geometries. The method used density functional theory (DFT) with the hybrid B3LYP function. For platinum atoms, we used the Los Alamos National Laboratory 2-Double-Zeta (LANL2DZ) basis set, and for the other atoms we used 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Criteria based on a topological analysis of the electron density were used in order to characterize the nature of interactions in the complexes. The main purpose of the present work is to provide an answer to the following questions: Why can a filled d orbital of square-planar d8 metal ions such as platinum(II) also act as hydrogen-bond acceptors? Can a study based on the electron charge density answer this question? A good correlation between the density at the intermolecular bond critical point and the energy interaction was found. The interaction is mainly closed-shell and there is some charge transfer in this system.

  16. Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

  17. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  18. Transformative learning in a professional development course aimed at addressing disruptive physician behavior: a composite case study.

    PubMed

    Samenow, Charles P; Worley, Linda L M; Neufeld, Ron; Fishel, Tobi; Swiggart, William H

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive physician behavior presents a challenge to the academic medical center. Such behaviors threaten the learning environment through increasing staff conflict, role modeling poor behaviors to trainees, and, ultimately, posing a risk to patient safety. Given that these physicians are often respected and valued for their clinical skills, many institutions struggle with how to best manage their behaviors. The authors present a composite case study of an academic physician referred to a professional development program for his disruptive behavior. They outline how transformative learning was applied to the development of concrete learning objectives, activities, and assessments for a curriculum aimed at promoting behavior change. Important themes include a safe group process in which the physician's assumptions are critically examined so that through experiential exercises and reflection, new roles, skills, and behaviors are learned, explored, and practiced. Timely feedback to the physician from the institution, colleagues, and administrators is critical to the physician's understanding of the impact of his or her behavior. Ultimately, the physician returns to practice demonstrating more professional behavior. Implications for medical education, prevention, and other professional development programs are discussed. PMID:23165281

  19. The Effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among Young People: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…

  20. Precision disablement aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  1. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadoev, Jamshid; Asadov, Damin; Tillashaykhov, Mirzagolib; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Gudmund Hinderaker, Sven; Parpieva, Nargiza; Ulmasova, Dilrabo; Jalolov, Avazbek; Hamraev, Atadjan; Ali, Engy; van den Boom, Martin; Hammerich, Asmus; Gozalov, Ogtay; Dara, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures) and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. Method A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%), adolescents (4%) and elderly patients (19%). Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB) was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure. Conclusion Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and

  2. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety. PMID

  3. Previous sickness absence and current low perceived social support at work among employees in the general population: a historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Knapstad, Marit; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel; Øverland, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although sickness absence often is a process over time, most studies have treated the phenomenon as a discrete event and focused more on its causes than its consequences. We aimed to examine whether various patterns of previous long-term sickness absence were associated with current low perceived social support at work. Method This is a historical cohort study based on data from a population-based survey among Swedish employees (n=2581). The survey data were linked to official registries yielding data on sickness absence 1–7 years prior to the survey. Results The main finding was that previous sickness absence was associated with current low perceived social support at work. The highest odds for low social support were found among those who had a stable high level of sickness absence. The two indicators of perceived social support employed were somewhat differently associated with previous sickness absence: Recency of absence showed to be of importance for general support at the workplace and the relationship with colleagues and superiors. Experiencing that one's immediate superior rarely or never regards one's view was, on the other hand, mainly related to having had a high level of sickness absence, irrespective of recency. Conclusions Our results indicate that recency and extent of previous sickness absence are related to perceived social support at work. Future research on the relationship between social support and sickness absence should use repeated measurements and acknowledge the possible bidirectional relationship. PMID:25351599

  4. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  5. Precision laser aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  6. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  7. Fire First, Aim Later: A Qualitative Meta-Analytic Study of the Assessment Methods of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Flores, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research has been conducted to identify and analyze how schools are determining that the activities of their Professional Learning Community (PLC) are directly tied to student achievement as there is currently a gap in the existing literature with regards to this topic. For the purpose of this study, a "successful" PLC was defined as one…

  8. Aims and Control of the Universities: A Comparative Study of Academic Governance in Sweden and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    This is a comparative study of university control in Sweden and the United States with particular attention to the question of what difference it makes as to which segment of the university community controls a particular aspect of university life and university function. It is an exploration of the problem of the relationship between the…

  9. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000–2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 104 person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  10. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000-2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 10(4) person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  11. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results of a seismic risk assessment study are often applied and interpreted by users unspecialised on the topic or lacking a scientific background. In this context, the availability of tools that help translating essentially scientific contents to broader audiences (such as decision makers or civil defence officials) as well as representing and managing results in a user-friendly fashion, are on indubitable value. On of such tools is the visualization tool VISOR-RISNA, a web tool developed within the RISNA project (financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre, Spain) for regional seismic risk assessment of Navarre and the subsequent development of emergency plans. The RISNA study included seismic hazard evaluation, geotechnical characterization of soils, incorporation of site effects to expected ground motions, vulnerability distribution assessment and estimation of expected damage distributions for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The main goal of RISNA was the identification of higher risk area where focusing detailed, local-scale risk studies in the future and the corresponding urban emergency plans. A geographic information system was used to combine different information layers, generate tables of results and represent maps with partial and final results. The visualization tool VISOR-RISNA is intended to facilitate the interpretation and representation of the collection of results, with the ultimate purpose of defining actuation plans. A number of criteria for defining actuation priorities are proposed in this work. They are based on combinations of risk parameters resulting from the risk study (such as expected ground motion and damage and exposed population), as determined by risk assessment specialists. Although the values that these parameters take are a result of the risk study, their distribution in several classes depends on the intervals defined by decision takers or civil defense officials. These criteria provide a ranking of

  12. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  13. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  14. Study and Optimization of CPT Resonance Parameters in 87 Rb/Ar/Ne Microcells Aimed for Application in Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masian, Y.; Sivak, A.; Sevostianov, D.; Vassiliev, V.; Velichansky, V.

    The paper shows the presents results of studies of small-size rubidium cells with argon and neon buffer gases, produced by a patent pended technique of laser welding [Fishman et al. (2014)]. Cells were designed for miniature frequency standard. Temperature dependence of the frequency of the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance was measured and used to optimize the ratio of partial pressures of buffer gases. The influence of duration and regime of annealing on the CPT-resonance frequency drift was investigated. The parameters of the FM modulation of laser current for two cases which correspond to the highest amplitude of CPT resonance and to the smallest light shifts of the resonance frequency were determined. The temperature dependences of the CPT resonance frequency were found to be surprisingly different in the two cases. A non-linear dependence of CPT resonance frequency on the temperature of the cell with the two extremes was revealed for one of these cases.

  15. Aims, methods and preliminary findings of the Physical Activity, Nutrition and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens (PANACEA) epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Priftis, Kostas N; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni

    2007-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a sample of Greek children aged 10–12 years, and to evaluate these rates in relation to anthropometric, lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits. Methods During 2006, 700 schoolchildren (323 male and 377 female), aged 10–12 years (4th to 6th school grade), were selected from 18 schools located in the greater Athens area. The schools were randomly selected from a list provided by the regional educational offices. To achieve a representative sample the schools enrolled were selected from various region of the Athens area. For each child a questionnaire was completed that was developed for the purposes of the study to retrieve information on: age, sex, school class, other socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary habits (through a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire) and physical activity status; the presence of asthma and allergies was assessed by the standard ISAAC questionnaire. Results The prevalence of wheezing in the past was 25% in boys and 19% in girls, while the prevalence of current wheezing was 9.0% in boys and 5.8% in girls. The prevalence of any asthma symptoms was 27.6% in boys and 20.4% in girls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased body weight and sedentary lifestyle is associated with asthma symptoms only in boys. Conclusion The present cross-sectional study cannot establish causal relationships between asthma and increased body weight of schoolchildren; however, our findings underline the associations between asthma, increased body weight, and physical activity at population level, and urge for actions that should be taken by public health policy makers in order to prevent these conditions among children. PMID:17610743

  16. Observational cohort study focused on treatment continuity of patients administered XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotaka, Masahito; Ikeda, Fusao; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshioka, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Kyogoku, Takahisa; Kato, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been remarkable progress in systemic chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer due to the widespread use of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. It is important to continue treatment with the optimal combination of these drugs and prolong progression-free survival (PFS) to improve overall survival (OS). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 40 patients treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer to investigate treatment continuity. Patients and methods Eligibility criteria were as follows: 1) histologically confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer; 2) lesions evaluable by imaging; 3) previously untreated; 4) suitable condition to receive XELOX plus bevacizumab; and 5) written informed consent. Outcomes were treatment continuity, overall response rate, resection rate, liver resection rate, time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS. Forty patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 years. Results Between July 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were enrolled. The median number of treatment cycles was 7.5, and the reasons for discontinuation of treatment were as follows: complete response (five patients), resection (ten patients), progression (15 patients), adverse events (seven patients), and patient refusal (three patients). The overall response rate was 57.5%, resection rate was 25%, and liver resection rate was 15%. After a median follow-up of 31.4 months, the median time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS were 5.3, 13.3, and 38.9 months, respectively. Conclusion Although the median time to treatment failure was 5.3 months, the median PFS and OS were prolonged to 13.3 and 38.9 months, respectively. This may have resulted from the chemotherapy-free interval due to complete response in five patients and resection in ten patients. PMID:27468238

  17. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  18. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Malcolm H.

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  19. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  20. Blood pressure and complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease: national population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Björck, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the risk associated with systolic blood pressure that meets current recommendations (that is, below 140 mm Hg) with the risk associated with lower levels in patients who have type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease. Design Population based cohort study with nationwide clinical registries, 2006-12. The mean follow-up was 5.0 years. Setting 861 Swedish primary care units and hospital outpatient clinics. Participants 187 106 patients registered in the Swedish national diabetes register who had had type 2 diabetes for at least a year, age 75 or younger, and with no previous cardiovascular or other major disease. Main outcome measures Clinical events were obtained from the hospital discharge and death registers with respect to acute myocardial infarction, stroke, a composite of acute myocardial infarction and stroke (cardiovascular disease), coronary heart disease, heart failure, and total mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated for different levels of baseline systolic blood pressure with clinical characteristics and drug prescription data as covariates. Results The group with the lowest systolic blood pressure (110-119 mm Hg) had a significantly lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.003), total acute myocardial infarction (0.85, 0.72 to 0.99; P=0.04), non-fatal cardiovascular disease (0.82, 0.72 to 0.93; P=0.002), total cardiovascular disease (0.88, 0.79 to 0.99; P=0.04), and non-fatal coronary heart disease (0.88, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.03) compared with the reference group (130-139 mm Hg). There was no indication of a J shaped relation between systolic blood pressure and the endpoints, with the exception of heart failure and total mortality. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure than currently recommended is associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The association between low

  1. Seeing is believing? A mixed-methods study exploring the quality and perceived trustworthiness of online information about chronic conditions aimed at children and young people.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Amy C; Gofine, Miriam L; Stinson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of children and young people with chronic conditions are increasing. While their information needs may vary, providing health care information can have considerable benefits, including better emotional health, less distress during treatments, and greater satisfaction with medical care. The Internet is increasingly being used to communicate health-related information to children about a range of chronic conditions. However, the quality of such websites is underexplored. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and quality of online information for children about chronic conditions using a standardized evaluation tool, and to explore children's and young people's perceptions of quality and trustworthiness regarding online health information. The study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, websites about common pediatric chronic conditions aimed at children and containing treatment or management options were identified and the quality assessment tool DISCERN was completed. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated. In Phase 2, two focus groups with laptop computers were conducted with children and young people with a chronic condition to explore their perceptions of trustworthiness of online health information. In Phase 1, 165 websites were identified and 100 met the criteria and were assessed. The mean DISCERN score of all sites was 48.16 out of 75 (SD = 7.97, range 28-71, min 15 to max 75). Quality scores varied widely across the sample. The internal consistency and interrater reliability scores were both lower than previously reported in studies using the DISCERN to assess information for adults. In Phase 2, two focus groups with a total of six participants aged 11-23 years revealed a relative lack of concern about the quality and trustworthiness of online health information. Older participants reported judging the source and authorship of websites, but other participants did not question the source of the

  2. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  3. Results of a randomized study of previously-untreated intermediate and high grade lymphoma using CHOP versus CNOP.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, S; Santarelli, M T; Erazo, A; Diaz Maqueo, J C; Somoza, N; Lluesma Goñalons, M; Cervantes, G; Garcia Vela, E L; Corrado, C; Magnasco, H

    1992-03-01

    A randomized multicenter phase III study was conducted to compare the efficacy and toxicity of CHOP and CNOP in intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CHOP consisted of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 on day 1 and prednisone 50 mg/m2 on days 1 to 5. The CNOP regimen was identical to CHOP except for replacement of doxorubicin by 10 mg/m2 mitoxantrone. Patient characteristics were evenly distributed in the two arms, except for age and stage, which slightly favoured the CHOP arm. The rate of complete remission was 70% (31/44) in patients treated with CHOP and 51% (23/45) in those receiving CNOP (P = 0.09). At 48 months and with a median follow-up of 41 months, 44% of the complete responders treated with CHOP and 64% of those treated with CNOP were estimated to still be in their first complete remission (P = 0.14), while 31% and 34% remained alive and free of progression. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 48 months is 53% and 50%, respectively. The higher response rate obtained with CHOP probably reflected a less aggressive lymphoma population. The mean WBC nadir was 2.0 x 10(9)/l for CHOP and 1.8 x 10(9)/l for CNOP. One and three patients, respectively, died during induction. Nausea, vomiting and cardiac toxicity were similar. More alopecia and mucositis were observed with CHOP. We conclude that CHOP and CNOP have similar toxicities and are equivalent in previously untreated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in terms of complete response rate, event-free survival and overall survival. PMID:1586618

  4. Clinical effects of rifaximin in patientswith hepatic encephalopathy intolerant or nonresponsive to previous lactulose treatment: An open-label, pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Claudia; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Pianta, Paolo; Lambertini, Laura; Berardi, Sonia; Martini, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a metabolic-neurophysiologicsyndrome that occurs in patients with advanced hepatic disease. One of the main pathogenic mechanisms is represented by circulating toxins produced by the intestinal metabolism of nitrogenous compounds. The therapeutic approach to HE is mainly based on drugs that eliminate ammonia-producing bacteria. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin in patients with HE who were intolerant or nonresponsive to treatment with an oral, nonabsorbable disaccharide (lactulose). Methods: This uncontrolled, open-label, pilot study was conducted at the University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histologically proven liver cirrhosis and HE were studied. All patients were intolerant or nonresponsive to previous treatment with lactulose. Rifaximin tablets were administered to patients at a dosage of 400 mg TID for 10 days. The portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE) index was evaluated at enrollment and at the end of the treatment period. Tolerability was assessed using hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis and by recording adverse effects (AEs). Results: Twenty-six patients (18 men, 8 women; mean [SD] age, 55.8 [8.0] years) were enrolled (intolerants, n = 17; nonresponders, n = 9). All patients completed the study. Significant improvement was shown in most of the 5 components of the PSE index after rifaximin administration in both intolerants and nonresponders. At the end of the 10-day treatment period, the PSE index was significantly reduced in both intolerants and nonresponders. Rifaximin was well tolerated; no clinically relevant AEs were observed during the treatment period. Conclusions: This pilot study of patients with liver cirrhosis and HE who were intolerant or nonresponsive to previous treatment with an oral, nonabsorbable disaccharide suggests that treatment with rifaximin may be considered as an adjuvant or an

  5. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  6. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  7. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  8. Biocomputing - tools, aims, perspectives.

    PubMed

    Katz, Evgeny

    2015-08-01

    Biomolecular systems for information processing have recently received great attention in the general framework of unconventional computing. While DNA biocomputing systems have been studied by many researchers and have already reached a high level of complexity, enzyme-based cascades mimicking Boolean logic operations are a relatively new subfield that is rapidly progressing. The present paper reviews recent progress in the enzyme-based information processing systems and suggests applications in biosensing, rather than computation. Specific examples of enzyme-based logic systems are discussed to introduce readers to this rapidly developing research area. PMID:25765672

  9. Statin adherence and risk of acute cardiovascular events among women: a cohort study accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45–64 years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001–2004 (n=42 807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered <80%). The result was robust against alternative model specifications. Statin adherers had a potentially reduced risk of experiencing low-energy fractures compared with non-adherers (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events

  10. Mortality during the 2013 heatwave in England - How did it compare to previous heatwaves? A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Green, Helen K; Andrews, Nick; Armstrong, Ben; Bickler, Graham; Pebody, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity as a result of climate change. The health impacts of these events can be significant, particularly for vulnerable populations when mortality can occur. England experienced a prolonged heatwave in summer 2013. Daily age-group and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer 2013 and previous heatwave periods back to 2003 was determined using the same linear regression model and heatwave definition to estimate impact and place observations from 2013 in context. Predicted excess mortality due to heat during this period was also independently estimated. Despite a sustained heatwave in England in 2013, the impact on mortality was considerably less than expected; a small cumulative excess of 195 deaths (95% confidence interval -87 to 477) in 65+ year olds and 106 deaths (95% CI -22 to 234) in <65 year olds was seen, nearly a fifth of excess deaths predicted based on observed temperatures. This impact was also less than seen in 2006 (2323 deaths) and 2003 (2234 deaths), despite a similarly prolonged period of high temperatures. The reasons for this are unclear and further work needs to be done to understand this and further clarify the predicted impact of increases in temperature. PMID:26938849

  11. Phase I Study of Axitinib in Combination with Cisplatin and Capecitabine in Patients with Previously Untreated Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Do-Youn; Doi, Toshihiko; Shirao, Kuniaki; Lee, Keun-Wook; Park, Sook Ryun; Chen, Ying; Yang, Liqiang; Valota, Olga; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This phase I trial evaluated the question of whether the standard starting dose of axitinib could be administered in combination with therapeutic doses of cisplatin/capecitabine in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer, and assessed overall safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of this combination. Materials and Methods Patients in dose level (DL) 1 received axitinib 5 mg twice a day (days 1 to 21) with cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (day 1) and capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 twice a day (days 1 to 14) in 21-day cycles. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was the highest dose at which ≤ 30% of the first 12 patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle 1. Ten additional patients were enrolled and treated at the MTD in order to obtain additional safety and pharmacokinetic data. Results Three DLTs occurred during cycle 1 in three (25%) of the first 12 patients: ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute renal failure, and > 5 consecutive days of missed axitinib due to thrombocytopenia. DL1 was established as the MTD, since higher DL cohorts were not planned. Common grade 3/4 non-hematologic adverse events in 22 patients treated at DL1 included hypertension (36.4%) and decreased appetite and stomatitis (18.2% each). Cisplatin/capecitabine slightly increased axitinib exposure; axitinib decreased capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil exposure. Eight patients (36.4%) each had partial response or stable disease. Median response duration was 9.1 months; median progression-free survival was 3.8 months. Conclusion In patients with advanced gastric cancer, standard doses of axitinib plus therapeutic doses of cisplatin and capecitabine could be administered in combination. Adverse events were manageable. PMID:25687867

  12. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Leong, C.; Schroeder, J.; Lee, B.

    2014-03-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  13. Lumbar instrumented fusion compared with cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brox, Jens Ivar; Reikerås, Olav; Nygaard, Øystein; Sørensen, Roger; Indahl, Aage; Holm, Inger; Keller, Anne; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Grundnes, Oliver; Lange, Johan Emil; Friis, Astrid

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of lumbar fusion for chronic low back pain after surgery for disc herniation has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of lumbar fusion with posterior transpedicular screws and cognitive intervention and exercises. Sixty patients aged 25-60 years with low back pain lasting longer than 1 year after previous surgery for disc herniation were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups. Experienced back surgeons performed transpedicular fusion. Cognitive intervention consisted of a lecture intended to give the patient an understanding that ordinary physical activity would not harm the disc and a recommendation to use the back and bend it. This was reinforced by three daily physical exercise sessions for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Outcome data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ninety-seven percent of the patients, including seven of eight patients who had either not attended treatment (n=5) or changed groups (n=2), completed 1-year follow-up. ODI was significantly improved from 47 to 38 after fusion and from 45 to 32 after cognitive intervention and exercises. The mean difference between treatments after adjustment for gender was -7.3 (95% CI -17.3 to 2.7, p=0.15). The success rate was 50% in the fusion group and 48% in the cognitive intervention/exercise group. For patients with chronic low back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation, lumbar fusion failed to show any benefit over cognitive intervention and exercises. PMID:16545523

  14. Plantar Pressure in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients with Active Foot Ulceration, Previous Ulceration and No History of Ulceration: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Aims Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Methods Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Results Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290–0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303–1.221, p = 0.001, respectively). Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181– 0.753, p = 0.001). Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. Conclusions Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy

  15. STUDIES OF ECHOVIRUS-12 IN VOLUNTEERS: DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE AND THE EFFECT OF PREVIOUS INFECTION ON INFECTIOUS DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-part study of echovirus-12 was done in volunteers. In the first part the human infectious dose of the virus was determined in 149 healthy adults with undetectable serum antibody, each of whom drank 0-330,000 plaque-forming units (pfu) of virus in 100 ml of nonchlorinated wa...

  16. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    PubMed

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. PMID:16094658

  17. Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms during Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Results Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 – 2.69). Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

  18. The Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle over the Arctic Basin from Reanalyses. Part I: Comparison with Observations and Previous Studies*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Bromwich, David H.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2000-03-01

    The atmospheric moisture budget is evaluated for the region 70°N to the North Pole using reanalysis datasets of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; ERA: ECMWF Re-Analysis) and the collaborative effort of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). For the forecast fields of the reanalyses, the ERA annually averaged P E (precipitation minus evaporation/sublimation) field reproduces the major features of the basin perimeter as they are known, while the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis forecast fields contain a spurious wave pattern in both P and E. Comparisons between gauge data from Soviet drift camp stations and forecast P values of the reanalyses show reasonable agreement given the difficulties (i.e., gauge accuracy, translating location). When averaged for 70°-90°N, the ERA and NCEP-NCAR forecast P E are similar in the annual cycle. Average reanalysis forecast values of E for the north polar cap are found to be 40% or more too large based on comparisons using surface latent heat flux climatologies.Differences between a synthesized average moisture flux across 70°N from rawinsonde data of the Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive (HARA) and the reanalysis data occur in the presence of rawinsonde network problems. It is concluded that critical deficiencies exist in the rawinsonde depiction of the summertime meridional moisture transport. However, it remains to be seen whether the rawinsonde estimate can be rectified with a different method. For 70°-90°N, annual moisture convergence (P E) values from the ERA and NCEP-NCAR are very similar; for both reanalyses, annual P E values obtained from forecast fields are much lower than those obtained from moisture flux convergence by about 60%, indicating severe nonclosure of the atmospheric moisture budget. The nonclosure primarily results from anomalously large forecast E values. In comparison with other studies, reanalyses moisture

  19. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding), as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI), as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds). Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders), breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI < 50% had the highest odds ratio (13.8) for SpO2 < 95%, compared to other 24h FI values and other clinical signs, as well as providing one of the best compromises between specificity (90%) and sensitivity (60%) for identifying infants with hypoxia. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, SpO2 < 95% was related to the presence of intercostal retractions (OR = 9.1 [95% CI, 2.4-33.8%]) and 24h FI < 50% (OR = 10.9 [95% CI, 3.0-39.1%]). Hospitalization (17 infants) was strongly related to younger age, 24h FI and intercostal retractions. Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study. PMID:23311899

  20. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  1. An intervention program with the aim to improve and maintain work productivity for workers with rheumatoid arthritis: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (cost)effectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients’ supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Discussion Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop interventions aimed at

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  3. 1981 Follow-Up Study of Students Enrolled and Previously Enrolled in the Michigan School for the Blind and the Michigan School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston-White, Deborah J. H.

    A followup study of currently and previously enrolled students of the Michigan School for the Blind (MSB) and the Michigan School for the Deaf (MSD) is reported. Eligibility guidelines, services, enrollment, costs, and nature of the student body at each institution are described. Development and use of four questionnaires to evaluate eight…

  4. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  5. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  6. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  7. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Shinozaki, Eiji; Ozaka, Masato; Ogura, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR) after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77) years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0) and the response rate (complete response and partial response) was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. Conclusion Reintroducing oxaliplatin can be both safe and effective. This may be a salvage option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who achieved a response or stable disease with prior oxaliplatin-based therapy followed by disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior

  8. Study of air masses trajectories during the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mappe, Irene; Riviere, Emmanuel; Khaykin, Sergey; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Water vapor directly affects the climate as greenhouse gas emissions, but also indirectly by the formation of other essential elements of radiative forcing as aerosols, clouds of ice. In addition, water has a significant role in the chemical composition, the balance of ozone and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Transfers of water vapor in the troposphere to the stratosphere are one of the major scientific challenges in modeling the stratosphere and climate. The TRO-pico small balloon campaign took place in Bauru (22.3 ° S) in southern Brazil during two convective seasons. Its main objective was to study the exchange of water vapor between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and better understand the role of overshooting convection in the moistening of the lower stratosphere and its variability at the local scale to infer a typical impact at a larger scale. Here we focus on the purely convective seasons of the campaign, with a first period in March 2012 and a second in Jan-Feb 2013, during which, in addition to convective tracers measurements (methane, O3…) H2O was intensively sampled by two different in situ hygrometers : Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B. Here we investigated all the measurements gathered close to deep convective events and analyze them in term of potential signature of overshooting convection in the lower stratosphere, to put to the fore possible impact at the wet season time scale. The approach is the use of a trajectory model (HYsplit) running with the GDAS analyses, the different H2O profile from both instruments, echo top from the Bauru S-Band radar highlighting any potential overshoot occurrence in the vicinity of the balloon flight earlier during the day. For each local maximum of H2O, a back trajectory is computed from the balloon position. It is checked if the back trajectory cross an overshooting cell seen by the Bauru radar, and matches it in time and maximum altitude Here we use a total of 8 vertical profiles of H2O from

  9. A cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at implementation of local quality improvement collaboratives to improve prescribing and test ordering performance of general practitioners: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Trietsch, Jasper; van der Weijden, Trudy; Verstappen, Wim; Janknegt, Rob; Muijrers, Paul; Winkens, Ron; van Steenkiste, Ben; Grol, Richard; Metsemakers, Job

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of guidelines in general practice is not optimal. Although evidence-based methods to improve guideline adherence are available, variation in physician adherence to general practice guidelines remains relatively high. The objective for this study is to transfer a quality improvement strategy based on audit, feedback, educational materials, and peer group discussion moderated by local opinion leaders to the field. The research questions are: is the multifaceted strategy implemented on a large scale as planned?; what is the effect on general practitioners' (GPs) test ordering and prescribing behaviour?; and what are the costs of implementing the strategy? Methods In order to evaluate the effects, costs and feasibility of this new strategy we plan a multi-centre cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a balanced incomplete block design. Local GP groups in the south of the Netherlands already taking part in pharmacotherapeutic audit meeting groups, will be recruited by regional health officers. Approximately 50 groups of GPs will be randomly allocated to two arms. These GPs will be offered two different balanced sets of clinical topics. Each GP within a group will receive comparative feedback on test ordering and prescribing performance. The feedback will be discussed in the group and working agreements will be created after discussion of the guidelines and barriers to change. The data for the feedback will be collected from existing and newly formed databases, both at baseline and after one year. Discussion We are not aware of published studies on successes and failures of attempts to transfer to the stakeholders in the field a multifaceted strategy aimed at GPs' test ordering and prescribing behaviour. This pragmatic study will focus on compatibility with existing infrastructure, while permitting a certain degree of adaptation to local needs and routines. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register ISRCTN40008171 PMID:19222840

  10. A case study evaluation of an intervention aiming to strengthen the midwifery professional role in Morocco: anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Abou Malham, Sabina; Hatem, Marie; Leduc, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, Morocco is strongly committed to strengthen its midwifery professional role. This study aimed to identify barriers that could potentially hinder an action plan to strengthen the midwifery professional role from achieving desired outcomes. We used a conceptual framework, which is derived from Hatem-Asmar’s (1997) framework on the interaction of educational, professional, and sociocultural systems in which a professional role evolves and from Damschroder et al’s (2009) framework for the implementation analysis. Methods This paper builds on a qualitative case study on the factors affecting the action plan’s implementation process that also revealed rich data about anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes. Data were collected through training sessions, field observations, documents, focus groups (n=20), and semistructured interviews (n=11) with stakeholders pertaining to the three systems under study. Content analysis was used to identify themes related to barriers. Results Seven barriers that may compromise the achievement of desired results were found. They relate to the legal framework, social representations, and media support in the sociocultural system and the practice environment, networks and communication mechanisms, and characteristics related to the role and the readiness in the professional system. Conclusion Disregarding sociocultural and professional system level, barriers may impede efforts to strengthen the midwife’s role and to provide qualified midwives who can improve the quality of maternal care. Making changes in the educational system cannot be thought of as an isolated process. Its success is closely tied with multiple contextual factors pertaining to the two other systems. Activities recommended to address these barriers may have great potential to build a competent midwifery workforce that contributes to positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:26445547

  11. The neural and cognitive correlates of aimed throwing in chimpanzees: a magnetic resonance image and behavioural study on a unique form of social tool use.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer A

    2012-01-12

    It has been hypothesized that neurological adaptations associated with evolutionary selection for throwing may have served as a precursor for the emergence of language and speech in early hominins. Although there are reports of individual differences in aimed throwing in wild and captive apes, to date there has not been a single study that has examined the potential neuroanatomical correlates of this very unique tool-use behaviour in non-human primates. In this study, we examined whether differences in the ratio of white (WM) to grey matter (GM) were evident in the homologue to Broca's area as well as the motor-hand area of the precentral gyrus (termed the KNOB) in chimpanzees that reliably throw compared with those that do not. We found that the proportion of WM in Broca's homologue and the KNOB was significantly higher in subjects that reliably throw compared with those that do not. We further found that asymmetries in WM within both brain regions were larger in the hemisphere contralateral to the chimpanzee's preferred throwing hand. We also found that chimpanzees that reliably throw show significantly better communication abilities than chimpanzees that do not. These results suggest that chimpanzees that have learned to throw have developed greater cortical connectivity between primary motor cortex and the Broca's area homologue. It is suggested that during hominin evolution, after the split between the lines leading to chimpanzees and humans, there was intense selection on increased motor skills associated with throwing and that this potentially formed the foundation for left hemisphere specialization associated with language and speech found in modern humans. PMID:22106425

  12. Effects of 32-year leisure time physical activity discordance in twin pairs on health (TWINACTIVE study): aims, design and results for physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Tuija; Waller, Katja; Mutikainen, Sara; Aaltonen, Sari; Ronkainen, Paula H A; Alén, Markku; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko; Perhonen, Merja; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2009-02-01

    The physically active lifestyle is associated with low future morbidity and mortality, but the causality between physical activity and health is not always clear. As some inherited biological characteristics and childhood experiences may cause selection bias in observational studies, we sought to take them into account by identifying 16 twin pairs (7 MZ, 9 DZ, mean age 60 years) discordant for leisure time physical activity habits for thirty years. We conducted detailed health-related examinations among these twin pairs. Our main aims were to study the effects of physical activity and genes on fitness and body composition, with special reference to body fat compartments, metabolic syndrome components and related diseases and risk factor levels, status of arteries, structure and function of the heart, bone properties, and muscle and fat tissue-related mechanisms linked to physical activity and chronic disease development. Our physical activity assessments showed that inactive co-twins were on average 8.8 MET hours/day less active than their active co-twins through out their midlife (2.2+/-2.3 vs. 11.0+/-4.1 MET h/day, p< .001). Follow-up fitness tests showed that physically inactive co-twins were less fit than their active co-twins (estimated VO(2peak) 26.4+/-4.9 vs. 32.5+/-5.5 ml/kg/min, p< .001). Similar differences were found in both MZ and DZ pairs. On the basis of earlier epidemiological observations on nonrelated individuals, these physical activity and fitness differences are large enough to cause differences in many mechanisms and risk factors related to the development of chronic diseases and to permit future analyses. PMID:19210186

  13. Preliminary study of sperm chromatin characteristics of the brachyuran crab Maja brachydactyla. Histones and nucleosome-like structures in decapod crustacean sperm nuclei previously described without SNBPs.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, K; Ausió, J; Chiva, M

    2009-10-01

    An interesting characteristic of decapod crustacean sperm nuclei is that they do not contain highly packaged chromatin. In the present study we re-examine the presence of DNA-interacting proteins in sperm nuclei of the brachyuran Maja brachydactyla. Although previous reports have indicated that, unlike the majority of sperm cells, DNA of decapod sperm is not organized by basic proteins, in this work we show that: (1) histones are present in sperm of M. brachydactyla; (2) histones are associated with sperm DNA; (3) histone H3 appears in lower proportions than the other core histones, while histone H2B appears in higher proportions; and (4) histone H3 in sperm nuclei is acetylated. This work complements a previous study of sperm histones of Cancer pagurus and supports the suggestion that decapod crustacean sperm chromatin deserves further attention. PMID:19324386

  14. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  15. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Suneth; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 803 900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effectiveness of implementing the safe storage intervention as well as four potential interventions (legislative, medical management, follow-up contact and mobile phone contact) on a national level. Methods and analysis Study design for all the strategies is a cost-effectiveness analysis. A governmental perspective is adopted. The time horizon for tracking the associated costs and health outcomes of the safe storage intervention on district level runs over 3 years. The time horizon is extended to 5 years when modelling a full national roll-out of the respective interventions. The discounting of costs and health outcomes are undertaken at the recommended real rate of 3%. Threshold analyses of the modelled strategies are employed to assess the strategies potential for cost-effectiveness, running scenarios with health outcome improvements ranging from 1% to 100%. Sensitivity analyses are also performed. The main outcome measures of the safe storage intervention are incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public and private stakeholders in local and national government in Sri Lanka as well as the wider academic audience through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. Trial

  16. An Exploration of Factors Related to Dissemination of and Exposure to Internet-Delivered Behavior Change Interventions Aimed at Adults: A Delphi Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oenema, Anke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Background The Internet is an attractive medium for delivering individualized, computer-tailored behavior change interventions to large numbers of people. However, the actual numbers of people reached seem to fall behind the high expectations. Insight into factors that determine use of and exposure to these Internet interventions is important to be able to increase the reach and improve exposure. Objective The aim was to identify potentially important factors that determine whether adults visit an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention, extend their visit, and revisit the intervention. Methods A systematic, three-round Delphi study was conducted among national and international experts from Internet intervention research and practice, e-marketing/e-commerce, Web design, and technical website development. In the first round, 30 experts completed a structured, open-ended online questionnaire assessing factors that were, in their opinion, important for a first visit, an extended visit, a revisit and for effective promotion strategies. Based on the responses in this first questionnaire, a closed-ended online questionnaire was developed for use in the second round. A total of 233 experts were invited to complete this questionnaire. Median and interquartile deviation (IQD) scores were computed to calculate agreement and consensus on the importance of the factors. The factors for which no consensus was obtained (IQD > 1) were included in the third-round questionnaire. Factors with a median score of six or higher and with an IQD ≤ 1 were considered to be important. Results Of the 62 experts invited for the first round, 30 completed the questionnaire (48% response rate); 93/233 experts completed the second-round questionnaire (40% response rate), and 59/88 completed the third round (67% response rate). Being motivated to visit an Internet intervention and perceiving the intervention as personally relevant appeared to be important factors related to a first visit

  17. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  18. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Khaykin, Sergey; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Cairo, Francesco; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Held, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small-size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, including different phases during the wet season : March 2012 at the end of the most active convective season, a transition phase in November-December 2012 before the most active season, and January-February 2013, which corresponds to the peak of the convective activity. The campaign involves a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O, CO2 or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD, LOAC and micro-lidar aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS and adequate modeling tools, that is to say all parameters that are sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period

  19. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget: first highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Khaykhin, Sergey; Ghysels, Melanie; Mappe-Fogaing, Irene; Stoeffler, Clara; Toledo-Tarasco, Daniel; Rannou, Pascal; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small size, fast but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign that took place in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, in March 2012 and from November 2012 to March 2013 (most of the wet season) with a peak phase in January-February 2013 (during the most active convective season). The campaign involved a series of light weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser spectrometers (H2O, CO2 or CH4), a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based S-Band radar and an optical depth sensor so-called ODS, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, and adequate modelling tools that is of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico included a two time-scale campaign with a total of 37 balloon flights including 34 flights using H2O sensors in the flight train: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering to the full wet season

  20. First results from the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, E. D.; Pommerau, J.-P.; Held, G.; Amarouche, N.; Ghysels, M.; Khaykin, S.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Renard, J.-B.; Cairo, F.; Durry, G.; Di Donfrancesco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer) followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small in size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, funded by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3 S) in Southeast Brazil, from the end of January 2012 to December 2012, involving a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, Megha-Tropiques and adequate modeling, that is, of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering a complete wet season during which water vapour profiles will be measured regularly for studying its variability and seasonal change, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most

  1. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052. PMID:19643007

  2. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, M.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Mellab, K.; Michel, P.; AIM Team

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to an international cooperation targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous nearearth asteroid as well as the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid. After launch in 2020, AIM will rendezvous the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022 and observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. The AIM mission will test new technologies like optical telecommunications by laser and Cubesats with nano-payloads and will perform scientific measurements at the asteroid system.

  3. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  4. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  5. A Quantification of Methane Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Extraction Regions in the Central/Western U.S. and a Comparison to Previous Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne measurements of methane and ethane taken aboard a NOAA WP-3D research aircraft over five regions of oil and natural gas extraction in March and April, 2015, as part of the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field study. The five regions are the (1) Haynesville, (2) Barnett, and (3) Eagle Ford regions in Texas, (4) the Denver-Julesburg region of Colorado, and (5) the Bakken region of North Dakota. From these measurements, we derive methane emission rates from these regions using the mass balance method. Next, we attribute the methane emissions to oil and natural gas extraction, livestock operations, and other source sectors based on correlations of methane with ethane and ammonia. We then compare these emissions to those reported from previous studies, where applicable. Finally, we compare reported methane emissions from multiple regional-scale studies with inventory estimates of methane emissions from U.S. oil and natural gas production.

  6. Docetaxel in combination with 5-fluorouracil in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy: a phase I, dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, A; Maillard, P; Delva, R; Boisdron-Celle, M; Perard, D; Vernillet, L; Besenval, M; Gamelin, E

    2000-09-01

    This phase I study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity and recommended dose of docetaxel in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. 32 patients received docetaxel at 60, 75, 85 or 100 mg/m(2) by 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion, followed, after a 1-h interval, by 5-FU at 250, 350, 500 or 750 mg/m(2)/day by continuous infusion over 5 days every 3 weeks. Dose-limiting stomatitis defined the maximum tolerated dose at a docetaxel dose of 100 mg/m(2) with 5-FU 750 mg/m(2)/day. None of 5 patients treated at the previous dose level (docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) with 5-FU 750 mg/m(2)/day) had a dose-limiting toxicity in the first cycle, and this was, therefore, considered the recommended dose. The combination was generally well tolerated. Grade 4 neutropenia was common (29 patients; 91%), but no patient experienced febrile neutropenia of duration >3 days requiring i.v. antibiotics. An objective response was achieved by 18 patients overall (56%), and in 4 out of 5 patients treated with the determined recommended dose. No pharmacokinetic interaction between docetaxel and 5-fluorouracil was apparent. The activity of docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) with 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m(2)/day will be explored more extensively in phase II studies of patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. PMID:10974625

  7. Phase II Study of the MEK1/MEK2 Inhibitor Trametinib in Patients With Metastatic BRAF-Mutant Cutaneous Melanoma Previously Treated With or Without a BRAF Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kevin B.; Kefford, Richard; Pavlick, Anna C.; Infante, Jeffrey R.; Ribas, Antoni; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Fecher, Leslie A.; Millward, Michael; McArthur, Grant A.; Hwu, Patrick; Gonzalez, Rene; Ott, Patrick A.; Long, Georgina V.; Gardner, Olivia S.; Ouellet, Daniele; Xu, Yanmei; DeMarini, Douglas J.; Le, Ngocdiep T.; Patel, Kiran; Lewis, Karl D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose BRAF mutations promote melanoma cell proliferation and survival primarily through activation of MEK. The purpose of this study was to determine the response rate (RR) for the selective, allosteric MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib (GSK1120212), in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma. Patients and Methods This was an open-label, two-stage, phase II study with two cohorts. Patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor (cohort A) or treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy (BRAF-inhibitor naive; cohort B) were enrolled. Patients received 2 mg of trametinib orally once daily. Results In cohort A (n = 40), there were no confirmed objective responses and 11 patients (28%) with stable disease (SD); the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.8 months. In cohort B (n = 57), there was one (2%) complete response, 13 (23%) partial responses (PRs), and 29 patients (51%) with SD (confirmed RR, 25%); the median PFS was 4.0 months. One patient each with BRAF K601E and BRAF V600R had prolonged PR. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events for all patients were skin-related toxicity, nausea, peripheral edema, diarrhea, pruritis, and fatigue. No cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was observed. Conclusion Trametinib was well tolerated. Significant clinical activity was observed in BRAF-inhibitor–naive patients previously treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Minimal clinical activity was observed as sequential therapy in patients previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor. Together, these data suggest that BRAF-inhibitor resistance mechanisms likely confer resistance to MEK-inhibitor monotherapy. These data support further evaluation of trametinib in BRAF-inhibitor–naive BRAF-mutant melanoma, including rarer forms of BRAF-mutant melanoma. PMID:23248257

  8. Genome-wide association study of serum lipids confirms previously reported associations as well as new associations of common SNPs within PCSK7 gene with triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Kurano, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Hara, Masumi; Ishikawa, Toshio; Kim, Bong-Jo; Moon, Sanghoon; Jin Kim, Young; Teramoto, Tamio

    2016-05-01

    Previous reports including genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have described associations of serum lipids with genomic variations. In the present study, we examined the association of ∼2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 3041 Japanese healthy volunteers obtained from the Japan Pharmacogenomics Data Science Consortium (JPDSC) database with serum lipids. We confirmed the previously reported associations of 14 SNPs in 5 regions for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 23 SNPs in 12 regions for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 16 SNPs in 6 regions for triglyceride and 5 SNPs in 1 region for phospholipid. Furthermore, we identified 16 possible novel candidate genes associated with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides, where SNPs had P-values of <1 × 10(-5). Further replication analyses of these genes with Korean data revealed significant associations of SNPs located within the PCSK7 gene and triglyceride (Pmeta=7.98 × 10(-9) and 1.91 × 10(-8) for rs508487 and rs236911, respectively). These associations remained significant even by the conditional analysis adjusting for three neighboring variations associated with triglyceride. Our present data suggest that PCSK7 as well as PCSK9 may be associated with lipids, especially triglyceride, and may serve as a candidate for a new drug target to treat lipid abnormality syndromes. PMID:26763881

  9. Summary of clinical and laboratory data of study subjects with and without DCE-MRI plaque measurements in the AIM-HIGH clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kevin D.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Chen, Huijun; Neradilek, Moni B.; Probstfield, Jeffrey L.; Peck, Suzanne; Isquith, Daniel A.; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Polissar, Nayak L.; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Kerwin, William S.

    2016-01-01

    This brief data article summarizes the clinical risk factors and laboratory data of a group of subjects recruited for the AIM-HIGH trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and an associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy. The sample is restricted to those on statin therapy at the time of enrollment and data are presented stratified by whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) markers of carotid plaque vascularity and inflammation were available or not. The data provided herein are directly related to the article “Longer Duration of Statin Therapy is Associated with Decreased Carotid Plaque Vascularity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging” [2]. PMID:26977429

  10. Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel Combination in Patients with Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kafri, Zyad; Heilbrun, Lance K.; Sukari, Ammar; Yoo, George; Jacobs, John; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mulrenan, Heather; Smith, Daryn; Kucuk, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and docetaxel (GEMDOC) in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods. Patients with advanced SCCHN previously pretreated with one or two lines of palliative chemotherapy were treated with gemcitabine and docetaxel until disease progression. Results. Thirty-six patients were enrolled, and 29 were response evaluable. 16 (55%) experienced clinical benefit (response or stable disease). Six (21%) patients achieved partial response (PR), none achieved complete response (CR), and the overall response rate (ORR) was 21% (95% CI: 0.10–0.38). Ten (28%) patients had stable disease. The median response duration (RD) for the 6 PR patients was 3.2 months (80% CI: 2.0–6.1 months). Median overall survival was 4.2 months (95% CI: 2.4–7.0 months). Among the 33 treated patients: 13 (39%) patients had grade 3-4 anemia, 10 (30%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia. Conclusion. The study drugs were relatively safe, and the clinical benefit (PR + SD) rate was 55%. However, the efficacy objective for this regimen was not met. Given the good safety profile, further investigation of this regimen with the addition of a targeted agent may lead to better efficacy. PMID:22655205

  11. Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel Combination in Patients with Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Zyad; Heilbrun, Lance K; Sukari, Ammar; Yoo, George; Jacobs, John; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mulrenan, Heather; Smith, Daryn; Kucuk, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and docetaxel (GEMDOC) in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods. Patients with advanced SCCHN previously pretreated with one or two lines of palliative chemotherapy were treated with gemcitabine and docetaxel until disease progression. Results. Thirty-six patients were enrolled, and 29 were response evaluable. 16 (55%) experienced clinical benefit (response or stable disease). Six (21%) patients achieved partial response (PR), none achieved complete response (CR), and the overall response rate (ORR) was 21% (95% CI: 0.10-0.38). Ten (28%) patients had stable disease. The median response duration (RD) for the 6 PR patients was 3.2 months (80% CI: 2.0-6.1 months). Median overall survival was 4.2 months (95% CI: 2.4-7.0 months). Among the 33 treated patients: 13 (39%) patients had grade 3-4 anemia, 10 (30%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia. Conclusion. The study drugs were relatively safe, and the clinical benefit (PR + SD) rate was 55%. However, the efficacy objective for this regimen was not met. Given the good safety profile, further investigation of this regimen with the addition of a targeted agent may lead to better efficacy. PMID:22655205

  12. The Aims of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eble, Kenneth E.

    The aims of college teaching are discussed, and a comparison of higher education in 1960 and two decades later is provided. After considering the development of a teaching style and the importance of the teacher's character, the joyful and spontaneous side of teaching are considered. The nature of teaching (i.e., art, science, or craft) is also…

  13. AIME Copyright Information Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Information Media and Equipment, Elkader, IA.

    Designed to assist educators in developing or revising school/library copyright policy, this packet provides the following materials: (1) a viewer's guide for the film "Copyright Law: What Every School, College, and Public Library Should Know"; (2) a statement of the primary missions of the Association for Information Media and Equipment (AIME);…

  14. Differentiation and Standardization of Aims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert

    For many people, school reform means taking the responsibility for goal setting away from teachers and assessing common student accomplishments, but the costs and benefits of this accountability strategy have not been determined. The difference between the aims of education represented by test scores, and those represented by the activities of the…

  15. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity. PMID:26667529

  16. A Phase III Study of Durvalumab (MEDI4736) With or Without Tremelimumab for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced NSCLC: Rationale and Protocol Design of the ARCTIC Study.

    PubMed

    Planchard, David; Yokoi, Takashi; McCleod, Michael J; Fischer, Jürgen R; Kim, Young-Chul; Ballas, Marc; Shi, Kelvin; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2016-05-01

    Anti-programmed cell death-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monotherapies have shown promising clinical activity in advanced, refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but antitumor activity appears to be greater in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors compared with patients harboring PD-L1(-) tumors. Combining the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab and the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody tremelimumab offers the potential for antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor status. ARCTIC (NCT02352948) is a global, phase III, randomized, open-label multicenter study in patients with advanced NSCLC assessing the safety and clinical activity of durvalumab versus standard of care (SoC; erlotinib, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine) in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors (≥25% of tumor cells with membrane staining using VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] CDx Assay) (Sub-study A) and the combination of durvalumab + tremelimumab or either agent as monotherapy versus SoC in patients with PD-L1(-) tumors (Sub-study B). Eligible patients are those with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (Stage IIIB/IV), without epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, who have received at least 2 prior systemic regimens, including 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary endpoints include the proportion of patients alive at 12 months, objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months, safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and quality of life. The exploratory endpoints will assess potential biomarkers of treatment response. Recruitment started in January 2015 and is ongoing. PMID:27265743

  17. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  18. Clinical Factors Associated with High-risk Carotid Plaque Features as Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Established Vascular Disease (From the AIM-HIGH Study)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Sun, Jie; Balu, Niranjan; Isquith, Daniel A.; Crouse, John R.; Anderson, Todd; Huston, John; Polissar, Nayak; O’Brien, Kevin; Yuan, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Association between clinical factors and high-risk plaque features such as thin or ruptured cap, intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH), presence of Lipid Rich Necrotic Core (LRNC) and increased LRNC volume as assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was examined in patients with established vascular disease in AIM-HIGH. A total of 214 subjects underwent carotid MRI and had acceptable image quality for assessment of plaque burden, tissue contents and MRI-modified AHA lesion type by a Core Lab. We found that 77% of subjects had carotid plaques, 52% had lipid-containing plaques, and 11% had advanced, AHA type-VI lesions with possible surface defect, IPH or mural thrombus. Type-VI lesions were associated with older age (OR=2.6 per 5 years increase, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, these lesions were associated with history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=4.1, p=0.01), higher levels of Lipoprotein(a) (OR=2.0 per 1 SD increase, p=0.02) and larger %wall volume (%WV; OR=4.6 per 1 SD increase, p<0.001), but, were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=0.2, p=0.02). Presence of LRNC was associated with male gender (OR=3.2, p=0.02) and %WV (OR=3.8 per 1 SD, p<0.001), but, was negatively associated with diabetes (OR=0.4, p=0.02) and HDL-C levels (OR=0.7 per 1 SD, p=0.02). Increased %LRNC was associated with %WV (regression coefficient=0.36, p<0.001) and negatively associated with ApoA1 levels (regression coefficient=−0.20, p=0.03). In conclusions, older age, male gender, history of cerebrovascular disease, larger plaque burden, higher Lp(a), and lower HDL-C or ApoA1 have statistically significant associations with high-risk plaque features. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes showed negative associations in this population. PMID:25245415

  19. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1995). III. Differences in susceptibilities from previous years].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Hikichi, Y; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Kosakai, N; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Mochida, C

    1997-04-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 11 hospitals during June, 1995 through May, 1996, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. Macrolide resistant E. faecalis isolated from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period appeared to have increased compared to those in previous study periods. More than 50% of the isolated E. faecalis during the latest study period were resistant to macrolide antibiotics, for the first time in our history. 2. No obvious changes were observed through the years for susceptibilities of S. aureus to various antimicrobial agents. Vancomycin (VCM) showed the highest activity against S. aureus, with MICs below 2 micrograms/ml or below. 3. Among E. coli strains, those with low susceptibilities to quinolones appeared to have increased over the years with MIC90 changed from between 0.125 microgram/ml or below and 0.5 microgram/ml in the 1989-1990 period to between 8 micrograms/ml and 128 micrograms/ml in the latest study period. 4. Klebsiella spp. showed higher resistance to most antimicrobial agents during periods of 1993-1994 and 1994-1995, but somewhat lower resistance during period of 1995-1996. No resistant Klebsiella spp. were detected from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period. 5. Among P. aeruginosa isolates from complicated UTIs, resistance isolates to gentamicin appeared to be increasing over the years. Resistant strains to quinolones were isolated at lower frequencies during periods of 1991-1994, but higher frequency was observed in the latest period, and MIC50s were between 0.5 and 4 micrograms/ml during 1991-1994, but were 16-32 micrograms/ml during 1995-1996. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9192248

  20. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  1. The Aims and Objectives of the Monitoring the Future Study and Progress toward Fulfilling Them as of 2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Paper 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring the Future is an ongoing program of research intended to assess the changing lifestyles, values, and preferences of American youth. This publication, from the occasional paper series, describes a study that monitors drug use and potential explanatory factors among American secondary school students, college students, and young adults.…

  2. MonitorNet: the Italian multi-centre observational study aimed at estimating the risk/benefit profile of biologic agents in real-world rheumatology practice.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, P; Salaffi, F; Montecucco, C M; Bombardieri, S; Todesco, S

    2009-01-01

    MonitorNet is a database established by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) in January 2007 and funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), for the active long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated with biologic agents. All hospital Rheumatology Units in Italy were invited to participate in a non-interventional, observational, epidemiological study. The study is conducted in a routine clinical setting (real-world practice) where biologics are prescribed on the basis of current recommendations. In this report we describe the design, methodology, and present preliminary data of the study. At the time of the analysis (April 2009) the database included 3510 patients: 2469 (70.3%) with established RA, 675 (19.2%) with PsA and 366 (10.4%) with AS. The cumulative follow up period was 8,787 patient-years (RA: 8,388, PsA: 157; AS: 242). There were 1,538 adverse events in 938 (26.7%) patients. Infections were recorded in 630 patients, skin-related adverse events in 142 and post-infusion reactions in 90. A total of 30 malignancies were reported. An interim analysis of efficacy was conducted on 2,148 RA patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one patients (35.8%) achieved EULAR remission (defined as DAS28<2.4). When assessed with the more restrictive CDAI and SDAI criteria, the frequency of remission was lower (17.9% and 14.7% respectively). Availability of funding for this study provided an opportunity to organize a collaborative national network of rheumatology clinics to develop a large multicentre observational study. PMID:19633800

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. PMID:22863660

  4. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. Method/Design This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. Discussion The intervention package is designed to

  5. Preoperative Association of Abdominal Striae Gravidarum with Intraabdominal Adhesions in Pregnant Women with a History of Previous Cesarean Section: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, A.; Ertas, I. E.; Uyar, I.; Karaca, I.; Bozgeyik, B.; Töz, E.; Ozeren, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraabdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause problems during surgery. Complications can include difficult intraabdominal entry; injury to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; longer operation times, and increased blood loss. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intraabdominal adhesions in the preoperative period in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study included 247 pregnant women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation admitted to the labor unit for delivery; all had undergone at least one previous cesarean section. Abdominal striae were assessed preoperatively using the Davey scoring system; the severity and intensity of adhesions were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively according to the modified Nair scoring system. Results: No striae were seen in 104 pregnant women; 41 had mild striae and 102 had severe striae. Overall, 113 cases had no adhesions (grade 0), 106 had grade 1–2 adhesions, and 28 had grade 3–4 adhesions. Among patients with grade 0 adhesions, 34 (13.7 %) had no striae, while 79 (31.9 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001; sensitivity 55 %; specificity 67 %; positive predictive value 69 %; negative predictive value 52 %). Among women with grade 1–2 adhesions, 48 (19.4 %) had no striae, while 58 (23.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae. Finally, among women with grade 3–4 adhesions, 22 (8.9 %) had no striae, while 6 (2.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Conclusions: The abdominal adhesion score dropped as the abdominal striae gravidarum score rose during the preoperative period. Addition of this useful, easy-to-apply, inexpensive, adjunctive, observational, abdominal scoring method to the obstetrical work-up can provide important clues about the intraabdominal adhesion

  6. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  7. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Daniel; Wesseling, Geertjan; Huibers, Marcus JH; van Schayck, Onno CP

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group), health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1), and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2). Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A significant and relevant

  8. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous vivaglobin® replacement therapy in previously untreated patients with primary immunodeficiency: a prospective, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Borte, Michael; Quinti, Isabella; Soresina, Annarosa; Fernández-Cruz, Eduardo; Ritchie, Bruce; Schmidt, Dirk S; McCusker, Christine

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of primary immunodeficiency (PI) is typically initiated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) loading and then continued with IVIG or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG). This prospective, open-label, multicenter, 6-month study evaluated a new regimen of initiating IgG therapy with SCIG in 18 previously untreated patients. In the loading phase, SCIG 100 mg/kg was administered for five consecutive days (total loading dose 500 mg/kg). During the maintenance phase, patients self-infused SCIG 100 mg/kg/week at home. The primary efficacy endpoint of IgG levels ≥5 g/L on day 12 was achieved in 17 patients (94.4%; 95% CI 0.727, 0.999). The rate of infections was 3.95 episodes/patient/year. Improvement was found in many subscales of the health-related quality of life questionnaires. SCIG treatment was well tolerated, with no related serious adverse events (AEs). Nine (50%) patients experienced related AEs, including local reactions (rate 0.105 events/infusion). The results suggest that therapy of newly diagnosed patients with PI can be initiated directly with SCIG. PMID:21932110

  9. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of rehabilitation aimed at improving outdoor mobility for people after stroke: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Up to 42% of all stroke patients do not get out of the house as much as they would like. This can impede a person’s quality of life. This study is testing the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a new outdoor mobility rehabilitation intervention by comparing it to usual care. Methods/design This is a multi-centre parallel group individually randomised, controlled trial. At least 506 participants will be recruited through 15 primary and secondary care settings and will be eligible if they are over 18 years of age, have had a stroke and wish to get out of the house more often. Participants are being randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. Intervention group participants receive up to 12 rehabilitation outdoor mobility sessions over up to four months. The main component of the intervention is repeated practice of outdoor mobility with a therapist. Control group participants are receiving the usual intervention for outdoor mobility limitations: verbal advice and provision of leaflets provided over one session. Outcome measures are being collected using postal questionnaires, travel calendars and by independent assessors. The primary outcome measure is the Social Function domain of the SF36v2 quality of life assessment six months after recruitment. The secondary outcome measures include: functional ability, mobility, the number of journeys (monthly travel diaries), satisfaction with outdoor mobility, mood, health-related quality of life, resource use of health and social care. Carer mood information is also being collected. The mean Social Function score of the SF-36v2 will be compared between treatment arms using a multiple membership form of mixed effects multiple regression analysis adjusting for centre (as a fixed effect), age and baseline Social Function score as covariates and therapist as a multiple membership random effect. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals will be presented

  10. Suppressor Mutations in the Study of Photosystem I Biogenesis: sll0088 Is a Previously Unidentified Gene Involved in Reaction Center Accumulation in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianping; Shen, Gaozhong; Wang, Tao; Bryant, Donald A.; Golbeck, John H.; McIntosh, Lee

    2003-01-01

    In previous work, some members of our group isolated mutant strains of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in which point mutations had been inserted into the psaC gene to alter the cysteine residues to the FA and FB iron-sulfur clusters in the PsaC subunit of photosystem I (J. P. Yu, I. R. Vassiliev, Y. S. Jung, J. H. Golbeck, and L. McIntosh, J. Biol. Chem. 272:8032-8039, 1997). These mutant strains did not grow photoautotrophically due to suppressed levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I. In the results described here, we show that suppressor mutations produced strains that are capable of photoautotrophic growth at moderate light intensity (20 μmol m−2 s−1). Two separate suppressor strains of C14SPsaC, termed C14SPsaC-R62 and C14SPsaC-R18, were studied and found to have mutations in a previously uncharacterized open reading frame of the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 genome named sll0088. C14SPsaC-R62 was found to substitute Pro for Arg at residue 161 as the result of a G482→C change in sll0088, and C14SPsaC-R18 was found to have a three-amino-acid insertion of Gly-Tyr-Phe following Cys231 as the result of a TGGTTATTT duplication at T690 in sll0088. These suppressor strains showed near-wild-type levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I, yet the serine oxygen ligand to FB was retained as shown by the retention of the S ≥ 3/2 spin state of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The inactivation of sll0088 by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge in the primary C14SPsaC mutant produced an engineered suppressor strain capable of photoautotrophic growth. There was no difference in psaC gene expression or in the amount of PsaC protein assembled in thylakoids between the wild type and an sll0088 deletion mutant. The sll0088 gene encodes a protein predicted to be a transcriptional regulator with sequence similarities to transcription factors in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana. The protein contains a typical helix

  11. REVEAL-1, a phase 2 dose regimen optimization study of vosaroxin in older poor-risk patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Robert K; Cripe, Larry D; Maris, Michael B; Cooper, Maureen A; Stone, Richard M; Dakhil, Shaker R; Turturro, Francesco; Stock, Wendy; Mason, James; Shami, Paul J; Strickland, Stephen A; Costa, Luciano J; Borthakur, Gautam; Michelson, Glenn C; Fox, Judith A; Leavitt, Richard D; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study (N = 116) evaluated single-agent vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, in patients ≥60 years of age with previously untreated unfavourable prognosis acute myeloid leukaemia. Dose regimen optimization was explored in sequential cohorts (A: 72 mg/m2 d 1, 8, 15; B: 72 mg/m2 d 1, 8; C: 72 mg/m2 or 90 mg/m2 d 1, 4). The primary endpoint was combined complete remission rate (complete remission [CR] plus CR with incomplete platelet recovery [CRp]). Common (>20%) grade ≥3 adverse events were thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, anaemia, neutropenia, sepsis, pneumonia, stomatitis and hypokalaemia. Overall CR and CR/CRp rates were 29% and 32%; median overall survival (OS) was 7·0 months; 1-year OS was 34%. Schedule C (72 mg/m2) had the most favourable safety and efficacy profile, with faster haematological recovery (median 27 d) and lowest incidence of aggregate sepsis (24%) and 30-d (7%) and 60-d (17%) all-cause mortality; at this dose and schedule, CR and CR/CRp rates were 31% and 35%, median OS was 7·7 months and 1-year OS was 38%. Overall, vosaroxin resulted in low early mortality and an encouraging response rate; vosaroxin 72 mg/m2 d 1, 4 is recommended for further study in this population. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov: #NCT00607997. PMID:25403830

  12. Prognostic nomogram for overall survival in previously untreated patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhang, Y-J; Zhu, Y; Cao, J-Z; Yuan, Z-Y; Xu, L-M; Wu, J-X; Wang, W; Wu, T; Lu, B; Zhu, S-Y; Qian, L-T; Zhang, F-Q; Hou, X-R; Liu, Q-F; Li, Y-X

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a widely accepted prognostic nomogram for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (NKTCL). The clinical data from 1383 patients with NKTCL treated at 10 participating institutions between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. A nomogram was developed that predicted overall survival (OS) based on the Cox proportional hazards model. To contrast the utility of the nomogram against the widely used Ann Arbor staging system, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI), we used the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration curve to determine its predictive and discriminatory capacity. The 5-year OS rate was 60.3% for the entire group. The nomogram included five important variables based on a multivariate analysis of the primary cohort: stage; age; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; and primary tumor invasion. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was able to predict 5-year OS accurately. The C-index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.72 for both cohorts, which was superior to the predictive power (range, 0.56-0.64) of the Ann Arbor stage, IPI and KPI in the primary and validation cohorts. The proposed nomogram provides an individualized risk estimate of OS in patients with NKTCL. PMID:25697894

  13. Jiangsu aims at quality services.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    This news brief discusses population growth and achievements in family planning in one of China's most economically developed provinces, Jiangsu. During the Five-Year Plan of 1991-95, population growth was controlled sufficiently to result in 300,000 births averted due to improvement in family planning. Provincial leaders and family planning workers agree that modernization may be achieved by the year 2000 by shifting the emphasis of family planning to economic development. The provincial government plans to offer a comprehensive package of contraceptive and reproductive health services to women of childbearing age. An information management system is planned for Taicang City. The aim is to show underdeveloped areas of the province the successful family planning experiences in Yancheng City. The Jiangsu government has a standardized management system that allows for the delivery of information and technical services and an improved supply of contraceptives. Over 95% of towns and service rooms had family planning service stations and population schools in 1995. Over 60% of villages had branch schools that provided family planning information and services. A public media campaign is planned that would spread information on childbirth, contraception, and reproductive health. This system would link IEC between the province, counties, and townships and facilitate delivery of services. Each county must establish an information management system for population and family planning. PMID:12347496

  14. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  15. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  16. Studies Spotlight Charter Schools Aimed at Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly six decades after "Brown" v. "Board of Education," the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that ushered in an era of efforts to integrate public schools, charter school advocates and researchers are shining a light on a number of those independent public schools that are integrated by design. Two new reports--one from the National Alliance…

  17. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-04-01

    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia. PMID:26843071

  18. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Damien C; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib; Miralbell, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI90) parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk. PMID:19740429

  19. Lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED): a study protocol for a quasi-experimental, before-after trial aimed at reducing pulmonary complications

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian; Mohr, Nicholas M; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In critically ill patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) are associated with increased mortality, survivor morbidity and healthcare resource utilisation. Studies conclusively demonstrate that initial ventilator settings in patients with ARDS, and at risk for it, impact outcome. No studies have been conducted in the emergency department (ED) to determine if lung-protective ventilation in patients at risk for ARDS can reduce its incidence. Since the ED is the entry point to the intensive care unit for hundreds of thousands of mechanically ventilated patients annually in the USA, this represents a knowledge gap in this arena. A lung-protective ventilation strategy was instituted in our ED in 2014. It aims to address the parameters in need of quality improvement, as demonstrated by our previous research: (1) prevention of volutrauma; (2) appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure setting; (3) prevention of hyperoxia; and (4) aspiration precautions. Methods and analysis The lung-protective ventilation initiated in the emergency department (LOV-ED) trial is a single-centre, quasi-experimental before-after study testing the hypothesis that lung-protective ventilation, initiated in the ED, is associated with reduced pulmonary complications. An intervention cohort of 513 mechanically ventilated adult ED patients will be compared with over 1000 preintervention control patients. The primary outcome is a composite outcome of pulmonary complications after admission (ARDS and VACs). Multivariable logistic regression with propensity score adjustment will test the hypothesis that ED lung-protective ventilation decreases the incidence of pulmonary complications. Ethics and dissemination Approval of the study was obtained prior to data collection on the first patient. As the study is a before-after observational study, examining the effect of treatment changes over time, it is being conducted with waiver of

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of ‘Yaws’ in Districts of Ghana Which Have Previously Undertaken Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C. W.; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5–17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  1. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    PubMed

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  2. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  3. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future. PMID:26555161

  4. Phase I study of the anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody milatuzumab (hLL1) in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Peter; Furman, Richard R.; Rutherford, Sarah; Ruan, Jia; Ely, Scott; Greenberg, June; Coleman, Morton; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Leonard, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Milatuzumab (hLL1), a humanized anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody, has activity in preclinical NHL models. We conducted a phase 1 trial in previously treated B-cell malignancies. Dose escalation included 4 planned dose levels (1.5, 4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) with milatuzumab given twice weekly for 6 weeks. After dose level 1, the schedule was changed to daily (Monday-Friday) for 10 days. Twenty-two patients were treated. The most common possibly-related toxicities were infusion reaction, anemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (neutropenia, neutropenia, rash) at dose levels 1, 2, and 4 respectively. Eight patients had stable disease, with no objective responses. The serum half-life of milatuzumab was ~2 hours. In 7 patients, In-111-imaging showed no clear evidence of tumor targeting. The short half-life may reflect CD74 rapid internalization and presence on extratumoral tissues; this antigen sink must be overcome to capitalize on the promising preclinical activity of the drug. PMID:25754579

  5. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

  6. Botanical studies in the vicinity of Cumberland Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted in previous years. [Trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    No foliar effects attributable to SO/sub 2/ emissions from Cumberland Steam Plant were observed in 1978. Foliar injury was observed on vegetation during only one of the five growing seasons that surveys have been conducted in the Cumberland area. In 1974, effects were observed on one weed species, giant ragweed, in one 50-acre area. During the 1978 growing season, the sulfur content of coal fired was the lowest since the plant became operational (3.5 vs 3.7 to 3.8 percent); however, average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions were the highest since the plant became operational (due to the steam plant's operational level). After the steam plant is in compliance, December 1982, the SO/sub 2/ emission rate will be almost one-third less than during the 1978 growing season. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 ppM) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the Cumberland area during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Previous operational and SO/sub 2/ monitoring data, botanical survey results, and projected SO/sub 2/ emission rates indicate that it is unlikely that emissions from the steam plant will injure vegetation as long as the emission rate does not exceed the interim or final compliance level.

  7. Multiclass pesticide analysis in fruit-based baby food: A comparative study of sample preparation techniques previous to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Mateus H; Fernandes, José O; Godoy, Helena T; Cunha, Sara C

    2016-12-01

    With the aim to develop a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze 24 pesticide residues in baby foods at the level imposed by established regulation two simple, rapid and environmental-friendly sample preparation techniques based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, robust and safe) were compared - QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and QuEChERS with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Both sample preparation techniques achieved suitable performance criteria, including selectivity, linearity, acceptable recovery (70-120%) and precision (⩽20%). A higher enrichment factor was observed for DLLME and consequently better limits of detection and quantification were obtained. Nevertheless, d-SPE provided a more effective removal of matrix co-extractives from extracts than DLLME, which contributed to lower matrix effects. Twenty-two commercial fruit-based baby food samples were analyzed by the developed method, being procymidone detected in one sample at a level above the legal limit established by EU. PMID:27374564

  8. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  9. Comparison of Contrast Volume, Radiation Dose, Fluoroscopy Time, and Procedure Time in Previously Published Studies of Rotational Versus Conventional Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Rios, Rodrigo; Buelow, Matthew; Eagam, Mamata; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R

    2015-07-01

    Conventional coronary angiography (CA) with static imaging is limited by the ability to properly select the optimal acquisition angle, vessel foreshortening, and significant radiation exposure. Rotational coronary angiography (RA) acquires coronary images in a multitude of viewing angles during a single injection by means of a moving gantry that rapidly completes a predefined arc. This study compares procedural characteristics of CA and RA. Electronic search of databases such as OVID, Medline, and PubMed was conducted to identify studies comparing procedural characteristics of CA and RA. End points for analysis included contrast volume, radiation dose by dose area product, radiation dose by air kerma, fluoroscopy time, and procedure time. Studies were assessed for quality and bias and were included if they compared coronary imaging of both the right and left coronary systems with CA and RA, included one of the end points of interest, and were in English. A total of 11 studies consisting of 940 patients who underwent RA and 976 who underwent CA were included in the final analysis. Contrast volume, radiation dose by dose area product, and radiation dose by air kerma were all found to be significantly lower with RA compared with CA. There was a statistically significant increase in fluoroscopy time, although this was not clinically significant, and there was no difference in procedure time. RA angiography is a feasible alternative to CA and offers reductions in contrast used and radiation exposure. PMID:25983128

  10. Perceived Utility of the RE-AIM Framework for Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Initiatives for Older Adults: A Case Study from the U.S. Evidence-Based Disease Prevention Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) frameworks are increasingly being promoted in public health research. However, less is known about their uptake in the field, especially for diverse sets of programs. Limited questionnaires exist to assess the ways that frameworks can be utilized in program planning and evaluation. We present a case study from the United States that describes the implementation of the RE-AIM framework by state aging services providers and public health partners and a questionnaire that can be used to assess the utility of such frameworks in practice. An online questionnaire was developed to capture community perspectives about the utility of the RE-AIM framework. Distributed to project leads in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults, 40 key stakeholders responded representing a 100% state-participation rate among the 27 funded states. Findings suggest that there is perceived utility in using the RE-AIM framework when evaluating grand-scale initiatives for older adults. The RE-AIM framework was seen as useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation with relevance for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet, the uptake was not universal, and some respondents reported difficulties in use, especially adopting the framework as a whole. This questionnaire can serve as the basis to assess ways the RE-AIM framework can be utilized by practitioners in state-wide D&I efforts. Maximal benefit can be derived from examining the assessment of RE-AIM-related knowledge and confidence as part of a continual quality assurance process. We recommend such an assessment be performed before the implementation of new funding initiatives and throughout their course to assess RE-AIM uptake and to identify areas for technical assistance. PMID:25964897

  11. Perceived Utility of the RE-AIM Framework for Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Initiatives for Older Adults: A Case Study from the U.S. Evidence-Based Disease Prevention Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) frameworks are increasingly being promoted in public health research. However, less is known about their uptake in the field, especially for diverse sets of programs. Limited questionnaires exist to assess the ways that frameworks can be utilized in program planning and evaluation. We present a case study from the United States that describes the implementation of the RE-AIM framework by state aging services providers and public health partners and a questionnaire that can be used to assess the utility of such frameworks in practice. An online questionnaire was developed to capture community perspectives about the utility of the RE-AIM framework. Distributed to project leads in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults, 40 key stakeholders responded representing a 100% state-participation rate among the 27 funded states. Findings suggest that there is perceived utility in using the RE-AIM framework when evaluating grand-scale initiatives for older adults. The RE-AIM framework was seen as useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation with relevance for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet, the uptake was not universal, and some respondents reported difficulties in use, especially adopting the framework as a whole. This questionnaire can serve as the basis to assess ways the RE-AIM framework can be utilized by practitioners in state-wide D&I efforts. Maximal benefit can be derived from examining the assessment of RE-AIM-related knowledge and confidence as part of a continual quality assurance process. We recommend such an assessment be performed before the implementation of new funding initiatives and throughout their course to assess RE-AIM uptake and to identify areas for technical assistance. PMID:25964897

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of carbon fiber surfaces. 22. Comparison between surface treatment of untreated and previously surface-treated fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Q.; Viswanathan, H.; Audi, A.A.; Sherwood, P.M.A.

    2000-04-01

    IM7 PAN-based carbon fibers, with a proprietary surface treatment applied by the manufacturer, were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface treatment applied by the manufacturer was removed by heating in a vacuum. The fibers detreated in this manner were then subjected to electrochemical treatment. The electrochemical behavior of the as-received fibers and detreated fibers were measured and analyzed. When the same electrochemical treatment was applied to the as-received fibers with their commercial surface treatment intact, a different surface chemistry was observed for the detreated fibers. This study shows that the surface chemistry of treated fibers depends closely on the initial surface chemistry of the fibers and its detreatment. This work shows the importance of using untreated or detreated fibers as precursors for applying reproducible surface treatment so that one can understand and control the surface chemistry of fibers and their interfacial interaction in composites.

  13. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise. PMID:24228856

  14. A randomised, phase II study of nintedanib or sunitinib in previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell cancer: 3-year results

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, T; Loembé, A-B; Shparyk, Y; MacLeod, N; Jones, R J; Mazurkiewicz, M; Temple, G; Dressler, H; Bondarenko, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study evaluated the safety/efficacy of nintedanib or sunitinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Ninety-six patients were randomised (2:1) to either nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or sunitinib (50 mg kg−1 once daily (4 weeks on treatment; 2 weeks off)). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 9 months. P-values reported are descriptive only; the study was not powered for such comparisons. Results: Progression-free survival at 9 months was comparable between nintedanib and sunitinib (43.1% vs 45.2%, respectively; P=0.85). Median PFS was 8.4 months in each group (hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70–1.80; P=0.64). Median overall survival was 20.4 and 21.2 months for nintedanib and sunitinib, respectively (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54–1.56; P=0.76). Overall incidence of any grade adverse events (AEs) was comparable (90.6% vs 93.8%); AEs grade ⩾3 were lower with nintedanib than sunitinib (48.4% vs 59.4%). Nintedanib was associated with lower incidences of some AEs typical of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): hypertension, hypothyroidism, hand–foot syndrome, cardiac disorders and haematological abnormalities. Conclusions: In patients with advanced RCC, nintedanib has promising efficacy and similar tolerability to sunitinib, and a manageable safety profile with fewer TKI-associated AEs. PMID:26448178

  15. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  16. Phase 1/2 study of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated anti-CCR4 antibody, in previously treated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Duvic, Madeleine; Pinter-Brown, Lauren C; Foss, Francine M; Sokol, Lubomir; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Challagundla, Pramoda; Dwyer, Karen M; Zhang, Xiaoping; Kurman, Michael R; Ballerini, Rocco; Liu, Li; Kim, Youn H

    2015-03-19

    This phase 1/2 study evaluated the efficacy of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated, humanized, anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody, in 41 pretreated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in phase 1 after IV infusion of mogamulizumab (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) once weekly for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week observation. In phase 2, patients were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg mogamulizumab according to the same schedule for the first course followed by infusion every 2 weeks during subsequent courses until disease progression. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (31.0%), chills (23.8%), headache (21.4%), and infusion-related reaction (21.4%); the majority of events were grade 1/2. There were no significant hematologic effects. Among 38 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 36.8%: 47.1% in Sézary syndrome (n = 17) and 28.6% in mycosis fungoides (n = 21). Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) patients with ≥B1 blood involvement had a response in blood, including 11 complete responses. Given the safety and efficacy of mogamulizumab, phase 3 investigation of mogamulizumab is warranted in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00888927. PMID:25605368

  17. Phase 1/2 study of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated anti-CCR4 antibody, in previously treated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pinter-Brown, Lauren C.; Foss, Francine M.; Sokol, Lubomir; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Challagundla, Pramoda; Dwyer, Karen M.; Zhang, Xiaoping; Kurman, Michael R.; Ballerini, Rocco; Liu, Li; Kim, Youn H.

    2015-01-01

    This phase 1/2 study evaluated the efficacy of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated, humanized, anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody, in 41 pretreated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in phase 1 after IV infusion of mogamulizumab (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) once weekly for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week observation. In phase 2, patients were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg mogamulizumab according to the same schedule for the first course followed by infusion every 2 weeks during subsequent courses until disease progression. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (31.0%), chills (23.8%), headache (21.4%), and infusion-related reaction (21.4%); the majority of events were grade 1/2. There were no significant hematologic effects. Among 38 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 36.8%: 47.1% in Sézary syndrome (n = 17) and 28.6% in mycosis fungoides (n = 21). Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) patients with ≥B1 blood involvement had a response in blood, including 11 complete responses. Given the safety and efficacy of mogamulizumab, phase 3 investigation of mogamulizumab is warranted in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00888927. PMID:25605368

  18. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  19. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  20. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  1. Aiming Instruments On The Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Laskin, Robert; Lin, Yu-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses capabilities and requirements for aiming scientific instruments carried aboard proposed Space Station. Addresses two issues: whether system envisioned for pointing instruments at celestial targets offers sufficiently low jitter, high accuracy, and high stability to meet scientific requirements; whether it can do so even in presence of many vibrations and other disturbances on Space Station. Salient conclusion of study, recommendation to develop pointing-actuator system including mechanical/fluid base isolator underneath reactionaless gimbal subsystem. This kind of system offers greatest promise of high performance, cost-effectiveness, and modularity for job at hand.

  2. Previous Mental Health Service Utilization and Change in Clients' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, James F.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Although a potentially important factor in case conceptualization and treatment planning, the impact of previous treatment on subsequent counseling response has received little empirical attention. Using archival data, this study aimed to (a) report the prevalence of previous treatment utilization in a counseling population, (b) examine potential…

  3. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  4. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  5. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  6. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study sought to distinguish between conflict monitoring and congruency-based accounts of CSEs. To this end, we determined whether CSEs are driven by previous-trial reaction time (RT)—a putative measure of response conflict—or by previous-trial congruency. In two experiments using a face-word Stroop task (n = 49), we found that current-trial congruency effects did not vary with previous-trial RT independent of previous-trial congruency. In contrast, current-trial congruency effects were influenced by previous-trial congruency independent of previous-trial RT. These findings appear more consistent with theories that attribute CSEs to non-conflict processes whose recruitment varies with previous-trial congruency than with theories that link CSEs to previous-trial response conflict. PMID:24027550

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic analysis and computational study of (Z)-1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2-((E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(thiophen-2-yl) allylidene) hydrazine by DFT and AIM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Ravindra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    The title compound was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed at DFT level of theory using B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. Potential energy distribution (PED) for the normal modes of vibrations was done using Gar2ped program. The time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was used to find the various electronic transitions within molecule in two different solvent of varying polarity. Non linear optical (NLO) behavior of title compound was investigated in different solvents by the computed value of first hyperpolarizability (β0). A combined theoretical and experimental correlation of 1H and 13C NMR spectra are in good agreement. Stability of molecules as a result of hyper-conjugative interactions and electron delocalization were analyzed using NBO analysis. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Intramolecular interactions were analyzed by AIM approach. The chemical reactivity descriptors were calculated to study the reactive sites within molecule.

  8. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change

  9. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  10. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  11. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  12. Improvements of AIMS D2DB matching for product patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Kana; Son, Donghwan; Tolani, Vikram; Satake, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    AIMSTM is mainly used in photomask industry for verifying the print impact of mask defects on wafer CD in DUV lithography process. AIMS verification is typically used in D2D configuration, wherein two AIMS images, reference and defect, are captured and compared. Criticality of defects is then analyzed off these images using a number of criteria. As photomasks with aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), and single-die are being routinely manufactured in production environment, it is required to improve cycle time through the AIMS step by saving time in searching for and capturing an adequate reference AIMS image. One solution is to use AIMS D2DB methodology which compares AIMS defect image with a reference image simulated from the corresponding mask design data. In general, such simulation needs calibration with the native images captured on the AIMS tool. In our previous paper we evaluated a calibration procedure directly using the defect AIMS image and compared the analysis results with a D2D capture using AIA (Aerial Image Analyzer) software product from Luminescent Technologies (now part of KLA-Tencor Corporation). The results showed that calibration using defect AIMS image does not influence AIMS judgment as long as the defect size is less than 100nm in case of typical basic patterns. When applying this methodology to product patterns, it was found that there were differences between reference AIMS image and simulation image. These differences influenced AIMS verification. Then new method to compensate would be needed. Our approach to compensate the difference between AIMS image and simulated image is examination with some factors likely to cause the difference.

  13. In Vitro Culture of Previously Uncultured Oral Bacterial Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2015-01-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture. PMID:26407883

  14. AIM: Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adventures In Movement for the Handicapped, Inc., Dayton, OH.

    The handbook on Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped (AIM) gives information about general organizational goals and suggests activities for use by volunteer teachers with blind, deaf, crippled, cerebral palsied, mentally retarded, and autistic children at five ability/age levels. General Information given about each handicap usually includes…

  15. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  16. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  17. Aiming Schedule For Orbiting Astrometric Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, Alfred C.; Sobeck, Charlie

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses schedule of observation times and aiming directions of proposed astrometric telescope facility mounted on Space Station in orbit around Earth. Primarily makes repeated observations of apparent positions of each of 127 selected stars with respect to distant reference stars in same field of view known to have unperturbed proper motions. Purpose of observations to detect motions of selected stars about centers of mass and to analyze harmonic content of motions to infer existence, number, masses, and orbital radii of planets.

  18. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  19. What Should Religious Education in Germany Be about and How Does Religiosity Fit into This Picture? An Empirical Study of Pre-Service Religious Education Teachers' Beliefs on the Aims of RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Ulrich; Mendl, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In secularising Germany the aim of religious education (RE) is under discussion. The churches opt for denominational education familiarising the students with their own religious tradition. Humanists claim an ethical education, giving students objective information about different religions. Which perspective do students who will become RE…

  20. [Thyroid nodule disease in a previously endemic goiter area].

    PubMed

    Gómez de la Torre, R; Enguix Armada, A; García, L; Otero, J

    1993-10-01

    We conducted a 6-year study of 110 patients with thyroid nodular disease in a previously goitrogenic area. The aim of the present work was to establish its incidence, to determine if multinodular goiter and autonomous thyroid nodule have the same analytical and clinical behaviour and to verify if the iodation campaign had resulted in the development of thyrotoxicosis induced by iodine. The results demonstrated an incidence of 0.4 per 1,000 population and per year. The two modalities of thyroid nodular disease did not present any clinical and analytical differences. 58.2% of the patients had hyperthyroidism, 53.1% of which were T-4 thyrotoxicosis, 12.5% T-3 thyrotoxicosis and 34.4%, subclinical hyperthyroidism. 8.2% of the patients under study had hyperthyroidism induced by iodine (Jod Basedow), with iodide excretion values higher that 3 standard deviations with respect to the population average (> 220 micrograms/g creatinine). PMID:8136426

  1. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  2. Preventing Aim At An Undesired Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic system controls changes in orientation of optical instrument. Slew-control system includes avoidance-control logic, which overrides slew-control error generator when line of sight of instrument comes within cone of avoidance around line of sight to Sun. Normal slewing trajectory interrupted by avoidance-control logic, which computes actuator torques taking line of sight around cone of avoidance. Used to protect delicate photodetectors in servocontrolled infrared spectrometer or imaging instrument against damage occurring if instrument aimed at Sun or another excessively bright object.

  3. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  4. Molecular structure, spectral studies, intra and intermolecular interactions analyses in a novel ethyl 4-[3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-acryloyl]-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and its dimer: A combined DFT and AIM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Baboo, Vikas; Rawat, Poonam; Kumar, Amit; Verma, Divya

    A newly synthesized chalcone, Ethyl 4-[3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-acryloyl]-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (ECPADMPC) has been characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, FT-IR, Mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed by DFT level of theory using B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used to find the various electronic transitions within molecule. A combined theoretical and experimental wavenumber analysis confirms the existence of dimer. Topological parameters-electron density (ρBCP), Laplacian of electron density (▿2ρBCP), energetic parameters-kinetic electron energy density (GBCP), potential electron density (VBCP) and the total electron energy density (HBCP) at the bond critical points (BCP) have been analyzed by 'Atoms in molecules' AIM theory in detail. The intermolecular hydrogen bond energy of dimer is calculated as -12.3 kcal/mol using AIM calculations. AIM ellipticity analysis is carried out to confirm the presence of resonance assisted intermolecular hydrogen bonds in stabilization of dimer. The analysis clearly depicts the presence of different kind of interactions in dimer. This dimer may work as model system to understand the H-bonding interaction in biomolecules. The local reactivity descriptor analysis is performed to find the reactive sites within molecule.

  5. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  6. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  7. Night vision adapter for an aiming telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granciu, Dana; Mitricica, Doina-Narcisa; Serban, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Actual requirements impose more and more to convert rapidly a daytime aiming telescope, (called also telescopic sight or riflescope) into a night vision device. Recent progress achieved in the development of various image sensors over a wide spectral range, from visible to Long-wave infrared (LWIR), made possible to develop new solutions for performant night vision adapters. These attachments can increase the visibility at night but can be designed to cover also some low visibility conditions during the day such as fog, smoke and dust, especially if we refer to the Short-wave infrared spectral band (SWIR). The paper analyzes possible constructive solutions for digital riflescope attachments, destined to work at night and/or in low visibility during the day.

  8. SWIR detectors for night vision at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Benecke, M.; Hofmann, K.; Oelmaier, R.; Sieck, A.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.

    2014-06-01

    Detectors for the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range are particularly suitable for observation under hazy weather conditions as well as under twilight or moon light conditions. In addition, SWIR detectors allow using the airglow for observation under moonless sky. SWIR detectors are commonly based on InGaAs or HgCdTe (MCT) and demand extremely low dark currents to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio under low background light conditions. AIM has developed a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with 640×512 pixels and a 15 μm pixel pitch for low light level applications. The ROIC supports analog or digital correlated double sampling (CDS) for the reduction of reset-noise (also known as kTC-noise). Along with CDS, a rolling shutter (RS) mode has been implemented. The input stage of the ROIC is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable gain settings. The dark current of our SWIR MCT detectors has recently been significantly reduced to allow for high operating temperatures. In contrast to InGaAs, the MCT material offers the unique possibility to adjust the cut-off wavelength according to the application while maintaining the matching of the lattice constant to the one of the CdZnTe substrate. The key electro-optical performance parameters of lately developed MCT based SWIR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) with a 1.75 μm cut-off wavelength will be presented. In addition, AIMs SWIR detectors covering the spectral range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and available in formats of 384×288 pixels - 24 μm pitch and 1024×256 pixels - 24×32 μm2, will be introduced.

  9. Previous mental health service utilization and change in clients' depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Boswell, James F; McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Locke, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    Although a potentially important factor in case conceptualization and treatment planning, the impact of previous treatment on subsequent counseling response has received little empirical attention. Using archival data, this study aimed to (a) report the prevalence of previous treatment utilization in a counseling population, (b) examine potential differences in symptom severity by treatment history, and (c) test whether the rate of change in symptoms over a course of counseling is moderated by previous treatment utilization, when also accounting for initial severity. A sample of 1,262 college students presenting for treatment in university/college counseling centers across the United States provided information on previous treatment history and completed the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms, administered at intake and up to 4 additional time points, with an average of 3-5 weeks between assessments. Data from the 13-item Depression subscale were used for the present study. Half the clients reported previous counseling, one third psychotropic medication, and one tenth psychiatric hospitalization. Previous treatment was associated with increased baseline depressive symptom severity. Results from latent growth curve models showed that previous counseling and medication correlated with a slower rate of symptom response, and previous counseling reduced the probability of being labeled a treatment responder. Previous counseling remained a significant predictor of counseling response when controlling for baseline severity. Hypothesized mechanisms through which previous treatment experience impacts subsequent treatment response remain largely theoretical and should be the focus of future research. PMID:22545802

  10. Rheumatic pains of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Rajala, U; Uusimäki, A; Kivelä, S L

    1995-01-01

    To identify the early diabetic musculoskeletal symptoms of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects, a case-control study was carried out. The cases and controls were recruited from a population aged 55 years. Questions concerning the symptoms were asked before the 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). The results show that pain in the right hand was the most prominent symptom among the diabetic women. Pains in the left hand and the shoulders in the diabetic women and pains in the right knee and the right hip joint in the diabetic men tended to be more prevalent than the corresponding symptoms in the controls. The highest prevalence of most musculoskeletal pains occurred in the highest tertile of 2-h OGTT values among women. The conclusion is that the hand pain is closely associated with the development of diabetes and may give clues to an early diagnosis of diabetes in a middle-aged population. PMID:7481588

  11. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized. PMID:19855156

  12. Aims, Modes, and the Continuum of Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Walter H.

    A framework for the study of discourse, based on the analysis of three superordinate features of discourse (asymmetry, hierarchy, and continuum), is proposed in this paper. The paper begins by noting the confusion in terminology that exists in the world of composition pedagogy and theory; pointing to the need for a framework for testing,…

  13. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in...

  14. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  15. Real-Time Estimation Of Aiming Error Of Spinning Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1992-01-01

    Spinning-spacecraft dynamics and amplitude variations in communications links studied from received-signal fluctuations. Mathematical model and associated analysis procedure provide real-time estimates of aiming error of remote rotating transmitting antenna radiating constant power in narrow, pencillike beam from spinning platform, and current amplitude of received signal. Estimates useful in analyzing and enhancing calibration of communication system, and in analyzing complicated dynamic effects in spinning platform and antenna-aiming mechanism.

  16. Vinflunine – an active chemotherapy for treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with a platinum-based regimen: results of a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Bennouna, J; Breton, J-L; Tourani, J-M; Ottensmeier, C; O'Brien, M; Kosmidis, P; Huat, T E; Pinel, M-C; Colin, C; Douillard, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    A multicentre, single-arm, phase II trial designed to determine the efficacy of single-agent vinflunine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with a platinum-based regimen. The objectives were to assess efficacy in terms of tumour response rate (primary end point), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and to evaluate the toxicity associated with this treatment. Patients with advanced NSCLC with progressive disease having failed prior platinum-based first-line treatment for advanced disease. Five responses out of the 63 treated patients were documented by WHO criteria and validated by an independent panel review (IRP), yielding a response rate of 7.9% (95% CI: 2.6–17.6) in the intent-to-treat analysis and 8.3% (95% CI: 2.8–18.4) in the evaluable population. Disease control was achieved in 35 out of 60 evaluable patients (58.3%). The median duration of response (complete response+partial response), according to modified WHO criteria was 7.8 months (95% CI: 4.6–NR). Median PFS was 2.6 months (95% CI: 1.4–3.8), and the median survival was 7.0 months (95% CI: 5.8–9.2). Grades 3–4 neutropenia was reported in 50% of patients; febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients (3.2%); grades 3–4 myalgia and grade 3 constipation were experienced by 10 (15.9%) and six (9.5%) of patients, respectively. Constipation was manageable, noncumulative and could be prevented with laxative prophylaxis. The encouraging results from this phase II study with vinflunine warrant further investigations in phase III trials as second- or first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma, as a single agent or in combination with other active drugs. PMID:16641911

  17. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. Methods/Design A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis

  18. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kevin D.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37°C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [14C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA–G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively. PMID:16540542

  19. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): With the aim of the drug interactions probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  20. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): with the aim of the drug interactions probing.

    PubMed

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-25

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy. PMID:25300043

  1. Heteropolyhedral silver compounds containing the polydentate ligand N,N,O-E-[6-(hydroxyimino)ethyl]-1,3,7-trimethyllumazine. Preparation, spectral and XRD structural study and AIM calculations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pulido, Sonia B; Hueso-Ureña, Francisco; Fernández-Liencres, M Paz; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel; Moreno-Carretero, Miguel N

    2013-01-14

    The oxime derived from 6-acetyl-1,3,7-trimethyllumazine (1) ((E-6-(hydroxyimino)ethyl)-1,3,7-trimethylpteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, DLMAceMox) has been prepared and its molecular and crystal structure determined from spectral and XRD data. The oxime ligand was reacted with silver nitrate, perchlorate, thiocyanate, trifluoromethylsulfonate and tetrafluoroborate to give complexes with formulas [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(NO(3))(2)](n) (2), [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(ClO(4))(2)](n) (3), [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(SCN)(2)] (4), [Ag(2)(DLMAceMox)(2)(CF(3)SO(3))(2)(CH(3)CH(2)OH)]·CH(3)CH(2)OH (5) and [Ag(DLMAceMox)(2)]BF(4) (6). Single-crystal XRD studies show that the asymmetrical residual unit of complexes 2, 3 and 5 contains two quite different but connected silver centers (Ag1-Ag2, 2.9-3.2 Å). In addition to this, the Ag1 ion displays coordination with the N5 and O4 atoms from both lumazine moieties and a ligand (nitrato, perchlorato or ethanol) bridging to another disilver unit. The Ag2 ion is coordinated to the N61 oxime nitrogens, a monodentate and a (O,O)-bridging nitrato/perchlorato or two monodentate O-trifluoromethylsulfonato anions. The coordination polyhedra can be best described as a strongly distorted octahedron (around Ag1) and a square-based pyramid (around Ag2). The Ag-N and Ag-O bond lengths range between 2.22-2.41 and 2.40-2.67 Å, respectively. Although the structure of 4 cannot be resolved by XRD, it is likely to be similar to those described for 2, 3 and 5, containing Ag-Ag units with S-thiocyanato terminal ligands. Finally, the structure of the tetrafluoroborate compound 6 is mononuclear with a strongly distorted tetrahedral AgN(4) core (Ag-N, 2.27-2.43 Å). Always, the different Ag-N distances found clearly point to the more basic character of the oxime N61 nitrogen atom when compared with the pyrazine N5 one. A topological analysis of the electron density within the framework provided by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) using DFT(M06L) levels of

  2. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maranzana, Andrea E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Giordana, Anna E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Indarto, Antonius Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Causà, Mauro E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Pavone, Michele E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔE{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔE{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A−B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔE{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔE{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting

  3. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔEAB. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔEAB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A-B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [EMP2/CBS] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔECC-MP, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔEAB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational

  4. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes.

    PubMed

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔEAB. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔEAB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A-B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [EMP2/CBS] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔECC-MP, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔEAB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational

  5. Regular and Random Components in Aiming-Point Trajectory During Rifle Aiming and Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Simon; Haufler, Amy; Shim, Jae Kun; Hatfield, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the kinematic qualities of the aiming trajectory as related to expertise. In all, 2 phases of the trajectory were discriminated. The first phase was regular approximation to the target accompanied by substantial fluctuations obeying the Weber–Fechner law. During the first phase, shooters did not initiate the triggering despite any random closeness of the aiming point (AP) to the target. In the second phase, beginning at 0.6–0.8 s before the trigger pull, shooters applied a different control strategy: They waited until the following random fluctuation brought the AP closer to the target and then initiated triggering. This strategy is tenable when sensitivity of perception is greater than precision of the motor action, and could be considered a case of stochastic resonance. The strategies that novices and experts used distinguished only in the values of parameters. The authors present an analytical model explaining the main properties of shooting. PMID:19508963

  6. Taking Aims: New CASE Study Benchmarks Advancement Investments and Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Advancement professionals have always been thirsty for information that will help them understand how their programs compare with those of their peers. But in recent years the demand for benchmarking data has exploded as budgets have become leaner, leaders have become more business minded, and terms like "performance metrics and return on…

  7. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  8. Movement strategies in vertical aiming of older adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Simon J; Elliott, Digby; Rodacki, Andre

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the movement kinematics of older adults when aiming to vertically oriented targets. Late middle-age and early old-age participants completed 20 trials to a small target located downward or upward by 0.16 m from a home position at shoulder height. Aiming direction had a significant effect, resulting in more submovements, which were mostly reflective of undershooting when aiming to the downward compared to upward target. In trials containing a submovement, both groups exhibited shorter total movement time, concomitant with a decrease in duration of the primary movement and an increase in submovement amplitude, when aiming to the downward target. Measures of dispersion also differed in accord with the amplitude of submovements, such that there was greater spatial and temporal variability in the primary movement when aiming in the downward direction. While there was limited evidence of a difference between the groups, there were significant correlations between age and several dependent measures when aiming to the downward target. Of note, in trials containing submovements, older participants exhibited larger amplitude and longer duration submovements, as well as shorter amplitude primary movement. Spatial variability at peak velocity also increased as a function of age when aiming downward, but not in trials without submovements. An explanation related to physical limits on movement production is discounted given the lack of consistent findings between trial types. Instead, we suggest older participants' exhibit strategic differences in movement kinematics when aiming to vertically located targets, and that these change progressively with age in order to maintain speed-accuracy relations. PMID:22116400

  9. Randomized Phase II Study of Docetaxel plus Personalized Peptide Vaccination versus Docetaxel plus Placebo for Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Wild Type EGFR Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Koichi; Sugawara, Shunichi; Saijo, Yasuo; Maemondo, Makoto; Sato, Atsushi; Takamori, Shinzo; Harada, Taishi; Sasada, Tetsuro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Yamada, Akira; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) combined with chemotherapy for patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods. Previously treated PS0-1 patients with IIIB/IV EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) wild genotype NSCLC were randomly assigned to docetaxel (60 mg/m2 on Day 1) plus PPV based on preexisting host immunity or docetaxel plus placebo. Docetaxel administration was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Personalized peptides or placebo was injected subcutaneously weekly in the first 8 weeks and biweekly in subsequent 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results. PPV related toxicity was grade 2 or less skin reaction. The median PFS for placebo arm and PPV arm was 52 days and 59 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between two arms by log-rank test (p = 0.42). Interestingly, PFS and overall survival (OS) in humoral immunological responder were significantly longer than those in nonresponder. Conclusion. PPV did not improve the survival in combination with docetaxel for previously treated advanced NSCLC. However, PPV may be efficacious for the humoral immunological responders and a further clinical investigation is needed. PMID:27274999

  10. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  11. Back pain in a previously healthy teenager.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Howard, Julia; Bailey, Fiona; Soleimanian, Sorrush

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old previously healthy boy who presented to his general practitioner with back pain and fever after rugby training. He was initially treated for suspected discitis but during the course of his admission he rapidly deteriorated and developed severe necrotising pneumonia. He was intubated, ventilated and transferred to a paediatric intensive care unit. Panton-Valentine leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus was suspected and subsequently identified in blood cultures. PMID:23867883

  12. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  13. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  14. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  15. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  16. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  17. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider.

    PubMed

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female. PMID:16075265

  18. Quality-of-life and performance status results from the phase III RAINBOW study of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma†

    PubMed Central

    Al-Batran, S.-E.; Van Cutsem, E.; Oh, S. C.; Bodoky, G.; Shimada, Y.; Hironaka, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Lipatov, O. N.; Kim, T.-Y.; Cunningham, D.; Rougier, P.; Muro, K.; Liepa, A. M.; Chandrawansa, K.; Emig, M.; Ohtsu, A.; Wilke, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine–platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. Patients and methods Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ≥10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ≥2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ≥1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ≥2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ≥ 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ≥1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ≥2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. Conclusion In patients with previously treated advanced gastric

  19. A phase I/II study of oral clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine in previously treated acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients at least 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sarah A; Mawad, Raya; Gooley, Ted A; Becker, Pamela S; Sandhu, Vicky; Hendrie, Paul; Scott, Bart L; Wood, Brent L; Walter, Roland B; Smith, Kelly; Dean, Carol; Estey, Elihu H; Pagel, John M

    2015-08-01

    Outcomes for older adults with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are generally poor, and new effective therapies are needed. We investigated oral clofarabine combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) in patients aged 60 years and above with relapsed or refractory AML or high-risk MDS in a phase I/II trial. A 3 + 3 dose escalation of oral clofarabine was followed by a phase II expansion with the aim of obtaining a complete response (CR) rate ≥30%. We identified 20 mg/d for 5 d as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral clofarabine. A total of 35 patients, with a median age of 72 years, were treated. Of 26 patients enrolled at the MTD, 4 had treatment-related grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicities, but none died within 28 d. The observed CR rate and median survival were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 18-50%] and 6.8 months overall and 38% [95% CI, 19-57%] and 7.2 months at the MTD. The median disease-free survival was 7.4 months. Fifty-two percent (23/44) of cycles administered at the MTD were done without hospital admission. This combination of oral clofarabine and LDAC demonstrated efficacy with a CR rate of >30% and acceptable toxicity in older patients. PMID:25854284

  20. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    PubMed

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available. PMID:25799862

  1. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended. PMID:25738720

  2. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  3. [Replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament by a PET prosthesis (Trevira extra-strength) as a salvage procedure in chronically unstable previously operated knee joints. Intermediate to long-term results of a clinical study].

    PubMed

    Letsch, R; Stürmer, K M; Kock, H J; Wissing, H; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P

    1994-12-01

    Thirty-one salvage cases of chronically unstable previously operated knees were stabilized by an anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis of polyethyleneterephthalate (Trevira hochfest) and additional repair of concomitant lesions. The patients were followed up at yearly intervals. For the final follow-up after 4.4 years 27 patients could be evaluated clinically, radiologically and by several scores. The pre-operative Lysholm score was 59.8 (+/- 16.7). It was raised significantly by the operation to 75.4 (+/- 18.9) after 1 year, but then gradually decreased to 71.4 (+/- 19.6) at the final examination. Similar values were reached for the other scores (OAK, IKDC, VAS). The degree of activity (as estimated by the Tegner activity scale) increased from 2.0 (+/- 2.1) to 3.1 (+/- 1.9). Pre-operative anterior translation revealed a side-to-side difference of 7.5 (+/- 3.4) mm. The stability, which was restored by the operation, gave way a little in the first 2 years up to a side-to-side difference of 2.1 (+/- 2.5) mm, but then remained constant and was measured 2.3 (+/- 2.9) mm after 4.4 years. On the whole, the patients gained a significant improvement from the operation in all investigated parameters. Major complications included 5 ruptures of the synthetic ligament (1 by material fatigue), 1 avulsion of a staple, 1 supracondylar fracture due to 3 closely located staples, 4 cases of arthrofibrosis and 1 case of chronic knee irritation. The gradual deterioration of the operated knees within the follow-up period is mainly caused by the pre-existing chronic degenerative changes, which progress in spite of a sufficient stabilization of the central pivot. PMID:7871606

  4. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p < 0.0001; GLIMMIX). In the cancer-positive TB cores, CaDR with suspicious lesions by mpMRI was higher than that by CEUS (86.8% vs. 60.5%, p= 0.02; paired t-test) and concordant rate between mpMRI and CEUS was significantly different with discordant rate (48% vs. 52%, p=0.04; McNemar’s test). Conclusion The mpMRI-CEUS correlated TB technique for the repeat prostate biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  5. The Role of Students' Previous Understandings in Reasoning Across Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casperson, Janet Marie

    Learning is typically thought of as a change in a student's understanding within a single context. The term context is used here to describe a domain or subdomain of knowledge. Students' previous understandings of the context are known to play a considerable role in such learning. Another important kind of learning is reasoning across contexts. Through reasoning across contexts, students' understanding of one context influences understanding of another context. This dissertation investigated the role of students' previous understandings in this reasoning process. Psychology research has employed one type of experimental design to investigate reasoning across contexts. This has resulted in focus on a particular way of reasoning across contexts, called analogical transfer, in which participants' previous understandings play a minimal role. In contrast, this dissertation employed a case study design for the purpose of investigating the role of participants' previous understandings in reasoning across contexts. Participants' previous understandings of contexts were discovered to play a considerable role in their reasoning across contexts. Three categories of ways of reasoning across contexts in which students' previous understandings play a role were identified. In the first of these, a participant's new understanding of a context is a combination of ideas used previously to understand the same context and ideas used to understand another context. In the second, an idea from either the participant's previous understanding or from the participant's understanding of another context is modified to contribute to a new understanding. In the third, an idea from the participant's previous understanding is brought into different focus through comparison with a corresponding idea from another context. These three are termed combining, modifying, and refocusing interactions, respectively. Understanding of these different possible roles for students' previous understandings in

  6. An aiming device for an extraoral radiographic technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Lin, Shui-Hui; Chiu, Hui-Lin; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Lin, Li-Min

    2007-06-01

    To assist certain patient populations who are unable to tolerate intraoral films and/or sensors during endodontic therapy, an alternative technique (extraoral film placement) has been innovated by Newman and Friedman (2003). In this study, we devise and test a film/sensor-beam alignment aiming device for taking a periapical radiograph using this extraoral radiographic technique. An instrument is assembled from the following components: (1) two locator rings for bite-wing radiography, (2) two metal supporting indicator rods for bite-wing radiography, (3) a bite block for horizontal bite-wing radiography, and (4) a rubber tube of about 2 cm in length. Using our newly-devised aiming device to take periapical radiographs using the extraoral technique, appropriate images of the left upper and right lower molar areas for a series of 12 adult volunteers were successfully obtained. Angulation of the x-ray cone, with reference to the horizontal plane, was -20 degrees to -30 degrees and -10 degrees to -15 degrees for the upper and lower teeth, respectively. This study therefore shows that appropriate images can be easily obtained using this aiming device. PMID:17509422

  7. Mycobacterium microti: More diverse than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Smith, N H; Crawshaw, T; Parry, J; Birtles, R J

    2009-08-01

    Mycobacterium microti is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. This species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. More recently, specific deletions of chromosomal DNA have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region RD1(mic). We describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Great Britain over a 14-year period. All strains have characteristic loss of some spoligotype spacers and characteristic alleles at the ETR-E and ETR-F variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci, and a sample of these strains was deleted for regions RD7, RD9, and RD1(mic) but intact for regions RD4 and RD12. We therefore identified these strains as M. microti and show that they have much more diverse spoligotype patterns and VNTR types than previously thought. The most common source of these strains was domestic cats, and we show that the molecular types of M. microti are geographically localized in the same way that molecular types of Mycobacterium bovis are geographically localized in cattle in the United Kingdom. We describe the pathology of M. microti infection in cats and suggest that the feline disease is a spillover from a disease maintained in an unknown wild mammal, probably field voles. The location of the cats with M. microti infection suggests that they do not overlap geographically with the strains of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain. PMID:19535520

  8. Mycobacterium microti: More Diverse than Previously Thought▿

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N. H.; Crawshaw, T.; Parry, J.; Birtles, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium microti is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. This species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. More recently, specific deletions of chromosomal DNA have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region RD1mic. We describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Great Britain over a 14-year period. All strains have characteristic loss of some spoligotype spacers and characteristic alleles at the ETR-E and ETR-F variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci, and a sample of these strains was deleted for regions RD7, RD9, and RD1mic but intact for regions RD4 and RD12. We therefore identified these strains as M. microti and show that they have much more diverse spoligotype patterns and VNTR types than previously thought. The most common source of these strains was domestic cats, and we show that the molecular types of M. microti are geographically localized in the same way that molecular types of Mycobacterium bovis are geographically localized in cattle in the United Kingdom. We describe the pathology of M. microti infection in cats and suggest that the feline disease is a spillover from a disease maintained in an unknown wild mammal, probably field voles. The location of the cats with M. microti infection suggests that they do not overlap geographically with the strains of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain. PMID:19535520

  9. Previous Mental Distress May Slow Concussion Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concussion Recovery If 'psychosomatic symptoms' were present before head injury, it took twice as long for most athletes ... and pains caused by mental distress -- before their head injury, new research suggests. The study included 127 high ...

  10. Critical role for the AIM2 inflammasome during acute central nervous system bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanamsagar, Richa; Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is essential for eliciting protective immunity during the acute phase of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously demonstrated that microglial IL-1β production in response to live S. aureus is mediated through the Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, including the adapter protein ASC (apoptosis-associated, speck-like, caspase-1 recruiting domain-containing protein), and pro-caspase-1. Here we utilized NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1/11 knockout (KO) mice to demonstrate the functional significance of inflammasome activity during CNS S. aureus infection. ASC and caspase-1/11 KO animals were exquisitely sensitive, with approximately 50% of mice succumbing to infection within 24 h. Unexpectedly, the survival of NLRP3 KO mice was similar to WT animals, suggesting the involvement of an alternative upstream sensor, which was later identified as absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) based on the similar disease patterns between AIM2 and ASC KO mice. Besides IL-1β, other key inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly reduced in the CNS of AIM2 and ASC KO mice, implicating autocrine/paracrine actions of IL-1β, since these mediators do not require inflammasome processing for secretion. These studies demonstrate a novel role for the AIM2 inflammasome as a critical molecular platform for regulating IL-1β release and survival during acute CNS S. aureus infection. PMID:24484406

  11. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  12. Explanation in Biology: Reduction, Pluralism, and Explanatory Aims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This essay analyzes and develops recent views about explanation in biology. Philosophers of biology have parted with the received deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation primarily by attempting to capture actual biological theorizing and practice. This includes an endorsement of different kinds of explanation (e.g., mathematical and causal-mechanistic), a joint study of discovery and explanation, and an abandonment of models of theory reduction in favor of accounts of explanatory reduction. Of particular current interest are philosophical accounts of complex explanations that appeal to different levels of organismal organization and use contributions from different biological disciplines. The essay lays out one model that views explanatory integration across different disciplines as being structured by scientific problems. I emphasize the philosophical need to take the explanatory aims pursued by different groups of scientists into account, as explanatory aims determine whether different explanations are competing or complementary and govern the dynamics of scientific practice, including interdisciplinary research. I distinguish different kinds of pluralism that philosophers have endorsed in the context of explanation in biology, and draw several implications for science education, especially the need to teach science as an interdisciplinary and dynamic practice guided by scientific problems and explanatory aims.

  13. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  14. Natural History and Galsulfase Treatment in Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome) — 10 Year Follow-up of Patients Who Previously Participated in an MPS VI Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Giugliani, Roberto; Lampe, Christina; Guffon, Nathalie; Ketteridge, David; Teles, Elisa Leão; Wraith, James E.; Jones, Simon A; Piscia-Nichols, Cheri; Lin, Ping; Quartel, Adrian; Harmatz, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a clinically heterogeneous and progressive disorder with multiorgan manifestations caused by deficient N-acetlylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase activity. A cross-sectional Survey Study in individuals (n=121) affected with MPS VI was conducted between 2001–2002 to establish demographics, urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, and clinical progression of disease. We conducted a Resurvey Study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01387854) to obtain 10-year follow-up data, including medical histories and clinical assessments (n=59), and survival status over 12-years (n=117). Patients received a mean (SD) of 6.8 (2.2) years of galsulfase ERT between baseline (Survey Study) and follow-up. ERT patients increased in height by 20.4 cm in the 4–7 year-old baseline age group and by 16.8 cm in the 8–12 year-old baseline age group. ERT patients <13 years old demonstrated improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) by 68% and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by 55%, and those ≥13 years old increased FVC by 12.8% and maintained FEV1. Patients with >200 µg/mg baseline uGAG levels increased FVC by 48% in the <13 year-old and by 15% in the ≥13 year-old baseline age group. ERT patients who completed the 6-minute walk test demonstrated a mean (SD) increase of 65.7 (100.6) m. Cardiac outcomes did not significantly improve or worsen. Observed mortality rate among naïve patients was 50% (7/14) and 16.5% (17/103) in the ERT group (unadjusted hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.59). Long-term galsulfase ERT was associated with improvements in pulmonary functions and endurance, stabilized cardiac function and increased survival. PMID:24764221

  15. Mathematical literacy in Plant Physiology undergraduates: results of interventions aimed at improving students' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-09-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant Physiology course. We have performed individual analyses of results obtained during the period 2000-2011, for questions in the examinations requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. Additionally, we present the outcome of two interventions introduced with the aim of helping students improve their prospects for success in the course. Our results confirm previous research showing students' deficiencies in mathematical skills. However, the scores obtained for mathematical questions in the examinations are good predictors of the final grades attained in Plant Physiology, as there are strong correlations at the individual level between results for questions requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. The introduction of a laboratory session devoted to strengthening the application of students' previously acquired mathematical knowledge did not change significantly the results obtained for mathematical questions. Since mathematical abilities of students entering university have declined in recent years, this intervention may have helped to maintain students' performance to a level comparable to that of previous years. The outcome of self-assessment online tests indicates that although Mathematics anxiety is lower than during examinations, the poor results obtained for questions requiring mathematical skills are, at least in part, due to a lack of self-efficacy.

  16. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  17. Effectiveness and tolerability of treatment intensification to basal–bolus therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes on previous basal insulin-supported oral therapy with insulin glargine or supplementary insulin therapy with insulin glulisine: the PARTNER observational study

    PubMed Central

    Pfohl, Martin; Siegmund, Thorsten; Pscherer, Stefan; Pegelow, Katrin; Seufert, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), antidiabetic treatment needs to be continuously intensified to avoid long-term complications. In T2DM patients on either basal insulin-supported oral therapy (BOT) or supplementary insulin therapy (SIT) presenting with HbA1c values above individual targets for 3–6 months, therapy should be intensified. This study investigated effectiveness and tolerability of an intensification of BOT or SIT to a basal–bolus therapy (BBT) regimen in T2DM patients in daily clinical practice. Methods This noninterventional, 8-month, prospective, multicenter study evaluated parameters of glucose control, occurrence of adverse events (eg, hypoglycemia), and acceptance of devices in daily clinical practice routine after 12 and 24 weeks of intensifying insulin therapy to a BBT regimen starting from either preexisting BOT with insulin glargine (pre-BOT) or preexisting SIT with ≥3 daily injections of insulin glulisine (pre-SIT). Results A total of 1,530 patients were documented in 258 German medical practices. A total of 1,301 patients were included in the full analysis set (55% male, 45% female; age median 64 years; body mass index median 30.8 kg/m2; pre-BOT: n=1,072; pre-SIT: n=229), and 1,515 patients were evaluated for safety. After 12 weeks, HbA1c decreased versus baseline (pre-BOT 8.67%; pre-SIT 8.46%) to 7.73% and 7.66%, respectively (Δ mean −0.94% and −0.80%; P<0.0001). At week 24, HbA1c was further reduced to 7.38% and 7.30%, respectively (Δ mean −1.29% and −1.15%; P<0.0001), with a mean reduction of fasting blood glucose values in both treatment groups by more than 46 mg/dL. An HbA1c goal of ≤6.5% was reached by 17.9% (pre-BOT) and 18.6% (pre-SIT), and an HbA1c ≤7.0% by 46.1% (pre-BOT) and 43.0% (pre-SIT) of patients. During 24 weeks, severe as well as serious hypoglycemic events were rare (pre-BOT: n=5; pre-SIT: n=2; pretreated with both insulins: n=1). Conclusion Intensifying

  18. Relationship between HER2 expression and efficacy with first-line trastuzumab emtansine compared with trastuzumab plus docetaxel in TDM4450g: a randomized phase II study of patients with previously untreated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the relationship between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and efficacy in patients receiving trastuzumab plus docetaxel (HT) or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). Methods Patients with HER2-positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were randomly assigned to HT (n = 70) or T-DM1 (n = 67). HER2 status was assessed locally using immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization and confirmed retrospectively by central testing. HER2 mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results HER2 mRNA levels were obtained for 116/137 patients (HT = 61; T-DM1 = 55). Median pretreatment HER2 mRNA was 8.9. The risk of disease progression in the overall population was lower with T-DM1 than with HT (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 to 0.97). This effect was more pronounced in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median (HR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.85) versus < median (HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.67). In the T-DM1 arm, median progression-free survival (PFS) was not reached in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median and was 10.6 months in patients with HER2 mRNA < median. In the HT arm, PFS was 8.8 versus 9.8 months in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median versus < median, respectively. The effect of HER2 mRNA expression on objective response rates was less pronounced. Conclusions This exploratory analysis suggests that while overall, patients with HER2-positive MBC show improved PFS with T-DM1 relative to HT, the effect is enhanced in patients with tumor HER2 mRNA ≥ median. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00679341 PMID:24887458

  19. Benchmark integration test for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, H.; Labuda, L.

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) studies and solves systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This systems integration approach to addressing human capability barriers will yield validation of advanced concepts and technologies, establish baselines for further development, and help identify opportunities for system-level breakthroughs. Early ground-based testing of mission capability will identify successful system implementations and operations, hidden risks and hazards, unexpected system and operations interactions, mission mass and operational savings, and can evaluate solutions to requirements-driving questions; all of which will enable NASA to develop more effective, lower risk systems and more reliable cost estimates for future missions. This paper describes the first in the series of integration tests proposed for AIM (the Benchmark Test) which will bring in partners and technology, evaluate the study processes of the project, and develop metrics for success.

  20. Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, N; Landers, D M; Lyytinen, H

    2000-06-01

    The present study focused on an examination of competitive shooters' aiming process during a rifle shooting task. The barrel movements of the rifle, as detected by a laser system during the last 1000-ms time period preceding the triggering, were recorded from six elite and six pre-elite shooters. Electrocortical slow potentials (SPs) from frontal (Fz), centro-lateral (C3, C4), and occipital (Oz) brain areas were recorded to get an additional insight into the underlying covert processing. The results suggested that the elite shooters did not pull the trigger until they reached a sustained rifle position. In the pre-elite shooters the rifle appeared to be in a less stable position, and their strategy was to take advantage of the first appropriate moment of steadiness without a sustained rifle position so they could pull the trigger. The observed pre-trigger readiness potential (RP) shifts at Fz and Oz were more positive among the elite shooters relative to the pre-elite shooters, reflecting their more pronounced covert effort, rather than increasing preparedness for the trigger pull. The present study lends support for the view that a successful aiming strategy is mainly based on sustained rifle balancing. With regards to the brain slow potentials, it can be concluded that the RP shift does not specifically reflect the preparation for the trigger pull. PMID:10843511

  1. Soft tissue malignant lymphoma at sites of previous surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Radhi, J M; Ibrahiem, K; al-Tweigeri, T

    1998-01-01

    Three diffuse centroblastic lymphomas developed at the site of previous surgery. Two were preceded by atypical lymphoid infiltrates. Clinical data, microscopic features, and immunophenotypic studies were reviewed. All three patients presented with soft tissue masses at the site of previous surgery and metallic implants, with no evidence of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, or bone marrow involvement. There was no history of immunosuppression or risk factors. In two cases the initial diagnosis was of atypical lymphoid infiltrate progressing to lymphoma. Pathological examination showed a diffuse centroblastic lymphoma with an angiocentric pattern in one case. Phenotypic studies confirmed B cell origin. Soft tissue malignant lymphoma, though uncommon, can occur at the site of previous orthopaedic surgery, in particular joint replacement. Atypical lymphoid infiltrate may signal such an event. Images PMID:9828826

  2. Indiscriminate Behaviors in Previously Institutionalized Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. RESULTS: In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs 3.5%; P < .001). Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1–2.5]). CONCLUSIONS: Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors. PMID:24488743

  3. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. PMID:25578380

  4. Accuracy of aimed arm movements in changed gravity.

    PubMed

    Bock, O; Howard, I P; Money, K E; Arnold, K E

    1992-11-01

    We studied the accuracy of aimed arm movements in normal gravity, and during the hypergravity (hyper-G) and microgravity (micro-G) episodes of KC-135 parabolic flights. Subjects pointed at mirror-viewed targets without sight of their arm, and final pointing position was measured by a digitizing pad. Compared with the normal gravity (normal-G) baseline, subjects pointed consistently higher in hyper-G, and still higher in micro-G. Results were not different if subjects viewed targets only during normal-G and pointed at their memorized position under changed gravity (changed-G); this suggests that the "elevator illusion" played a minor role in our study. The observed impairments were attributed to degraded proprioceptive feedback and/or inappropriate motor programs in changed-G. Pointing accuracy improved movement-to-movement but not parabola-to-parabola, indicating that prolonged exposure is needed for sustained adaptation. PMID:1445164

  5. Breaks in Play: Do They Achieve Intended Aims?

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Cowley, Elizabeth; Anthony, Christina; Hinsley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Breaks in play represent a responsible gambling strategy designed to disrupt states of dissociation and enhance the likelihood of drawing attention to a player's session behaviour and expenditure with respect to time and money. The aim of the break in play is to motivate the player to modify or cease gambling so the activity remains within affordable levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether imposed breaks in play in the absence of accompanying warning messages were effective in reducing cravings. Participants (141 university students) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 15 min computer simulated Black Jack play followed by no break, a 3 or 8 min break in play. Participants were administered a battery of measures to assess problem gambling card play, cravings, and dissociation to assess the effects of length of break on cravings. Results indicated that cravings increased rather than decreased with imposed breaks in play, and that the strength of cravings were higher following the eight- compared to 3-min break. It was concluded that breaks in play in isolation might produce counterproductive, unintended, and even perverse effects. The policy implications for responsible gambling strategies is that breaks in play ought to be accompanied with warning and/or personal appraisal messages if optimal effects in reducing within session gambling expenditure are to be achieved. PMID:26275785

  6. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  7. The Florida State Twin Registry: research aims and design.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jeanette E; James, Lisa M; Reeves, Mark D; Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2006-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the relationship of most personality disorders to executive cognitive functioning despite their associations with frontal cortex activity. Research on genetic influence is lacking for most personality disorders, and research on genetic influences associated with executive cognitive functioning is sparse and mixed. The Florida State Twin Registry was created to conduct a pilot twin study aimed at examining genetic influence on personality disorders and executive cognitive functioning. Measures included structured clinical interviews for symptoms and diagnoses of personality disorders (borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, and dependent), depression, substance abuse/dependence, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Color-Word Test were administered to assess executive cognitive functioning. Self-report questionnaires were included to assess maladaptive personality traits. Data sharing and future directions for growing the Florida State Twin Registry are discussed. PMID:17254436

  8. Working memory capacity, controlled attention and aiming performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Greg; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the possibility that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) could predict those individuals who would experience attentional disruptions and performance decrements under pressure. Two WMC groups performed a Stroop handgun task under counterbalanced conditions of threat whilst wearing eye-tracking equipment that measured visual search activity and quiet eye (QE) aiming duration. Performance was measured in terms of shooting accuracy. Low-WMC individuals experienced impaired visual search time to locate the target and reduced QE durations when shooting at incongruent target words. Furthermore, the low-WMC group experienced significant reductions in shooting accuracy when anxious. Conversely, high-WMC individuals experienced no significant differences in attentional control or performance across congruency or threat conditions. Results support the suggestion that WMC is not only a good predictor of an individual's ability to control their attention but can also predict those likely to fail under pressure. PMID:26021749

  9. Distractor Repetitions Retrieve Previous Responses and Previous Targets: Experimental Dissociations of Distractor-Response and Distractor-Target Bindings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, Carina; Rothermund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Even an irrelevant distractor stimulus is integrated into event files. Subsequently repeating the distractor triggers retrieval of the event file; however, an unresolved issue concerns the question of "what" is retrieved by the distractor. While recent studies predominantly assume that the distractor retrieves the previous response, it…

  10. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  11. Automated Diagnosis Of Faults In Antenna-Aiming Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Mellstrom, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses research directed toward automated diagnosis of faults in complicated electromechanical and hydraulic systems aiming 70-m and 34-m antennas of Deep Space Network communication system.

  12. INTERMAP: background, aims, design, methods, and descriptive statistics (nondietary).

    PubMed

    Stamler, J; Elliott, P; Dennis, B; Dyer, A R; Kesteloot, H; Liu, K; Ueshima, H; Zhou, B F

    2003-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) above optimal (< or =120/< or =80 mmHg) is established as a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Prevalence of adverse BP is high in most adult populations; until recently research has been sparse on reasons for this. Since the 1980s, epidemiologic studies confirmed that salt, alcohol intake, and body mass relate directly to BP; dietary potassium, inversely. Several other nutrients also probably influence BP. The DASH feeding trials demonstrated that with the multiple modifications in the DASH combination diet, SBP/DBP (SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure) was sizably reduced, independent of calorie balance, alcohol intake, and BP reduction with decreased dietary salt. A key challenge for research is to elucidate specific nutrients accounting for this effect. The general aim of the study was to clarify influences of multiple nutrients on SBP/DBP of individuals over and above effects of Na, K, alcohol, and body mass. Specific aims were, in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years from 17 diverse population samples in China, Japan, UK, and USA, test 10 prior hypotheses on relations of macronutrients to SBP/DBP and on role of dietary factors in inverse associations of education with BP; test four related subgroup hypotheses; explore associations with SBP/DBP of multiple other nutrients, urinary metabolites, and foods. For these purposes, for all 4680 participants, with standardized high-quality methods, assess individual intake of 76 nutrients from four 24-h dietary recalls/person; measure in two timed 24-h urine collections/person 24-h excretion of Na, K, Ca, Mg, creatinine, amino acids; microalbuminuria; multiple nutrients and metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Based on eight SBP/DBP measurements/person, and data on multiple possible confounders, utilize mainly multiple linear regression and quantile analyses to test prior

  13. Source level reduction and sonar beam aiming in landing big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Koblitz, Jens C; Stilz, Peter; Pflästerer, Wiebke; Melcón, Mariana L; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    Reduction of echolocation call source levels in bats has previously been studied using set-ups with one microphone. By using a 16 microphone array, sound pressure level (SPL) variations, possibly caused by the scanning movements of the bat, can be excluded and the sonar beam aiming can be studied. During the last two meters of approach flights to a landing platform in a large flight room, five big brown bats aimed sonar beams at the landing site and reduced the source level on average by 7 dB per halving of distance. Considerable variation was found among the five individuals in the amount of source level reduction ranging from 4 to 9 dB per halving of distance. These results are discussed with respect to automatic gain control and intensity compensation and the combination of the two effects. It is argued that the two effects together do not lead to a stable echo level at the cochlea. This excludes a tightly coupled closed loop feed back control system as an explanation for the observed reduction of signal SPL in landing big brown bats. PMID:22087937

  14. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed. PMID:17272949

  15. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  16. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  17. Finding Your Bearings, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  18. Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The release of "The New Zealand Curriculum" causes us to rethink the aims of education. Dr Cavanagh offers an alternative set of aims to the vision outlined in the Ministry of Education document, which is based, at least in part, on socialisation into the corporate industrial world. Dr Cavanagh's position is focused on putting relationships at the…

  19. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  20. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  1. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  2. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  3. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  4. Patriotism, History and the Legitimate Aims of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaining important truths germane to the various…

  5. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. Methods A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Results Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Conclusions Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess

  6. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more difficult after a previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jan Siert Kayitsinga; Gouma, Dirk Joan; Heisterkamp, Joos; Tromp, Ellen; van Ramshorst, Bert; Boerma, Djamila

    2013-01-01

    Background Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) followed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is generally accepted as the treatment of choice for patients with choledochocystolithiasis who are eligible for surgery. Previous studies have shown that LC after ES is associated with a high conversion rate. The aim of the present study was to assess the complexity of LC after ES compared with standard LC for symptomatic uncomplicated cholecystolithiasis. Methods The study population consisted of two patient cohorts: patients who had undergone a previous ERCP with ES for choledocholithiasis (PES) and patients with cholecystolithiasis who had no previous intervention prior to LC (NPES). Results The PES group consisted of 93 patients and the NPES group consisted of 83 consecutive patients. Patients in the PES group had higher risks for longer [more than 65 min, odds ratio (OR) = 4.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79–9.91)] and more complex [higher than 6 points, on a 0–10 scale, OR 3.12 (95% CI 1.43–6.81)] surgery. The conversion rate in the PES and NPES group (6.5% versus 2.4%, respectively) and the complication rate (12.9% versus 9.6%, respectively) were not significantly different. Discussion A laparoscopic cholecystectomy after ES is lengthier and more difficult than in uncomplicated cholelithiasis and should therefore be performed by an experienced surgeon. PMID:23374364

  7. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  8. Impact of previous cyst-enterostomy on patients’ outcome following resection of bile duct cysts

    PubMed Central

    Ouaissi, Mehdi; Kianmanesh, Reza; Ragot, Emilia; Belghiti, Jacques; Majno, Pietro; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Dubois, Remi; Revillon, Yann; Cherqui, Daniel; Azoulay, Daniel; Letoublon, Christian; Pruvot, François-René; Paye, François; Rat, Patrick; Boudjema, Karim; Roux, Adeline; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Gigot, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the impact of previous cyst-enterostomy of patients underwent congenital bile duct cysts (BDC) resection. METHODS: A multicenter European retrospective study between 1974 and 2011 were conducted by the French Surgical Association. Only Todani subtypes I and IVb were included. Diagnostic imaging studies and operative and pathology reports underwent central revision. Patients with and without a previous history of cyst-enterostomy (CE) were compared. RESULTS: Among 243 patients with Todani types I and IVb BDC, 16 had undergone previous CE (6.5%). Patients with a prior history of CE experienced a greater incidence of preoperative cholangitis (75% vs 22.9%, P < 0.0001), had more complicated presentations (75% vs 40.5%, P = 0.007), and were more likely to have synchronous biliary cancer (31.3% vs 6.2%, P = 0.004) than patients without a prior CE. Overall morbidity (75% vs 33.5%; P < 0.0008), severe complications (43.8% vs 11.9%; P = 0.0026) and reoperation rates (37.5% vs 8.8%; P = 0.0032) were also significantly greater in patients with previous CE, and their Mayo Risk Score, during a median follow-up of 37.5 mo (range: 4-372 mo) indicated significantly more patients with fair and poor results (46.1% vs 15.6%; P = 0.0136). CONCLUSION: This is the large series to show that previous CE is associated with poorer short- and long-term results after Todani types I and IVb BDC resection. PMID:27358675

  9. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  10. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed Central

    Callender, J S

    1998-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy. PMID:9752632

  11. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  12. Mask CD control (CDC) using AIMS as the CD metrology data source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, Guy; Zait, Eitan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Labovitz, Steven; Graitzer, Erez; Böhm, Klaus; Birkner, Robert; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that wafer CD uniformity can be improved via an ultrafast laser system. The system provides local CD Control (CDC) by writing inside the bulk of photomasks. Intra-field CD variation correction has been implemented effectively in mask-shops and fabs based on CD-SEM and Scatterometry (Optical CD or OCD) as the CD data source. Using wafer CD data allows correction of all wafer field CD contributors at once, but does not allow correcting for mask CD signature alone. For mask shops attempting to improve CDU of the mask regardless of the exposure tool, it is a better practice to use only mask CD data as the CD data source. In this study, we investigate the use of an aerial imaging system AIMSTM45-193i (AIMS45) as the mask CD data source for the CDC process. In order to determine the predictive value of the AIMS45 as input to the CDC process, we have created a programmed CD mask with both 45nm and 65nm node L/S and hole patterns. The programmed CD mask has CD errors of up to 20nm in 2.5nm steps (4X). The programmed CD mask was measured by AIMS45, defining the CDU map of the programmed CD mask. The CDU data was then used by Pixer CDC200TM to correct the CDU and bring it back to a flat, almost ideal CDU. In order to confirm that real CDU improvement on wafer had been achieved, the mask was printed before and after CDC on an immersion scanner at IMEC and results of pre and post CD data were compared.

  13. A role for the apoptosis inhibitory factor AIM/Spalpha/Api6 in atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoko; Shelton, John M; Chen, Mingyi; Bradley, Michelle N; Castrillo, Antonio; Bookout, Angie L; Mak, Puiying A; Edwards, Peter A; Mangelsdorf, David J; Tontonoz, Peter; Miyazaki, Toru

    2005-03-01

    Macrophages play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis through the accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). AIM (Spalpha/Api6) has previously been shown to promote macrophage survival; however, its function in atherogenesis is unknown. Here we identify AIM as a critical factor that protects macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids. AIM protein is induced in response to oxLDL loading and is highly expressed in foam cells within atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, both expression of AIM in lesions and its induction by oxidized lipids require the action of LXR/RXR heterodimers. AIM-/- macrophages are highly susceptible to oxLDL-induced apoptosis in vitro and undergo accelerated apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Moreover, early atherosclerotic lesions in AIM-/-LDLR-/- double knockout mice are dramatically reduced when compared to AIM+/+LDLR-/- controls. We conclude that AIM production facilitates macrophage survival within atherosclerotic lesions and that loss of AIM decreases early lesion development by increasing macrophage apoptosis. PMID:16054063

  14. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  15. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    PubMed

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim. PMID:27443059

  16. Head-aimed vision system improves tele-operated mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Kent

    2004-12-01

    A head-aimed vision system greatly improves the situational awareness and decision speed for tele-operations of mobile robots. With head-aimed vision, the tele-operator wears a head-mounted display and a small three axis head-position measuring device. Wherever the operator looks, the remote sensing system "looks". When the system is properly designed, the operator's occipital lobes are "fooled" into believing that the operator is actually on the remote robot. The result is at least a doubling of: situational awareness, threat identification speed, and target tracking ability. Proper system design must take into account: precisely matching fields of view; optical gain; and latency below 100 milliseconds. When properly designed, a head-aimed system does not cause nausea, even with prolonged use.

  17. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study was designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview…

  18. Application of computer modelling and lead field theory in developing multiple aimed impedance cardiography measurements.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, P; Kööbi, T; Kaukinen, S; Hyttinen, J; Malmivuo, J

    1999-01-01

    Conventional impedance cardiography (ICG) methods estimate parameters related to the function of the heart from a single waveform that reflects an integrated combination of complex sources. We have previously developed methods and tools for calculating measurement sensitivity distributions of ICG electrode configurations. In this study, the methods were applied to investigate the prospects of recording multiple aimed ICG waveforms utilizing the 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) electrode locations. Three anatomically realistic volume conductor models were used: one based on Visible Human Man cryosection data and two on magnetic resonance (MR) images representing end diastolic and end systolic phases of the cardiac cycle. Based on the sensitivity distributions obtained, 236 electrode configurations were selected for preliminary clinical examination on 12 healthy volunteers and 9 valvular patients. The model study suggested that a variety of configurations had clearly enhanced sensitivity to the cardiovascular structures as compared to conventional ICGs. Simulation data and clinical experiments showed logical correspondence supporting the theoretically predicted differences between the configurations. Recorded 12-lead ICG signals had characteristic waveforms and landmarks not coinciding with those of conventional ICG. Furthermore, configurations showing resemblance to invasive data and morphological variations in disease are of interest. The results indicate the applicability of the modelling approach in developing ICG measurement configurations. However, the level of clinical relevance and potential of the 12-lead method remains to be explored in studies employing dynamic modelling and acquisition of invasive reference data. PMID:10627950

  19. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p < 0.05) and exhibited less collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p < 0.05)-compared with the lateral walls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of muscle fibers at a level deeper than that of the subendothelial connective tissue in the inferior wall of the SS, extending from its junction with the great cerebral vein

  20. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  1. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  3. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  4. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  5. An "Aims of Discourse" Program for Freshman English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, William J.

    Genesee Community College in Batavia, New York, adopted James Kinneavy's aims of discourse theory as the basis of its composition program. The program is a two-semester course for students who intend to transfer to four-year colleges. In a comparable nontransfer sequence, the first semester doubles as a remedial course for ill-prepared transfer…

  6. Initiative Aims to Refashion Training Path for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    A new nationwide leadership initiative launched last week is aimed at changing the way America's principals are recruited and prepared--and how they run schools. The Alliance to Reform Education Leadership, or AREL, marks the first major effort of the nonpartisan George W. Bush Institute, located at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. It will…

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  8. An Examination of OMB Forms Clearance Aims, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.; Bertram, Charles L.

    The purposes of this paper are four-fold: (1) to delineate the principal aims and policy objectives of Office of Management and Budget Forms Clearance (OMB FC), as embodied in Federal legislation and executive directives since 1942; (2) to identify the major current thrusts of OMB FC; (3) to suggest possible future policy directions of OMB FC,…

  9. Aims College Operation Bridge Project. Phase 1, Preliminary Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Spanish Speaking Management Association, Washington, DC.

    Recognizing the adverse effects of poverty on Mexican Americans, and determined to help narrow the barriers caused by a low socioeconomic status, Aims college, a locally funded institution in Weld County, Colorado, conceptualized and implemented a special needs program designed to provide vocational and occupational training for disadvantaged…

  10. Comment on "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This commentary presents the author's response to an article published in the last version of "Kairaranga" entitled "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the aims of education," written by Dr. Tom Cavanagh. He found it refreshing to read Cavanagh's article that focuses educators' energies onto re-visiting the wider socio-cultural goals of…

  11. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  12. Alienation, Art and Affirmation in the Work of Aime Cesaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    Aime Cesaire is one of the foremost French-speaking blacks in twentieth century literature. The concept of negritude--referring to the culture of French-speaking blacks--is often associated with his name. This paper discusses his life and work, and explores his life from his birth in Martinique, his early years, the years spent in Paris, and his…

  13. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  14. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  15. Does previous open renal surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy affect the outcomes and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Sarılar, Omer; Toptas, Mehmet; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Binbay, Murat

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PNL in patients with a history of open renal surgery or PNL by comparing with primary patients and to compare impact of previous open renal surgery and PNL on the success and complications of subsequent PNL. Charts of patients, who underwent PNL at our institute, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups according to history of renal stone surgery. Patients without history of renal surgery were enrolled into Group 1. Other patients with previous PNL and previous open surgery were categorized as Group 2 and Group 3. Preoperative characteristic, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complication rates were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was accepted as completing clearance of stone and residual fragment smaller than 4 mm. Eventually, 2070 patients were enrolled into the study. Open renal surgery and PNL had been done in 410 (Group 2) and 131 (Group 3) patients, retrospectively. The mean operation time was longer (71.3 ± 33.5 min) in Group 2 and the mean fluoroscopy time was longer (8.6 ± 5.0) in Group 3 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Highest stone clearance was achieved in primary PNL patients (81.62%) compared to the other groups (77.10% in Group 2 and 75.61% in Group 3). Stone-free rate was not significantly different between Group 2 and Group 3. Fever, pulmonary complications, and blood transfusion requirement were not statically different between groups but angioembolization was significantly higher in Group 2. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with renal stones regardless history of previous PNL or open renal surgery. However, history of open renal surgery but not PNL significantly reduced PNL success. PMID:26141983

  16. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  17. The AIMS65 Score Is a Useful Predictor of Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Urgent Endoscopy in Patients with High AIMS65 Scores

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Wook; Song, Young Wook; Tak, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Byung Moo; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: To validate the AIMS65 score for predicting mortality of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to evaluate the effectiveness of urgent (<8 hours) endoscopic procedures in patients with high AIMS65 scores. Methods: This was a 5-year single-center, retrospective study. Nonvariceal, upper gastrointestinal bleeding was assessed by using the AIM65 and Rockall scores. Scores for mortality were assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Patients with high AIMS65 scores (≥2) were allocated to either the urgent or non-urgent endoscopic procedure group. In-hospital mortality, success of endoscopic procedure, recurrence of bleeding, admission period, and dose of transfusion were compared between groups. Results: A total of 634 patients were analyzed. The AIMS65 score successfully predicted mortality (AUROC=0.943; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.876 to 0.99) and was superior to the Rockall score (AUROC=0.856; 95% CI, 0.743 to 0.969) in predicting mortality. The group with high AIMS65 score included 200 patients. The urgent endoscopic procedure group had reduced hospitalization periods (p<0.05) Conclusions: AIMS65 score may be useful in predicting mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Urgent endoscopic procedures in patients with high scores may be related to reduced hospitalization periods. PMID:26668799

  18. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  19. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a network of Sparcstations, including (a) NAS Parallel benchmarks CG and MG (White, Alund and Sunderam 1993); (b) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP (Wijngaart 1993); and (c) an overset grid flowsolver (Smith 1993). These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains (a) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (b) Monitor, a library of run-time trace-collection routines; (c) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (d) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses X11R5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (a) the impact of long message latencies; (b) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (c) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (a) Config

  20. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events. PMID:22254534

  1. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  2. Refractive aiming corrections for satellite observation of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Vittitoe, C.N.; Schmidt, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Standard references describe how apparent zenith angles differ from true zenith angles for observers on the Earth. In fact, correction formulae are available for aiming Earth-based sensors at stars; some corrections give variations as a function of observer altitude. Such corrections have not been available for observers in space. This report develops formulae appropriate for proper aiming from space-based sensors toward the relatively few stars that are near the Earth`s limb at any given time. These formulae correct for refractive effects and may be critical for steerable space-borne sensors with fields of view less than one degree, tasked to observe starlight passing near the Earth`s surface. Ray tracing in the U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 including H{sub 2}O effects, is used to determine relations between the refracted tangent height, the apparent tangent height resulting from observation at the sensor, and the angle through which the detected rays have deviated. Analytic fits of the ray deviation as a function of apparent tangent height allows quick determination of corrections needed for a space-borne sensor. Using those results that apply in the plane of incidence and using the necessary coordinate rotations, alterations in the star`s apparent right ascension and declination are evaluated to improve the aim. Examples illustrate that alterations can be larger than one degree, with effects lasting up to a few minutes.

  3. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  4. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  5. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  6. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  7. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I, part... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was organized differently within...

  8. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prior to the establishment of title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance...

  9. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  10. Examining Neurocognitive Function in Previously Concussed Interscholastic Female Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Cameron R; Glutting, Joseph J; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of sport-related concussions in soccer has gained recent attention in the medical community. Interestingly, purposeful heading-a unique yet strategic and inherent part of soccer-involves repeated subconcussive blows to the head. We divided 210 female interscholastic soccer players into control (CON [never concussed]) and experimental (EXP [previously concussed]) groups. We assessed neurocognitive performance using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics computer program before and after the players' competitive season. Headers were recorded at all sanctioned matches. Data were analyzed using a series of one-way analyses of covariance and t tests. Both groups essentially played in the same number of games (EXP = 16.1 vs. CON = 16.1) and had an equal number of total headers (EXP = 24.9 vs. CON = 24.3). Additionally, headers per game were surprisingly low in both groups (1.4 in EXP vs. 1.3 in CON). Unexpectedly, there were no significant differences between the EXP and CON groups across all dependent variables measured (p > .05). This study suggests that although previously concussed players involve themselves in purposeful heading (i.e., subconcussive insults) throughout a competitive season, there appear to be no negative consequences on neuropsychological test performance or concussion-related symptoms. Additional research is needed to determine what may result during the course of a playing career. PMID:25495584

  11. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  12. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  13. Use of the argon aiming beam in visual function testing.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J S

    1978-12-01

    The aiming beam of the argon laser photocoagulator can be a useful tool in visual function testing. Applied with the slit lamp delivery system and fundus contact lens, it clearly documents the size of the blind spot surrounding the optic nerve head and the normal area of nonfunctional retina in the periphery. The size of pathologic field defects can be recorded on fundus photographs or retinal drawings by an observer. Safety precautions must be taken to protect all patients from excessive laser energy. PMID:736394

  14. Multicentric spinal cord and brain glioblastoma without previous craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    de Eulate-Beramendi, Sayoa A.; Piña-Batista, Kelvin M.; Rodrigo, Victor; Torres-Rivas, Hector E.; Rial-Basalo, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBS) is a highly malignant glioma that rarely presents as an infratentorial tumor. Multicentric gliomas lesions are widely separated in site and/or time and its incidence has been reported between 0.15 and 10%. Multicentric gliomas involving supratentorial and infratentorial region are even more rare. In most cases, infratentorial disease is seen after surgical manipulation or radiation therapy and is usually located in the cerebellum or cervical region. Case Report: We present a rare case of symptomatic multicentric glioma in the brain, fourth ventricle, cervical as well as lumbar glioblastoma in an adult without previous therapeutic intervention. We also review the literature of this rare presentation. Conclusions: This report suggests that GBM is a diffuse disease; the more extended the disease, the worse prognosis it has. The management still remains controversial and further studies are required to understand the prognosis factors of dissemination. PMID:27512613

  15. A meta-analysis of previous fracture and subsequent fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Kanis, J A; Johnell, O; De Laet, C; Johansson, H; Oden, A; Delmas, P; Eisman, J; Fujiwara, S; Garnero, P; Kroger, H; McCloskey, E V; Mellstrom, D; Melton, L J; Pols, H; Reeve, J; Silman, A; Tenenhouse, A

    2004-08-01

    Previous fracture is a well-documented risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the relationship of this risk with age, sex, and bone mineral density (BMD). We studied 15259 men and 44902 women from 11 cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, OFELY, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Rotterdam, Kuopio, DOES, Hiroshima, and two cohorts from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for a total of 250000 person-years. The effect of a prior history of fracture on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson model for each sex from each cohort. Covariates examined were age, sex, and BMD. The results of the different studies were merged by using the weighted beta-coefficients. A previous fracture history was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture compared with individuals without a prior fracture (RR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.75-1.98). The risk ratio was similar for the outcome of osteoporotic fracture or for hip fracture. There was no significant difference in risk ratio between men and women. Risk ratio (RR) was marginally downward adjusted when account was taken of BMD. Low BMD explained a minority of the risk for any fracture (8%) and for hip fracture (22%). The risk ratio was stable with age except in the case of hip fracture outcome where the risk ratio decreased significantly with age. We conclude that previous history of fracture confers an increased risk of fracture of substantial importance beyond that explained by measurement of BMD. Its validation on an international basis permits the use of this risk factor in case finding strategies. PMID:15268886

  16. Photometric Properties of Ceres and Comparisons with Previous HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-Y.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Sykes, M. V.; Hoffmann, M.; Mottola, S.; Schröder, S. E.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; McFadden, L. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the first science orbit around its second target, dwarf planet Ceres, in April 2015. The photometric properties of Ceres not only reveal clues about the physical state of the regolith, surface composition, and geological history, but also are important for correcting the data collected under various observing and illumination geometries to a common geometry to facilitate the interpretations of all photometric and spectral data. The Dawn data collected during its approach to Ceres cover phase angles from a few degrees to ~155º, and almost cover the full range of incidence angles and emission angles from 0º to 90º, making an excellent dataset for studying the spectrophotometric properties of Ceres. We report the analysis of the photometric properties of Ceres in the visible wavelengths using the Framing Camera (FC) [1] data through all seven color filters and one clear filter, acquired during the approach and the Survey orbit of the mission. Although previous studies [2-4] suggested a remarkably uniform surface of Ceres, the images collected by Dawn during its approach to the target at a scale of a few km/pixel revealed some small but extremely bright spots and regions, with albedos up to >4 times the average albedo of Ceres, representing the highest contrast so far observed in all asteroids imaged from close distances by spacecraft missions. These bright spots should be geologically young, and might be related to the episodic water sublimation activity of Ceres [5-7]. We performed detailed comparisons of the albedos of these bright spots between previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and the Dawn observations that span about 10 years to search for any possible changes. By the time of preparing this abstract, the Dawn FChas collected images at pixel scale down to 2.1 km/pixel. By June 2015, the data with a scale of 0.4 km/pixel will have been collected during the Survey Orbit phase.

  17. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  18. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing. PMID:23858439

  19. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  20. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  1. Telescope Aiming Point Tracking Method for Bioptic Driving Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, XianPing; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many US states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effect on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles' frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the head is scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, non-linear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70°×48° field was only 0.86°, with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  2. Association of Aortic Valve Sclerosis with Previous Coronary Artery Disease and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Marmelo, Filipe Carvalho; Mateus, Sónia Matilde Fonseca; Pereira, Alexandre José Marques

    2014-01-01

    Background Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) is characterized by increased thickness, calcification and stiffness of the aortic leaflets without fusion of the commissures. Several studies show an association between AVS and presence of coronary artery disease. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between presence of AVS with occurrence of previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors. Methods The sample was composed of 2,493 individuals who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between August 2011 and December 2012. The mean age of the cohort was 67.5 ± 15.9 years, and 50.7% were female. Results The most frequent clinical indication for Doppler echocardiography was the presence of stroke (28.8%), and the most common risk factor was hypertension (60.8%). The most prevalent pathological findings on Doppler echocardiography were mitral valve sclerosis (37.1%) and AVS (36.7%). There was a statistically significant association between AVS with hypertension (p < 0.001), myocardial infarction (p = 0.007), diabetes (p = 0.006) and compromised left ventricular systolic function (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients with AVS have higher prevalences of hypertension, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, diabetes and compromised left ventricular systolic function when compared with patients without AVS. We conclude that there is an association between presence of AVS with previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors. PMID:25229357

  3. A Single Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Dose Improves B Cell Memory in Previously Infected Subjects.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Erin M; Smith, Robin A; Gallego, Daniel F; Carter, Joseph J; Wipf, Gregory C; Hoyos, Manuela; Stern, Michael; Thurston, Tate; Trinklein, Nathan D; Wald, Anna; Galloway, Denise A

    2016-08-01

    Although licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are most efficacious in persons never infected with HPV, they also reduce infection and disease in previously infected subjects, indicating natural immunity is not entirely protective against HPV re-infection. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the B cell memory elicited by HPV infection and evaluate whether vaccination merely boosts antibody (Ab) levels in previously infected subjects or also improves the quality of B cell memory. Toward this end, the memory B cells (Bmem) of five unvaccinated, HPV-seropositive subjects were isolated and characterized, and subject recall responses to a single HPV vaccine dose were analyzed. Vaccination boosted Ab levels 24- to 930-fold (median 77-fold) and Bmem numbers 3- to 27-fold (median 6-fold). In addition, Abs cloned from naturally elicited Bmem were generally non-neutralizing, whereas all those isolated following vaccination were neutralizing. Moreover, Ab and plasmablast responses indicative of memory recall responses were only observed in two subjects. These results suggest HPV vaccination augments both the magnitude and quality of natural immunity and demonstrate that sexually active persons could also benefit from HPV vaccination. This study may have important public policy implications, especially for the older 'catch-up' group within the vaccine's target population. PMID:27423190

  4. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  5. Mask CD control (CDC) with ultrafast laser for improving mask CDU using AIMS as the CD metrology data source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, Guy; Zait, Eitan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Graitzer, Erez; Gottlieb, Gidi; Leibovich, Lior; Birkner, Robert; Boehm, Klaus; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    CD uniformity control by ultrafast laser system writing inside the bulk of photomasks has previously been shown to be an effective method for local CD Control (CDC) [1]. Intra-field CD variations correction has been implemented effectively in mask-shops and fabs based on CDC SEM [2, 3] and OCD as the CD data source. Using wafer CD data allows correction of all wafer field CD contributors at once, but does not allow correcting for mask CD signature alone. In case of a mask shop attempting to improve CDU of the mask regardless of a particular exposure tool, it is a better practice to use mask CD data by itself as the CD data source. We propose using an aerial imaging system AIMS TM45-193i as the mask CD data source for the CDC process. In this study we created a programmed CD mask (65nm dense L/S) with relatively large CD errors. The programmed CD mask was then measured by AIMS TM45-193i (AIMS45) which defined the CDU map of the programmed CD mask. The CDU data from AIMS TM45-193i was then used by Pixer CDC101 to correct the CDU and bring it back to a flat almost ideal CDU.

  6. Short-term outcomes after laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with previous abdominal surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan; Panis, Yves

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To perform a systematic review focusing on short-term outcomes after colorectal surgery in patients with previous abdominal open surgery (PAOS). METHODS: A broad literature search was performed with the terms “colorectal”, “colectomy”, “PAOS”, “previous surgery” and “PAOS”. Studies were included if their topic was laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with PAOS, whether descriptive or comparative. Endpoints of interest were conversion rates, inadvertent enterotomy and morbidity. Analysis of articles was made according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. RESULTS: From a total of 394 citations, 13 full-texts achieved selection criteria to be included in the study. Twelve of them compared patients with and without PAOS. All studies were retrospective and comparative and two were case-matched. The selected studies comprised a total of 5005 patients, 1865 with PAOS. Among the later, only 294 (16%) had history of a midline incision for previous gastrointestinal surgery. Conversion rates were significantly higher in 3 of 12 studies and inadvertent enterotomy during laparoscopy was more prevalent in 3 of 5 studies that disclosed this event. Morbidity was similar in the majority of studies. A quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSION: Conversion rates were slightly higher in PAOS groups, although not statistical significant in most studies. History of PAOS did not implicate in higher morbidity rates. PMID:27462396

  7. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, W.

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  8. Research aims at development of laser-guided electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicharow, E.

    1985-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense is conducting a technology development program that may result in the stationing of a laser-guided electron beam weapon, at ionospheric altitudes of 80-600 km, for the interception and destruction of Soviet ICBMs at ranges of more than 1000 miles. This research program is pursuing the principle of ion-focused propagation, which resolves the problem of atmospheric beam scattering by ionizing a channel in the atmospheric medium with a laser. Also discussed is the development status of space-based particle beams and lasers, ground-based laser systems employing orbiting mirror platforms for beam aiming, and nuclear device-powered directed energy weapons.

  9. Prognostic Value of AIMS65 Score in Cirrhotic Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Gaduputi, Vinaya; Abdulsamad, Molham; Tariq, Hassan; Rafeeq, Ahmed; Abbas, Naeem; Kumbum, Kavitha; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Unlike Rockall scoring system, AIMS65 is based only on clinical and laboratory features. In this study we investigated the correlation between the AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score, in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Methods. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted with overt UGIB and undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). AIMS65 and Rockall scores were calculated at the time of admission. We investigated the correlation between both scores along with stigmata of bleed seen on endoscopy. Results. A total of 1255 patients were studied. 152 patients were cirrhotic while 1103 patients were noncirrhotic. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 and Total Rockall scores in patients of both groups. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score in noncirrhotics but not cirrhotics. AIMS65 scores in both cirrhotic and noncirrhotic groups were significantly higher in patients who died from UGIB than in patients who did not. Conclusion. We observed statistically significant correlation between AIMS65 score and length of hospitalization and mortality in noncirrhotic patients. We found that AIMS65 score paralleled the endoscopic grading of lesion causing UGIB in noncirrhotics. AIMS65 score correlated only with mortality but not the length of hospitalization or endoscopic stigmata of bleed in cirrhotics. PMID:25587269

  10. New Approaches for Isolation of Previously Uncultivated Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sizova, M. V.; Hohmann, T.; Hazen, A.; Paster, B. J.; Halem, S. R.; Murphy, C. M.; Panikov, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of microorganisms from the human oral cavity remain uncultivated. This is a major impediment to the study of human health since some of the uncultivated species may be involved in a variety of systemic diseases. We used a range of innovations previously developed to cultivate microorganisms from the human oral cavity, focusing on anaerobic species. These innovations include (i) in vivo cultivation to specifically enrich for species actively growing in the oral cavity (the “minitrap” method), (ii) single-cell long-term cultivation to minimize the effect of fast-growing microorganisms, and (iii) modifications of conventional enrichment techniques, using media that did not contain sugar, including glucose. To enable cultivation of obligate anaerobes, we maintained strict anaerobic conditions in most of our cultivation experiments. We report that, on a per cell basis, the most successful recovery was achieved using minitrap enrichment (11%), followed by single-cell cultivation (3%) and conventional plating (1%). Taxonomically, the richest collection was obtained using the single-cell cultivation method, followed by minitrap and conventional enrichment, comprising representatives of 13, 9, and 4 genera, respectively. Interestingly, no single species was isolated by all three methods, indicating method complementarity. An important result is the isolation and maintenance in pure culture of 10 strains previously only known by their molecular signatures, as well as representatives of what are likely to be three new microbial genera. We conclude that the ensemble of new methods we introduced will likely help close the gap between cultivated and uncultivated species from the human oral cavity. PMID:22057871

  11. Underground and Previously Undiscovered Rivers in the Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, A.; Breaux, A.; Coleman, D.; Inniss, L. V.; Telfeyan, K.; Kim, J.; Schneider, A.; Allison, M. A.; Cable, J. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we show that there are large, and previously undiscovered, groundwater pathways by which water from the Mississippi River is transported to the wetlands and estuaries of the Mississippi River Delta. Results from multiple methodologies suggest that the total flux of groundwater to the coastal zone in the Mississippi River Delta averages 1,000 m3 s-1, and can reach 5,000 m3 s-1 at high flow. We suggest that flow preferentially occurs through paleo-crevasse channels, relict bayous, and other buried deposits of permeable and coarse grained material. These conduits were formed during the present and previous stages of the delta cycle, which occurred in historical (102 y) and late Holocene(103 y) times, respectively. Flow is driven by the hydrological head difference between the river and the estuary, which is seasonally variable in magnitudeand can reach 5-8 m during peak river floods. This talk will present data from hydrological budgets that show a missing fraction in the Mississippi River water budget, and a missing source of fresh water to a large estuary. We will show that water levels in wells in New Orleans fluctuate with the stage of the Mississippi River. Data of Rn concentration indicate advective submarine groundwater flow, whereas Ba concentrations suggest geochemical leachates are entering the estuary. Furthermore, seismic data indicate the prevalence of paleochannels and other buried features that could carry flow. Given the importance of deltas to global geochemical budgets, we suggest that these results may be generalizable: submarine groundwater discharge in deltas may prove to be an important but understudied pathway by which dissolved materials are transported from the continents to the ocean.

  12. Conformation switching of AIM2 PYD domain revealed by NMR relaxation and MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haobo; Yang, Lijiang; Niu, Xiaogang

    2016-04-29

    Protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a double-strand DNA (ds DNA) sensor mainly located in cytoplasm of cell. It includes one N terminal PYD domain and one C terminal HIN domain. When the ds DNA such as DNA viruses and bacteria entered cytoplasm, the HIN domain of AIM2 will recognize and bind to DNA, and the PYD domain will bind to ASC protein which will result in the formation of AIM2 inflammasome. Three AIM2 PYD domain structures have been solved, but every structure yields a unique conformation around the α3 helix region. To understand why different AIM2 PYD structures show different conformations in this region, we use NMR relaxation techniques to study the backbone dynamics of mouse AIM2 PYD domain and perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on both mouse and human AIM2 PYD structures. Our results indicate that this region is highly flexible in both mouse and human AIM2 PYD domains, and the PYD domain may exist as a conformation ensemble in solution. Different environment makes the population vary among pre-existing conformational substrates of the ensemble, which may be the reason why different AIM2 PYD structures were observed under different conditions. Further docking analysis reveals that the conformation switching may be important for the autoinhibition of the AIM2 protein. PMID:27037024

  13. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  14. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  15. Over 400 previously undocumented Svalbard surge-type glaciers identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Wesley R.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Retelle, Michael; Schomacker, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Identifying glaciers that exhibit surge-type behavior is important when using evidence of ice front fluctuations as a proxy for reconstructing past climate oscillations. This study identifies previously undocumented surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, based on the presence of crevasse squeeze ridges in glacier forelands. Crevasse squeeze ridges are landforms suggested to be unique to surging glacier land systems. Estimates vary greatly as to the actual percentage of surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, and consequently their distribution pattern is poorly understood. A detailed survey of recent (2008-2012), high-resolution aerial imagery from TopoSvalbard, provided by the Norwegian Polar Institute, allowed for a survey of all the glacier forelands in Svalbard. Before our study, 277 individual glaciers in Svalbard have been documented to exhibit surge behavior. By using crevasse squeeze ridges as indicators of surge behavior, we have identified 431 additional glaciers that have surged. We suggest that this is a modest value as the unique surge landforms were not visible in approximately one-third of the forelands with documented surge histories. Limits to the crevasse squeeze ridge technique are presented and potential controlling factors for crevasse squeeze ridge formation/preservation are discussed.

  16. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT

  17. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS

  18. Gaussian benchmark for optical communication aiming towards ultimate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-05-01

    We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore, the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [F. E. Becerra et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.316] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.

  19. Paleographic Atlas of northern Eurasia: Aims and current progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1993-09-01

    A project aimed at paleographic reconstruction of northern Eurasia (the former USSR and adjacent territories) commenced in 1993 in Russia under the auspices of two nongovernmental scientific organizations: Scientific Council on Plate Tectonics and Institute of Tectonics of Lithospheric Plates. The project is sponsored by the State Committee on Geology and Exxon and Shell companies. Twenty-six data-base maps and corresponding paleogeographic maps on a set of new paleotectonic reconstructions are to be compiled within two years, covering a period from Devonian to present. The next two-year phase is expected to follow, with a compilation of similar maps for Early Paleozoic and late Riphean. the best experts on regional geology, paleoenvironment, paleomagnetics, and paleotectonic reconstructions participate in the program. A special group, Geocentre Company, is assigned to the computerization of maps. The 1993 compilation of 15 database maps is to be completed and the first reconstructions produced. The database maps (starting from Tithonian upward) contain information on lithology, facies and thickness of sedimentary formations, and magnetic and structural indicators of plate tectonic data; oil and gas deposits are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the paleogeographic evolution of sedimentary basins, potential reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Narrow time intervals between maps (about 10 m.y.) permit detailed reconstructions of the basins' evolution. Examples of database and paleogeographic maps are presented in the poster.

  20. First results from AIMS beta tool for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Silvio; Higashikawa, Iwao; Urbach, Jan-Peter; Schilz, Christof M.; Koehle, Roderick; Zibold, Axel M.

    2004-05-01

    In modern mask manufacturing, a successful defect mitigation strategy has been become crucial to achieve defect free masks for high-end lithography. The basic steps of such a strategy include inspection, repair, and subsequent post-repair qualification of repair sites. For the latter task, actinic aerial image measurements have been proven to be the technique of choice to assess the printability of a repaired site. In the last three years, International SEMATECH in cooperation with Infineon/AMTC-Dresden and SELETE, funded a joint development project at Carl Zeiss to develop an AIMS tool operating at the 157nm wavelength. The three beta tools were shipped in 2003 to the three beta customer sites. In this paper are presented the first results obtained with these beta tools, including measurements on binary as well as alternating phase shift masks. The technical properties of the tool were discussed with regards to the capability of the tool for defect qualification on photomasks. Additionally, preliminary results of the evaluation of alternating phase shift masks will be discussed, including measurements performed on dense lines-and-spaces structures with various pitch sizes.

  1. Concurrent visual feedback and spatial accuracy in continuous aiming movements.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, David E; Rothman, Kelly K

    2011-12-01

    The effect of concurrent visual feedback (CVF) on continuous aiming movements was investigated in the preferred hand of participants of college age (ns = 12 men, 8 women). Participants made continuous rapid reversal movements with a lightweight lever in the sagittal plane. Participants attempted to reach a short target (20 degrees) and a long target (60 degrees) in separate constant practice conditions, but alternated between the two targets in a variable practice condition. Four blocks of practice trials were provided in each condition, with 40 movements made in each. CVF of the position-time trace was provided for the first 20 movements of each block, but was removed for the remaining 20 movements in each block. Movements were more accurate and consistent during constant practice compared to variable practice where the short target was overshot and the long target was undershot. CVF reduced errors in all conditions, compared to movements without CVF, particularly for the short target during variable practice. The results suggest that the interference generated by alternating targets can be modulated by providing visual feedback, but once the visual feedback was removed, errors increased markedly. PMID:22403928

  2. Avoiding Obstructions in Aiming a High-Gain Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2006-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna Pointing and Obstruction Avoidance software performs computations for pointing a Mars Rover high-gain antenna for communication with Earth while (1) avoiding line-of-sight obstructions (the Martian terrain and other parts of the Rover) that would block communication and (2) taking account of limits in ranges of motion of antenna gimbals and of kinematic singularities in gimbal mechanisms. The software uses simplified geometric models of obstructions and of the trajectory of the Earth in the Martian sky(see figure). It treats all obstructions according to a generalized approach, computing and continually updating the time remaining before interception of each obstruction. In cases in which the gimbal-mechanism design allows two aiming solutions, the algorithm chooses the solution that provides the longest obstruction-free Earth-tracking time. If the communication session continues until an obstruction is encountered in the current pointing solution and the other solution is now unobstructed, then the algorithm automatically switches to the other position. This software also notifies communication- managing software to cease transmission during the switch to the unobstructed position, resuming it when the switch is complete.

  3. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  4. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  5. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  6. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  7. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  8. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  9. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  10. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Previously qualified FSTDs. 60.17 Section 60.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17 Previously qualified FSTDs. (a) Unless...

  11. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted... Filed With Changes § 154.302 Previously submitted material. (a) If all, or any portion, of the information called for by this part has already been submitted to the Commission within six months of...

  12. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a) The guidance in this...

  13. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance....

  14. 2 CFR 220.40 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 220.40 Section 220.40 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.40 Relationship to previous issuance. (a) The guidance in this...

  15. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a)...

  16. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of wage schedule in the wage area in which the employee is being employed, or the actual earned rate... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.405 Use of highest previous rate. (a)(1) Subject to...

  17. 77 FR 21144 - Extension of a Previously Approved Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Office of the Secretary Extension of a Previously Approved Collection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except on Federal holidays...: 4532, 4533, 4534, 4535. Type of Review: Extension of a Previously Approved Collection....

  18. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed meeting scheduled for...

  19. 12 CFR 1010.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Previously accepted state filings. 1010.552 Section 1010.552 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Certification of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1010.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials filed with a state and...

  20. 12 CFR 1010.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Previously accepted state filings. 1010.552 Section 1010.552 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Certification of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1010.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials filed with a state and...

  1. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  2. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  3. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  4. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  5. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  6. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  7. GIS and remote sensing techniques integration aimed for the evaluation of the Esino catchment impact on coastal water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunori, Carlo A.; Oliveri, Stefano; Luzi, Lucia; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1998-10-01

    The main aim of this work, carried out in the framework of the PRISMA2 national research program (Research and Experimentation Program for the Adriatic Sea) was the definition of an appropriate working methodology which allowed to estimate the impact of the Esino drainage-basin (central Italy), and of the anthropic activities lying on it, on the coastal water quality of the Adriatic sea. This aim was pursued by integrating techniques and instruments of analyses, such as GIS and remote sensing, which are often and often employed in natural resources managing and planning. They allowed to generate a database easily updating, relative to a very large area which is strongly differentiated in its natural and anthropic features. The database contains raw data, provided by local public organizations managing the territory, information derived from elaboration of the previous data and remote sensed frames (acquired by the hyperspectral sensor MIVIS) purposely acquired to the aim of the study. It was after all generated an 'open' system, continually updating with environmental information before long available; moreover, were explored the potentialities of the MIVIS sensor (102 band, from the visible to the thermic IR) in the study of marine coastal water quality.

  8. Precocious markers of cardiovascular risk and vascular damage in apparently healthy women with previous gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) indicates future risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Insulin resistance (IR) may precede T2DM in many years and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Aim This study aims to identify endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors in women with pGDM. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 45 non diabetic women, 20 pGDM and 25 controls, at least one year after delivery. Body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), blood pressure, serum lipids, liver enzymes, uric acid, nonesterified fatty acids, C-reactive protein and plasma glucose, insulin, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were measured. HOMA IR and β were calculated. Pre and post induced ischemia videocapillaroscopy was performed in hand nailfold to evaluate microvascular morphologic aspect and functional response. Results AC and fasting glucose were significantly higher in pGDM (p = 0.01 and p = 0.002 respectively). Women with pGDM and BMI < 25 kg/m2 had significantly higher levels of fasting insulin and HOMA IR than controls (p = 0.008 and 0.05 respectively). Abnormal morphologic findings were more frequent and papillae rectification were 3.3 times more prevalent in pGDM (p = 0.003). Other microvascular parameters did not differ between groups. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors and a microcirculation abnormality (papillae rectification) were significantly increased in young non-diabetic women with pGDM. PMID:24955136

  9. AIM thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2006-05-01

    AIM has developed a thermal weapon sight HuntIR based on a cooled MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module combining long range battlefield surveillance and target engagement purposes. Since December 2004 the device is in service for the Germany Future Infantryman (IdZ) basic system. To satisfy the demands of the follow-up program German Future Infantryman extended system (IdZ ES) additional components like a laser range finder, digital magnetic compass and a wireless data link will be included to provide e.g. an improved hit rate by accurate range data. To reduce power consumption and increase operation time of the actual device on the one hand and give the possibility to include new components and functions a new optimized command and control electronics and image processing unit was designed using latest digital signal processors resulting in lower power consumption and higher computing power. This allows also an implementation of additional image enhancement functions. The design concept of the upgraded HuntIR is introduced together which the features of the new electronics. Additionally some new implementations will be presented concerning the existing HuntIR device like fire control for the 40mm Grenade Machine Gun made by Heckler&Koch which where possible due to the reprogrammable architecture of the design. Also an uncooled IR Imaging Module designed for use in small UAVs and short range thermal weapon sights was successfully tested in the German Army small UAV ALADIN made by EMT. After the first flight trials the design was revised to incorporate lessons learned including e.g. an athermal lens design to avoid any need of focussing. The features of the revised design will be presented.

  10. Hypokalemia in diabetic ketoacidosis is less common than previously reported.

    PubMed

    Jang, Timothy B; Chauhan, Vijai; Morchi, Raveendra; Najand, Hares; Naunheim, Roseanne; Kaji, Amy H

    2015-03-01

    [K+] < 3.5 mmol/L is reported to occur in approximately 4 % of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA.) Therefore, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) recommend the assessment of [K+] before the initiation of insulin treatment to avoid the precipitation of morbid hypokalemia. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of hypokalemia in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with DKA. This was a multicenter retrospective, cross-sectional study at EDs with a combined annual adult census of 155,000. Adult patients diagnosed with DKA in the ED, or who were admitted from the ED and subsequently diagnosed with DKA as determined from the hospital electronic database between January 2008 and December 2008, were included for analysis if they had the following initial laboratory values: (1) serum glucose >13.9 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), (2) serum bicarbonate <18 mmol/L (18 mEq/L) or anion gap >15, and (3) evidence of ketonaemia or ketonuria. 537 patients were diagnosed with DKA in the ED at the participating institutions during the reference period. The median [K+] was 4.9 mmol/L (IQR 4.3, 5.5). There were a total of seven patients with an initial 3.3 < [K+] < 3.5 mmol/L, but none with a [K+] < 3.3 mmol/L. Thus, no patients in our study sample required potassium supplementation before the initiation of insulin treatment. The incidence of hypokalemia in our sample of patients with DKA was much less than previously reported, with no cases requiring potassium supplementation before insulin administration. PMID:25403843

  11. Does previous stone treatment in children generate a disadvantage or just the opposite?

    PubMed

    Telli, Onur; Haciyev, Perviz; Karimov, Seymur; Sarici, Hasmet; Karakan, Tolga; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Demirbas, Arif; Resorlu, Berkan; Soygur, Tarkan; Burgu, Berk

    2015-04-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the effects of previous open renal surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the results and complications of subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in pediatric patients. We reviewed the files of all 105 patients with 116 renal units (RU) undergoing PCNL at two main institutions between December 2000 and February 2014. The 116 RUs were divided into four groups: primary PCNL patients with 44 RU (37.9%) were categorized as group 1, 29 RU (25%) with a history of failed ESWL on the same side were categorized as group 2, 23 RU (19.8%) with previous PCNL surgery were categorized as group 3 and 20 RU (17.2%) with open renal surgery were categorized as group 4. Patient characteristics, mean operative time, mean fluoroscopy time, time to access the collecting system, hemoglobin change, number of more than 1 access, stone-free rates, postoperative hospitalization time and complications in four groups were compared. There were no differences between the groups in age, sex, mean stone size and stone laterality. Mean operative time, mean fluoroscopy time, time to access the collecting system, hemoglobin change, complication rates, number of more than one access hospitalization times were similar in the each group (p > 0.05 for each parameter). The stone-free rates after PCNL were 81.8% in group 1, 79.3% in group 2, 78.3% in group 3 and 80 % in group 4 (p = 0.67). Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is effective and safe in children who have previously had open nephrolithotomy, history of ESWL or PCNL without no more complications than are seen with primary PCNL of kidneys and with similar success rate. PMID:25392002

  12. Angiographic Findings and Revascularization Success in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Previous Coronary Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Blachutzik, Florian; Achenbach, Stephan; Troebs, Monique; Roether, Jens; Nef, Holger; Hamm, Christian; Schlundt, Christian

    2016-08-15

    Current guidelines recommend invasive coronary angiography and interventional revascularization in ST-elevation and Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI and NSTEMI). The aim of this study was to analyze culprit lesions and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) success in patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We analyzed the data of 121 consecutive patients in whom coronary angiography was performed in the setting of STEMI or NSTEMI and who had previous CABG. Coronary angiograms were reviewed, and clinical data were evaluated. The culprit vessel was identified by means of electrocardiographic findings, echocardiography, and coronary angiography. A bypass graft was the culprit vessel in 86% of patients with STEMI and 68% of patients with NSTEMI. Venous grafts were culprit vessels significantly more frequently than arterial grafts (81 of 260 venous grafts vs 4 of 65 arterial grafts, p <0.001). Attempted acute PCI was successful in 97% of native arteries (31 of 32 patients) but only in 81% of bypass grafts (68 of 84 patients, p = 0.031). Overall in-hospital mortality was 13% (STEMI: 25%, NSTEMI: 10%, p <0.001) and was significantly higher after failed acute PCI (6 of 11 patients; 55%) compared with successful acute PCI (7 of 110 patients; 6%; p = 0.006). In conclusion, the culprit lesion in patients with previous CABG who present with STEMI or NSTEMI is more often located in bypass grafts than in native arteries. Successful PCI is more likely in native arteries compared with bypass grafts. PMID:27328951

  13. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  14. Evidence of previous avian influenza infection among US turkey workers.

    PubMed

    Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C

    2010-06-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492

  15. Design of orienting and aiming instrument based on fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Limin; Sun, Jiyu

    2007-12-01

    In order to improve the ground viability of missile weapon system, a quick orienting and aiming instrument is cried for the missile launching in modern war. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) based on Sagnac effect is a new type of all solid state rotation rate sensor that detects angular changes or angular rates relative to inertial space, which has many fine characteristics compared with traditional mechanical electronic gyro, such as low cost, light weight, long life, high reliability, wide dynamic range, etc. For the need of missile photoelectric aiming facility, It is necessary to design and manufacture a set of orienting and aiming instrument based on single axis FOG, to solve the close quarters aiming of missile launching, to measure the azimuth reference. Based on practical project, the principle of FOG orienting system and laser collimation theodolite aiming system is discussed and studied in this paper. Orienting and aiming system are constructed in the same basement. The influence of platform tilt on the precision of orientation is analyzed. An accelerator is used to compensate deviation caused by base tilt. The aiming precision affected by eccentricity of the encoders for laser collimation theodolite and the FOG orientation system are analyzed. The test results show that the aiming accuracy is 6' in three minutes. It is suitable for missile aiming in short range.

  16. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  17. Interaction of AIM with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4.

    PubMed

    You, Qiang; Wu, Yan; Yao, Nannan; Shen, Guannan; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Liangguo; Li, Guiying; Ju, Cynthia

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM/cluster of differentiation 5 antigen-like/soluble protein α) has been shown to inhibit cellular apoptosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Using yeast two‑hybrid screening, the present study uncovered that AIM binds to insulin‑like growth factor binding protein‑4 (IGFBP‑4). AIM interaction with IGFBP‑4, as well as IGFBP‑2 and ‑3, but not with IGFBP‑1, ‑5 and ‑6, was further confirmed by co‑immunoprecipitation (co‑IP) using 293 cells. The binding activity and affinity between AIM and IGFBP‑4 in vitro were analyzed by co‑IP and biolayer interferometry. Serum depletion‑induced cellular apoptosis was attenuated by insulin‑like growth factor‑I (IGF‑I), and this effect was abrogated by IGFBP‑4. Of note, in the presence of AIM, the inhibitory effect of IGFBP‑4 on the anti‑apoptosis function of IGF‑I was attenuated, possibly through binding of AIM with IGFBP‑4. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first evidence that AIM binds to IGFBP‑2, ‑3 and ‑4. The data suggest that this interaction may contribute to the mechanism of AIM-mediated anti-apoptosis function. PMID:26135353

  18. Political Education for Teenagers: Aims, Content and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeveld, Willem

    The problems, practices, objectives, and desirability of political education in the secondary school social studies curriculum is evaluated. The author suggests that political education should be a compulsory subject in junior and senior high schools. The document is presented in eight chapters. Chapter I explores the relationship between…

  19. The Scope and Aims of the Information Sciences and Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Robert A.

    This paper studies the composition and scope of the information sciences. These arise, or will arise, from the dependence of the modern world upon records, and therefore upon means to facilitate discourse. Such means range from the physical to the conceptual, but all entail aspects of language, therefore they must all involve social activities,…

  20. Aiming High: Setting Performance Standards for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary; Garcia, Alicia N.

    2015-01-01

    Content standards, not performance standards, have been almost the sole focus of state policies and recent conversations about academic standards. Without rigorous content and performance standards, we cannot adequately prepare students for the global marketplace. A recent AIR study shows that state performance standards are consistently low and…

  1. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  2. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  3. Human scavenger protein AIM increases foam cell formation and CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake.

    PubMed

    Amézaga, Núria; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Julve, Josep; Aran, Gemma; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Bastos-Amador, Patricia; Armengol, Carolina; Vilella, Ramon; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Borràs, Francesc E; Valledor, Annabel F; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa

    2014-03-01

    AIM is expressed by macrophages in response to agonists of the nuclear receptors LXR/RXR. In mice, it acts as an atherogenic factor by protecting macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids. In humans, it is detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but no role related to atherosclerosis has been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether the role of hAIM extends beyond inhibiting oxidized lipid-induced apoptosis. To accomplish this goal, functional analysis with human monocytic THP1 cells and macrophages differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes were performed. It was found that hAIM reduced oxLDL-induced macrophage apoptosis and increased macrophage adhesion to endothelial ICAM-1 by enhancing LFA-1 expression. Furthermore, hAIM increased foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O and Nile Red staining, as well as quantification of cholesterol content. This was not a result of decreased reverse cholesterol transport, as hAIM did not affect the efflux significantly from [(3)H] Cholesterol-laden macrophages driven by plasma, apoA-I, or HDL2 acceptors. Rather, flow cytometry studies indicated that hAIM increased macrophage endocytosis of fluorescent oxLDL, which correlated with an increase in the expression of the oxLDLR CD36. Moreover, hAIM bound to oxLDL in ELISA and enhanced the capacity of HEK-293 cells expressing CD36 to endocytose oxLDL, as studied using immunofluorescence microscopy, suggesting that hAIM serves to facilitate CD36-mediated uptake of oxLDL. Our data represent the first evidence that hAIM is involved in macrophage survival, adhesion, and foam cell formation and suggest a significant contribution to atherosclerosis-related mechanisms in the macrophage. PMID:24295828

  4. A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking northwest, provides a closer image of the brick penthouse and other devices - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  5. Baseball field looking North from same camera station as previous ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Baseball field looking North from same camera station as previous view - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  6. 5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  8. Bridging the Digital Divide, Aiming to Become Lifelong Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachelhoffer, Annelise; Khine, Myint Swe

    Studies in the past documented that proper use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can positively impact learning. It has been shown that the use of ICT can help students develop inquiry and thinking skills, increase learning opportunities, enhance learning activities, and improve learning outcomes for students. While there are bright prospects, barriers still exist in certain areas, particularly the readiness of the teachers who will adopt the technology, administrative support and technology infrastructure in schools. This study reports the patterns of computer use and computer self-efficacy among students in a postgraduate degree in education program in the UAE. The survey from 91 students were analysed and found that most students have positive attitudes and beliefs in ICT, but lacking behind the use of such technologies. The authors suggest that it is necessary to create opportunities for them to use ICT in the classroom and further develop knowledge and skills in Web 2.0 technologies.

  9. Status of research aimed at predicting structural integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Considerable research has been performed throughout the world on measuring the fracture toughness of metals. The existing capability fills the need encountered when selecting materials, thermal-mechanical treatments, welding procedures, etc., but cannot predict the fracture process of structural components containing cracks. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been collaborating for a number of years on developing capabilities for using fracture toughness results to predict structural integrity. Because of the high cost of fabricating and testing structural components, these studies have been limited to predicting the fracture process in specimens containing surface cracks. This paper summarizes the present status of the experimental studies of using fracture toughness data to predict crack growth initiation in specimens (structural components) containing surface cracks. These results are limited to homogeneous base materials.

  10. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    PubMed

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) were chosen as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P < 0.001]. Risk of time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players with low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) in Activities of Daily Living (RR: 5.0), Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, self-reported previous knee injury and low scores in three KOOS subscales significantly increase the risk of future time-loss knee injury in adolescent female football. PMID:26179111

  11. Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Previously Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Losoi, Heidi; Silverberg, Noah D; Wäljas, Minna; Turunen, Senni; Rosti-Otajärvi, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Luoto, Teemu M; Julkunen, Juhani; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-04-15

    This prospective longitudinal study reports recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) across multiple domains in a carefully selected consecutive sample of 74 previously healthy adults. The patients with MTBI and 40 orthopedic controls (i.e., ankle injuries) completed assessments at 1, 6, and 12 months after injury. Outcome measures included cognition, post-concussion symptoms, depression, traumatic stress, quality of life, satisfaction with life, resilience, and return to work. Patients with MTBI reported more post-concussion symptoms and fatigue than the controls at the beginning of recovery, but by 6 months after injury, did not differ as a group from nonhead injury trauma controls on cognition, fatigue, or mental health, and by 12 months, their level of post-concussion symptoms and quality of life was similar to that of controls. Almost all (96%) patients with MTBI returned to work/normal activities (RTW) within the follow-up of 1 year. A subgroup of those with MTBIs and controls reported mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 1 year. A large percentage of the subgroup who had persistent symptoms had a modifiable psychological risk factor at 1 month (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, and/or low resilience), and at 6 months, they had greater post-concussion symptoms, fatigue, insomnia, traumatic stress, and depression, and worse quality of life. All of the control subjects who had mild post-concussion-like symptoms at 12 months also had a mental health problem (i.e., depression, traumatic stress, or both). This illustrates the importance of providing evidence-supported treatment and rehabilitation services early in the recovery period. PMID:26437675

  12. Evidence for a previously unrecognized species of owlet-nightjar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the systematic relationships of the three large owlet-nightjars (Aegothelidae) to determine the taxonomic status of a fawn-colored lowland form currently classified as Aegotheles insignis tatei. I examined most of the existing specimens of A. i. insignis (n = 158) and A. crinifrons (n = 23) and all known specimens of A. i. tatei (n = 4). I also examined specimens of A. albertisi (n = 70), A. archboldi (n = 25), A. bennettii (n = 55), A. cristatus (n = 50), A. savesi (n = 1), and A. wallacii (n = 21). Aegotheles i. tatei was distinguishable from A. i. insignis and A. crinifrons by its small size and in seven plumage characters. Aegotheles i. tatei was further distinguishable from one or the other of these taxa by four additional characters. Unique among owlet-nightjars, A. i. tatei has the shortest tarsi, does not have recurved filamentous tips on its facial feathers, and has stiffer feathers on the auricular area and throat. My search of museums revealed two new specimens of A. i. tatei, expanding the known geographic range of this taxon 1,000 km eastward along the southern coast of Papua New Guinea from the upper Fly River to Nunumai, near the Ulamanu River. Unlike the montane A. i. insignis, A. i. tatei inhabits lowland forests where rivers emerge from foothills of the main cordillera. I propose that tatei be elevated to species status and that the name Starry Owlet-Nightjar be adopted based on the bird's markings. Aegotheles crinifrons, A. insignis, and A. tatei pass through a previously unrecognized but distinctive rufous juvenal plumage. These are the only owlet-nightjars known to exhibit this plumage, which calls for reexamination of generic limits within the Aegothelidae.

  13. Association between Y haplogroups and autosomal AIMs reveals intra-population substructure in Bolivian populations.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Carlos; Gomes, Verónica; Romanini, Carola; Oliveira, Andréa M; Rocabado, Omar; Aquino, Juliana; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

    2015-07-01

    For the correct evaluation of the weight of genetic evidence in a forensic context, databases must reflect the structure of the population, with all possible groups being represented. Countries with a recent history of admixture between strongly differentiated populations are usually highly heterogeneous and sub-structured. Bolivia is one of these countries, with a high diversity of ethnic groups and different levels of admixture (among Native Americans, Europeans and Africans) across the territory. For a better characterization of the male lineages in Bolivia, 17 Y-STR and 42 Y-SNP loci were genotyped in samples from La Paz and Chuquisaca. Only European and Native American Y-haplogroups were detected, and no sub-Saharan African chromosomes were found. Significant differences were observed between the two samples, with a higher frequency of European lineages in Chuquisaca than in La Paz. A sample belonging to haplogroup Q1a3a1a1-M19 was detected in La Paz, in a haplotype background different from those previously found in Argentina. This result supports an old M19 North-south dispersion in South America, possibly via two routes. When comparing the ancestry of each individual assessed through his Y chromosome with the one estimated using autosomal AIMs, (a) increased European ancestry in individuals with European Y chromosomes and (b) higher Native American ancestry in the carriers of Native American Y-haplogroups were observed, revealing an association between autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers. The results of this study demonstrate that a sub-structure does exist in Bolivia at both inter- and intrapopulation levels, a fact which must be taken into account in the evaluation of forensic genetic evidence. PMID:24878616

  14. Wireless data and power transmission aiming intracranial epilepsy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Gurkan; Atasoy, Oguz; Dehollain, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a wireless power and data transmission system to overcome the problems in intracranial epilepsy monitoring associated with transcutaneous wires. Firstly, a wireless power transfer link based on inductive coupling is implemented and a power management unit for the implant is designed. 4-coil resonant inductive link scheme is exploited since it exhibits a high efficiency and optimal load flexibility. Power management unit consists of an active rectifier, a low drop-out voltage regulator which is biased internally with a supply independent current source; all implemented as integrated circuit. Wireless power link provides 10 mW under 1.8 V dc to the load, more specifically the electrodes and read-out electronics. Wireless data communication is realized using the same frequency, 8.4 MHz, as the power link. Load shift keying is performed for uplink (from implant to external) communication by switching an integrated modulator which, in fact, detunes the resonance. Modulated signal is recovered on the external device by means of an integrated self-referenced ASK demodulator. Data rate is adapted for a fast ripple ( < 500 Hz) detection system which requires 300 kbps communication. The measurements show that the system works at 36% power transfer efficiency without communication link and the efficiency drops to 33% with 300 kbps uplink data transfer. Finally, in-vitro tests that emulate the real operation scenario are performed thanks to the two-polymer packaging and almost the same power transfer efficiency is achieved under same operation conditions.

  15. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  16. CASP9 results compared to those of previous CASP experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Moult, John

    2014-01-01

    The quality of structure models submitted to CASP9 is analyzed in the context of previous CASPs. Comparison methods are similar to those used in previous papers in this series, with the addition of new methods for looking at model quality in regions not covered by a single best structural template, alignment accuracy, and progress for template free models. Progress in this CASP was again modest, and statistically hard to validate. Nevertheless, there are several positive trends. There is an indication of improvement in overall model quality for the mid-range of template based modeling difficulty, methods for identifying the best model from a set generated have improved, and there are strong indications of progress in the quality of template free models of short proteins. In addition, the new examination of model quality in regions of model not covered by the best available template reveals better performance than had previously been apparent. PMID:21997643

  17. Asteroid Impact Mission (aim) & Deflection Assessment: AN Opportunity to Understand Impact Dynamics and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Fontaine, M.; Corral Van Damme, C.

    2012-09-01

    ESA's Future Preparation and Strategic Studies Office has carried out the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) study with the objective of defining an affordable and fully independent mission element that ESA could contribute to an Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment campaign (AIDA), a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA and DLR. The mission design foresees two independent spacecraft, one impactor (DART) and one rendezvous probe (AIM). The target of this mission is the binary asteroid system (65803) Didymos (1996 GT): one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos binary system while AIM would observe and measure any the change in the relative orbit. For this joint project, the timing of the experiment is set (maximum proximity of the target to Earth allowing for ground-based characterisation of the experiment) but the spacecraft are still able to pursue their missions fully independently. This paper describes in particular the AIM rendezvous mission concept.

  18. Expression of AIM2 is high and correlated with inflammation in hepatitis B virus associated glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invasive microbial infection, and AIM2 plays an important role in this process by sensing double-stranded DNA viruses. However, the role of AIM2 in regulating the immune response to viruses in vivo, especially in sensing hepatitis B virus (HBV), has not been examined. We hypothesized that the expression of AIM2 increases corresponding to HBV-mediated inflammation in patients with hepatitis B virus associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN), a condition which activates inflammatory mechanisms and causes renal damage. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of AIM2 in HBV-GN patients in relation to the inflammatory response to HBV infection. Methods A total of 79 patients diagnosed with chronic nephritis (CN) were enrolled in this study, including 54 HBV-GN patients as the experimental group and 24 chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) patients as the negative control group. Six patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were also enrolled as positive controls. Each CN patient received renal biopsy, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of AIM2 and inflammatory factors caspase-1 and IL-1β in the biopsy specimens. CHB patients received liver puncture biopsy, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of AIM2 in these specimens. Expression of AIM 2 among different groups and in relation to inflammatory factors caspase-1 and IL-1β was analyzed. Results The expression of AIM2 in HBV-GN patients (81.4%) was significantly higher than in CGN patients (4.0%). Among the HBV-GN patients, expression of AIM2 was significantly higher in the high HBV replication group than in the low HBV replication group. AIM2 expression was not correlated with age, gender, HBeAg status in serum, HBV-antigen type deposited in renal tissue or pathological type of HBV-GN. However, AIM2 levels were positively correlated with the expression of caspase-1 and IL-1β in HBV-GN patients

  19. Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nursing work environments (NWEs) in Canada and other Western countries have increasingly received attention following years of restructuring and reported high workloads, high absenteeism, and shortages of nursing staff. Despite numerous efforts to improve NWEs, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve NWEs. The aim of this study was to review systematically the scientific literature on implemented interventions aimed at improving the NWE and their effectiveness. Methods An online search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ABI, Academic Search Complete, HEALTHstar, ERIC, Psychinfo, and Embase, and a manual search of Emerald and Longwoods was conducted. (Quasi-) experimental studies with pre/post measures of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, study populations of nurses, and quantitative outcome measures of the nursing work environment were required for inclusion. Each study was assessed for methodological strength using a quality assessment and validity tool for intervention studies. A taxonomy of NWE characteristics was developed that would allow us to identify on which part of the NWE an intervention targeted for improvement, after which the effects of the interventions were examined. Results Over 9,000 titles and abstracts were screened. Eleven controlled intervention studies met the inclusion criteria, of which eight used a quasi-experimental design and three an experimental design. In total, nine different interventions were reported in the included studies. The most effective interventions at improving the NWE were: primary nursing (two studies), the educational toolbox (one study), the individualized care and clinical supervision (one study), and the violence prevention intervention (one study). Conclusions Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, and published studies on this topic show weaknesses in their design. To advance the field, we recommend that

  20. 27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.225 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved... voluntarily surrendered. Any person holding such a formula is not required to submit a new formula. If...

  1. 27 CFR 26.55 - Previously approved formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... formulas. 26.55 Section 26.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.55 Previously approved formulas. Any formula approved on Form... surrendered. Any person holding such a formula is not required to submit a new formula. If an approved...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use...

  3. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  4. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS...

  5. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  6. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  7. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  8. More distant view than previous photograph of front and side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    More distant view than previous photograph of front and side (west) of building 253, along with fronts of buildings 254, 255, 256, and 257. Looking northeast from corner of W.J. Avenue and N. 10th Street. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 253, North side of East O'Neil Avenue between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Previously qualified FSTDs. 60.17 Section 60.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17...

  10. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Previously qualified FSTDs. 60.17 Section 60.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17...

  11. 40 CFR 141.707 - Grandfathering previously collected data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determines that a previously collected data set submitted for grandfathering was generated during source... additional source water monitoring data, as determined by the State, to ensure that the data set used under... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You...

  12. 40 CFR 141.707 - Grandfathering previously collected data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determines that a previously collected data set submitted for grandfathering was generated during source... additional source water monitoring data, as determined by the State, to ensure that the data set used under... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You...

  13. 40 CFR 141.707 - Grandfathering previously collected data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that a previously collected data set submitted for grandfathering was generated during source... additional source water monitoring data, as determined by the State, to ensure that the data set used under... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You...

  14. 40 CFR 141.707 - Grandfathering previously collected data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determines that a previously collected data set submitted for grandfathering was generated during source... additional source water monitoring data, as determined by the State, to ensure that the data set used under... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You...

  15. 40 CFR 141.707 - Grandfathering previously collected data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determines that a previously collected data set submitted for grandfathering was generated during source... additional source water monitoring data, as determined by the State, to ensure that the data set used under... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You...

  16. 37. Closeup of stairs in previous photo, leading up to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Close-up of stairs in previous photo, leading up to El Macho and down to Plaza de Armas, from Santa Barbara Bastion, viewed from northwest - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro, Northwest end of San Juan, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  17. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship...

  18. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....1005 and 236.1007 and otherwise conform to this subpart. (d) Previous approval or recognition of a... contemplated by the approval or recognition. (e) To the extent that the PTC system proposed for implementation... or recognition. (f) As used in this section— (1) Approved refers to approval of a Product Safety...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1005 and 236.1007 and otherwise conform to this subpart. (d) Previous approval or recognition of a... contemplated by the approval or recognition. (e) To the extent that the PTC system proposed for implementation... or recognition. (f) As used in this section— (1) Approved refers to approval of a Product Safety...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  3. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Previously qualified FSTDs. 60.17 Section 60.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17...

  4. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Previously qualified FSTDs. 60.17 Section 60.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17...

  5. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Rhabdomyosarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-13

    Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Alveolar Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Embryonal Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Embryonal-botryoid Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  6. 31 CFR 202.5 - Previously designated depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Previously designated depositaries. 202.5 Section 202.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE DEPOSITARIES AND FINANCIAL...

  7. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  8. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... circulars or other documents, much of the guidance in this subtitle existed prior to the establishment of title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I, part... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A §...

  9. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... circulars or other documents, much of the guidance in this subtitle existed prior to the establishment of title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I, part... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Subtitle A §...

  10. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... circulars or other documents, much of the guidance in this subtitle existed prior to the establishment of title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I, part... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Subtitle A §...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  12. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Previous license and permit obligations. 970.403 Section 970.403 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously accepted state filings. 1710.552 Section 1710.552 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  14. 31 CFR 202.5 - Previously designated depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Previously designated depositaries. 202.5 Section 202.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DEPOSITARIES AND FINANCIAL...

  15. Effect of Previous Fall Precipitation on Mixed-Grass Prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precipitation accounts for much of the year-to-year variation in forage production. Prediction of forage growth early in the season from readily available information about precipitation would help with choosing stocking rates when drought reduces forage growth. Previously, models were identified t...

  16. Previous convictions or accidents and the risk of subsequent accidents of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Geneviève; Joly, Pierre; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2002-03-01

    The over-involvement of elderly drivers in collisions has a potentially adverse effect on highway safety. The question for most experts in traffic research is whether we can predict the individual risk of accidents and which variables are the best predictors, especially for this population. For a better understanding of the elderly drivers' problems, this study aimed to describe the most common types of accidents in the elderly population of drivers living in Quebec (> or = 65 years of age). The second objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between previous accidents or convictions and the risk of subsequent accidents. The results show that: (1) elderly drivers are characterised by error accidents involving more than one car, especially at intersections, (2) prior accidents are a better predictor for accident risk than prior convictions and (3) these trends steadily increase with each age group (drivers 65 years old to 80 years or more). The results are discussed in relation to the literature on risk behaviour of the elderly drivers. PMID:11829296

  17. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. PMID:24863989

  18. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  19. Ibrutinib versus Ofatumumab in Previously Treated Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, J.C.; Brown, J.R.; O’Brien, S.; Barrientos, J.C.; Kay, N.E.; Reddy, N.M.; Coutre, S.; Tam, C.S.; Mulligan, S.P.; Jaeger, U.; Devereux, S.; Barr, P.M.; Furman, R.R.; Kipps, T.J.; Cymbalista, F.; Pocock, C.; Thornton, P.; Caligaris-Cappio, F.; Robak, T.; Delgado, J.; Schuster, S.J.; Montillo, M.; Schuh, A.; de Vos, S.; Gill, D.; Bloor, A.; Dearden, C.; Moreno, C.; Jones, J.J.; Chu, A.D.; Fardis, M.; McGreivy, J.; Clow, F.; James, D.F.; Hillmen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), a short duration of response to therapy or adverse cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with a poor outcome. We evaluated the efficacy of ibrutinib, a covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, in patients at risk for a poor outcome. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 391 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or SLL to receive daily ibrutinib or the anti-CD20 antibody ofatumumab. The primary end point was the duration of progression-free survival, with the duration of overall survival and the overall response rate as secondary end points. Results At a median follow-up of 9.4 months, ibrutinib significantly improved progression-free survival; the median duration was not reached in the ibrutinib group (with a rate of progression-free survival of 88% at 6 months), as compared with a median of 8.1 months in the ofatumumab group (hazard ratio for progression or death in the ibrutinib group, 0.22; P<0.001). Ibrutinib also significantly improved overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 0.43; P = 0.005). At 12 months, the overall survival rate was 90% in the ibrutinib group and 81% in the ofatumumab group. The overall response rate was significantly higher in the ibrutinib group than in the ofatumumab group (42.6% vs. 4.1%, P<0.001). An additional 20% of ibrutinib-treated patients had a partial response with lymphocytosis. Similar effects were observed regardless of whether patients had a chromosome 17p13.1 deletion or resistance to purine analogues. The most frequent nonhematologic adverse events were diarrhea, fatigue, pyrexia, and nausea in the ibrutinib group and fatigue, infusion-related reactions, and cough in the ofatumumab group. Conclusions Ibrutinib, as compared with ofatumumab, significantly improved progression-free survival, overall survival, and response rate among patients with previously treated CLL or SLL

  20. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  1. Observation of energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sawad, A.; Saloniemi, O.; Laitinen, T. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Valtonen, E.

    2009-12-01

    We report new evidence on energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave. We have chosen four Multi Eruption Solar Energetic Particle (MESEP) events from the list presented by Al-Sawad 2007, and observed by Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Two events were studied in details, the event of 2001 October 19-21, which was in association with two X1.6/2B solar flares and halo CMEs separated by ~15 hours and the event of 2000 April 04, which was associated with two CMEs separated by ~8 hours. The other two new MESEP events were on 2000 February 17-19 and 2005 August 22-25. The first event was associated with two CMEs. The first halo CME was associated with M 1.3 solar flare at S29E07 Hα location from the NOAA AR 8827, and with metric and later D-H type II radio bursts, indicating a formation of shock wave, which was later passed near the Earth's orbit and registered, by SOHO, ACE and Wind spacecrafts. The second CME erupted from the south-west after ~13 hours. The second event was associated with two halo CMEs separated by ~16 and erupted from same NOAA AR 10798 in association with M class solar flares. The first halo was in association with metric type II but both were in association with D-H type II. In both events the first CME was decelerating and both events can be classified as gradual SEP events. Our analysis for proton flux anisotropy data, He/P ratio and possible velocity dispersion in the second peak of the intensity-time profile are related to the second CME in both events. This suggests that the energetic protons > 10 MeV penetrate the first shock waves associated with first CMEs in order to reach 1 AU and thus, these observations indicate that capability of interplanetary shock to accelerate high-energy protons gradually declines as shock travels from near the Sun to beyond 1~AU.

  2. CoAIMs: A Cost-Effective Panel of Ancestry Informative Markers for Determining Continental Origins

    PubMed Central

    Londin, Eric R.; Keller, Margaret A.; Maista, Cathleen; Smith, Gretchen; Mamounas, Laura A.; Zhang, Ran; Madore, Steven J.; Gwinn, Katrina; Corriveau, Roderick A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic ancestry is known to impact outcomes of genotype-phenotype studies that are designed to identify risk for common diseases in human populations. Failure to control for population stratification due to genetic ancestry can significantly confound results of disease association studies. Moreover, ancestry is a critical factor in assessing lifetime risk of disease, and can play an important role in optimizing treatment. As modern medicine moves towards using personal genetic information for clinical applications, it is important to determine genetic ancestry in an accurate, cost-effective and efficient manner. Self-identified race is a common method used to track and control for population stratification; however, social constructs of race are not necessarily informative for genetic applications. The use of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) is a more accurate method for determining genetic ancestry for the purposes of population stratification. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we introduce a novel panel of 36 microsatellite (MSAT) AIMs that determines continental admixture proportions. This panel, which we have named Continental Ancestry Informative Markers or CoAIMs, consists of MSAT AIMs that were chosen based upon their measure of genetic variance (Fst), allele frequencies and their suitability for efficient genotyping. Genotype analysis using CoAIMs along with a Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) is able to discern continental origins including Europe/Middle East (Caucasians), East Asia, Africa, Native America, and Oceania. In addition to determining continental ancestry for individuals without significant admixture, we applied CoAIMs to ascertain admixture proportions of individuals of self declared race. Conclusion/Significance CoAIMs can be used to efficiently and effectively determine continental admixture proportions in a sample set. The CoAIMs panel is a valuable resource for genetic researchers performing case-control genetic

  3. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  4. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

  5. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  6. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  7. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2-/- mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  8. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  9. Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task.

    PubMed

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Daanen, Hein A M; Gerritsma, Rens M; Hofland, Rianne M; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2012-01-01

    State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and high-anxiety condition. In both conditions, running was combined with dart throwing in the last minutes. Results showed that attention shifted away from task execution with elevated levels of anxiety. Furthermore, gait patterns were more conservative and oxygen uptake was higher with anxiety. In addition, performance and efficiency on the dart throwing task also decreased with anxiety. These findings are in line with attentional control theory and provide an indication that state anxiety not only affects aiming tasks but also tasks that rely heavily on the aerobic system. Moreover, findings indicate that when combined, running, aiming, and anxiety all compete for attention leading to suboptimal attentional control and possibly a decrease in performance. PMID:22106940

  10. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  11. The central Onodi cell: A previously unreported anatomic variation

    PubMed Central

    Cherla, Deepa V.; Tomovic, Senja; Liu, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative recognition of the Onodi cell is necessary to avoid injury to closely associated structures, including the internal carotid artery and the optic nerve. This article describes the central Onodi cell, a variation in which a posterior ethmoid cell lies superior to the sphenoid sinus in a midline position with at least one optic canal bulge. To our knowledge, this anatomic variation has not been previously reported in the literature. Radiographic and endoscopic imaging of this unique variation is provided. PMID:23772328

  12. Pleuritis due to Brevundimonas diminuta in a previously healthy man.

    PubMed

    Lu, Binghuai; Shi, Yanli; Zhu, Fengxia; Xu, Xiaolin

    2013-03-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta is rarely associated with invasive infections. We report the case of a previously healthy young man with pleural effusion, in which B. diminuta was recovered but incorrectly identified as Kingella kingae when it was freshly isolated. Consequently, the misidentification resulted in initial treatment failure. The correct identification was achieved through further incubation, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and MS. PMID:23180480

  13. Ecthyma gangrenosum and neutropenia in a previously healthy child.

    PubMed

    Pacha, Omar; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2013-01-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum is the cutaneous manifestation of pseudomonas infection in patients with sepsis. A previously healthy 7-month-old girl who developed ecthyma gangrenosum without apparent inciting factors became neutropenic secondary to autoimmune neutropenia 2 months after initial presentation. She was treated with appropriate surgical and medical intervention and was discharged in stable condition only to die suddenly 2 days after discharge. PMID:22471737

  14. Effects of previous muscle contractions on cyclic movement dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jarić, S; Gavrilović, P; Ivancević, V

    1985-01-01

    In addition to muscle elastic energy, enhancement of movement performance in a stretch-shortening cycle could also be due to an increase in initial muscle force during the stretching phase. This hypothesis was tested by examining 9 male physical education students during maximum voluntary knee extensions performed with and without previous knee flexion. In both conditions movements were performed with various external loads. In addition, the force-velocity curve (FVC) parameters of the knee extensor muscles were also determined. As simple model of a muscle impulse was constructed in order to select independent biomechanical variables relevant to movement dynamics. The experimental results demonstrated that previous knee flexion enhanced the maximum angular velocity of knee extension. This effect decreased with increasing movement duration (i.e. increased external load), as well as giving positive correlation coefficients between the magnitude of this effect and the rate of development of knee extensor tension. These results are discussed in relation to a model of the dynamics. It is shown that previous muscle contractions performed during braking in the negative movement phase might play an important role in enhancing performance in cyclic movements. This role would be especially important in transient contractions of primarily slow twitch fiber muscles. PMID:4043051

  15. Previously Unrecognized Large Lunar Impact Basins Revealed by Topographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of a large population of apparently buried impact craters on Mars, revealed as Quasi- Circular Depressions (QCDs) in Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [1,2,3] and as Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) [4] in crustal thickness model data [5] leads to the obvious question: are there unrecognized impact features on the Moon and other bodies in the solar system? Early analysis of Clementine topography revealed several large impact basins not previously known [6,7], so the answer certainly is "Yes." How large a population of previously undetected impact basins, their size frequency distribution, and how much these added craters and basins will change ideas about the early cratering history and Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon remains to be determined. Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data [8] will be able to address these issues. As a prelude, we searched the state-of-the-art global topographic grid for the Moon, the Unified Lunar Control Net (ULCN) [9] for evidence of large impact features not previously recognized by photogeologic mapping, as summarized by Wilhelms [lo].

  16. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  17. A combined experimental and theoretical (DFT and AIM) studies on synthesis, molecular structure, spectroscopic properties and multiple interactions analysis in a novel ethyl-4-[2-(thiocarbamoyl)hydrazinylidene]-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and its dimer.

    PubMed

    Singh, R N; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, R K; Rawat, Poonam

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, ethyl-4-[2-(thiocarbamoyl)hydrazinylidene]-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (3) has been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, FT-IR and Mass spectroscopy. The formation of the compound and its properties have also been evaluated by quantum chemical calculations using DFT, B3LYP functional and 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that the formation of 3 is an exothermic and spontaneous reaction at room temperature. (1)H NMR chemical shifts are calculated using gauge including atomic orbitals (GIAO) approach in DMSO-d6 as solvent. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used to calculate the energy (E), oscillator strength (f) and wavelength absorption maxima (λ(max)) of various electronic transitions and their nature within the molecule. NBO analysis is carried out to investigate the charge transfer or charge delocalization in various intra- and intermolecular interactions of molecular system. The vibrational analysis indicates the formation of dimer in the solid state by intermolecular heteronuclear hydrogen bonding (NH···O). Topological parameters at bond critical points (BCP) are calculated to analyze the strength and nature of various types of intra and intermolecular interactions in dimer by Bader's 'Atoms in molecules' AIM theory in detail. The binding energy of intermolecular multiple interactions is calculated to be 15.54 kcal/mol, using AIM calculation. The local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions (f(k)(+),f(k)(-)), local softnesses (s(k)(+),s(k)(-)) and electrophilicity indices (ω(k)(+),ω(k)(-)) analyses are performed to determine the reactive sites within molecule. PMID:23666353

  18. Prognostic factors for re-mobilization using plerixafor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma previously failing mobilization with G-CSF with or without chemotherapy: the Korean multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Park, Seonyang; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Cho, Seok-Goo; Min, Chang-Ki; Lee, Je-Jung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Hawk; Do, Young Rok; Moon, Joon Ho; Lee, Jihye; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-03-01

    Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to improve the rates of successful peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM) who experienced prior failure of PBSC mobilization. We evaluated the mobilization results of re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF in insufficiently mobilizing patients. Forty-four patients with lymphoma (n = 29) or MM (n = 15) were included in the study. The median age was 50 (range, 24-64) years. Previous mobilization regimens were chemotherapy with G-CSF (n = 28), including cyclophosphamide with G-CSF (n = 15), and G-CSF only (n = 16). All patients with lymphoma achieved at least partial response (PR) before the mobilization, including 13 complete responses (CRs). Eleven patients with MM achieved at least PR and four patients with MM were in stable disease before mobilization. The median number of apheresis was 3 (range, 1-6). The median yield of PBSC collections was 3.41 (0.13-38.11) × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Thirty-four (77.3 %) patients had successful collections defined as at least 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. The rate of successful collections was not different between the two underlying diseases (79.3 % in lymphoma and 73.3 % in MM). Of the entire cohort, 38 (86.4 %) of patients went on to receive an autologous transplant. Previous long-term use of high-risk drugs (>4 cycles use of alkylating agents, platinum-containing agents, or thalidomide) (HR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-110.0, P = 0.043) and low platelet count (<100 × 10(9)/L) 1 day before the first apheresis (HR 27.9, 95 % CI 2.9-273.7, P = 0.004) were independent prognostic factors for predicting failure of PBSC re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF. In conclusion, re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF showed a success rate of 77.3 % in patients with lymphoma or MM who experienced prior failure of PBSC

  19. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  20. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  1. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasopharynx after previous adenoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sofferman, R.A.; Heisse, J.W. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    In 1978, Pratt challenged the otolaryngology community to identify an incidence of malignancy in individuals who have previously received radium therapy to the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissues. This case report is a direct response to that quest and presents a well documented adenoid cystic carcinoma evolving 23 years after radium applicator treatment to the fossa of Rosenmuller. Although a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be scientifically proven, the case history raises several important questions concerning the stimulating effects of radiation on the later onset of frank malignancy.

  2. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-11-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  3. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  4. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  5. REM sleep depotentiates amygdala activity to previous emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    van der Helm, Els; Yao, Justin; Dutt, Shubir; Rao, Vikram; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2011-12-01

    Clinical evidence suggests a potentially causal interaction between sleep and affective brain function; nearly all mood disorders display co-occurring sleep abnormalities, commonly involving rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Building on this clinical evidence, recent neurobiological frameworks have hypothesized a benefit of REM sleep in palliatively decreasing next-day brain reactivity to recent waking emotional experiences. Specifically, the marked suppression of central adrenergic neurotransmitters during REM (commonly implicated in arousal and stress), coupled with activation in amygdala-hippocampal networks that encode salient events, is proposed to (re)process and depotentiate previous affective experiences, decreasing their emotional intensity. In contrast, the failure of such adrenergic reduction during REM sleep has been described in anxiety disorders, indexed by persistent high-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activity (>30 Hz); a candidate factor contributing to hyperarousal and exaggerated amygdala reactivity. Despite these neurobiological frameworks, and their predictions, the proposed benefit of REM sleep physiology in depotentiating neural and behavioral responsivity to prior emotional events remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that REM sleep physiology is associated with an overnight dissipation of amygdala activity in response to previous emotional experiences, altering functional connectivity and reducing next-day subjective emotionality. PMID:22119526

  6. Reconsolidation may incorporate state-dependency into previously consolidated memories.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rodrigo O; Cassini, Lindsey F; Santana, Fabiana; Crestani, Ana P; Duran, Johanna M; Haubrich, Josué; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas; Quillfeldt, Jorge A

    2013-07-01

    Some memories enter into a labile state after retrieval, requiring reconsolidation in order to persist. One functional role of memory reconsolidation is the updating of existing memories. There are reports suggesting that reconsolidation can be modulated by a particular endogenous process taking place concomitantly to its natural course, such as water or sleep deprivation. Here, we investigated whether an endogenous process activated during a natural/physiological experience, or a pharmacological intervention, can also contribute to memory content updating. Using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rats, we found that the endogenous content of an aversive memory can be updated during its reconsolidation incorporating consequences of natural events such as water deprivation, transforming a previously stored memory into a state-dependent one. This updating seems to be mediated by the activation of angiotensin AT1 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus and local infusion of human angiotensin II (ANGII) was shown to mimic the water deprivation effects on memory reconsolidation. Systemic morphine injection was also able to turn a previously acquired experience into a state-dependent memory, reproducing the very same effects obtained by water deprivation or local angiotensin II infusion, and suggesting that other state-dependent-inducing protocols would also be able to contribute to memory updating. These findings trigger new insights about the influence of ordinary daily life events upon memory in its continuing reconstruction, adding the realm of reconsolidation to the classical view of endogenous modulation of consolidation. PMID:23782508

  7. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  8. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N.; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. PMID:27460800

  9. The chronic syndromes after previous treatment of pituitary tumours.

    PubMed

    Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-09-01

    Ultimately, almost all patients who are appropriately treated for pituitary tumours enter a chronic phase with control or cure of hormonal excess, adequate treatment of pituitary insufficiency and relief of mass effects. This phase is associated with improvement of initial signs and symptoms, but also with the persistent consequences of the initial disease and associated treatments. Pituitary insufficiency is a common denominator in many of these patients, and is associated with a reduction in quality of life, despite adequate endocrine substitution. Hypothalamic dysfunction can be present in patients previously treated for visual impairments caused by large suprasellar adenomas, or craniopharyngiomas. In addition to hypopituitarism, these patients can have multisystem morbidities caused by altered hypothalamic function, including weight gain and disturbed regulation of sleep-wake cycles. Mortality can also be affected. Patients cured of Cushing disease or acromegaly have chronic multisystem morbidities (in the case of Cushing disease, also affecting mortality) caused by irreversible effects of the previous excesses of cortisol in Cushing disease and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 in acromegaly. In addition to early diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumours, research should focus on the amenability of these chronic post-treatment syndromes to therapeutic intervention, to improve quality of life and clinical outcomes. PMID:27259177

  10. A Systematic Review of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Ledetra S.; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to systematically review the interventions aimed at reducing binge drinking in college students. A total of 18 interventions published between 2010 and 2015 were evaluated in this review. Two main study designs were used by these interventions: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs, with…

  11. Deficits in Executed and Imagined Aiming Performance in Brain-Injured Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caeyenberghs, K.; van Roon, D.; Swinnen, S. P.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motor disorders are a frequent consequence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in children and much effort is currently invested in alleviating these deficits. The aim of the present study was to test motor imagery (MI) capabilities in children with ABI (n=25) and an age- and gender-matched control group (n=25). A computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task…

  12. Developing Young Thinkers: An Intervention Aimed to Enhance Children's Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly popular to "teach" thinking skills in schools. A diverse variety of programmes exist to support practitioners in this task, and some research has been gathered on the effectiveness of individual approaches. However, the difficulties when assessing the development of thinking skills are widely documented. This study aimed to…

  13. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  14. Measuring Motivation Multidimensionally: Development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Larry C.; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R. Patricia

    2008-01-01

    We report the development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q), a new instrument based on an evolutionary psychology theory of human motivation. It provides multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) assessment of individual differences on 15 motive scales. A total heterogeneous sample of N = 1,251 participated in eight studies that…

  15. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  16. Triple aim program: assessing its effectiveness as a hospital management tool.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph S; Hilsenrath, Peter E; Arbuckle, Barry S; Kureshy, Fareed; Vaughan, David; Grayson, David; Saygin, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent national survey of Hospital chief executive officers, financial challenges are their top concern, especially government reimbursement. Moreover, the patient faces greater deductibles forcing hospitals to prioritize price transparency. The Triple Aim program is a tool available to hospital management to help address these challenges. This study indicates that the Triple Aim is valuable to healthcare providers and patients by reducing medical errors, improving healthcare quality, and reducing costs on a per capita basis. Managerial implications are discussed for hospitals and health systems considering this approach to addressing financial challenges. PMID:25529789

  17. Reutilization of previously hybridized slides for fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, L.; DeVries, S.; Waldman, F.M.

    1995-12-01

    Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to clinical material is sometimes limited by sample size. In addition, heterogeneity among slides prepared from a single sample may lead to variation in FISH analyses. Reutilization of material for repeated FISH analyses would help to alleviate these problems. We have developed a simple procedure for repeated FISH analyses with directly conjugated probes. Previously hybridized probes are removed by incubation in denaturing solution, and slides can then be rehybridized without residual signals remaining. Several cycles of this procedure allow a full complement of chromosomal loci to be analyzed on the same population of cells. Advantages of this protocol include gaining more cytogenetic information from small samples and eliminating the problem of intratumorvariability. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  18. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  19. Epididymal Polar Dissociation: A Previously Undescribed Anatomical Variant

    PubMed Central

    McCain, Stephen; McCain, Scott; Mark, David; Brown, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The normal male external genitalia include the testicles with the epididymis attached posteriorly and the vas deferens arising from this. This case describes an anatomical variation of this normal anatomy not previously reported in the literature. A 17-year-old boy presented with symptoms of intermittent testicular torsion and underwent scrotal exploration. On the left side there was a bell-clapper deformity with the epididymis separated into two parts with the lower pole high in the scrotum and attached to the tunica vaginalis. A normal vas deferens was seen to arise from the isolated lower pole of the epididymis. There was no connection between the vas deferens and the testis or upper pole of epidiymis. This case reminds us of the possibility of anatomical variations and the importance of keeping them in mind to prevent complications at time of surgery. PMID:24883220

  20. Assessment of renal function in workers previously exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Edling, C; Lindberg, E; Kågedal, B; Vesterberg, O

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium induced renal effects were examined in 60 workers (58 men, 2 women) previously exposed to cadmium. Tubular damage in the form of beta 2-microglobulinuria was found in 40%, and urinary albumin and orosomucoid increased significantly with increasing urinary cadmium and increasing relative clearance of beta 2-microglobulin. It is suggested that increased albumin excretion is secondary to the tubular damage. In no case was typical glomerular proteinuria found that could be related to cadmium. Histories of renal stones were more common among the workers with high urinary cadmium concentrations. The glomerular filtration rate was measured in 17 of the workers who had pronounced tubular dysfunction. The average glomerular filtration rate for these men was less than the age adjusted predicted value (mean = 84%). Furthermore, there was a significant (p less than 0.05) correlation (r = -0.47) between tubular reabsorption loss and a decreased glomerular filtration rate. PMID:3904816