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Sample records for aiming two-rail kick

  1. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  2. Swimming Speed of The Breaststroke Kick

    PubMed Central

    Strzała, Marek; Krężałek, Piotr; Kaca, Marcin; Głąb, Grzegorz; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Tyka, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    The breaststroke kick is responsible for a considerable portion of the forward propulsion in breaststroke swimming. The aim of this study was to measure selected anthropometric variables and functional properties of a swimmer’s body: length of body parts; functional range of motion in the leg joints and anaerobic power of the lower limbs. Chosen kinematic variables useful in the evaluation of swimming performance in the breaststroke kick were evaluated. In the present research, swimming speed using breaststroke kicks depended to the largest extent on anaerobic endurance (0.46, p < 0.05 partial correlations with age control). In addition, knee external rotation and swimming technique index had an impact on swimming speed and kick length (both partial correlations with age control 0.35, p < 0.08). A kinematic analysis of the breaststroke kick hip displacement compatible with horizontal body displacement was significantly negatively correlated with foot slip in the water opposite to body displacement (partial correlations: with leg length control −0.43, p < 0.05; with shank length control −0.45, p < 0.05, respectively). Present research and measurements of selected body properties, physical endurance and kinematic movement analysis may help in making a precise determination of an athlete’s talent for breaststroke swimming. PMID:23486737

  3. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROUNDHOUSE KICK ACCORDING TO HEIGHT AND DISTANCE IN TAEKWONDO

    PubMed Central

    Falco, C.

    2013-01-01

    Competition regulation in taekwondo has experienced several changes during the last few years, for example, kicks to the head score more points than kicks to the chest. In addition, some external factors such as the height of target and execution distance seem to affect the kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse selected biomechanical parameters (impact force, reaction time, and execution time) according to the height and execution distance in two different male groups (experts (n = 12) and novices (n = 21)). Athletes kicked twice from every execution distance (short, normal and long) and towards two different heights of target (chest and head) in a random order. Novices kicked to the head with a longer reaction time than to the chest (p < 0.05) but experts were able to kick with similar performance for both heights. From short and normal distances experts kicked with similar performance; whereas from the normal distance novices had longer reaction and execution time than from the short distance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in counterattacking situations, experts should perform the roundhouse kick to the head instead of to the chest, because it produces better scores with similar performance; whereas novice athletes should avoid kicking to the head because they are not able to kick with similar performance. Moreover, it is recommended that during counterattacks higher-level taekwondo athletes should intend to kick from normal distances. PMID:24744499

  4. Mechanical analysis of the roundhouse kick according to height and distance in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, I; Falco, C

    2013-12-01

    Competition regulation in taekwondo has experienced several changes during the last few years, for example, kicks to the head score more points than kicks to the chest. In addition, some external factors such as the height of target and execution distance seem to affect the kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse selected biomechanical parameters (impact force, reaction time, and execution time) according to the height and execution distance in two different male groups (experts (n = 12) and novices (n = 21)). Athletes kicked twice from every execution distance (short, normal and long) and towards two different heights of target (chest and head) in a random order. Novices kicked to the head with a longer reaction time than to the chest (p < 0.05) but experts were able to kick with similar performance for both heights. From short and normal distances experts kicked with similar performance; whereas from the normal distance novices had longer reaction and execution time than from the short distance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in counterattacking situations, experts should perform the roundhouse kick to the head instead of to the chest, because it produces better scores with similar performance; whereas novice athletes should avoid kicking to the head because they are not able to kick with similar performance. Moreover, it is recommended that during counterattacks higher-level taekwondo athletes should intend to kick from normal distances.

  5. Quantifying freestyle kick-count and kick-rate patterns in Paralympic swimming.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Sacha K; Pyne, David B; Burkett, Brendan

    2009-11-01

    Swimming speed is a function of the propulsion generated from arm strokes and leg kicks. Kicking is partially obscured underwater, making the kinematics of the kick difficult to analyse. In this study, we quantified 100-m freestyle kick-count and kick-rate patterns for 14 Paralympic swimmers using inertial-sensor technology. Swimmers took 145 +/- 39 kicks (mean +/- s) for swimming trials and 254 +/- 74 kicks for kicking-only trials. Kick rate was 124.9 +/- 20.3 kicks . min(-1) for swimming trials and 129.6 +/- 14.0 kicks . min(-1) for kicking-only trials. There were no marked differences in kick count among 25-m segments in the swimming trials. There was a substantial increase of 10.6%[90% confidence interval (90%CI): 7.3 to 14.0%] in the number of kicks in the kicking-only trials by the fourth 25-m segment. There was a substantial decrease in kick rate by the third 25-m segment for swimming (-12.0%; 90%CI: -12.8 to -11.1%) and kicking-only (-7.3%; 90%CI: -8.6 to -5.9%) trials. The relationship between swimming and kicking-only kick rates was r = 0.67 (0.55 to 0.76; P < 0.001). The temporal patterns of the kick in kicking only differed from those in swimming; increases in kick rate can improve freestyle swimming performance. PMID:19787541

  6. Kick-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Armando

    2006-05-01

    Most problems in physics textbooks are highly idealized to keep them analytically manageable. However, in dealing with daily phenomena, some models presented in textbooks are oversimplified. The discrepancy between what students observe and what these models predict may cause frustration or even distrust. On the other hand, it is crucial to develop intuition to discover the relevant parameters as well as appropriate optimizations—a common perspective in engineering that is not always stressed in physics. This paper addresses these topics in a concrete situation: kicking a soccer ball. The problem is formulated as follows: Given the physical constraints of the athlete, how does one achieve maximum initial velocity and range?

  7. Kick Dis Power Puck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    There is a new toy available that can be used to demonstrate many interesting physics principles. It is called the "Kick Dis Power Puck" and is basically a round plastic hovercraft with a soft cushion material around the perimeter (Fig. 1). It is a product of the Estes Company, which is well known for their model rockets, and is available from advertisers in this journal.1,2 The puck has a diameter of 19.5 cm and comes in two colors, red or green. The two samples I purchased had masses of 307 g and 303 g, respectively. There is a forceful, built-in fan, which is run by a rechargeable battery and powers the puck for about 30 minutes. A 9-V battery charger completes the package, which sells for about 45.

  8. Comparison of Temporal Parameters of Swimming Rescue Elements When Performed Using Dolphin and Flutter Kick with Fins - Didactical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rejman, Marek; Wiesner, Wojciech; Silakiewicz, Piotr; Klarowicz, Andrzej; Abraldes, J. Arturo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the time required to swim to a victim and tow them back to shore, while perfoming the flutter-kick and the dolphin-kick using fins. It has been hypothesized that using fins while using the dolphin-kick when swimming leads to reduced rescue time. Sixteen lifeguards took part in the study. The main tasks performed by them, were to approach and tow (double armpit) a dummy a distance of 50m while applying either the flutter-kick, or the dolphin-kick with fins. The analysis of the temporal parameters of both techniques of kicking demonstrates that, during the approach to the victim, neither the dolphin (tmean = 32.9s) or the flutter kick (tmean = 33.0s) were significantly faster than the other. However, when used for towing a victim the flutter kick (tmean = 47.1s) was significantly faster when compared to the dolphin-kick (tmean = 52.8s). An assessment of the level of technical skills in competitive swimming, and in approaching and towing the victim, were also conducted. Towing time was significantly correlated with the parameter that linked the temporal and technical dimensions of towing and swimming (difference between flutter kick towing time and dolphin-kick towing time, 100m medley time and the four swimming strokes evaluation). No similar interdependency has been discovered in flutter kick towing time. These findings suggest that the dolphin-kick is a more difficult skill to perform when towing the victim than the flutter-kick. Since the hypothesis stated was not confirmed, postulates were formulated on how to improve dolphin-kick technique with fins, in order to reduce swimming rescue time. Key points The source of reduction of swimming rescue time was researched. Time required to approach and to tow the victim while doing the flutter kick and the dolphin-kick with fins was analyzed. The propulsion generated by dolphin-kick did not make the approach and tow faster than the flutter kick. More difficult skill to realize of

  9. Comparison of temporal parameters of swimming rescue elements when performed using dolphin and flutter kick with fins - didactical approach.

    PubMed

    Rejman, Marek; Wiesner, Wojciech; Silakiewicz, Piotr; Klarowicz, Andrzej; Abraldes, J Arturo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the time required to swim to a victim and tow them back to shore, while perfoming the flutter-kick and the dolphin-kick using fins. It has been hypothesized that using fins while using the dolphin-kick when swimming leads to reduced rescue time. Sixteen lifeguards took part in the study. The main tasks performed by them, were to approach and tow (double armpit) a dummy a distance of 50m while applying either the flutter-kick, or the dolphin-kick with fins. The analysis of the temporal parameters of both techniques of kicking demonstrates that, during the approach to the victim, neither the dolphin (tmean = 32.9s) or the flutter kick (tmean = 33.0s) were significantly faster than the other. However, when used for towing a victim the flutter kick (tmean = 47.1s) was significantly faster when compared to the dolphin-kick (tmean = 52.8s). An assessment of the level of technical skills in competitive swimming, and in approaching and towing the victim, were also conducted. Towing time was significantly correlated with the parameter that linked the temporal and technical dimensions of towing and swimming (difference between flutter kick towing time and dolphin-kick towing time, 100m medley time and the four swimming strokes evaluation). No similar interdependency has been discovered in flutter kick towing time. These findings suggest that the dolphin-kick is a more difficult skill to perform when towing the victim than the flutter-kick. Since the hypothesis stated was not confirmed, postulates were formulated on how to improve dolphin-kick technique with fins, in order to reduce swimming rescue time. PMID:24150079

  10. Inter-joint coordination in producing kicking velocity of taekwondo kicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kwan; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Im, Shin Ja

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate joint kinematics of the kicking leg in Taekwondo and to examine the role of inter-joint coordination of the leg in producing the kicking velocity. A new inter-joint coordination index that encompasses three- dimensional hip and knee motions, was defined and applied to the joint kinematic results. Twelve elite Taekwondo athletes participated in this study and performed the back kick, thrashing kick, turning-back kick and roundhouse kick. Our results indicate that the back kick utilized a combination of hip and knee extension to produce the kicking velocity, and was characterized by a pushlike movement. The thrashing kick and turning-back kick utilized a greater degree of hip abduction than the roundhouse kick and back kick, and included complicated knee motions. The new index successfully categorized the thrashing kick and turning-back kick into a push-throw continuum, indicating a change from negative index (opposite direction) to positive index (same direction) of hip and knee motions at the end of the movement. This strategy of push-throw continuum increases the kicking velocity at the moment of impact by applying a throwlike movement pattern. Key pointsA variety of Taekwondo kicks have unique inter-joint coordination of the kicking leg.The back kick used a combination of hip and knee extension to produce the kicking velocity, and was characterized by a pushlike movement.The new index explained well the inter-joint coordination of three DOF joint motions of two joints in producing kicking velocity (positive values for throwlike movements and negative values for pushlike movements).The index successfully categorized the thrashing kick and turning-back kick into a push-throw continuum.

  11. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  12. Parameter space for successful soccer kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Brandon G.; Goff, John Eric

    2006-07-01

    A computational model of two important types of soccer kicks, the free kick and the corner kick, is developed with the goal of determining the success rate for each type of kick. What is meant by 'success rate' is the probability of getting an unassisted goal via a free kick and the probability of having a corner kick reach an optimum location so that a teammate's chance of scoring a goal is increased. Success rates are determined through the use of four-dimensional parameter space volumes. A one-in-ten success rate is found for the free kick while the corner-kick success rate is found to be one in four.

  13. Effect of stance position on kick performance in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Jandacka, Daniel; Falco, Coral

    2013-01-01

    In taekwondo, the stance position can potentially affect kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse mechanical variables in the roundhouse kick in taekwondo according to three stance positions (0°, 45°, 90°). Nine experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in a random order according to these three relative positions of the feet on the ground. Measurements for the mechanical analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight-camera motion capture system. The taekwondo athletes' reaction and execution times were shorter when starting from the 0° and 45° stance positions than from the 90° position (P < 0.05). Moreover, the ground reaction force was negatively correlated with execution time and positively with velocity of thigh and shank. Our results suggest that the stance position affects the execution technique of taekwondo athletes' kicks. It is suggested that athletes should not adopt the 90° stance position because it will not enable them to achieve the best performance in the roundhouse kick.

  14. Intra-limb coordination in karate kicking: Effect of impacting or not impacting a target.

    PubMed

    Quinzi, Federico; Sbriccoli, Paola; Alderson, Jacqueline; Di Mario, Alberto; Camomilla, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the kicking limb coordinative patterns adopted by karate practitioners (karateka) when impacting (IRK), or not impacting (NIRK) a target during a roundhouse kick. Six karateka performed three repetitions of both kicks while kicking limb kinematics were recorded using a stereophotogrammetric system. Intra-limb coordination was quantified for hip and knee flexion-extension from toe-off to kick completion, using the Continuous relative phase (CRP). Across the same time interval, thigh and shank angular momentum about the vertical axis of the body was calculated. For all trials, across all participants, CRP curve peaks and maximum and minimum angular momentum were determined. A RM-ANOVA was performed to test for differences between kicking conditions. The CRP analysis highlighted, during the central portion of both kicks, a delayed flexion of the hip with respect to the knee. Conversely, during the terminal portion of the CRP curves, the NIRK is performed with a more in-phase action, caused by a higher hip angular displacement. The NIRK is characterized by a lower angular momentum which may enhance control of the striking limb. It would seem that the issue of no impact appears to be solved through the control of all segments of the kicking limb, in contrast to the primary control of the lower leg only observed during the IRK.

  15. Importance of sagittal kick symmetry for underwater dolphin kick performance.

    PubMed

    Atkison, Ryan R; Dickey, James P; Dragunas, Andrew; Nolte, Volker

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how sagittal kick symmetry in the underwater dolphin kick (UDK) between the downkick and upkick phases is related to UDK performance. Fifteen adult male competitive swimmers ranging from provincial to international level were filmed performing three trials each of maximum effort UDK over 15m using an underwater video camera. Video frames were manually digitized and each subjects' single fastest trial was evaluated for between-subject comparisons. Kinematic variables were calculated for each individual and Pearson product-moment correlations between the average horizontal centre of mass velocity (Vx) and all kinematic variables were calculated. Horizontal velocity during the downkick, horizontal velocity during the upkick, relative time spent in each phase, maximum chest flexion angle, maximum knee and ankle extension angles, the ratio of flexion/extension for chest, knee and ankle angles, and maximum vertical toe velocity during the upkick phase correlated significantly with Vx (p<0.05). The ratio of downkick vertical toe velocity/upkick vertical toe velocity was significantly negatively correlated with Vx (p<0.05). These results indicate the importance of kick symmetry for UDK performance, and indicate that performing the upkick phase well appears to be most important for UDK performance.

  16. Dominant-non-dominant asymmetry of kicking a stationary and rolling ball in a futsal context.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of the asymmetries in the dominant and non-dominant limbs when kicking stationary and rolling balls. Ten experienced Brazilian amateur futsal players participated in this study. Each participant performed kicks under two conditions (stationary ball vs. rolling ball) with the dominant and non-dominant limbs (five kicks per condition per limb). We analysed the kicking accuracy, ball and foot velocities, angular joint displacement and velocity. The asymmetry between the dominant and non-dominant limbs was analysed by symmetry index and two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The results did not reveal any interaction between the condition and limb for ball velocity, foot velocity and accuracy. However, kicking with the dominant limb in both kicks showed higher ball velocity (stationary ball: dominant - 24.27 ± 2.21 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 21.62 ± 2.26 m · s(-1); rolling ball: dominant - 23.88 ± 2.71 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 21.42 ± 2.25 m · s(-1)), foot velocity (stationary ball: dominant - 17.61 ± 1.87 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 15.58 ± 2.69 m · s(-1); rolling ball: dominant - 17.25 ± 2.26 m · s(-1) and non-dominant - 14.77 ± 2.35 m · s(-1)) and accuracy (stationary ball: dominant - 1.17 ± 0.84 m and non-dominant - 1.56 ± 1.30 m; rolling ball: dominant - 1.31 ± 0.91 m and non-dominant - 1.97 ± 1.44 m). In addition, the angular joint adjustments were dependent on the limb in both kicks (the kicks with non-dominant limb showed lower hip external rotation than the kicks with the dominant limb), indicating that the hip joint is important in kick performance. In conclusion, the kicks with the non-dominant limb showed different angular adjustments in comparison to kicks with the dominant limb. In addition, kicking a rolling ball with the non-dominant limb showed higher asymmetry for accuracy, indicating that complex kicks are more asymmetric. PMID:25554927

  17. Perform kicking with or without jumping: joint coordination and kinetic differences between Taekwondo back kicks and jumping back kicks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Wang, Ying-Hsun; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Mao; Huang, Yi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We investigated joint coordination differences between Taekwondo back kicks and jumping back kicks, and how jumping (in performing the latter) would alter engaging ground reaction forces (GRF) in executing kicking. Ten skilful athletes volunteered to perform both kinds of kicking within the shortest time for three successful trials. Three high-speed cameras and two force platforms were used for data collection, and the trial with the shortest execution time was selected for analysis. Movements were divided into the rotation and attack phases. With comparable execution time and maximum joint linear/angular speeds, back kicks and jumping back kicks differ mainly in larger GRF in the latter, and in greater target acceleration in the former probably because the support leg prevented athletes' rebounding after impact. In addition, more prominent antiphase and in-phase coordination between the shoulder segment and knee joint, and elongated rotation phase were found in jumping back kicks. Larger GRF values in jumping back kicks were generated for jump take-off rather than for a more powerful attack. In back kicks although the support leg remained ground contact, greatly decreased GRF in the attack phase suggested that the support leg mainly served as a rotation axis. PMID:25599144

  18. Target effect on the kinematics of Taekwondo Roundhouse Kick - is the presence of a physical target a stimulus, influencing muscle-power generation?

    PubMed

    Wąsik, Jacek; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Taekwondo is famous for its powerful kicking techniques and the roundhouse kick is the most frequently used one. In earlier literature, the influence of a physical target (exiting or not) on kicking power generation has not been given much attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of roundhouse kick execution and its factors related to power generation. 6 ITF taekwondo practitioners voluntarily participated in this study. They were asked to perform kicks with and without a physical target. The first kick aimed at breaking a board while the second one was a kick into the air. A Smart-D motion capture system (BTS S.p.A., Italy) was used to quantitatively determine their kinematic characteristics during each kick. The main findings showed that kicks aiming at a breaking board were significantly slower than kicks without a physical target (maximal kick-foot velocities were 10.61 ± 0.86 m/s and 14.61 ± 0.67 m/s, respectively, p < 0.01), but the kicking time of the former was shorter (0.58 ± 0.01 s and 0.67 ± 0.01, respectively, p < 0.01). The results suggest that a physical target will negatively influence the kick-foot velocity, which is not necessarily a disadvantage for creating a high quality kick. Possible motor control mechanisms are discussed for the phenomenon. The study made it clear: trainings with and without physical targets would develop different motor control patterns. More studies are needed for identifying the effectiveness of different controls and efficiencies of their training. PMID:26898602

  19. Target effect on the kinematics of Taekwondo Roundhouse Kick - is the presence of a physical target a stimulus, influencing muscle-power generation?

    PubMed

    Wąsik, Jacek; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Taekwondo is famous for its powerful kicking techniques and the roundhouse kick is the most frequently used one. In earlier literature, the influence of a physical target (exiting or not) on kicking power generation has not been given much attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of roundhouse kick execution and its factors related to power generation. 6 ITF taekwondo practitioners voluntarily participated in this study. They were asked to perform kicks with and without a physical target. The first kick aimed at breaking a board while the second one was a kick into the air. A Smart-D motion capture system (BTS S.p.A., Italy) was used to quantitatively determine their kinematic characteristics during each kick. The main findings showed that kicks aiming at a breaking board were significantly slower than kicks without a physical target (maximal kick-foot velocities were 10.61 ± 0.86 m/s and 14.61 ± 0.67 m/s, respectively, p < 0.01), but the kicking time of the former was shorter (0.58 ± 0.01 s and 0.67 ± 0.01, respectively, p < 0.01). The results suggest that a physical target will negatively influence the kick-foot velocity, which is not necessarily a disadvantage for creating a high quality kick. Possible motor control mechanisms are discussed for the phenomenon. The study made it clear: trainings with and without physical targets would develop different motor control patterns. More studies are needed for identifying the effectiveness of different controls and efficiencies of their training.

  20. Effect of Olympic Weight Category on Performance in the Roundhouse Kick to the Head in Taekwondo

    PubMed Central

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Álvarez, Octavio; Molina-García, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In taekwondo, kick performance is generally measured using impact force and time. This study aimed to analyse performance in the roundhouse kick to the head according to execution distance between and within Olympic weight categories. The participants were 36 male athletes divided into three categories: featherweight (n = 10), welterweight (n = 15) and heavyweight (n = 11). Our results show that taekwondo athletes in all weight categories generate a similar relative impact force. However, the results indicate that weight has a large impact on kick performance, particularly in relation to total response time. PMID:23486074

  1. Effect of olympic weight category on performance in the roundhouse kick to the head in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Alvarez, Octavio; Molina-García, Javier

    2012-03-01

    In taekwondo, kick performance is generally measured using impact force and time. This study aimed to analyse performance in the roundhouse kick to the head according to execution distance between and within Olympic weight categories. The participants were 36 male athletes divided into three categories: featherweight (n = 10), welterweight (n = 15) and heavyweight (n = 11). Our results show that taekwondo athletes in all weight categories generate a similar relative impact force. However, the results indicate that weight has a large impact on kick performance, particularly in relation to total response time.

  2. The effect of ankle muscle strength and flexibility on dolphin kick performance in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Willems, Tine M; Cornelis, Justien A M; De Deurwaerder, Lien E P; Roelandt, Filip; De Mits, Sophie

    2014-08-01

    The velocity of a swimmer is determined by biomechanical and bioenergetics factors. However, little is known about the effect of ankle flexibility on dolphin kick performance. Next to this, scientific evidence is lacking concerning the influence of ankle muscle strength. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle flexibility and muscle strength on dolphin kick performance in competitive swimmers. Ankle range of motion (ROM) and ankle muscle strength were measured in 26 healthy competitive swimmers. The effect of both was assessed on the swimmer's velocity and lower extremity joint angles during three maximal dolphin kick trials. Additionally, the effect of a flexibility restriction by a tape on the dolphin kick performance was assessed. Correlations were calculated between the flexibility, muscle strength and dolphin kick performance and differences were investigated between the unrestricted and restricted condition. Muscle strength of dorsal flexors and internal rotators were positively significantly correlated with the velocity. Active and passive plantar flexion ROM and internal rotation ROM were not significantly correlated. A plantar flexion-internal rotation restriction during the dolphin kick showed a significant decrease in velocity. This restriction was associated with a changed movement pattern in the knee towards more flexion. The results suggest that dolphin kick velocity might be enhanced by ankle muscle strength exercises and that subjects with a restricted ankle flexibility might profit from a flexibility program. PMID:24984154

  3. Comparison of the Kinematic Patterns of Kick Between Brazilian and Japanese Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Santiago, Paulo Roberto; Palucci Vieira, Luiz Henrique; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Exel Santana, Juliana; de Andrade, Vitor Luiz; de Souza Bedo, Bruno Luiz; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Background Kicking performance is the most studied technical action in soccer and lower limbs kinematics is closely related to success in kicking, mainly because they are essential in imparting high velocity to the ball. Previous studies demonstrated that soccer leagues in different countries exhibit different physical demands and technical requirements during the matches. However, evidencewhether nationality has any influence in the kinematics of soccer-related skills has not yet been reported. The nationality of the players is an aspect that might be also relevant to the performance in kicking. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the lower limbs kinematic patterns during kicking, between Brazilian and Japanese young top soccer players. Patients and Methods Seven Brazilian (GA) and seven Japanese (GB) U-17 players performed 15 side-foot kicks each, with a distance of 20 m away from the goal, aiming a target of 1 × 1 m in upper corner, constrained by a defensive wall (1.8 × 2 m). Four digital video cameras (120 Hz) recorded the performance for further 3D reconstruction of thigh, shank and foot segments of both kicking and support limbs. The selected kicking cycle was characterized by the toe-off of the kicking limb to the end of the kicking foot when it came in contact with the ball. Stereographical projection of each segment was applied to obtain the representative curves of kicking as function of time for each participant in each trial. Cluster analysis was performed to identify the mean GA and GB curves for each segment. Silhouette coefficient (SC) was calculated, in order to determine the degree of separation between the two groups’ curves. Results Comparison between the median confidence intervals of the SC showed no differences between groups as regards lower limb patterns of movements. Task accuracy was determined by the relative frequency that the ball reached the target for all attempts and no differences were found (GA: 10.48 ± 14.33%; GB

  4. Comparison of the Kinematic Patterns of Kick Between Brazilian and Japanese Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Santiago, Paulo Roberto; Palucci Vieira, Luiz Henrique; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Exel Santana, Juliana; de Andrade, Vitor Luiz; de Souza Bedo, Bruno Luiz; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Background Kicking performance is the most studied technical action in soccer and lower limbs kinematics is closely related to success in kicking, mainly because they are essential in imparting high velocity to the ball. Previous studies demonstrated that soccer leagues in different countries exhibit different physical demands and technical requirements during the matches. However, evidencewhether nationality has any influence in the kinematics of soccer-related skills has not yet been reported. The nationality of the players is an aspect that might be also relevant to the performance in kicking. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the lower limbs kinematic patterns during kicking, between Brazilian and Japanese young top soccer players. Patients and Methods Seven Brazilian (GA) and seven Japanese (GB) U-17 players performed 15 side-foot kicks each, with a distance of 20 m away from the goal, aiming a target of 1 × 1 m in upper corner, constrained by a defensive wall (1.8 × 2 m). Four digital video cameras (120 Hz) recorded the performance for further 3D reconstruction of thigh, shank and foot segments of both kicking and support limbs. The selected kicking cycle was characterized by the toe-off of the kicking limb to the end of the kicking foot when it came in contact with the ball. Stereographical projection of each segment was applied to obtain the representative curves of kicking as function of time for each participant in each trial. Cluster analysis was performed to identify the mean GA and GB curves for each segment. Silhouette coefficient (SC) was calculated, in order to determine the degree of separation between the two groups’ curves. Results Comparison between the median confidence intervals of the SC showed no differences between groups as regards lower limb patterns of movements. Task accuracy was determined by the relative frequency that the ball reached the target for all attempts and no differences were found (GA: 10.48 ± 14.33%; GB

  5. Kicking to bigger uprights: field goal kicking performance influences perceived size.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K; Dorsch, Travis E

    2009-01-01

    Perception relates not only to the optical information from the environment but also to the perceiver's performance on a given task. We present evidence that the perceived height and width of an American-football field goal post relates to the perceiver's kicking performance. Participants who made more successful kicks perceived the field goal posts to be farther apart and perceived the crossbar to be closer to the ground compared with participants who made fewer kicks. Interestingly, the current results show perceptual effects related to performance only after kicking the football but not before kicking. We also found that the types of performance errors influenced specific aspects of perception. The more kicks that were missed left or right of the target, the narrower the field goal posts looked. The more kicks that were missed short of the target, the taller the field goal crossbar looked. These results demonstrate that performance is a factor in size perception.

  6. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  7. Kick-Sledding: An Outdoor Activity for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Kick-sledding is an outdoor activity that originated in Scandinavia. Kick-sleds may be used on snowy roads, cross-country ski trails, and frozen lakes by anyone, including seniors, children, and mothers with babies. To ride a kick-sled, you stand holding onto a bar across the back of a chair attached to runners and propel yourself by kicking. (LP)

  8. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Matthias; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Bleicher, Marcus; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.

  9. Development and evaluation of a novel taekwondo chest protector to improve mobility when performing axe kicks.

    PubMed

    Woo, J H; Ko, J Y; Choi, E Y; Her, J G; O'Sullivan, D M

    2013-03-01

    The axe kick, in Olympic style taekwondo, has been identified as the most popular scoring technique aimed to the head during full contact competition. The first purpose of this study was to identify and investigate design issues with the current World Taekwondo Federation approved chest protector. A secondary purpose was to develop a novel chest protector addressing the identified design issues and to conduct a biomechanical analysis. Fifteen male elite Taekwondo players were selected to perform three different styles of the axe kick, i.e., front, in-out, and out-in axe kick five times each for a total of 45 kicks. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences between the novel and existing chest protector conditions for vertical height of the toe, downward kicking foot speed, hip flexion angle and ipsilateral shoulder flexion extension range of motion (ROM) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the control condition (no chest protector) and the novel chest protector condition for these variables (p > 0.05). These results indicate that the novel chest protector interferes less with both the lower and upper limbs during the performance of the axe kick and provides a more natural, free-moving alternative to the current equipment used.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NOVEL TAEKWONDO CHEST PROTECTOR TO IMPROVE MOBILITY WHEN PERFORMING AXE KICKS

    PubMed Central

    Woo, J.H.; Ko, J.Y.; Choi, E.Y.; O'Sullivan, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The axe kick, in Olympic style taekwondo, has been identified as the most popular scoring technique aimed to the head during full contact competition. The first purpose of this study was to identify and investigate design issues with the current World Taekwondo Federation approved chest protector. A secondary purpose was to develop a novel chest protector addressing the identified design issues and to conduct a biomechanical analysis. Fifteen male elite Taekwondo players were selected to perform three different styles of the axe kick, i.e., front, in-out, and out-in axe kick five times each for a total of 45 kicks. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences between the novel and existing chest protector conditions for vertical height of the toe, downward kicking foot speed, hip flexion angle and ipsilateral shoulder flexion extension range of motion (ROM) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the control condition (no chest protector) and the novel chest protector condition for these variables (p > 0.05). These results indicate that the novel chest protector interferes less with both the lower and upper limbs during the performance of the axe kick and provides a more natural, free-moving alternative to the current equipment used. PMID:24744466

  11. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  12. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  13. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  14. NASA Kicks Off Summer of Innovation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, astronaut Leland Melvin and others joined students at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California to kick off the Summer of Innovation, an initiative to engage...

  15. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  16. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, D.; White, D. )

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  17. Dynamics of the support leg in soccer instep kicking.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichiro; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sterzing, Thorsten; Shinkai, Hironari; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to illustrate support leg dynamics during instep kicking to evaluate the role of the support leg action in performance. Twelve male soccer players performed maximal instep kicks. Their motions and ground reaction forces were recorded by a motion capture system and a force platform. Moments and angular velocities of the support leg and pelvis were computed using inverse dynamics. In most joints of the support leg, the moments were not associated with or counteracting the joint motions except for the knee joint. It can be interpreted that the initial knee flexion motion counteracting the extension joint moment has a role to attenuate the shock of landing and the following knee extension motion associated with the extension joint moment indirectly contributes to accelerate the swing of kicking leg. Also, appreciable horizontal rotation of the pelvis coincided with increase of the interaction moment due to the hip joint reaction force on the support leg side. It can be assumed that the interaction moment was the main factor causing the pelvis counter-clockwise rotation within the horizontal plane from the overhead view that precedes a proximal-to-distal sequence of segmental action of the swing leg.

  18. Dynamics of the support leg in soccer instep kicking.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichiro; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sterzing, Thorsten; Shinkai, Hironari; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to illustrate support leg dynamics during instep kicking to evaluate the role of the support leg action in performance. Twelve male soccer players performed maximal instep kicks. Their motions and ground reaction forces were recorded by a motion capture system and a force platform. Moments and angular velocities of the support leg and pelvis were computed using inverse dynamics. In most joints of the support leg, the moments were not associated with or counteracting the joint motions except for the knee joint. It can be interpreted that the initial knee flexion motion counteracting the extension joint moment has a role to attenuate the shock of landing and the following knee extension motion associated with the extension joint moment indirectly contributes to accelerate the swing of kicking leg. Also, appreciable horizontal rotation of the pelvis coincided with increase of the interaction moment due to the hip joint reaction force on the support leg side. It can be assumed that the interaction moment was the main factor causing the pelvis counter-clockwise rotation within the horizontal plane from the overhead view that precedes a proximal-to-distal sequence of segmental action of the swing leg. PMID:24575753

  19. Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Koppitz, Michael; van Meter, James R.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2006-12-01

    Recent developments in numerical relativity have made it possible to reliably follow the coalescence of two black holes from near the innermost stable circular orbit to final ringdown. This opens up a wide variety of exciting astrophysical applications of these simulations. Chief among these is the net kick received when two unequal mass or spinning black holes merge. The magnitude of this kick has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. Here we report the first accurate numerical calculation of this kick, for two nonspinning black holes in a 1.5:1 mass ratio, which is expected on the basis of analytic considerations to give a significant fraction of the maximum possible recoil. We have performed multiple runs with different initial separations, orbital angular momenta, resolutions, extraction radii, and gauges. The full range of our kick speeds is 86-116 km s-1, and the most reliable runs give kicks between 86 and 97 km s-1. This is intermediate between the estimates from two recent post-Newtonian analyses and suggests that at redshifts z>~10, halos with masses <~109 Msolar will have difficulty retaining coalesced black holes after major mergers.

  20. Entanglement and chaos in the kicked top.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, M; Matzkin, A

    2011-01-01

    The standard kicked top involves a periodically kicked angular momentum. By considering this angular momentum as a collection of entangled spins, we compute the bipartite entanglement dynamics as a function of the dynamics of the classical counterpart. Our numerical results indicate that the entanglement of the quantum top depends on the specific details of the dynamics of the classical top rather than depending universally on the global properties of the classical regime. These results are grounded on linking the entanglement rate to averages involving the classical angular momentum, thereby explaining why regular dynamics can entangle as efficiently as the classically chaotic regime. The findings are in line with previous results obtained with a two-particle top model, and we show here that the standard kicked top can be obtained as a limiting case of the two-particle top.

  1. Superballistic wavepacket spreading in double kicked rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ping; Wang, Jiao

    2016-08-01

    We investigate possible ways in which a quantum wavepacket spreads. We show that in a general class of double kicked rotor system, a wavepacket may undergo superballistic spreading; i.e., its variance increases as the cubic of time. The conditions for the observed superballistic spreading and two related characteristic time scales are studied. Our results suggest that the symmetry of the studied model and whether it is a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser system are crucial to its wavepacket spreading behavior. Our study also sheds new light on the exponential wavepacket spreading phenomenon previously observed in the double kicked rotor system.

  2. Edge states of periodically kicked quantum rotors.

    PubMed

    Floss, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2015-05-01

    We present a quantum localization phenomenon that exists in periodically kicked three-dimensional rotors, but is absent in the commonly studied two-dimensional ones: edge localization. We show that under the condition of a fractional quantum resonance there are states of the kicked rotor that are strongly localized near the edge of the angular momentum space at J=0. These states are analogs of surface states in crystalline solids, and they significantly affect resonant excitation of molecular rotation by laser pulse trains.

  3. Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Dale, Choi; Koppitz, Michael; vanMeter, James R.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in numerical relativity have made it possible to follow reliably the coalescence of two black holes from near the innermost stable circular orbit to final ringdown. This opens up a wide variety of exciting astrophysical applications of these simulations. Chief among these is the net kick received when two unequal mass or spinning black holes merge. The magnitude of this kick has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation; and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. Here we report the first accurate numerical calculation of this kick, for two nonspinning black holes in a 1.5:1 mass ratio, which is expected based on analytic considerations to give a significant fraction of the maximum possible recoil. Our estimated kick is 10(exp 5) km/s with an error of less than 10%. This is intermediate between the estimates from two recent post-Newtonian analyses and suggests that at redshifts z greater than or approx. equal to 10, halos with masses less than or approx. equal to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass will have difficulty retaining coalesced black holes after major mergers.

  4. Field Theory of the Quantum Kicked Rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Zirnbauer, M.R.

    1996-11-01

    The quantum kicked rotor is investigated by field theoretical methods. It is shown that the effective theory describing the long wavelength physics of the system is precisely the supersymmetric nonlinear {sigma} model for quasi-one-dimensional metallic wires. This proves that the analogy between chaotic systems with dynamical localization and disordered metals can indeed be exact. The role of symmetries is discussed.

  5. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2015-09-29

    In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane) of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot), and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years) participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane) than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values), with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01). Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01). It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern.

  6. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion

    PubMed Central

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Silvernail, Julia Freedman; Jandacka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane) of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot), and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years) participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane) than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values), with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01). Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01). It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern. PMID:26557189

  7. Kicking atoms with finite duration pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Julia; Chai, Shijie; Daszuta, Boris; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    The atom optics delta-kicked particle is a paradigmatic system for experimental studies of quantum chaos and classical-quantum correspondence. It consists of a cloud of laser cooled atoms exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave of far off-resonant laser light. A purely quantum phenomena in such systems are quantum resonances which transfers the atoms into a coherent superposition of largely separated momentum states. Using such large momentum transfer ``beamsplitters'' in atom interferometers may have applications in high precision metrology. The growth in momentum separation cannot be maintained indefinitely due to finite laser power. The largest momentum transfer is achieved by violating the usual delta-kick assumption. Therefore we explore the behavior of the atom optics kicked particle with finite pulse duration. We have developed a semi-classical model which shows good agreement with the full quantum description as well as our experiments. Furthermore we have found a simple scaling law that helps to identify optimal parameters for an atom interferometer. We verify this by measurements of the ``Talbot time'' (a measurement of h/m) which together with other well-known constants constitute a measurement of the fine structure constant.

  8. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.B. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  9. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J.

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ˜500 km s-1 , which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  10. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500  km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy. PMID:27419556

  11. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500  km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  12. Effects of target distance on select biomechanical parameters in taekwondo roundhouse kick.

    PubMed

    Falco, Coral; Molina-García, Javier; Alvarez, Octavio; Estevan, Isaac

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of target distance on temporal and impact force parameters that are important performance factors in taekwondo kicks. Forty-nine taekwondo athletes (age = 24.5 +/- 5.9 years; mass = 79.9 +/- 10.8 kg) were recruited: 13 male experts, 21 male novices, 8 female experts, and 6 female novices. Impact force, reaction time, and execution time were computed. Three-way repeated measure ANOVAs revealed significant 'distance' effect on impact force, reaction time, and execution time (p = 0.001). Comparisons between distance conditions revealed that taekwondo athletes kicked with higher impact force from short distance (17.6 +/- 7.5 N/kg) than from long distance (13.1 +/- 5.7 N/kg) (p < 0.001), had lower reaction time from short distance (498 +/- 90 ms) and normal distance (521 +/- 111 ms) than from long distance (602 +/- 121 ms) (p < 0.001), and had lower execution time from short distance (261 +/- 69 ms/m) than from normal distance (306 +/- 105 ms/m) or from long distance (350 +/- 106 ms/m) (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, target distance affected the kick performance; as distance increases, impact force decreased and reaction time increased. Therefore, when reaction to a simple visual stimulus is needed, kicking from a long distance is not recommended, as longer time is required to respond.

  13. Age and gender differences in kinematics of powerful instep kicks in soccer.

    PubMed

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Lees, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Soccer kicking training should be adjusted to the characteristics of the athletes. Therefore, examination of differences in kicking kinematics of females and pubertal players relative to males is worthwhile. The purpose of the study was to compare kicking kinematics and segmental sequence parameters between male, female, and pubertal players. Ten adult male, ten adult female, and ten male pubertal players participated in the study. Participants performed five consecutive kicking trials of a stationary ball, as powerful as they could. Analysis of variance showed significantly higher ball velocity, higher joint linear velocities for the knee and the hip, and higher angular velocities of the knee and the ankle for males compared to female and pubertal players (p < 0.05). Similarly, the peak joint velocity was achieved significantly closer to ball impact in males compared to other groups (p < 0.05). Males also showed a more plantarflexed ankle immediately before ball impact (p < 0.05). Females and pubertal players may benefit from skill training aiming to increase ankle plantarflexion and hip flexion prior to ball impact, and to adjust thigh and shank motion, such that the shank-foot segment travels through a higher range of motion and with a greater velocity. PMID:26211619

  14. Three-dimensional kinematic correlates of ball velocity during maximal instep soccer kicking in males.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Fewtrell, David; Taylor, Paul John; Bottoms, Lindsay; Atkins, Stephen; Hobbs, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    Achieving a high ball velocity is important during soccer shooting, as it gives the goalkeeper less time to react, thus improving a player's chance of scoring. This study aimed to identify important technical aspects of kicking linked to the generation of ball velocity using regression analyses. Maximal instep kicks were obtained from 22 academy-level soccer players using a 10-camera motion capture system sampling at 500 Hz. Three-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity segments were obtained. Regression analysis was used to identify the kinematic parameters associated with the development of ball velocity. A single biomechanical parameter; knee extension velocity of the kicking limb at ball contact Adjusted R(2) = 0.39, p ≤ 0.01 was obtained as a significant predictor of ball-velocity. This study suggests that sagittal plane knee extension velocity is the strongest contributor to ball velocity and potentially overall kicking performance. It is conceivable therefore that players may benefit from exposure to coaching and strength techniques geared towards the improvement of knee extension angular velocity as highlighted in this study. PMID:24754671

  15. Chromaticity measurement using a continuous head-tail kicking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Ranjbar, V.H.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2007-06-01

    In the classical head-tail chromaticity measurement technique, a single large kick is applied transversely to the beam. The resulting phase difference between the head and the tail is measured and the chromaticity extracted. In the continuous head-tail kicking technique, a very small transverse kick is applied to the beam and the asymptotic phase difference between the head and the tail is found to be a function of chromaticity. The advantage of this method is that since the tune tracker PLL already supplies the small transverse kicks, no extra modulation is required.

  16. Power coupler kick of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fang; E. Laxdal, R.; Zvyagintsev, V.; Yu., Chao; C., Gong; Koscielniak, S.

    2011-06-01

    The TRIUMF Injector CryoModule (ICM) adapted two superconducting single cavities as the capture section for the low injecting energy of 100 keV electrons. Coupler kick induced beam deflection and projected emittance growth are one of the prime concerns of the beam stability, especially at low energies. In low energy applications, the electron velocity changes rapidly inside the cavity, which makes the numerical analysis much more complicated. The commonly used theoretical formulas of the direct integral or the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem is not suitable for the kick calculation of β < 1 electrons. Despite that, the above mentioned kick calculation method doesn't consider injecting electron energy, the beam offset due to the coupler kick may not be negligible because of the low injection energy even if the kick is optimized. Thus the beam dynamics code TRACK is used here for the simulation of the power coupler kick perturbation. The coupler kick can be compensated for by a judicious choice of the coupler position in successive cavities from upstream to downstream. The simulation shows that because of the adiabatic damping by the following superconducting 9-cell cavity, even for the worst orbit distortion case after two capture cavities, the kick is still acceptable at the exit of the ICM after reaching 10 MeV. This paper presents the analysis of the transverse kick and the projected emittance growth induced by the coupler for β < 1 electrons. The simulated results of the TRIUMF ICM capture cavities are described and presented.

  17. Analysis of angular momentum effect on swimming kick-start performance.

    PubMed

    Taladriz, Sonia; de la Fuente-Caynzos, Blanca; Arellano, Raúl

    2016-06-14

    The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanics of rotation and the temporal, angular and kinematics variables during the aerial phase for the kick-start with respect to the grab start. Nine elite swimmers (70.0 ± 7.7 kg; 178 ± 9.4 cm; 24.5 ± 5.3 years; 824 ± 119 FINA points scoring) performed the starts on the OMEGA OSB11 starting block followed by 5 m gliding at maximum velocity. Nineteen comparisons of kinematics variables across start technique were performed with critical alpha adjusted using a Holm's correction to maintain an experiment-wise type I error rate of p <0.05. The differences were statistically evaluated by T-test and Wilcoxon test. Significant advantages for the kick-start were observed in all temporal variables (except in the flight time) and in the vertical take-off velocity. Similarities in the centre of mass angular momentum at take-off (120.89 ± 17.66, 126.61 ± 13.51 s(-1).10(-3), p-value <0.294; kick-start and grab start) caused that KS did not increase the temporal advantages obtained on the block at 5 m distance. Two different rotational movements were found for both techniques. A displacement of the rear leg and front leg on the block and during the flight respectively permits a higher lower limbs position relative to the trunk at hands entry for kick-start. However, larger rotational movement of the trunk characterized grab start. It was concluded that shorter block times and rotational displacements of the lower limbs on the block and flight phase are the key of the best performance for kick-start at 5 m distance. PMID:27113536

  18. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  19. Three-dimensional kinematic differences between the preferred and non-preferred limbs during maximal instep soccer kicking.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Fewtrell, D; Taylor, P J; Atkins, S; Bottoms, L; Hobbs, S J

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The current investigation aimed to determine whether there are differences in ball velocity and 3D kinematics when performing maximal kicks with the dominant and non-dominant limbs. Seventeen male academy soccer players performed maximal speed place kicks with their dominant and the non-dominant limbs. The 3D kinematics of the lower extremities were obtained using a 10-camera motion capture system operating at 500 Hz. Hip, knee and ankle joint kinematics were quantified in the sagittal, coronal and transverse planes and then contrasted using paired t-tests. Significantly higher ball velocities were obtained with the dominant limb. Foot linear velocity and knee extension velocity at ball contact were also found to be significantly greater in the dominant limb. That reduced ball velocities were observed between kicking limbs highlights the potential performance detriments that may occur when kicking with the non-dominant limb; thus, it is recommended that additional bilateral training be undertaken in order to attenuate this and improve overall kicking performance. PMID:25333601

  20. Differences in soccer kick kinematics between blind players and controls.

    PubMed

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p < .05) ball speed velocities (20.81m/sec) and ball/foot speed ratio values (1.35) for soccer players who were blind during the static kick compared with sighted players (16.16m/sec and 1.23, respectively). Significant group effect on shank and foot angular velocity was observed during the static kicking condition (p < .05), while no differences were found during the dynamic kicking condition (p > .05). Despite the absence of vision, systematic training could have beneficial effects on technical skills, allowing athletes who are blind to develop skill levels comparable to sighted athletes.

  1. Taking Triple Aim at the Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the USA, the Triple Aim is now being adopted in the healthcare systems of other advanced economies. Verma and Bhatia (2016) (V&B) argue that provincial governments in Canada now need to step up to the plate and lead on the implementation of a Triple Aim reform program here. Their proposals are wide ranging and ambitious, looking for governments to act as the "integrators" within the healthcare system, and lead the reforms. Our view is that, as a vision and set of goals for the healthcare system, the Triple Aim is all well and good, but as a pathway for system reform, as articulated by V&B, it misses the mark in at least three important respects. First, the emphasis on improvement driven by performance measurement and pay-for-performance is troubling and flies in the face of emerging evidence. Second, we know that scarcity can be recognized and managed, even in politically complex systems, and so we urge the Triple Aim proponents to embrace more fully notions of resource stewardship. Third, if we want to take seriously "population health" goals, we need to think very differently and consider broader health determinants; Triple Aim innovation targeted at healthcare systems will not deliver the goals. PMID:27009583

  2. Examining Impulse-Variability in Kicking.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Andrew; Molina, Sergio L; McKibben, Jonathon; Stodden, David F

    2016-07-01

    This study examined variability in kicking speed and spatial accuracy to test the impulse-variability theory prediction of an inverted-U function and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Twenty-eight 18- to 25-year-old adults kicked a playground ball at various percentages (50-100%) of their maximum speed at a wall target. Speed variability and spatial error were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with built-in polynomial contrasts. Results indicated a significant inverse linear trajectory for speed variability (p < .001, η2= .345) where 50% and 60% maximum speed had significantly higher variability than the 100% condition. A significant quadratic fit was found for spatial error scores of mean radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .474) and subject-centroid radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .453). Findings suggest variability and accuracy of multijoint, ballistic skill performance may not follow the general principles of impulse-variability theory or the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  3. Ballistic and Localized Transport for the Atom Optics Kicked Rotor in the Limit of a Vanishing Kicking Period

    SciTech Connect

    Sadgrove, Mark; Parkins, Scott; Leonhardt, Rainer; Wimberger, Sandro

    2005-05-06

    We present mean energy measurements for the atom optics kicked rotor as the kicking period tends to zero. A narrow resonance is observed marked by quadratic energy growth, in parallel with a complete freezing of the energy absorption away from the resonance peak. Both phenomena are explained by classical means, taking proper account of the atoms' initial momentum distribution.

  4. Bobbing and kicks in electromagnetism and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Harte, Abraham I.; Wald, Robert M.

    2010-05-15

    We study systems analogous to binary black holes with spin in order to gain some insight into the origin and nature of 'bobbing' motion and 'kicks' that occur in this system. Our basic tool is a general formalism for describing the motion of extended test bodies in an external electromagnetic field in curved spacetime and possibly subject to other forces. We first show that bobbing of exactly the type as observed in numerical simulations of the binary black hole system occurs in a simple system consisting of two spinning balls connected by an elastic band in flat spacetime. This bobbing may be understood as arising from the difference between a spinning body's 'lab frame centroid' and its true center of mass, and is purely 'kinematical' in the sense that it will appear regardless of the forces holding two spinning bodies in orbit. Next, we develop precise rules for relating the motion of charged bodies in a stationary external electromagnetic field in flat spacetime with the motion of bodies in a weakly curved stationary spacetime. We then consider the system consisting of two orbiting charges with magnetic dipole moment and spin at a level of approximation corresponding to 1.5 post-Newtonian order. Here we find that considerable amounts of momentum are exchanged between the bodies and the electromagnetic field; however, the bodies store this momentum entirely as ''hidden'' mechanical momentum, so that the interchange does not give rise to any net bobbing. The net bobbing that does occur is due solely to the kinematical spin effect, and we therefore argue that the net bobbing of the electromagnetic binary is not associated with possible kicks. We believe that this conclusion holds in the gravitational case as well.

  5. Swift Probes Exotic Object: 'Kicked' Black Hole or Mega Star?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Zoom into Markarian 177 and SDSS1133 and see how they compare with a simulated galaxy collision. When the central black holes in these galaxies combine, a "kick" launches the merged black hole on a...

  6. Information transmission and control in a chaotically kicked spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Lucile; Viennot, David

    2016-06-01

    We study spin chains submitted to disturbed kick trains described by classical dynamical processes. The spin chains are coupled by Heisenberg and Ising-Z models. We consider chaotic processes by using the kick irregularity in the multipartite system (the spin chain). We show that both couplings transmit the chaos disorder differently along the spin chain but conserve the horizon of coherence (when the disorder into the kick bath is transmitted to the spin chain). An example of information transmission between the spins of the chain coupled by a Heisenberg interaction shows the interest of the horizon of coherence. The use of some chosen stationary kicks disturbed by a chaotic environment makes it possible to modify the information transmission between the spins and to perform a free control during the horizon of coherence.

  7. Testing and Training of the Eggbeater Kick Movement in Water Polo: Applicability of a New Method.

    PubMed

    Melchiorri, Giovanni; Viero, Valerio; Triossi, Tamara; Tancredi, Virginia; Galvani, Christel; Bonifazi, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In water polo, many of the technical actions and the contacts with the opponent take place in quasi-vertical floating position using 2 types of lower limb actions: the eggbeater kick is used most often in fighting and passing and the breaststroke kick in jumping and throwing. The aim of this study was to identify a new system to evaluate and to train the eggbeater kick movement and to verify its applicability. Twenty amateur players and 22 elite players participated in the study. A jacket, homemade and easy to make, allowing the application of an overload submerged in water but not hindering breathing or mobility, was used. Standard anthropometry and a test consisting of different trials of the eggbeater kick action until exhaustion with an increasing overload (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 kg) were collected. Time to exhaustion and the overload estimated maximum value (OEMV) at second 2 were determined for each load. Body weight, height, and lower limb muscle performance of the elite and nonelite players were significantly different from each other (p ≤ 0.05). The effectiveness of the different measured variables in both subgroups and that of the OEMV was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Areas under the ROC curve for the different overloads were 0.72 (0.53-0.92) for 5 kg, 0.80 (0.68-0.90) for 7.5 kg, 0.87 (0.77-0.91) for 10 kg, and 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for 12.5 kg overload. Our results show that the test is sensitive enough and therefore can be used to plan and control training and injury recovery. PMID:25785702

  8. Testing and Training of the Eggbeater Kick Movement in Water Polo: Applicability of a New Method.

    PubMed

    Melchiorri, Giovanni; Viero, Valerio; Triossi, Tamara; Tancredi, Virginia; Galvani, Christel; Bonifazi, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In water polo, many of the technical actions and the contacts with the opponent take place in quasi-vertical floating position using 2 types of lower limb actions: the eggbeater kick is used most often in fighting and passing and the breaststroke kick in jumping and throwing. The aim of this study was to identify a new system to evaluate and to train the eggbeater kick movement and to verify its applicability. Twenty amateur players and 22 elite players participated in the study. A jacket, homemade and easy to make, allowing the application of an overload submerged in water but not hindering breathing or mobility, was used. Standard anthropometry and a test consisting of different trials of the eggbeater kick action until exhaustion with an increasing overload (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 kg) were collected. Time to exhaustion and the overload estimated maximum value (OEMV) at second 2 were determined for each load. Body weight, height, and lower limb muscle performance of the elite and nonelite players were significantly different from each other (p ≤ 0.05). The effectiveness of the different measured variables in both subgroups and that of the OEMV was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Areas under the ROC curve for the different overloads were 0.72 (0.53-0.92) for 5 kg, 0.80 (0.68-0.90) for 7.5 kg, 0.87 (0.77-0.91) for 10 kg, and 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for 12.5 kg overload. Our results show that the test is sensitive enough and therefore can be used to plan and control training and injury recovery.

  9. Effectiveness of roundhouse kick in elite Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Thibordee, Sutima; Prasartwuth, Orawan

    2014-06-01

    The roundhouse kick is a powerful attack in Taekwondo. Most athletes intently perform this kick for scoring in competition. Therefore, kinematic and kinetic analyzes of this kick were the topics of interest; however, they were separately investigated and rarely recorded for impact force. Our objectives were to investigate knee and ankle joint kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of leg muscle and compare them between high-impact (HI) and low-impact (LO) kicks. Sixteen male black-belt Taekwondo athletes performed five roundhouse kicks at their maximal effort. Electrogoniometer sensors measured angular motions of ankle and knee joints. Surface EMG activities were recorded for tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris muscles. Based on maximal impact forces, the athletes were classified into HI and LO groups. All athletes in both groups showed greater activation of rectus femoris than other muscles. The HI group only showed significantly less plantarflexion angles than the LO group during preimpact and impact phases (P<0.05). During the impact phase, the HI group demonstrated significantly greater biceps femoris activation than the LO group (P<0.05). In conclusion, rectus femoris activation could predominantly contribute to the powerful roundhouse kicks. Moreover, high biceps femoris co-activation and optimal angle of ankle plantarflexion of about 35° could help achieve the high impact force.

  10. Recoiling from a Kick in the Head-On Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Van Meter, James

    2007-01-01

    Recoil "kicks" induced by gravitational radiation are expected in the inspiral and merger of black holes. Recently the numerical relativity community has begun to measure the significant kicks found when both unequal masses and spins are considered. Because understanding the cause and magnitude of each component of this kick may be complicated in inspiral simulations, we consider these effects in the context of a simple test problem. We study recoils from collisions of binaries with initially head-on trajectories, starting with the simplest case of equal masses with no spin; adding spin and varying the mass ratio, both separately and jointly. We find spin-induced recoils to be significant even in head-on configurations. Additionally, it appears that the scaling of transverse kicks with spins is consistent with post-Newtonian (PN) theory, even though the kick is generated in the nonlinear merger interaction, where PN theory should not apply. This suggests that a simple heuristic description might be effective in the estimation of spin-kicks.

  11. Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Operating ground-based gravitational wave detectors and a planned instrument in space are bringing about the new field of gravitational wave astronomy. A prime source for any of these observatories is the merger of a system of two black holes. Brought together by copious losses of gravitational-wave energy, these systems merge in a burst of energy with a peak power exceeding any electromagnetic source. Observations of these sources will generate a wealth of astrophysical information, and may provide an unparalleled probe of strong-field gravitational physics, but a full interpretation of the observations will require detailed predictions from General Relativity. I will discuss recent advances in numerical simulations of binary black hole systems which are generating dramatic progress in understanding binary black hole mergers. Recent achievements include the first simulations of binary black hole systems through several orbits and merger, leading to detailed predictions for the final portion of the gravitational radiation waveforms from equal-mass mergers. For unequal-mass mergers, it has recently become possible to measure the impulsive kick imparted to the final black hole, by the asymmetry of the merger radiation. These first results announce an accelerating wave of progress soon to come from the energetic field of numerical relativity.

  12. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining. PMID:25230662

  13. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  14. Kinematic Analysis of the Instep Kick in Youth Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Kapidžić, Alen; Huremović, Tarik; Biberovic, Alija

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to establish which applied kinematic variables significantly contributed to the efficiency of the instep kick motion in soccer. The study sample comprised 13 boys (age: 13 ± 0.5 yrs; body mass: 41.50 ± 8.40 kg; body height: 151.46 ± 5.93 cm) from the FC Sloboda school of soccer. Each participant performed three kicks with maximum strength that were video recorded with two synchronized cameras (Casio Ex-F1) positioned 12 m away from the place of the kick. Data were collected by analyzing the video recordings of each kick. Data processing was performed using the APAS motion analysis system (Ariel Dynamics Inc., San Diego, CA). On the basis of the forward selection method of multiple regression analysis, we determined the correlations between the prediction variables and the selected criteria (speed of the ball; p = 0.01). On the basis of the regression coefficients, it was concluded that two variables significantly contributed to the speed of the ball: speed of the foot of the kicking leg at the time of contact with the ball (p = 0.01) and the distance between the angle support leg and center of the ball (“foot posterior displacement”) (p = 0.01). In order to achieve the best possible technical performance and, therefore, a higher speed of the ball, soccer players must pay attention to two important elements during training. First, it is necessary to position the support leg as close to the ball as possible and, second, maximize the force used in the initial phases of the kick to achieve a high speed of the kicking foot. PMID:25414742

  15. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  16. a Study on Impact Analysis of Side Kick in Taekwondo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Young-Shin; Han, Kyu-Hyun

    Taekwondo is a martial art form and sport that uses the hands and feet for attack and defense. Taekwondo basic motion is composed of the breaking, competition and poomsea motions. The side kick is one of the most important breaking motions. The side kick with the front foot can be made in two steps. In the first step, the front foot is extended forward from the back stance free-fighting position. For the second step, the rear foot is followed simultaneously. Then, the side kick is executed while the entire body weight rests on the rear foot. In this paper, the impact analysis on a human model for kicking posture was carried out. The ADAMS/LifeMOD used numerical modeling and simulation for the side kick. The numerical human models for assailant and opponent in competition motion were developed. The maximum impact force on the human body was obtained by experiment and was applied to impact simulation. As a result, the impact displacement and velocity of the numerical human model were investigated.

  17. Resonantly enhanced kicks from equatorial small mass-ratio inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Meent, Maarten

    2014-08-01

    We calculate the kick generated by an eccentric black hole binary inspiral as it evolves through a resonant orbital configuration where the precession of the system temporarily halts. As a result, the effects of the asymmetric emission of gravitational waves build up coherently over a large number of orbits. Our results are calculated using black hole perturbation theory in the limit where the ratio of the masses of the orbiting objects ɛ =m/M is small. The resulting kick velocity scales as ɛ3/2, much faster than the ɛ2 scaling of the kick generated by the final merger. For the most extreme case of a very eccentric (e˜1) inspiral around a maximally spinning black hole, we find kicks close to 30 000 ɛ3/2 km /s, enough to dislodge an intermediate-mass black hole from its host globular cluster. In reality, such extreme inspirals should be very rare. Nonetheless, the astrophysical impact of kicks in less extreme inspirals could be astrophysically significant.

  18. Slimhole early kick detection by real-time drilling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.W.; Gardner, A.G.; Brown, N.P.; Murray, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    Early kick detection has been identified as being of primary importance in slimhole wellbores. Small annular volumes means that, to maintain the integrity of the well, allowable kick volumes must be small. Gas influxes must therefore be detected and shut in rapidly. This paper describes an early kick-detection system developed for slimholes to detect and confirm the presence of an influx rapidly. This system has been run successfully on a number of slimhole operations. The early kick-detection (EKD) system is based on real-time analysis of drilling data obtained directly from a comprehensive mud-logging system on the rig. The analysis technique compares predictions of mud flow out and standpipe pressure from a dynamic wellbore model with corresponding values from the rig. The predicted values are derived from a model driven in real time by rig data such as pump rate and pipe rotation rate. Kick detection is based on deviations between measured data and idealized model predictions. The EKD system has been incorporated into an operational engineer-oriented graphical interface, which has provided easy access to the model for both input and output of data, and for the interpretation of results. This paper describes the design considerations and technology behind the EKD system and the engineering interface. The paper also presents examples of the system running in real time at a slimhole rig site.

  19. Amplitude growth due to random, correlated kicks

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.; Mills, F.

    1989-03-01

    Historically, stochastic processes, such as gas scattering or stochastic cooling, have been treated by the Fokker-Planck equation. In this approach, usually considered for one dimension only, the equation can be considered as a continuity equation for a variable which would be a constant of the motion in the absence of the stochastic process, for example, the action variable, I = epsilon/2..pi.. for betatron oscillations, where epsilon is the area of the Courant-Snyder ellipse, or energy in the case of unbunched beams, or the action variable for phase oscillations in case the beam is bunched. A flux, /Phi/, including diffusive terms can be defined, usually to second order. /Phi/ = M/sub 1/F(I) + M/sub 2/par. deltaF/par. deltaI + /hor ellipsis/. M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ are the expectation values of deltaI and (deltaI)/sup 2/ due to the individual stochastic kicks over some period of time, long enough that the variance of these quantities is sufficiently small. Then the Fokker-Planck equation is just par. deltaF/par. deltaI + par. delta/Phi//par. deltaI = 0. In many cases those where the beam distribution has already achieved its final shape, it is sufficient to find the rate of increase of by taking simple averages over the Fokker-Planck equation. At the time this work was begun, there was good knowledge of the second moment for general stochastic processes due to stochastic cooling theory, but the form of the first moment was known only for extremely wideband processes. The purposes of this note are to derive an expression relating the expected single particle amplitude growth to the noise autocorrelation function and to obtain, thereby, the form of M/sub 1/ for narrow band processes. 4 refs.

  20. Kinematic the flaying frontal rising kick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasik, Jacek

    2007-08-01

    Eventually every competitor will have to face the decision which path to take in order to achieve success. In many situations estimation is the best tool for achieving success. In order to successfully complete the rising kick test during the special techniques competition, the competitor, as well as his or hers trainer must be aware of the optimal methods in achieving the best result. It is known that in order to achieve victory one must fulfill a number of conditions different for a specific discipline, but there is also a way a certain technique that theoretically allows achieving the best result. Currently almost every one of the top competitors doesn't use the traditional technique (the scissors technique) and performs the test using the non-scissors technique. During the special technique test, the height that the competitor successfully completes, is a sum of 3 heights: the height of the competitor's center of gravity at the moment of the take-off, the change of the height of the center of gravity of the competitor during the flight, and the difference between the highest point of the center of gravity of the competitor and the height at witch the target is suspended. This is shown by the following formula: H = hsc + hw + Δh + hn. There are several factors that influence the height of the test: the speed of the center of gravity, the angle created by the vector of speed and the horizontal line, the change in altitude of the center of gravity and the force of the take-off. This thesis contains the theoretical solutions, from the physical point of view, to successfully complete this test while achieving the highest possible altitude of the jump.

  1. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  2. Measuring the force of punches and kicks among combat sport athletes using a modified punching bag with an embedded accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Krzysztof; Staniak, Zbigniew; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Łach, Patrycja; Michalski, Radosław; Gajewski, Jan; Górski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to design a new system to measure punching and kicking forces as well as reaction times in combat sport athletes. In addition, the study examined whether there were any intergender differences in the force of punches thrown by boxers and kicking forces delivered by taekwondo athletes. Boxers (male, n = 13; female, n = 7) were examined for the force of single straight punches and taekwondo athletes (male, n = 14; female, n = 14) for force of single Apdolio and Dwit Chagi kicks. The punching bag was equipped with acceleration transducers and gyroscopes embedded in a cylinder covered with a layer to absorb shock as well as a set of colour signal diodes. Value of the punching bag's acceleration was used for calculating: strike force; the punching location on the bag; and time of a strike. The relative error of force calculation was 3%; the relative error in acceleration measurement was less than 1%. The force of a straight rear-hand punch was greater than the force of a lead-hand punch among male and female boxers. The force of Apdolio kick delivered with a rear leg was greater compared to a lead leg among female and male taekwondo athletes. Significant gender differences were noticed in the force in both types of kicks. In boxers, intergender differences were reported only for the force of a punch thrown with the rear hand. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the modified punching bag is a good diagnostic tool for combat sports.

  3. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency. PMID:21840077

  4. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency.

  5. Review: Modelling of meniscus of knee joint during soccer kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Mohd; Firdaus Jaafar, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    Knee is a part of the body that located between thigh and shank is one of the most complicated and largest joints in the human body. The common injuries that occur are ligaments, meniscus or bone fracture. During soccer games, the knee is the most critical part that will easily injure due to the shock from an external impact. Torn meniscus is one of the effects. This study will investigate the effect towards the meniscus within the knee joint during soccer ball kicking. We conduct a literary review of 14 journals that discuss the general view of meniscus and also soccer kicking. The selected topics for this review paper are meniscal function, meniscal movement, meniscal tears and also instep kick. As a finding, statistics show that most meniscal tears (73%) occurred in athletes who were soccer players, basketball players or skiers. The tear is frequently happening at the medial side rather than lateral side with a percentage of 70%.

  6. Field theory of Anderson transition of the kicked rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chushun; Altland, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    We present a microscopic theory of Anderson transition in the quantum kicked rotor. The behavior of the system is shown to depend sensitively on the value of the effective Planck constant, \\tilde h . For the periodically kicked rotor, we obtain quantitative results for the time-dependent behavior of the rotor's energy that characterizes the system's localization/resonance properties. For the quasiperiodically kicked rotor, we find that for irrational values of \\tilde h/(4\\pi ) , the quantum phase transition exhibited in this system falls into the universality class of Anderson (metal-insulator) transition in disordered electronic systems; for rational values, the rotor-Anderson insulator turns into a ‘supermetal’ (i.e. the static conductivity diverges) and the system exhibits metal-supermetal transition.

  7. Relativistic effects on tidal disruption kicks of solitary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafton, E.; Tejeda, E.; Guillochon, J.; Korobkin, O.; Rosswog, S.

    2015-05-01

    Solitary stars that wander too close to their galactic centres can become tidally disrupted, if the tidal forces due to the supermassive black hole residing there overcome the self-gravity of the star. If the star is only partially disrupted, so that a fraction survives as a self-bound object, this remaining core will experience a net gain in specific orbital energy, which translates into a velocity `kick' of up to ˜103 km s-1. In this paper, we present the result of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of such partial disruptions, and analyse the velocity kick imparted on the surviving core. We compare γ = 5/3 and γ = 4/3 polytropes disrupted in both a Newtonian potential, and a generalized potential that reproduces most relativistic effects around a Schwarzschild black hole either exactly or to excellent precision. For the Newtonian case, we confirm the results of previous studies that the kick velocity of the surviving core is virtually independent of the ratio of the black hole to stellar mass, and is a function of the impact parameter β alone, reaching at most the escape velocity of the original star. For a given β, relativistic effects become increasingly important for larger black hole masses. In particular, we find that the kick velocity increases with the black hole mass, making larger kicks more common than in the Newtonian case, as low-β encounters are statistically more likely than high-β encounters. The analysis of the tidal tensor for the generalized potential shows that our results are robust lower limits on the true relativistic kick velocities, and are generally in very good agreement with the exact results.

  8. Motional stability of the quantum kicked rotor: A fidelity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, F.; Bienert, M.; Schleich, W. P.; Seligman, T. H.; Raizen, M. G.

    2005-04-01

    We propose an atom optics experiment to measure the stability of the quantum kicked rotor under perturbations of the Hamiltonian. We avail ourselves of the theory of Loschmidt echoes, i.e., we consider the overlap of a quantum state evolved in a perturbed and an unperturbed potential. Atom interferometry allows us to determine the overlap integral in amplitude and phase. A numerical analysis of the kicked rotor in various regimes shows that the quantum signatures of specific classical properties can be detected experimentally.

  9. Computational Modeling of the Dolphin Kick in Competitive Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebbeck, A.; Mark, R.; Bhanot, G.

    2005-11-01

    Numerical simulations are being used to study the fluid dynamics of the dolphin kick in competitive swimming. This stroke is performed underwater after starts and turns and involves an undulatory motion of the body. Highly detailed laser body scans of elite swimmers are used and the kinematics of the dolphin kick is recreated from videos of Olympic level swimmers. We employ a parallelized immersed boundary method to simulate the flow associated with this stroke in all its complexity. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with this stroke and hydrodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of the thrust producing mechanisms.

  10. Brief: Acoustic gas-kick detection with wellhead sonar

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.; Mjaaland, S.; Hendriks, P.; Jensen, L.K.

    1995-02-01

    The capability to detect gas kicks (gas influxes into a borehole) quickly as the borehole is being drilled is of the utmost importance for drilling safety and efficiency. In this paper a novel kick-detection system based on an acoustic pulse-echo technique is described. Computer simulations and full-scale experimental results show that this system can detect small gas influxes (typically < 1 bbl) at depths as great as 16,400 ft. The system, which has surface-based equipment, functions irrespective of mud circulation.

  11. Comets Kick up Dust in Helix Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Helix nebula, a cosmic starlet often photographed by amateur astronomers for its vivid colors and eerie resemblance to a giant eye.

    The nebula, located about 700 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius, belongs to a class of objects called planetary nebulae. Discovered in the 18th century, these colorful beauties were named for their resemblance to gas-giant planets like Jupiter.

    Planetary nebulae are the remains of stars that once looked a lot like our sun. When sun-like stars die, they puff out their outer gaseous layers. These layers are heated by the hot core of the dead star, called a white dwarf, and shine with infrared and visible colors. Our own sun will blossom into a planetary nebula when it dies in about five billion years.

    In Spitzer's infrared view of the Helix nebula, the eye looks more like that of a green monster's. Infrared light from the outer gaseous layers is represented in blues and greens. The white dwarf is visible as a tiny white dot in the center of the picture. The red color in the middle of the eye denotes the final layers of gas blown out when the star died.

    The brighter red circle in the very center is the glow of a dusty disk circling the white dwarf (the disk itself is too small to be resolved). This dust, discovered by Spitzer's infrared heat-seeking vision, was most likely kicked up by comets that survived the death of their star. Before the star died, its comets and possibly planets would have orbited the star in an orderly fashion. But when the star blew off its outer layers, the icy bodies and outer planets would have been tossed about and into each other, resulting in an ongoing cosmic dust storm. Any inner planets in the system would have burned up or been swallowed as their dying star expanded.

    So far, the Helix nebula is one of only a few dead-star systems in which evidence for comet survivors has been found.

    This image

  12. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices.

  13. Entanglement dynamics for a conditionally kicked harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrais, Eric G.; Sales, J. S.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2016-08-01

    The time evolution of the quantum kicked harmonic oscillator (KHO) is described by the Floquet operator which maps the state of the system immediately before one kick onto the state at a time immediately after the next. Quantum KHO is characterized by three parameters: the coupling strength V 0, the so-called Lamb–Dicke parameter η whose square is proportional to the effective Planck constant {{\\hslash }}{{eff}}, and the ratio T of the natural frequency of the oscillator and the kick frequency. To a given coupling strength and depending on T being a natural or irrational number, the phase space of the classical kicked oscillator can display different behaviors, as for example, stochastic webs or quasicrystal structures, thus showing a chaotic or localized behavior that is mirrored in the quantum phase space. On the other hand, the classical limit is studied letting {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} become negligible. In this paper we investigate how the ratio T, considered as integer, rational or irrational, influences the entanglement dynamics of the quantum KHO and study how the entanglement dynamics behaves when varying either V 0 or {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} parameters.

  14. Entanglement dynamics for a conditionally kicked harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrais, Eric G.; Sales, J. S.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2016-08-01

    The time evolution of the quantum kicked harmonic oscillator (KHO) is described by the Floquet operator which maps the state of the system immediately before one kick onto the state at a time immediately after the next. Quantum KHO is characterized by three parameters: the coupling strength V 0, the so-called Lamb-Dicke parameter η whose square is proportional to the effective Planck constant {{\\hslash }}{{eff}}, and the ratio T of the natural frequency of the oscillator and the kick frequency. To a given coupling strength and depending on T being a natural or irrational number, the phase space of the classical kicked oscillator can display different behaviors, as for example, stochastic webs or quasicrystal structures, thus showing a chaotic or localized behavior that is mirrored in the quantum phase space. On the other hand, the classical limit is studied letting {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} become negligible. In this paper we investigate how the ratio T, considered as integer, rational or irrational, influences the entanglement dynamics of the quantum KHO and study how the entanglement dynamics behaves when varying either V 0 or {{\\hslash }}{{eff}} parameters.

  15. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices. PMID:27155962

  16. Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  17. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  18. Pulsar Kicks via Chiral Asymmetry of Magnetized Stellar Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shovkovy, I.

    2015-11-01

    Unusual chiral properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a strong magnetic field are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is placed on the dynamical generation of the chiral asymmetry in dense stellar matter. The corresponding asymmetry provides a natural mechanism for the strong pulsar kicks.

  19. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  20. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  1. Is soccer kick performance better after a "faking" (cutting) maneuver task?

    PubMed

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2011-03-01

    Cutting in soccer is a common skill used to avoid the opponent's pressure but the potential effects of such a skill on instep kicking performance have not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in lower limb biomechanics between straight approach soccer kicks and kicks performed following a cutting maneuver task. Ten young amateur soccer players performed, in a random order, instep kicks after a two-step straight approach run and kicks after a double "faking" cutting maneuver task. The results showed that kicking after a cutting maneuver task displayed significantly lower ball speed values compared with the straight approach instep kicking (16.73 vs. 19.78 m/s, respectively; p < 0.05). Moreover, analysis of variance showed significant differences between the two kicking conditions in ankle, knee and hip joint displacements. The present study indicated that performing instep kicks after a double-cutting maneuver reduces ball and foot speed probably due to increasing joint frontal and transverse plane rotations. Improvements in the performance of the cutting maneuver task through training might result in better transfer of energy and speed to the kicking task thus permitting players to perform more powerful kicks under realistic game conditions. PMID:21560750

  2. Neutron star kicks and their relationship to supernovae ejecta mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume that the velocity is given by vkick = α (Mejecta/Mremnant) + β . To test this simple relationship, we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different α and β values, and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of α = 70 km s-1 and β = 110 km s-1 reproduce the Hobbs et al. observed two-dimensional velocities, and α = 70 km s-1 and β = 120 km s-1 reproduce their inferred three-dimensional velocity distribution for nearby single neutron stars with ages less than 3 Myr. After testing isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis `kick' orientations, we find no statistical preference for a `kick' orientation. While ejecta mass cannot be the only factor that determines the velocity of supernova compact remnants, we suggest that it is a significant contributor and that the ejecta-based `kick' should replace the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution currently used in many population synthesis codes.

  3. Neutron Star Kicks and their Relationship to Supernovae Ejecta Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume the velocity is given by vkick = α (Mejecta/Mremnant) + β . To test this simple relationship we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different α and β values and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of α = 70 km s-1 and β = 110 km s-1 reproduce the Hobbs et al. (2005) observed 2-dimensional velocities and α = 70 km s-1 and β = 120 km s-1 reproduce their inferred 3-dimensional velocity distribution for nearby single neutron stars with ages less than 3 Myrs. After testing isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis `kick' orientations, we find no statistical preference for a `kick' orientation. While ejecta mass cannot be the only factor that determines the velocity of supernovae compact remnants, we suggest it is a significant contributor and that the ejecta based `kick' should replace the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution currently used in many population synthesis codes.

  4. Adaptive changes in locust kicking and jumping behaviour during development

    PubMed

    Norman

    1995-01-01

    The hind, or metathoracic, leg of a locust is specialised, enabling it to store energy that is used to extend the tibia rapidly during kicking and jumping; behaviours which share a common motor pattern. This study describes developmental changes in kicking and jumping behaviour and relates these changes to the development of the exoskeleton and jumping performance. In mature adults and intermoult larvae, the exoskeleton is strong and kicks can readily be elicited. Before and after the adult moult, when the exoskeleton is weak, kicks can be elicited less frequently, thus avoiding skeletal damage. At these times, animals do not generate the adult motor pattern for kicking, so that extension of the tibia is powered by direct muscle contraction, rather than through the release of stored energy. The muscles of all newly moulted animals are capable of generating sufficient force to damage the leg, but 14 days later the muscles can rarely generate sufficient force to damage the leg. To mimic the forces generated during the preparation for a kick, when the flexor and extensor tibiae muscles co-contract, the extensor muscle was stimulated electrically at a range of frequencies and the nature and occurrence of the resulting mechanical damage to components of the skeleton were assessed over a 14 day period following the adult moult. In newly moulted animals, the proximal femur partially collapses and thus protects the leg from damage before the muscles generate sufficient force to damage chronically other components of the leg. This partial collapse of the femur is reversible when the extensor muscle is activated at low frequency, but high frequencies cause permanent damage. The muscles of all animals 1 day after the moult are also capable of generating sufficient force to damage the leg, but the proximal tibia breaks most commonly in the region where the extensor muscle apodeme attaches. 5 days after the moult, the muscles in only 50 % of animals can damage the leg and most

  5. Transverse emittance dilution due to coupler kicks in linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brandon; Hoffstaetter, Georg H.

    2007-11-01

    One of the main concerns in the design of low emittance linear accelerators (linacs) is the preservation of beam emittance. Here we discuss one possible source of emittance dilution, the coupler kick, due to transverse electromagnetic fields in the accelerating cavities of the linac caused by the power coupler geometry. In addition to emittance growth, the coupler kick also produces orbit distortions. It is common wisdom that emittance growth from coupler kicks can be strongly reduced by using two couplers per cavity mounted opposite each other or by having the couplers of successive cavities alternate from above to below the beam pipe so as to cancel each individual kick. While this is correct, including two couplers per cavity or alternating the coupler location requires large technical changes and increased cost for superconducting cryomodules where cryogenic pipes are arranged parallel to a string of several cavities. We therefore analyze consequences of alternate coupler placements. We show here that alternating the coupler location from above to below compensates the emittance growth as well as the orbit distortions. For sufficiently large Q values, alternating the coupler location from before to after the cavity leads to a cancellation of the orbit distortion but not of the emittance growth, whereas alternating the coupler location from before and above to behind and below the cavity cancels the emittance growth but not the orbit distortion. We show that cancellations hold for sufficiently large Q values. These compensations hold even when each cavity is individually detuned, e.g., by microphonics. Another effective method for reducing coupler kicks that is studied is the optimization of the phase of the coupler kick so as to minimize the effects on emittance from each coupler. This technique is independent of the coupler geometry but relies on operating on crest. A final technique studied is symmetrization of the cavity geometry in the coupler region with

  6. The mere presence of a goalkeeper affects the accuracy of penalty kicks.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Martina; van der Kamp, John; Ranvaud, Ronald; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2013-01-01

    The keeper-independent strategy, in which a football penalty kicker selects a target location in advance and ignores the goalkeeper's actions during the run-up, has been suggested to be the preferable strategy for taking a penalty kick. The current in-field experiment investigated the question of whether the goalkeeper can indeed be ignored. Ten intermediate-level football players were instructed to adopt a goalkeeper-independent strategy and to perform penalty kicks directed at one of two targets located in the upper corners of the goal under three conditions: without a goalkeeper, in the presence of a goalkeeper (who tried to save the ball), and in the presence of a goalkeeper who was informed by the penalty kickers where they intended to direct the ball. The mere presence of a goalkeeper impaired shot accuracy. The shots were more centralised, that is, biased toward the goalkeeper. The effects were enhanced for the condition in which the penalty kicker knew the goalkeeper was knowledgeable about ball direction. The findings were consistent with the response activation model that holds that aiming at a target can be biased toward salient visual non-targets. The implications for adopting and practising goalkeeper-independent strategies are discussed.

  7. Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan Josef

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p < 0.05) and were maintained for hip/knee flexion and extension. Cycle length increase was correlated to increases in average poling force (r = 0.71) and arm swing time (r = 0.88; both p < 0.05). The main speed adaptation was achieved by changes in double poling technique; however, leg push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  8. Segment coupling and coordination variability analyses of the roundhouse kick in taekwondo relative to the initial stance position.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Jandacka, Daniel; Falco, Coral

    2016-09-01

    The initial stance position (ISP) has been observed as a factor affecting the execution technique during taekwondo kicks. In the present study, authors aimed to analyse a roundhouse kick to the chest by measuring movement coordination and the variability of coordination and comparing this across the different ISP (0°, 45° and 90°). Eight experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in random order from every of the three relative positions. The execution was divided into three phases (stance, first swing and second swing phase). A motion capture system was used to measure athletes' angular displacement of pelvis and thigh. A modified vector coding technique was used to quantify the coordination of the segments which contributed to the overall movement. The variability of this coordination (CV) for each ISP was also calculated. Comparative analysis showed that during the stance phase in the transverse plane, athletes coordinated movement of the trunk and thigh with a higher frequency of in-phase and lower frequency of exclusive thigh rotation in the 0° stance than the 90° stance position (P < 0.05). CV was also influenced by the different ISP. During the first swing and the majority of the second swing phase, predominant in-phase coordination of the pelvis and thigh was observed. Including exercises that require in-phase movement could not only help athletes to acquire coordination stability but also efficiency. The existence of a constraint such as ISP implies an increase of the variability when the athletes have to kick from ISP they are not used to adopt (i.e., 0° and 90° ISP) as an evidence of adaptability in the athletes' execution technique.

  9. Segment coupling and coordination variability analyses of the roundhouse kick in taekwondo relative to the initial stance position.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Freedman Silvernail, Julia; Jandacka, Daniel; Falco, Coral

    2016-09-01

    The initial stance position (ISP) has been observed as a factor affecting the execution technique during taekwondo kicks. In the present study, authors aimed to analyse a roundhouse kick to the chest by measuring movement coordination and the variability of coordination and comparing this across the different ISP (0°, 45° and 90°). Eight experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in random order from every of the three relative positions. The execution was divided into three phases (stance, first swing and second swing phase). A motion capture system was used to measure athletes' angular displacement of pelvis and thigh. A modified vector coding technique was used to quantify the coordination of the segments which contributed to the overall movement. The variability of this coordination (CV) for each ISP was also calculated. Comparative analysis showed that during the stance phase in the transverse plane, athletes coordinated movement of the trunk and thigh with a higher frequency of in-phase and lower frequency of exclusive thigh rotation in the 0° stance than the 90° stance position (P < 0.05). CV was also influenced by the different ISP. During the first swing and the majority of the second swing phase, predominant in-phase coordination of the pelvis and thigh was observed. Including exercises that require in-phase movement could not only help athletes to acquire coordination stability but also efficiency. The existence of a constraint such as ISP implies an increase of the variability when the athletes have to kick from ISP they are not used to adopt (i.e., 0° and 90° ISP) as an evidence of adaptability in the athletes' execution technique. PMID:26805571

  10. Kicked-Harper model versus on-resonance double-kicked rotor model: From spectral difference to topological equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailong; Ho, Derek Y. H.; Lawton, Wayne; Wang, Jiao; Gong, Jiangbin

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have established that, in addition to the well-known kicked-Harper model (KHM), an on-resonance double-kicked rotor (ORDKR) model also has Hofstadter's butterfly Floquet spectrum, with strong resemblance to the standard Hofstadter spectrum that is a paradigm in studies of the integer quantum Hall effect. Earlier it was shown that the quasienergy spectra of these two dynamical models (i) can exactly overlap with each other if an effective Planck constant takes irrational multiples of 2π and (ii) will be different if the same parameter takes rational multiples of 2π. This work makes detailed comparisons between these two models, with an effective Planck constant given by 2πM/N, where M and N are coprime and odd integers. It is found that the ORDKR spectrum (with two periodic kicking sequences having the same kick strength) has one flat band and N-1 nonflat bands with the largest bandwidth decaying in a power law as ˜KN+2, where K is a kick strength parameter. The existence of a flat band is strictly proven and the power-law scaling, numerically checked for a number of cases, is also analytically proven for a three-band case. By contrast, the KHM does not have any flat band and its bandwidths scale linearly with K. This is shown to result in dramatic differences in dynamical behavior, such as transient (but extremely long) dynamical localization in ORDKR, which is absent in the KHM. Finally, we show that despite these differences, there exist simple extensions of the KHM and ORDKR model (upon introducing an additional periodic phase parameter) such that the resulting extended KHM and ORDKR model are actually topologically equivalent, i.e., they yield exactly the same Floquet-band Chern numbers and display topological phase transitions at the same kick strengths. A theoretical derivation of this topological equivalence is provided. These results are also of interest to our current understanding of quantum-classical correspondence considering that the

  11. Coordination changes associated with practice of a soccer kick.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D I; Sidaway, B

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in coordination associated with practice of a soccer kick. Video records were collected on 6 novice, right-footed soccer players prior to and after 20 regularly scheduled kicking practice sessions. Three experienced players were also videotaped for comparison. Movement of the right leg was digitized and analyzed using motion analysis software. As a result of practice, subjects were able to significantly increase the maximum resultant linear velocity of the foot, and these increases were accompanied by changes in the pattern of coordination underlying the movement. These changes were assessed qualitatively through the topological characteristics of the relative motions of the hip and knee and quantitatively through three different timing variables. The results provide some support for Bernstein's (1967) ideas on the acquisition of skilled behavior as well as for the two-stage model of motor learning proposed by Newell (1985).

  12. [Complex fracture of the larynx caused by a horse kick].

    PubMed

    Kilgué, A; Teudt, I U; Grundmann, T; Püschel, K

    2014-12-01

    Every blunt laryngeal trauma requires examination by an ENT physician and may necessitate observation for a number of hours. The literature shows a heterogeneous picture regarding airway management (tracheotomy vs. intubation). Extremely violence forces such as horse kicks require a tracheotomy, as demonstrated by case studies. In such cases, a high level of responsibility lies with the emergency physician providing the initial treatment. We present the case of a 37-year-old horse trainer, who suffered a horse kick to the larynx with a complex laryngeal fracture. Intubation of the patient by the emergency physician would most probably have led to incorrect placement of the tube or complete displacement of larynx and trachea. In addition to securing a vital airway by tracheotomy, a timely reconstruction of the airways, where necessary by employing the temporary insertion of a tracheal stent, is the treatment of choice. The latter therapy should be applied within the first 6 hours following the accident.

  13. Propulsive efficiency of the underwater dolphin kick in humans.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Fish, Frank; Mark, Russell

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional fully unsteady computational fluid dynamic simulations of five Olympic-level swimmers performing the underwater dolphin kick are used to estimate the swimmer's propulsive efficiencies. These estimates are compared with those of a cetacean performing the dolphin kick. The geometries of the swimmers and the cetacean are based on laser and CT scans, respectively, and the stroke kinematics is based on underwater video footage. The simulations indicate that the propulsive efficiency for human swimmers varies over a relatively wide range from about 11% to 29%. The efficiency of the cetacean is found to be about 56%, which is significantly higher than the human swimmers. The computed efficiency is found not to correlate with either the slender body theory or with the Strouhal number.

  14. Propulsive efficiency of the underwater dolphin kick in humans.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Fish, Frank; Mark, Russell

    2009-05-01

    Three-dimensional fully unsteady computational fluid dynamic simulations of five Olympic-level swimmers performing the underwater dolphin kick are used to estimate the swimmer's propulsive efficiencies. These estimates are compared with those of a cetacean performing the dolphin kick. The geometries of the swimmers and the cetacean are based on laser and CT scans, respectively, and the stroke kinematics is based on underwater video footage. The simulations indicate that the propulsive efficiency for human swimmers varies over a relatively wide range from about 11% to 29%. The efficiency of the cetacean is found to be about 56%, which is significantly higher than the human swimmers. The computed efficiency is found not to correlate with either the slender body theory or with the Strouhal number. PMID:19388788

  15. Controlled decoherence in a quantum Lévy kicked rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomerus, Henning; Lutz, Eric

    2008-06-01

    We develop a theory describing the dynamics of quantum kicked rotators (modeling cold atoms in a pulsed optical field) which are subjected to combined amplitude and timing noise generated by a renewal process (acting as an engineered reservoir). For waiting-time distributions of variable exponent (Lévy noise), we demonstrate the existence of a regime of nonexponential loss of phase coherence. In this regime, the momentum dynamics is subdiffusive, which also manifests itself in a non-Gaussian limiting distribution and a fractional power-law decay of the inverse participation ratio. The purity initially decays with a stretched exponential which is followed by two regimes of power-law decay with different exponents. The averaged logarithm of the fidelity probes the sprinkling distribution of the renewal process. These analytical results are confirmed by numerical computations on quantum kicked rotators subjected to noise events generated by a Yule-Simon distribution.

  16. The Centaur Director kicks off Environment and Energy Awareness Week

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Environmental and Energy Awareness Week at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex kicked off with a visit by Center Director Roy Bridges and the Awareness team, who presented him with a t-shirt. Exhibits and displays by KSC and 45th Space Wing organizations detail accomplishments in minimizing environmental impacts and conserving resources. They are on view April 19 - 22 at various sites at KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  17. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Clothed in her traditional African garb, Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies, welcomes the audience on Feb. 3 at the kick-off of African-American History Month. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  18. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  19. The Role of Primordial Kicks on Black Hole Merger Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micic, M.; Sigurdsson, S.; Abel, T.

    2005-12-01

    Primordial stars are likely to be very massive, form in isolation, and will likely leave black holes as remnants in the centers of their host dark matter halos. Such early black holes, could be the seed black holes for the many supermassive black holes found in galaxies in the local universe. If they exist, their mergers with nearby supermassive black holes may be a prime signal for long wavelength gravitational wave detectors. We simulate formation of black holes in the center of high redshift dark matter halos and explore implications of initial natal kick velocities conjectured by some formation models. The central concentration of early black holes in present day galaxies is reduced if they are born even with moderate kicks of tens of km/s. The modest kicks allow the black holes to leave their parent halo, which consequently leads to dynamical friction being less effective on the lower mass black holes as compared to those still embedded in their parent halos. Therefore, merger rates may be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Using analytical and illustrative cosmological N body simulations we quantify the role of natal kicks of black holes formed from massive metal free stars on their merger rates with supermassive black holes in present day galaxies. Our results also apply to black holes ejected by the gravitational slingshot mechanism. We acknowledge the support of the Center for Gravitational Wave Physics funded by the NSF under cooperative agreement PHY 01-14375, NSF grants PHY 98-00973 and PHY 02-44788, the Zaccheus Daniel Fellowship, and the Eberly College of Science.

  20. Supernova Kicks, Magnetic Braking, and Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogera, V.; Kolb, U.; King, A. R.

    1998-09-01

    We consider the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) containing accreting neutron stars via the helium star supernova channel. The predicted relative number of short-period transients provides a sensitive test of the input physics in this process. We investigate the effect of varying mean kick velocities, orbital angular momentum loss efficiencies, and common-envelope ejection efficiencies on the subpopulation of short-period systems, both transient and persistent. Guided by the thermal-viscous disk instability model in irradiation-dominated disks, we posit that short-period transients have donors close to the end of core hydrogen burning. We find that with increasing mean kick velocity the overall short-period fraction, s, grows, while the fraction r of systems with evolved donors among short-period systems drops. This effect, acting in opposite directions on these two fractions, allows us to constrain models of LMXB formation through comparison with observational estimates of s and r. Without fine tuning or extreme assumptions about evolutionary parameters, consistency between models and current observations is achieved for a regime of intermediate average kick magnitudes of about 100-200 km s-1, provided that (1) orbital braking for systems with donor masses in the range 1-1.5 M⊙ is weak, i.e., much less effective than a simple extrapolation of standard magnetic braking beyond 1.0 M⊙ would suggest, and (2) the efficiency of common-envelope ejection is low.

  1. Centrifugal Distortion Causes Anderson Localization in Laser Kicked Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floss, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2014-05-01

    The periodically kicked 2D rotor is a textbook model in nonlinear dynamics. The classical kicked rotor can exhibit truly chaotic motion, whilst in the quantum regime this chaotic motion is suppressed by a mechanism similar to Anderson Localization. Up to now, these effects have been mainly observed in an atom optics analogue of a quantum rotor: cold atoms in a standing light wave. We demonstrate that common linear molecules (like N2, O2, CO2, ...), kicked by a train of short linearly polarized laser pulses, can exhibit a new mechanism for dynamical Anderson Localization due to their non-rigidity. When the pulses are separated by the rotational revival time trev = πℏ / B , the angular momentum J grows ballistically (Quantum Resonance). We show that, due to the centrifugal distortion of fast spinning molecules, above some critical value J =Jcr the Quantum Resonance is suppressed via the mechanism of Anderson Localization. This leads to a non-sinusoidal oscillation of the angular momentum distribution, which may be experimentally observed even at ambient conditions by using current techniques for laser molecular alignment.

  2. Evaporation and accretion of extrasolar comets following white dwarf kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Metzger, Brian D.; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Several lines of observational evidence suggest that white dwarfs receive small birth kicks due to anisotropic mass-loss. If other stars possess extrasolar analogues to the Solar Oort cloud, the orbits of comets in such clouds will be scrambled by white dwarf natal kicks. Although most comets will be unbound, some will be placed on low angular momentum orbits vulnerable to sublimation or tidal disruption. The dusty debris from these comets will manifest itself as an IR excess temporarily visible around newborn white dwarfs; examples of such discs may already have been seen in the Helix Nebula, and around several other young white dwarfs. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope may distinguish this hypothesis from alternatives such as a dynamically excited Kuiper Belt analogue. Although competing hypotheses exist, the observation that ≳15 per cent of young white dwarfs possess such discs, if interpreted as indeed being cometary in origin, provides indirect evidence that low-mass gas giants (thought necessary to produce an Oort cloud) are common in the outer regions of extrasolar planetary systems. Hydrogen abundances in the atmospheres of older white dwarfs can, if sufficiently low, also be used to place constraints on the joint parameter space of natal kicks and exo-Oort cloud models.

  3. Kick-Starting the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Ally; Joyce, Chris; Spiller, Lorraine; Hipkins, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Science is the core strand of science in "The New Zealand Curriculum". This resource aims to support teachers to understand the different aspects of the Nature of Science and what this might mean in practice. All aspects of this strand are covered: Understanding about science; Investigating in science; Communicating in science; and…

  4. CONSTRAINTS ON NATAL KICKS IN GALACTIC DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki E-mail: b-willems@northwestern.ed

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently eight confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semimajor axis, and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all systems, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star (NS2) and the magnitude of the supernova kick it received at birth, with the primary goal to understand the core-collapse mechanism leading to neutron star formation. Compared to earlier studies, we use a novel method to address the uncertainty related to the unknown radial velocity of the observed systems. For PSR B1534+12 and PSR B1913+16, the kick magnitudes are 150-270 km s{sup -1} and 190-450 km s{sup -1} (with 95% confidence), respectively, and the progenitor masses of the NS2 are 1.3-3.4 M{sub sun} and 1.4-5.0 M{sub sun} (95%), respectively. These suggest that the NS2 was formed by an iron core-collapse supernova in both systems. For PSR J0737 - 3039, on the other hand, the kick magnitude is only 5-120 km s{sup -1} (95%), and the progenitor mass of the NS2 is 1.3-1.9 M{sub sun} (95%). Because of the relatively low progenitor mass and kick magnitude, the formation of the NS2 in PSR J0737 - 3039 is potentially connected to an electron capture supernova of a massive O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. For the remaining five Galactic DNS, the kick magnitude ranges from several tens to several hundreds of km s{sup -1}, and the progenitor mass of the NS2 can be as low as {approx}1.5 M{sub sun} or as high as {approx}8 M{sub sun}. Therefore, in these systems it is not clear which type of supernova is more likely to form the NS2.

  5. WAVEGUIDE COUPLER KICK TO BEAM BUNCH AND CURRENT DEPENDENCY ON SRF CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Haipeng Wang; Charles Reece; Robert Rimmer

    2008-02-11

    JLAB SRF cavities employ waveguide type fundamental power couplers (FPC). The FPC design for the 7-cell upgrade cavities was optimized to minimize the dipole field kick. For continuous wave (CW) operation, the forwarding RF power will be at different magnitude to drive the different beam current and cavity gradient. This introduces some deviation from optimized FPC field for varying beam loading. This article analyzes the beam behavior both in centroid kick and head-tail kick under different beam loading conditions.

  6. Examining the time course of attention in a soccer kick using a dual task paradigm.

    PubMed

    Carr, Brendan M; Etnier, Jennifer L; Fisher, Kevin M

    2013-02-01

    A dual-task paradigm was implemented using a repeated measures design to determine the time course of attention demands during performance of a soccer penalty kick. Experienced soccer players (N=15) were asked to perform a 12-yard soccer-style penalty kick. As part of the dual task paradigm, participants were instructed to respond to an audible cue that was administered during one of three probe positions (PP) during the penalty kick. Probe position 1 (PP1) was operationalized as the participant's second to last step (taken with the non-kicking foot), probe position 2 (PP2) was the next to last step (taken with the kicking foot), and probe position 3 (PP3) was the last step (taken with the non-kicking, or "plant foot") just prior to the kicking foot making contact with the ball. Kicks were taken with both the dominant foot (DF) and the non-dominant foot (NDF). It was hypothesized that reaction time to the audible cue (RT) would be slowest at the beginning and end of the performance of the motor skill in both the DF and NDF situations and that RT would be slower when kicking with the NDF, but that the kicking foot would not affect the pattern of attentional demands. Results indicated that RT was slowest at PP1 for both the DF and the NDF and that RT was significantly slower at PP1 for the DF than for the NDF. This suggests that soccer players engage in more complex planning during the preparatory phases when executing a kick with their dominant foot. Future research should be designed to further our understanding of foot dominance with regard to kicking and to explore attentional demands of striking tasks.

  7. Neutrino-Triggered Asymmetric Magnetorotational Pulsar Natal Kick Cherry-Stone Shooting" Mechanism)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-11-01

    The sterile neutrino mechanisms for natal neutron stars kicks are re-analyzed. It is shown that the magnetic field strengths needed for a kick were underestimated essentially. Another mechanism with standard neutrinos is discussed where the outgoing neutrino flux in a supernova explosion with a strong toroidal magnetic field generation causes the field redistribution in "upper" and "lower" hemispheres of the supernova envelope. The resulting magnetic field pressure asymmetry causes the pulsar natal kick.

  8. Campaign Seeks Buy-In for High School Reforms: "Stand Up" Aims to Rouse Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    Kicked off the week of April 10, 2006 with a big plug on "The Oprah Winfrey Show," a new campaign spearheaded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is aiming to drum up public action to address what its organizers see as a crisis in America's public high schools. The Stand Up campaign comes as high schools have emerged as a focus of public-policy…

  9. Modifications to the pulsar kick velocity due to magnetic interactions in dense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhya, S. P.; Roy, P. K.; Dutt-Mazumder, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    In this work we calculate the pulsar kick velocity of a magnetized neutron star (NS) composed of a degenerate quark matter core with non-Fermi liquid (NFL) correction. Both the leading order (LO) and next to LO (NLO) corrections to the kick velocity have been incorporated. In addition, the NFL corrections to the specific heat of magnetized quark matter have been presented. This has been taken into account to calculate the kick velocity of the NS. The results show a significant departure from the normal Fermi liquid estimates. The relation between radius and temperature has been shown with a kick velocity of 100 km s-1 with and without NFL corrections.

  10. Early visual cues associated with a directional place kick in soccer.

    PubMed

    Lees, Adrian; Owens, Liam

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to establish postural cues in kicking that may be of use to goalkeepers. Eight male soccer players (age 20.5 +/- 1.1 yrs; height 1.78 +/- 0.053 m; mass 75.18 +/- 9.66 kg) performed three types of kick: a low side-foot kick to the left hand corner of the goal, a low side-foot kick straight ahead, and a low instep kick straight ahead. Kicks were recorded by an optoelectronic motion analysis system at 240 Hz. At kicking foot take-off (about 200 ms before ball contact) the variables which were significantly different and could act as cues were support foot progression angle, pelvis rotation, and kicking hip and ankle flexion. The support foot progression angle was considered to be the most valuable of these variables as its angle coincided with the direction of ball projection. The other variables were less clear in their interpretation and so less valuable for a goalkeeper to use for decision making. Cues appearing after support foot contact were thought unlikely to be of value to a goalkeeper in their decision making. These include kicking leg knee flexion angle, and support leg shank and thigh angles.

  11. Effects of an Eight-Week Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Program on Kicking Speed and Range of Motion in Young Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Taner; Agopyan, Ani

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the 8-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) exercises that were carried out on lower extremity on kicking speed and range of motion (ROM) performance in young soccer players. Twenty-four soccer players (15.6 ± 0.4 years) were selected from nonprofessional young soccer team. All players' height, weight, ROM (ankle plantar and dorsal flexions, hip flexions and extensions), and kicking speed tests were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. The participants were divided into PNF (n = 11) and control (n = 11) groups. Both groups continued technical and tactical soccer training together 3 days (120 min·d) a week. The PNF group attended additionally unassisted PNF-contract-relax (CR) stretching through 8 weeks, 2 days per week, 20 minutes' session duration. The control group did not participate in any additional PNF stretching sessions. There were significant differences in kicking speed, right ankle active dorsal flexion, and hip active flexion (right and left) (p ≤ 0.05) of the PNF group, whereas there were no significant differences between groups in left ankle active dorsal flexion, hip active extension (right and left), and ankle active plantar flexion (right and left) (p > 0.05). We conclude that an 8-week unassisted PNF-CR improved on the ROM of particular lower extremity joints and the kicking speed in the young male soccer players. These results provide strength and conditioning coaches with a practical way to use unassisted PNF-CR in warm-up for positive improvements in the ROM of the hip and ankle and the applications of the kicking speed.

  12. Classical momentum diffusion in double-{delta}-kicked particles

    SciTech Connect

    Stocklin, M. M. A.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2006-08-15

    We investigate the classical chaotic diffusion of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced pulses ('kicks') from standing waves of light (the 2{delta}-KP). Recent experimental studies with cold atoms implied an underlying classical diffusion of a type very different from the well-known paradigm of Hamiltonian chaos, the standard map. The kicks in each pair are separated by a small time interval {epsilon}<<1, which together with the kick strength K, characterizes the transport. Phase space for the 2{delta}-KP is partitioned into momentum 'cells' partially separated by momentum-trapping regions where diffusion is slow. We present here an analytical derivation of the classical diffusion for a 2{delta}-KP including all important correlations which were used to analyze the experimental data. We find an asymptotic (t{yields}{infinity}) regime of 'hindered' diffusion: while for the standard map the diffusion rate, for K>>1, D{approx}K{sup 2}/2[1-2J{sub 2}(K){center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}] oscillates about the uncorrelated rate D{sub 0}=K{sup 2}/2, we find analytically, that the 2{delta}-KP can equal, but never diffuses faster than, a random walk rate. We argue this is due to the destruction of the important classical 'accelerator modes' of the standard map. We analyze the experimental regime 0.1 < or approx. K{epsilon} < or approx. 1, where quantum localization lengths L{approx}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup -0.75} are affected by fractal cell boundaries. We find an approximate asymptotic diffusion rate D{proportional_to}K{sup 3}{epsilon}, in correspondence to a D{proportional_to}K{sup 3} regime in the standard map associated with the 'golden-ratio' cantori.

  13. Theory of the Anderson transition in the quasiperiodic kicked rotor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chushun; Altland, Alexander; Garst, Markus

    2011-08-12

    We present the first microscopic theory of transport in quasiperiodically driven environments ("kicked rotors"), as realized in recent atom optic experiments. We find that the behavior of these systems depends sensitively on the value of a dimensionless Planck constant h: for irrational values of h/(4π) they fall into the universality class of disordered electronic systems and we describe the corresponding localization phenomena. In contrast, for rational values the rotor-Anderson insulator acquires an infinite (static) conductivity and turns into a "supermetal." We discuss the ensuing possibility of a metal-supermetal quantum phase transition.

  14. Theory of the Anderson transition in the quasiperiodic kicked rotor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chushun; Altland, Alexander; Garst, Markus

    2011-08-12

    We present the first microscopic theory of transport in quasiperiodically driven environments ("kicked rotors"), as realized in recent atom optic experiments. We find that the behavior of these systems depends sensitively on the value of a dimensionless Planck constant h: for irrational values of h/(4π) they fall into the universality class of disordered electronic systems and we describe the corresponding localization phenomena. In contrast, for rational values the rotor-Anderson insulator acquires an infinite (static) conductivity and turns into a "supermetal." We discuss the ensuing possibility of a metal-supermetal quantum phase transition. PMID:21902396

  15. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...\\ 76 FR 62894 (Oct. 11, 2011). \\3\\ See ``Findings and Recommendations of the SOFA Working Group... Federal Railroad Administration Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching... a railroad employee kicking cars and subsequently going between rolling equipment. In response,...

  16. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  17. Kick Stick Hands-on Challenge: Discover Circuits with PBS's "Design Squad Nation"[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the "Kick Stick" activity from Design Squad Nation, in which kids turn a wooden paint stirrer and circuit into a motorized, spinning arm--then use it to kick a Ping-Pong[R] ball across the floor. Teachers can enrich their students' exploration of circuits and emphasize the engineering design process with "Design Squad…

  18. Test of a General Formula for Black Hole Gravitational Wave Kicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Meter, James R.; Miller, M. Coleman; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the gravitational wave kick velocity in the orbital plane of coalescing black holes has been understood for some time, apparently conflicting formulae have been proposed for the dominant outof- plane kick, each a good fit to different data sets. This is important to resolve because it is only the out-of-plane kicks that can reach more than 500 km s-l and can thus eject merged remnants from galaxies. Using a different ansatz for the out-of-plane kick, we show that we can fit almost all existing data to better than 5%. This is good enough for any astrophysical calculation and shows that the previous apparent conflict was only because the two data sets explored different aspects of the kick parameter space.

  19. Deviations from early-time quasilinear behavior for the atom-optics kicked rotor near the classical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Mullins, Terry; Parkins, Scott; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2005-02-01

    We present experimental measurements of the mean energy for the atom-optics kicked rotor after just two kicks. The energy is found to deviate from the quasilinear value for small kicking periods. The observed deviation is explained by recent theoretical results which include the effect of a nonuniform initial momentum distribution, previously applied only to systems using much colder atoms than ours.

  20. Floquet topological semimetal phases of an extended kicked Harper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Raghava, Gudapati Naresh; Zhou, Longwen; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-02-01

    Recent discoveries on topological characterization of gapless systems have attracted interest in both theoretical studies and experimental realizations. Examples of such gapless topological phases are Weyl semimetals, which exhibit three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cones (Weyl points), and nodal line semimetals, which are characterized by line nodes (two bands touching along a line). Inspired by our previous discoveries that the kicked Harper model exhibits many fascinating features of Floquet topological phases, in this paper we consider a generalization of the model, where two additional periodic system parameters are introduced into the Hamiltonian to serve as artificial dimensions, so as to simulate a 3 D periodically driven system. We observe that by increasing the hopping strength and the kicking strength of the system, many new Floquet band touching points at Floquet quasienergies 0 and π will start to appear. Some of them are Weyl points, while the others form line nodes in the parameter space. By taking open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, edge states analogous to Fermi arcs in static Weyl semimetal systems are observed. Finally, by designing an adiabatic pumping scheme, the chirality of the Floquet-band Weyl points and the π Berry phase around Floquet-band line nodes can be manifested.

  1. Floquet topological semimetal phases of an extended kicked Harper model.

    PubMed

    Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Raghava, Gudapati Naresh; Zhou, Longwen; Gong, Jiangbin

    2016-02-01

    Recent discoveries on topological characterization of gapless systems have attracted interest in both theoretical studies and experimental realizations. Examples of such gapless topological phases are Weyl semimetals, which exhibit three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cones (Weyl points), and nodal line semimetals, which are characterized by line nodes (two bands touching along a line). Inspired by our previous discoveries that the kicked Harper model exhibits many fascinating features of Floquet topological phases, in this paper we consider a generalization of the model, where two additional periodic system parameters are introduced into the Hamiltonian to serve as artificial dimensions, so as to simulate a 3D periodically driven system. We observe that by increasing the hopping strength and the kicking strength of the system, many new Floquet band touching points at Floquet quasienergies 0 and π will start to appear. Some of them are Weyl points, while the others form line nodes in the parameter space. By taking open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, edge states analogous to Fermi arcs in static Weyl semimetal systems are observed. Finally, by designing an adiabatic pumping scheme, the chirality of the Floquet-band Weyl points and the π Berry phase around Floquet-band line nodes can be manifested. PMID:26986333

  2. The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Murn, Campbell P; Sparkes, Emily L; Daley, Monica A

    2016-01-25

    The study of animal locomotion has uncovered principles that can be applied to bio-inspired robotics, prosthetics and rehabilitation medicine, while also providing insight into musculoskeletal form and function [1-4]. In particular, study of extreme behaviors can reveal mechanical constraints and trade-offs that have influenced evolution of limb form and function [1,2]. Secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius; Figure 1A) are large terrestrial birds of prey endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, which feed on snakes, lizards and small mammals [5]. They frequently kick and stamp on the prey's head until it is killed or incapacitated, particularly when dispatching larger lizards and venomous snakes [5]. The consequences of a missed strike when hunting venomous snakes can be deadly [5], so the kicking strikes of secretary birds require fast yet accurate neural control. Delivery of fast, forceful and accurate foot strikes that are sufficient to stun and kill prey requires precision targeting, demanding a high level of coordination between the visual and neuromuscular systems. PMID:26811886

  3. Estimates of black hole natal kick velocities from observations of low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Ilya

    2016-02-01

    The birth kicks of black holes, arising from asymmetric mass ejection or neutrino emission during core-collapse supernovae, are of great interest for both observationally constraining supernova models and population-synthesis studies of binary evolution. Recently, several efforts were undertaken to estimate black hole birth kicks from observations of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We follow up on this work, specifically focusing on the highest estimated black hole kick velocities. We find that existing observations do not require black hole birth kicks in excess of approximately 80 km s-1, although higher kicks are not ruled out.

  4. Impact of limited hamstring flexibility on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility in young football players.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, F; Ruiz-Ariza, A; Moreno del Castillo, R; Latorre-Román, P Á

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the impact of limited hamstring flexibility (HF) on specific football skills, such as sprinting and jumping ability, agility, and kicking speed in young football players. Forty-three male football players (aged 14-18) from a semi-professional football academy participated voluntarily in this study. Data about anthropometric measurements, HF (unilateral passive straight-leg raise test: PSLR), vertical jumping ability (countermovement jump: CMJ), sprinting ability (5, 10, 20 m: S5 m, S10 m, S20 m), agility (Balsom agility test: BAT), and kicking speed in terms of ball speed (dominant and non-dominant leg: KSdom and KSnon-dom) were collected. Cluster analysis grouped according to HF, dividing participants into a flexible group (FG, n = 24) and a non-flexible group (NFG, n = 19) in relation to performances on the PSLR test. Despite finding no significant differences between groups in body composition and age, the FG performed better in terms of sprint scores (S5 m: 6.12%, S10 m: 4.09%, S20 m: 3.29%), BAT score (4.11%), CMJ score (10.49%), and scores for KSdom (6.86%) and KSnon-dom (8%) than the NFG. The results suggest that HF is a key factor for performing football-specific skills, such as sprinting, jumping, agility, and kicking in young football players. These results support the rationale that muscle flexibility must be specifically trained in football players beginning at early ages. PMID:25761523

  5. Mechanical factors associated with the development of high ball velocity during an instep soccer kick.

    PubMed

    De Witt, John K; Hinrichs, Richard N

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether joint velocities and segmental angular velocities are significantly correlated with ball velocity during an instep soccer kick. We developed a deterministic model that related ball velocity to kicking leg and pelvis motion from the initiation of downswing until impact. Three-dimensional videography was used to collect data from 16 experienced male soccer players (age = 24.8 +/- 5.5 years; height = 1.80 +/- 0.07m; mass = 76.73 +/- 8.31 kg) while kicking a stationary soccer ball into a goal 12 m away with their right foot with maximal effort. We found that impact velocities of the foot center of mass (CM), the impact velocity of the foot CM relative to the knee, peak velocity of the knee relative to the hip, and the peak angular thigh velocity were significantly correlated with ball velocity. These data suggest that linear and angular velocities at and prior to impact are critical to developing high ball velocity. Since events prior to impact are critical for kick success, coordination and summation of speeds throughout the kicking motion are important factors. Segmental coordination that occurs during a maximal effort kick is critical for completing a successful kick.

  6. The role of movement exaggeration in the anticipation of deceptive soccer penalty kicks.

    PubMed

    Smeeton, N J; Williams, A M

    2012-11-01

    Human movement containing deception about the true outcome is thought to be perceived differently compared to the non-deceptive version. Exaggeration in the movement is thought to change the perceiver's mode of functioning from an invariant to a cue-based mode. We tested these ideas by examining anticipation in skilled and less skilled soccer players while they viewed temporally occluded (-240 ms, -160 ms, -80 ms, 0 ms, +80 ms) deceptive, non-deceptive, and non-deceptive-exaggerated penalty kicks. Kinematic analyses were used to ascertain that the kicking actions differed across conditions. The accuracy of judging the direction of an opponent's kick as well as response confidence were recorded. Players were over confident when anticipating deceptive penalty kicks compared to non-deceptive kicks, suggesting a cue-based mode was used. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between less skilled players' confidence ratings and their accuracy 80 ms before ball-foot contact in the deceptive and non-deceptive-exaggerated conditions, but not the non-deceptive condition. Because both deceptive and non-deceptive-exaggerated kicks contained exaggeration, results suggest exaggerated movements in the kickers' action at 80 ms before ball-foot contact explains why a cue-based mode prevails when anticipating deceptive kicks at this time point.

  7. Full scale Kick Detection System Testing relevant for slim-hole/HPHT drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Steine, O.G.; Rommetveit, R.; Harris, T.W.R.

    1995-12-31

    During June 1994 tests in the project {open_quotes}HPHT Kick Detection System Testing{close_quotes} were performed in Ullrigg well U-2. Experimental parameters such as influx type (liquid/gas), gas concentration, kick injection rate, flow rate, rpm`s, pipe reciprocation, pump speed changes, etc. were varied. Three kick detection systems were operating during the experiments. Two delta flow systems were supplied by Baker Hughes INTEQ (DrillByte {open_quotes}Kick detect{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}KDS{close_quotes}) and one acoustic system was provided by Smedvig (Gas Kick Warner). In addition, the Petreco J-Meter flow out measuring device was also tested. A total number of 14 kicks were performed during these experiments. The majority of kicks were performed at slim hole conditions. Raw data files containing approx. 14 Mbytes of downhole pressure data from bottom P-sensor, and surface data have been gathered for further analysis. The data was of high quality and provide opportunities to improve existing well control procedures and to incorporate this knowledge into future drilling operations. This paper summarizes the experimental conditions during which data were recorded, main results and operational recommendations.

  8. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters.

  9. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters. PMID:23271218

  10. Visual Search Strategies of Soccer Players Executing a Power vs. Placement Penalty Kick

    PubMed Central

    Timmis, Matthew A.; Turner, Kieran; van Paridon, Kjell N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction When taking a soccer penalty kick, there are two distinct kicking techniques that can be adopted; a ‘power’ penalty or a ‘placement’ penalty. The current study investigated how the type of penalty kick being taken affected the kicker’s visual search strategy and where the ball hit the goal (end ball location). Method Wearing a portable eye tracker, 12 university footballers executed 2 power and placement penalty kicks, indoors, both with and without the presence of a goalkeeper. Video cameras were used to determine initial ball velocity and end ball location. Results When taking the power penalty, the football was kicked significantly harder and more centrally in the goal compared to the placement penalty. During the power penalty, players fixated on the football for longer and more often at the goalkeeper (and by implication the middle of the goal), whereas in the placement penalty, fixated longer at the goal, specifically the edges. Findings remained consistent irrespective of goalkeeper presence. Discussion/conclusion Findings indicate differences in visual search strategy and end ball location as a function of type of penalty kick. When taking the placement penalty, players fixated and kicked the football to the edges of the goal in an attempt to direct the ball to an area that the goalkeeper would have difficulty reaching and saving. Fixating significantly longer on the football when taking the power compared to placement penalty indicates a greater importance of obtaining visual information from the football. This can be attributed to ensuring accurate foot-to-ball contact and subsequent generation of ball velocity. Aligning gaze and kicking the football centrally in the goal when executing the power compared to placement penalty may have been a strategy to reduce the risk of kicking wide of the goal altogether. PMID:25517405

  11. White dwarf kicks and implications for barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Church, R. P.; Dermine, T.

    The barium stars have caused much grief in the field of binary stellar evolution. They are often eccentric when they should be circular and are not found to have periods longer than 104 days even though wind accretion should still be efficient at such separations. We address both these problems by introducing a kick to white dwarfs when they are born, thus solving the eccentricity problem, and imposing strong orbital angular momentum loss to shrink barium-star binaries down to the observed periods. Whilst our angular momentum prescription is hard to justify for the barium stars it shows that strong angular momentum loss is necessary to reproduce the observed period-eccentricity distribution. We are investigating whether this can be obtained from a circumbinary disc.

  12. How to avoid a swift kick in the chameleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Antonio; Platts, Emma; Stefanyszyn, David; Walters, Anthony; Weltman, Amanda; Wilson, Toby

    2016-03-01

    Recently, it was argued that the conformal coupling of the chameleon to matter fields created an issue for early universe cosmology. As standard model degrees of freedom become non-relativistic in the early universe, the chameleon is attracted towards a ``surfing'' solution, so that it arrives at the potential minimum with too large a velocity. This leads to rapid variations in the chameleon's mass and excitation of high energy modes, casting doubts on the classical treatment at Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Here we present the DBI chameleon, a consistent high energy modification of the chameleon theory that dynamically renders it weakly coupled to matter during the early universe thereby eliminating the adverse effects of the `kicks'. This is done without any fine tuning of the coupling between the chameleon and matter fields, and retains its screening ability in the solar system. We demonstrate this explicitly with a combination of analytic and numerical results.

  13. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney, chief, program resources management at NASA and chairperson for African-American History Month, presents a plaque to Bhetty Waldron at the kick-off ceremony of African-American History Month on Feb. 3 at the NASA Training Auditorium. The award was given in thanks for Waldron's portrayal of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune and Zora Neal Hurston during the ceremony. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF RESISTIVITY DOMINATED COLLIMATOR WAKEFIELD KICKS AT THE SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Onoprienko, D.

    2003-10-03

    Collimation of the multi-MW beams in present linear collider designs is a critical issue. Graphite as a possible collimator material exhibits good mechanical properties but a rather poor electrical conductivity. The resulting resistive wakefields can potentially deteriorate the beam quality. The knowledge of strength and scalings of such wakefields is essential for the design of the collimation systems in linear colliders. We present measurements of the self induced wakefield kick that a charged particle beam experiences when it passes through a narrow gap of two graphite collimator jaws. The measurements where performed with the highly damped SLC beam at an energy of 1.19 GeV. The results are compared to theoretical predictions and to measurements with copper collimators of the same shape.

  15. Fidelity for kicked atoms with gravity near a quantum resonance.

    PubMed

    Dubertrand, Rémy; Guarneri, Italo; Wimberger, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    Kicked atoms under a constant Stark or gravity field are investigated for experimental setups with cold and ultracold atoms. The parametric stability of the quantum dynamics is studied using the fidelity. In the case of a quantum resonance, it is shown that the behavior of the fidelity depends on arithmetic properties of the gravity parameter. Close to a quantum resonance, the long-time asymptotics of the fidelity is studied by means of a pseudoclassical approximation introduced by Fishman et al. [J. Stat. Phys. 110, 911 (2003)]. The long-time decay of fidelity arises from the tunneling out of pseudoclassical stable islands, and a simple ansatz is proposed which satisfactorily reproduces the main features observed in numerical simulations.

  16. Effects of the NFL's Amendments to the Free Kick Rule on Injuries during the 2010 and 2011 Seasons.

    PubMed

    Ruestow, Peter S; Duke, Tina J; Finley, Brent L; Pierce, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the chronic health effects associated with playing football, the National Football League (NFL) has enacted policies and rules aimed at improving player health and safety. Prior to the 2011 season, amendments to the Free Kick rule were implemented, whereby the restraining line was moved from the 30- to the 35-yard line and all kicking team players other than the kicker were required to line up no more than 5 yards behind their restraining line. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of these rule changes on injury rates. Data for injuries occurring on special teams plays during the 2010 and 2011 NFL seasons were obtained from publically available NFL gamebooks and injury reports. Injury rates for kickoff plays across seasons were statistically compared using incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals. To evaluate whether injury rate changes could be attributable to the rule amendments, comparisons were made with punt injury rates (presumably unaffected by the Free Kick rule changes) and distributions of potential confounders were assessed across seasons. Incidence of injuries occurring on kickoff plays fell from 2010 to 2011 (RR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.28-0.73), although on kickoff plays where the ball was returned, this decrease became non-significant (RR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.41-1.08). While the incidence of head injuries decreased by approximately 3-fold during kickoff plays, this change was not statistically significant (RR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.09-1.21). No difference was observed in injury incidence during punts between the two seasons, and the distribution of confounding factors was largely uniform across seasons. The observed decrease in injuries occurring during kickoffs was likely directly attributable to the Free Kick rule amendments, principally from the increased frequency of touchbacks. The absence of a significant change in head injuries during kickoffs was unexpected, but may be attributable to small sample size. Despite

  17. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  18. The diverse aims of science.

    PubMed

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science.

  19. Effect of imposing changes in kick frequency on kinematics during undulatory underwater swimming at maximal effort in male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Hirofumi; Sengoku, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Tsubakimoto, Shozo; Takagi, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) is an important swimming technique after a start and after turns. It was considered that a higher swimming velocity (U) resulted from a higher kick frequency (f), and greater propelling efficiency, i.e., Strouhal number (St) and Froude efficiency (ηF), resulted from a lower f. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changing f affected U and St, ηF plus other kinematics of UUS. Ten national-level male swimmers participated in the study. First, the swimmers performed maximal UUS (Pre; this f was defined as 100% F). Second, the swimmers synchronized their f with the sound of a metronome and with six frequencies (85% F, 90% F, 95% F, 105% F, 110% F, and 115% F) randomly presented. During the higher f sessions, kick amplitude (A) significantly decreased from Pre (115% F: -10.8%, p<.05); however, U was unchanged. In contrast, in lower f sessions, St and ηF were unchanged, but the wavelength per body length (λBL), which indicates UUS mode, significantly decreased (90% F: -1.3%, p<.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that increasing f for UUS would not affect U, but a decrease in f may be suitable for human undulation training.

  20. Differentiation and Standardization of Aims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert

    For many people, school reform means taking the responsibility for goal setting away from teachers and assessing common student accomplishments, but the costs and benefits of this accountability strategy have not been determined. The difference between the aims of education represented by test scores, and those represented by the activities of the…

  1. Neutrino trigger of the magnetorotational mechanism of a natal-pulsar kick

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. V. Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-10-15

    A mechanism generating a natal-neutron-star kick and involving only standard neutrinos is discussed. In this mechanism, the neutrino effect on the plasma of the supernova-core envelope in a magnetorotational explosion accompanied by the generation of a strong toroidal magnetic field leads to a redistribution of the magnetic field B in the 'upper' and 'lower' hemispheres of the supernova-core envelope. The emerging asymmetry of the magnetic-field pressure may generate a natal-pulsar kick.

  2. The development of a method for identifying penalty kick strategies in association football.

    PubMed

    Noël, Benjamin; Furley, Philip; van der Kamp, John; Dicks, Matt; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Penalty takers in association football adopt either a keeper-independent or a keeper-dependent strategy, with the benefits of the keeper-independent strategy presumed to be greater. Yet, despite its relevance for research and practitioners, thus far no method for identifying penalty kick strategies has been available. To develop a validated and reliable method, Experiment 1 assessed characteristics that observers should use to distinguish the two strategies. We asked participants to rate 12 characteristics of pre-recorded clips of kicks of penalty takers that used either a keeper-independent or keeper-dependent strategy. A logistic regression model identified three variables (attention to the goalkeeper, run-up fluency and kicking technique) that in combination predicted kick strategy in 92% of the penalties. We used the model in Experiment 2 to analyse prevalence and efficacy of both the strategies for penalty kicks in penalty shoot-outs during FIFA World Cups (1986-2010) and UEFA Football Championships (1984-2012). The keeper-independent strategy was used much more frequently (i.e., 78-86%) than the keeper-dependent strategy, but successes did not differ. Penalty takers should use both the strategies to be less predictable. Goalkeepers can use the developed model to improve their chances to succeed by adjusting their behaviour to penalty takers' preferred penalty kick strategy. PMID:24914924

  3. Kick processes in the merger of two colliding black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damião; Tonini, E. V.

    2010-11-01

    We examine numerically the process of momentum extraction by gravitational waves in the merger of two colliding black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. The initial data have already a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger phase up to the final configuration of the remnant black hole. The analysis of the momentum flux carried out by gravitational waves indicates that two distinct regimes are present in the post-merger phase: (i) an initial accelerated regime, followed by (ii) a deceleration regime in which the deceleration increases rapidly towards a maximum and then decreases to zero, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs conservation law for the total momentum of the system. We obtain the total kick velocity Vk imparted on the merged black hole during the accelerated regime (i) and the total antikick velocity Vak during the decelerated regime (ii), by evaluating the impulse of the gravitational wave flux during both regimes. The distributions of both Vk and Vak as a function of the symmetric mass ratio η satisfy a simple η-scaling law motivated by post-Newtonian analytical estimates. In the η-scaling formula the Newtonian factor is dominant in the decelerated regime, that generates Vak, contrary to the behavior in the initial accelerated regime. For an initial infalling velocity v/c≃0.462 of each individual black hole we obtain a maximum kick Vk≃6.4km/s at η≃0.209, and a maximum antikick Vak≃109km/s at η≃0.205. The net antikick velocity (Vak-Vk) also satisfies a similar η-scaling law with a maximum approximately 102km/s also at η≃0.205, qualitatively consistent with results from numerical relativity simulations, and post-Newtonian evaluations of binary black hole inspirals. For larger values of the initial data parameter v/c substantial larger values of the net antikick velocity are obtained. Based on the several velocity variables obtained, we discuss a

  4. Exploration in petroleum development in Oman: Getting a kick into the creaming curve

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, G.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) currently explores an 80,000 mi[sup 2] concession area. Major discoveries were made in the early 1960s in north Oman and in south Oman in the 1970s. However, in the middle to late 1980s, discovery sizes decreased, consistent with classical creaming curves, particularly as exploration concentrated on areas around the hydrocarbon fairways. With a flattening creaming curve, the outlook did not look rosy. PDO faced the question, [open quotes]Does this curve represent the future or could new ideas, a change in approach, or application of newer technologies give an upward kick to the creaming curve [close quotes] A major strategy review took place in which the potential of all plays was reviewed. Prospects were place into frontier, conventional, and exploratory appraisal types. String time was allocated over a five-year period on a basis of play testing for frontier plays and a steady realization of conventional and exploratory appraisal drilling as partial fulfillment of the annual exploration reserves replenishment target. Initial results are promising, and specific challenges including new plays, one unique to Oman, have been defined beyond the aims of the original strategy. Resolution of these challenges will lead to delineation of new hydrocarbon resources in Oman. At the same time, technological advances such as slim-hole drilling and extensive three-dimensional seismic, in concert with work-station interpretation, are being used, in order to minimize costs and increase the success ratio.

  5. [Personalised medicine. Aims and challenges].

    PubMed

    Bieber, T; Broich, K

    2013-11-01

    Personalised medicine will address the clinical and pathophysiologic complexity of many diseases with the aim of developing therapeutic strategies more adapted for selected individuals or patient subgroups in order to improve efficacy and safety of medicinal products. This biomarker-based approach will potentially allow identification of populations at risk for chronic and life-threatening diseases and to design early intervention strategies. Personalised medicine will lead to a substantial move from costly and often inefficient health care to a hopefully more cost effective, more targeted and more preventive approach addressing participative patients with increased health literacy. Thus, it provides the basement for an ultimate paradigm shift of modern medicine, away from a "reactive" medicine to a more "proactive" and personalised health care, so-called "P4 medicine".

  6. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  7. Cancellation of coherent synchrotron radiation kicks with optics balance.

    PubMed

    Di Mitri, S; Cornacchia, M; Spampinati, S

    2013-01-01

    Minimizing transverse emittance is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), as a contributing factor to emittance degradation, is an important phenomenon to this respect. A manner in which to cancel this perturbation by imposing certain symmetric conditions on the electron transport system has been suggested.We first expand on this idea by quantitatively relating the beam Courant-Snyder parameters to the emittance growth and by providing a general scheme of CSR suppression with asymmetric optics, provided it is properly balanced along the line. We present the first experimental evidence of this cancellation with the resultant optics balance of multiple CSR kicks: the transverse emittance of a 500 pC, sub-picosecond, high brightness electron beam is being preserved after the passage through the achromatic transfer line of the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser, and emittance growth is observed when the optics balance is intentionally broken. We finally show the agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental results. This study holds the promise of compact dispersive lines with relatively large bending angles, thus reducing costs for future electron facilities.

  8. Quantum signatures of chaos in a kicked top.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, S; Smith, A; Anderson, B E; Ghose, S; Jessen, P S

    2009-10-01

    Chaotic behaviour is ubiquitous and plays an important part in most fields of science. In classical physics, chaos is characterized by hypersensitivity of the time evolution of a system to initial conditions. Quantum mechanics does not permit a similar definition owing in part to the uncertainty principle, and in part to the Schrödinger equation, which preserves the overlap between quantum states. This fundamental disconnect poses a challenge to quantum-classical correspondence, and has motivated a long-standing search for quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we present the experimental realization of a common paradigm for quantum chaos-the quantum kicked top- and the observation directly in quantum phase space of dynamics that have a chaotic classical counterpart. Our system is based on the combined electronic and nuclear spin of a single atom and is therefore deep in the quantum regime; nevertheless, we find good correspondence between the quantum dynamics and classical phase space structures. Because chaos is inherently a dynamical phenomenon, special significance attaches to dynamical signatures such as sensitivity to perturbation or the generation of entropy and entanglement, for which only indirect evidence has been available. We observe clear differences in the sensitivity to perturbation in chaotic versus regular, non-chaotic regimes, and present experimental evidence for dynamical entanglement as a signature of chaos. PMID:19812668

  9. Kick with the finger: symbolic actions shape motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Betti, Sonia; Castiello, Umberto; Sartori, Luisa

    2015-11-01

    A large body of research indicates that observing actions made by others is associated with corresponding motor facilitation of the observer's corticospinal system. However, it is still controversial whether this matching mechanism strictly reflects the kinematics of the observed action or its meaning. To test this issue, motor evoked potentials induced by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand and leg muscles while participants observed a symbolic action carried out with the index finger, but classically performed with the leg (i.e., a soccer penalty kick). A control condition in which participants observed a similar (but not symbolic) hand movement was also included. Results showed that motor facilitation occurs both in the observer's hand (first dorsal interosseous) and leg (quadriceps femoris) muscles. The present study provides evidence that both the kinematics and the symbolic value of an observed action are able to modulate motor cortex excitability. The human motor system is thus not only involved in mirroring observed actions but is also finely tuned to their symbolic value. PMID:26354677

  10. Cardioinhibitory reflex due to a karate kick: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Froidmont, Sébastien; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Michaud, Katarzyna; Palmiere, Cristian; Augsburger, Marc-Pierre; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the case of a 17-year-old adolescent boy who received a foot kick in the trunk area from an expert in karate. He presented with immediate cardiocirculatory arrest. After a prolonged resuscitation, he was transferred to a hospital where he died 5 days later without ever regaining consciousness. Postmortem investigations including autopsy, radiology, histology, toxicology, and postmortem chemistry were performed that showed signs of multiple organ failure, an acute hemorrhage in the region of the celiac plexus, and signs of medical resuscitation. No preexisting disease, particularly those concerning the heart, was objectified. The cause of death was attributed to multiple organ failure after a prolonged cardiocirculatory arrest. Concerning the origin of the cardiac arrest, 2 hypotheses were considered-a cardioinhibitory reflex and a cardiac contusion (commotio cordis). Because of the presence of traumatic lesions in the celiac plexus, the first hypothesis was finally submitted. This case is reported because rare cases of sudden death from celiac reflex are described in the literature where it is almost impossible to find references with accurate documentation. The presented case confirms the importance of detailed documentation of the circumstances and postmortem investigations to establish a diagnosis of death due to cardioinhibitory reflex.

  11. Measurement and Comparison of Taekwondo and Yongmudo Turning Kick Impact Force for Two Target Heights

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, David; Chung, Chulsoo; Lee, Kikwang; Kim, Euihwan; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Taewhan; Shin, Insik

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to compare the impact characteristics of Taekwondo (TKD) and Yongmudo (YMD) player’s turning kick according to the target height. 5 highly skilled YMD and 5 TKD players participated in this study. To measure the impact force, two accelerometers were fixed to a PVC pipe in a sandbag. Each participant performed 10 turning kicks trunk and face height in random order. Only the trial with the most accurate (most central impact) measurement was used in the statistical analysis (p < 0.05).There was a significant difference for impact force according to the target height approximately 6400 ± 898 N, 6393 ± 1382 N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659 N, 5475 ± 1293 N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups, but not between groups. The swing phase for the TKD group was significantly shorter than the YMD group’s. The TKD groups’ recovery phase of the trunk height turning kick was significantly shorter. There was a difference in the players’ center of mass (COM) movement as the TKD players’ moved significantly more forward, suggesting that the TKD players tended to slide towards the target during the execution of the kick. In conclusion, as the turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion, it is evaluated to be a better technique of turning kicking. Key Points This impact force measuring device had a significantly smaller standard deviation then that of impact force measuring devices. There was a significant difference between the impact forces according to the height approximately 6400 ± 898N, 6393 ± 1382N for the mid section and 5419 ± 659N, 5475 ± 1293N for the high section of TKD and YMD groups. The turning kick was performed quicker by the TKD players with a similar impact force and more forward motion. PMID:24474880

  12. Kinematics differences between the flat, kick, and slice serves measured using a markerless motion capture method.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Alison L; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Corazza, Stefano; Safran, Marc R; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    Tennis injuries have been associated with serving mechanics, but quantitative kinematic measurements in realistic environments are limited by current motion capture technologies. This study tested for kinematic differences at the lower back, shoulder, elbow, wrist, and racquet between the flat, kick, and slice serves using a markerless motion capture (MMC) system. Seven male NCAA Division 1 players were tested on an outdoor court in daylight conditions. Peak racquet and joint center speeds occurred sequentially and increased from proximal (back) to distal (racquet). Racquet speeds at ball impact were not significantly different between serve types. However, there were significant differences in the direction of the racquet velocity vector between serves: the kick serve had the largest lateral and smallest forward racquet velocity components, while the flat serve had the smallest vertical component (p < 0.01). The slice serve had lateral velocity, like the kick, and large forward velocity, like the flat. Additionally, the racquet in the kick serve was positioned 8.7 cm more posterior and 21.1 cm more medial than the shoulder compared with the flat, which could suggest an increased risk of shoulder and back injury associated with the kick serve. This study demonstrated the potential for MMC for testing sports performance under natural conditions. PMID:21984513

  13. Lower muscle co-contraction in flutter kicking for competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yuji; Hirano, Masami; Yamada, Yosuke; Ikuta, Yasushi; Nomura, Teruo; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Oda, Shingo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in muscle activation pattern and co-contraction of the rectus and biceps femoris in flutter-kick swimming between competitive and recreational swimmers, to better understand the mechanism of repetitive kicking movements during swimming. Ten competitive and 10 recreational swimmers swam using flutter kicks at three different velocities (100%, 90%, and 80% of their maximal velocity) in a swimming flume. Surface electromyographic signals (EMG) were obtained from the rectus (RF) and biceps femoris (BF), and lower limb kinematic data were obtained at the same time. The beginning and ending of one kick cycle was defined as when the right lateral malleolus reached its highest position in the vertical axis. The offset timing of muscle activation of RF in the recreational swimmers was significantly later at all velocities than in the competitive swimmers (47-48% and 26-33% of kick time of one cycle for recreational and competitive swimmers, respectively), although the kinematic data and other activation timing of RF and BF did not differ between groups. A higher integrated EMG of RF during hip extension and knee extension induced a higher level of muscle co-contraction between RF and BF in the recreational swimmers. These results suggest that long-term competitive swimming training can induce an effective muscle activation pattern in the upper legs.

  14. An origin for pulsar kicks in supernova hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam; Hayes, John

    1996-04-01

    It is now believed that pulsars comprise the fastest population of stars in the galaxy. With inferred mean, root-mean-square, and maximum 3-D pulsar speeds of ~300-500 km/s, ~500 km/s, and ~2000 km/s, respectively, the question of the origin of such singular proper motions becomes acute. What mechanism can account for speeds that range from zero to twice the galactic escape velocity? We speculate that a major vector component of a neutron star's proper motion comes from the hydrodynamic recoil of the nascent neutron star during the supernova explosion in which it is born. Recently, theorists have shown that asymmetries and instabilities are a natural aspect of supernova dynamics. In this paper, we highlight two phenomena: 1) the ``Brownian-like'' stochastic motion of the core in response to the convective ``boiling'' of the mantle of the protoneutron star during the post-bounce, pre-explosion accretion phase, and 2) the asymmetrical bounce and explosion of an aspherically collapsing Chandrasekhar core. In principle, either phenomenon can leave the young neutron star with a speed of hundreds of kilometers per second. However, neither has yet been adequately simulated or explored. The two-dimensional radiation/hydrodynamic calculations we present here provide only crude estimates of the potential impulses due to mass motions and neutrino emissions. A comprehensive and credible investigation will require fully three-dimensional numerical simulations not yet possible. Nevertheless, we have in the asymmetric hydrodynamics of supernovae a natural means of imparting respectable kicks to neutron stars at birth, though speeds approaching 1000 km/s are still problematic.

  15. Optimum Projection Angle for Attaining Maximum Distance in a Soccer Punt Kick

    PubMed Central

    Linthorne, Nicholas P.; Patel, Dipesh S.

    2011-01-01

    To produce the greatest horizontal distance in a punt kick the ball must be projected at an appropriate angle. Here, we investigated the optimum projection angle that maximises the distance attained in a punt kick by a soccer goalkeeper. Two male players performed many maximum-effort kicks using projection angles of between 10° and 90°. The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 100 Hz and a 2 D biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of the projection velocity, projection angle, projection height, ball spin rate, and foot velocity at impact. The player’s optimum projection angle was calculated by substituting mathematical equations for the relationships between the projection variables into the equations for the aerodynamic flight of a soccer ball. The calculated optimum projection angles were in agreement with the player’s preferred projection angles (40° and 44°). In projectile sports even a small dependence of projection velocity on projection angle is sufficient to produce a substantial shift in the optimum projection angle away from 45°. In the punt kicks studied here, the optimum projection angle was close to 45° because the projection velocity of the ball remained almost constant across all projection angles. This result is in contrast to throwing and jumping for maximum distance, where the projection velocity the athlete is able to achieve decreases substantially with increasing projection angle and so the optimum projection angle is well below 45°. Key points The optimum projection angle that maximizes the distance of a punt kick by a soccer goalkeeper is about 45°. The optimum projection angle is close to 45° because the projection velocity of the ball is almost the same at all projection angles. This result is in contrast to throwing and jumping for maximum distance, where the optimum projection angle is well below 45° because the projection velocity the athlete is able to achieve decreases substantially with increasing

  16. Effects of periodic kicking on dispersion and wave packet dynamics in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Adhip; Bhattacharya, Utso; Dutta, Amit; Sen, Diptiman

    2016-05-01

    We study the effects of δ -function periodic kicks on the Floquet energy-momentum dispersion in graphene. We find that a rich variety of dispersions can appear depending on the parameters of the kicking: at certain points in the Brillouin zone, the dispersion can become linear but anisotropic, linear in one direction and quadratic in the perpendicular direction, gapped with a quadratic dispersion, or completely flat (called dynamical localization). We show all these results analytically and demonstrate them numerically through the dynamics of wave packets propagating in graphene. We propose experimental methods for producing these effects.

  17. Quantum chaos of a mixed open system of kicked cold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Fishman, Shmuel; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2011-01-15

    The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a Gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Loschmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasienergies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time-dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a Gaussian light beam.

  18. Exotic quantum holonomy and higher-order exceptional points in quantum kicked tops.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atushi; Kim, Sang Wook; Cheon, Taksu

    2014-04-01

    The correspondence between exotic quantum holonomy, which occurs in families of Hermitian cycles, and exceptional points (EPs) for non-Hermitian quantum theory is examined in quantum kicked tops. Under a suitable condition, an explicit expression of the adiabatic parameter dependencies of quasienergies and stationary states, which exhibit anholonomies, is obtained. It is also shown that the quantum kicked tops with the complexified adiabatic parameter have a higher-order EP, which is broken into lower-order EPs with the application of small perturbations. The stability of exotic holonomy against such bifurcation is demonstrated.

  19. Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.

  20. Modeling Kicks from the Merger of Generic Black-hole Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Miller, M. Coleman; vanMeter, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent numerical relativistic results demonstrate that the merger of comparable-mass spinning black holes has a maximum "recoil kick" of up to approx. 4000 km/s. However the scaling of these recoil velocities with mass ratio is poorly understood. We present new runs showing that the maximum possible kick parallel to the orbital axis does not scale as approx. eta(sup 2) (where eta is the symmetric mass ratio), as previously proposed, but is more consistent with approx. eta(sup 3). We discuss the effect of this dependence on galactic ejection scenarios and retention of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. S

  1. Reliability and Discriminative Ability of a New Method for Soccer Kicking Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Radman, Ivan; Wessner, Barbara; Bachl, Norbert; Ruzic, Lana; Hackl, Markus; Baca, Arnold; Markovic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST), and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24), performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity (BV; measured via radar gun), shooting accuracy (SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre), and shooting quality (SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry). No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables (SA: 1.98±0.65 vs. 2.00±0.63 m; BV: 24.6±2.3 vs. 24.5±1.9 m s-1; SQ: 2.92±1.0 vs. 2.93±1.0 m s-1; all p>0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (ICC = 0.70-0.88), and the coefficients of variation were low (CV = 5.3-5.4%). Finally, all three 356-SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance. The results suggest that the 356-SST is a reliable and sensitive test of specific shooting ability in men's soccer. Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations.

  2. Reliability and Discriminative Ability of a New Method for Soccer Kicking Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Radman, Ivan; Wessner, Barbara; Bachl, Norbert; Ruzic, Lana; Hackl, Markus; Baca, Arnold; Markovic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the test–retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST), and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24), performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity (BV; measured via radar gun), shooting accuracy (SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre), and shooting quality (SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry). No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables (SA: 1.98±0.65 vs. 2.00±0.63 m; BV: 24.6±2.3 vs. 24.5±1.9 m s-1; SQ: 2.92±1.0 vs. 2.93±1.0 m s-1; all p>0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (ICC = 0.70–0.88), and the coefficients of variation were low (CV = 5.3–5.4%). Finally, all three 356-SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance. The results suggest that the 356-SST is a reliable and sensitive test of specific shooting ability in men’s soccer. Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations. PMID:26812247

  3. Reliability and Discriminative Ability of a New Method for Soccer Kicking Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Radman, Ivan; Wessner, Barbara; Bachl, Norbert; Ruzic, Lana; Hackl, Markus; Baca, Arnold; Markovic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST), and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24), performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity (BV; measured via radar gun), shooting accuracy (SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre), and shooting quality (SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry). No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables (SA: 1.98±0.65 vs. 2.00±0.63 m; BV: 24.6±2.3 vs. 24.5±1.9 m s-1; SQ: 2.92±1.0 vs. 2.93±1.0 m s-1; all p>0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (ICC = 0.70-0.88), and the coefficients of variation were low (CV = 5.3-5.4%). Finally, all three 356-SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance. The results suggest that the 356-SST is a reliable and sensitive test of specific shooting ability in men's soccer. Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations. PMID:26812247

  4. Children, Learning, and Poisons Don't Mix: Kick the Pesticide Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY.

    This brochure examines basic information about pesticides and their use in and around schools, how children are exposed to pesticides and their health effects, and how a school can kick the habit of using pesticides. A special issues section covers the chemicals that should not be part of a school pest control effort, the restricted use of…

  5. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Test Site Kick-off Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Witzberger, Kevin; Hackenberg, Davis L.; Murphy, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This briefing was presented during the Test Site Kick Off Meeting to discuss the contract awards for Task 1 and Task 2. This briefing covered a high level overview for contract deliverables, Task 1 - UAS Traffic Management and Task 2, Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment.

  6. Wakefield and RF Kicks Due to Coupler Asymmetry in TESLA-Type Accelerating Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Dohlus, M.; Zagorodnov, I.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; Gjonaj, E.; Weiland, T.; /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch.

    2008-07-07

    In a future linear collider, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), trains of high current, low emittance bunches will be accelerated in a linac before colliding at the interaction point. Asymmetries in the accelerating cavities of the linac will generate fields that will kick the beam transversely and degrade the beam emittance and thus the collider performance. In the main linac of the ILC, which is filled with TESLA-type superconducting cavities, it is the fundamental (FM) and higher mode (HM) couplers that are asymmetric and thus the source of such kicks. The kicks are of two types: one, due to (the asymmetry in) the fundamental RF fields and the other, due to transverse wakefields that are generated by the beam even when it is on axis. In this report we calculate the strength of these kicks and estimate their effect on the ILC beam. The TESLA cavity comprises nine cells, one HM coupler in the upstream end, and one (identical, though rotated) HM coupler and one FM coupler in the downstream end (for their shapes and location see Figs. 1, 2) [1]. The cavity is 1.1 m long, the iris radius 35 mm, and the coupler beam pipe radius 39 mm. Note that the couplers reach closer to the axis than the irises, down to a distance of 30 mm.

  7. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-03-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual's best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R(2) = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ(2) = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ(2) = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore

  8. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo

    PubMed Central

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual’s best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R2 = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ2 = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ2 = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore, striking

  9. A Kinematic Analysis of the Jumping Front-Leg Axe-Kick in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Preuschl, Emanuel; Hassmann, Michaela; Baca, Arnold

    2016-03-01

    The jumping front-leg axe-kick is a valid attacking and counterattacking technique in Taekwondo competition (Streif, 1993). Yet, the existing literature on this technique is sparse (Kloiber et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine parameters contributing significantly to maximum linear speed of the foot at impact. Parameters are timing of segment and joint angular velocity characteristics and segment lengths of the kicking leg. Moreover, we were interested in the prevalence of proximal-to-distal-sequencing. Three-dimensional kinematics of the kicks of 22 male Taekwondo-athletes (age: 23.3 ± 5.3 years) were recorded via a motion capturing system (Vicon Motion Systems Limited, Oxford, UK). The participants performed maximum effort kicks onto a rack-held kicking pad. Only the kick with the highest impact velocity was analysed, as it was assumed to represent the individual's best performance. Significant Pearson correlations to impact velocity were found for pelvis tilt angular displacement (r = 0.468, p < 0.05) and for hip extension angular velocity (r = -0.446, p < 0.05) and for the timing of the minima of pelvis tilt velocity (r = -0.426, p < 0.05) and knee flexion velocity (r = -0.480, p < 0.05). Backward step linear regression analysis suggests a model consisting of three predictor variables: pelvis tilt angular displacement, hip flexion velocity at target contact and timing of pelvic tilt angular velocity minimum (adjusted R(2) = 0.524). Results of Chi-Squared tests show that neither for the leg-raising period (χ(2) = 2.909) of the technique, nor for the leg-lowering period a pattern of proximal-to-distal sequencing is prevalent (χ(2) = 0.727). From the results we conclude that the jumping front-leg axe-kick does not follow a proximal-to-distal pattern. Raising the leg early in the technique and apprehending the upper body to be leant back during the leg-lowering period seems to be beneficial for high impact velocity. Furthermore

  10. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players were tested the day before, 15 min after and 24 h after the kicking drill session by a blinded tester using a reliable test procedure. The isometric hip-action and leg-order were randomized. For the kicking leg, hip adduction torque increased from 2.45 (2.19-2.65) Nm ∙ kg(-1), median (25th-75th percentiles), at pre-kicking to 2.65 (2.55-2.81) Nm ∙ kg(-1) (P = 0.024) 24 h post-kicking. This may have implications for the soccer player's ability to maximally activate the hip adductors during kicking and acceleration, and thereby improve performance the day after a kicking drill session. PMID:24669834

  11. Leg Strength and Lean Mass Symmetry Influences Kicking Performance in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U.

    2014-01-01

    Differential loading patterns during game-based participation may produce or exacerbate strength imbalances between the lower limbs. It is currently unknown whether such imbalances are functionally beneficial or detrimental to performance. This study assessed the influence of lower limb strength and lean mass symmetry on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian footballers were required to perform a kicking assessment, producing ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were subsequently separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) groups, with lower-body lean mass assessed using whole body DXA scans, and lower-body strength assessed using an isometric protocol. Accurate kickers demonstrated significantly higher relative lean mass (~8% to 16%; p = 0. 001 to 0.004) and significantly lower relative fat mass (~21% to 40%; p = 0.001 to 0.024) than inaccurate kickers. Accurate kickers did not contain any significant difference in lean mass or unilateral strength between lower limbs. Inaccurate kickers displayed significant asymmetry in lean mass (~3%; p ≤ 0.003), producing significant imbalances in strength (~8%; p ≤ 0.002) highlighting a deficiency in their support leg. Greater relative strength and improved lower limb symmetry in strength and muscularity could increase the capacity of an athlete to be technically proficient in favour of greater accuracy. Key Points Strength deficits in the support leg may lead to inaccurate kicking outcomes. An asymmetry of 3% in lean mass generated an 8% imbalance in leg strength. Greater levels of relative lower-body strength and muscle mass are associated with improved kicking accuracy performance. PMID:24570620

  12. Effects of a 10-week resistance exercise program on soccer kick biomechanics and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Manolopoulos, Evaggelos; Katis, Athanasios; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Kalapotharakos, Vasileios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a resistance exercise program on soccer kick biomechanics. Twenty male amateur soccer players were divided in the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG), each consisting of 10 players. The EG followed a 10-week resistance exercise program mainly for the lower limb muscles. Maximal instep kick kinematics, electromyography, and ground reaction forces (GRFs) as well as maximum isometric leg strength were recorded before and after training. A 2-way analysis of variance showed significantly higher ball speed values only for the EG (26.14 ± 1.17 m·s vs. 27.59 ± 1.49 m·s before and after training, respectively), whereas no significant differences were observed for the CG. The EG showed a decline in joint angular velocities and an increase in biceps femoris electromyography of the swinging leg during the backswing phase followed by a significant increase in segmental and joint velocities and muscle activation of the same leg during the forward swing phase (p < 0.05). The EG also showed significantly higher vertical GRFs and rectus femoris and gastrocnemius activation of the support leg (p < 0.05). Similarly, maximum and explosive isometric force significantly increased after training only for the EG (p < 0.05). These results suggest that increases in soccer kicking performance after a 10-week resistance training program were accompanied by increases in maximum strength and an altered soccer kick movement pattern, characterized by a more explosive backward-forward swinging movement and higher muscle activation during the final kicking phase.

  13. Optimum Projection Angle for Attaining Maximum Distance in a Rugby Place Kick

    PubMed Central

    Linthorne, Nicholas P.; Stokes, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of projection angle on the distance attained in a rugby place kick. A male rugby player performed 49 maximum-effort kicks using projection angles of between 20 and 50°. The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 50 Hz and a 2 D biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of the projection velocity and projection angle of the ball. The player’s optimum projection angle was calculated by substituting a mathematical expression for the relationship between projection velocity and projection angle into the equations for the aerodynamic flight of a rugby ball. We found that the player’s calculated optimum projection angle (30.6°, 95% confidence limits ± 1.9°) was in close agreement with his preferred projection angle (mean value 30.8°, 95% confidence limits ± 2.1°). The player’s calculated optimum projection angle was also similar to projection angles previously reported for skilled rugby players. The optimum projection angle in a rugby place kick is considerably less than 45° because the projection velocity that a player can produce decreases substantially as projection angle is increased. Aerodynamic forces and the requirement to clear the crossbar have little effect on the optimum projection angle. Key Points The optimum projection angle in a rugby place kick is about 30°. The optimum projection angle is considerably less than 45° because the projection velocity that a player can produce decreases substantially as projection angle is increased. Aerodynamic forces and the requirement to clear the crossbar have little effect on the optimum projection angle. PMID:24570626

  14. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs <1 as compared to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume identified on the volcanic edifice using (VolcanoFit 2

  15. Effects of providing advance cues during a soccer penalty kick on the kicker's rate of success.

    PubMed

    Núñez, F Javier; Oño, Antonio; Raya, Antonio; Bilbao, Alfonso

    2010-12-01

    The effect of explicitly providing goalkeeper's movement advanced cue to the kicker during a real penalty kick task was assessed. 32 expert soccer players (M age= 23.2 yr.), who were divided into four groups: an experimental group, a discovery group, a placebo group, and a control group, participated. Rate of success in the task was assessed, as well as goals, decision times, and ball flight times. Providing an advance cue significantly improved the players' rate of success relative to players without the advance cue; this difference was still present after 1 and 7 days without training. The experimental group adapted better to the time range within which the response could be effective, while the discovery group showed adaptations. Explicit instructions about the advance cues available from goalkeepers' actions before the dive during practice can improve penalty kick performance.

  16. Tactical skills and ball speed during a field simulation of penalty kick strategies in soccer.

    PubMed

    Castillo, José M; Oña, Antonio; Raya, Antonio; Bilbao, Alfonso; Serra, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of intermediate penalty kickers by comparing the effect of applying an automated WiFi system on the field of play to simulate a strategy that takes account of goalkeeper action (dependent) with another for which goalkeeper strategy is irrelevant (independent). Intermediate penalty kickers (n=12) took a pretreatment test of 32 kicks in a "real-play" situation with intermediate goalkeepers (n=3). Two groups of kickers underwent 11 treatment sessions using different strategies and then were administered a posttreatment test. The variables measured were the number of goals scored, whether the direction of the shot was the same or different from the direction of the goalkeeper's move (DDG), ball speed, and the duration of the kicking movement. Data suggested the goalkeepers had a greater capacity to identify advance cues when faced with independent strategy kickers and that dependent strategy kickers achieved lower ball speeds.

  17. Contributions to the Galactic halo from in-situ, kicked-out, and accreted stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2016-08-01

    We report chemical abundances for a sample of 66 M giants with high S/N high-resolution spectroscopy in the inner halo of the Milky Way. The program giant stars have radial velocities that vary significantly from those expected for stars moving on uniform circular orbits in the Galactic disk. Thus, based on kinematics, we expect a sample dominated by halo stars. Abundances are derived for α-elements and neutron capture elements. By analyzing the multi-dimensional abundance space, the formation site of the halo giants - in-situ or accreted - can be assessed. Of particular interest are a class of stars that form in-situ, deep in the Milky Way's gravitational potential well, but are ``kicked out'' of the disk into the halo due to a perturbation event. We find: (1) our sample is dominated by accreted stars and (2) tentative evidence of a small kicked-out population in our Milky Way halo sample.

  18. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    PubMed

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used.

  19. Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasnoot, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) is an international theoretical physics competition for bachelor and master students. The intention of PLANCKS is to increase international collaboration and stimulate the personal development of individual contestants. This is done by organizing a three-day-event which take place every year and is hosted by different countries. Besides the contest, social and scientific activities will be organised, including an opening symposium where leading physicists give lectures to inspire the participants.

  20. Control of crisis-induced intermittency in the dynamics of a kicked, damped spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacperski, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    1997-05-01

    A method of controlling the intermittent behavior induced by a crisis is applied to a model of a periodically kicked, damped spin. Using small, occasional changes of a parameter, one can make the system remain on a former attractor, enlarged or destroyed by a crisis. The amplitude of the changes grows linearly with the distance from the crisis point, and the frequency of interventions scales as the inverse of the characteristic time of the intermittency.

  1. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    PubMed

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used. PMID:26010798

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of a lofted instep kick by male and female footballers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tina; Gilleard, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data describing the lofted instep kick and little information on the kinematic differences between male and female footballers. This study provides a preliminary investigation into the differences in motion patterns between the sexes. A four-camera motion analysis system videoed 13 amateur footballers (7 female and 6 male) attempting a standardised task that represented a lofted instep kick of approximately 35 m. Footballers performed 20 kicks, with the three trials categorised closest to the standardised distance retained for statistical analysis. Three-dimensional motion patterns for kicks of 35 m illustrated that female footballers produced greater fluctuation in movement patterns for pelvic, hip joint and thoracolumbar spine motion in the frontal plane; thorax and hip joint transverse rotation; and ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion motion. Peak hip extension (P = 0.018), impact hip abduction (P = 0.032), impact ankle plantar flexion (P = 0.030) and resultant ball velocity (P = 0.004) differed significantly between sexes. Principle component analysis highlighted associations between kinematic variables related to ball velocity and sex including a reduced hip abduction and increased internal rotation approaching impact, and greater peak knee flexion, respectively. In summary, increased variation in direction of segment motion, increased backswing and formation of a tension arc by females compared to males, may be related to anthropometric, strength and muscle activation differences. Specifically, this exploratory study indicates future research would benefit from exploring trunk, pelvis and hip kinematics and kinetics, and whether training the trunk, pelvis and hip musculature assists female footballers. PMID:25562661

  3. Use HMXB offsets to constrain the natal kicks and common envelope efficinecy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhaoyu

    2015-08-01

    Using an up-to-date evolutionary population synthesis code, we have calculated the spatial offsets of high mass X-ray binaries and their correlation to the luminosities. Parameters affecting the orbit and system velocity of a binary are examined systematically. From the calculated results we find that the common envelope efficiency is possibly around ~0.8-1.0 and make several constraints on the natal kicks.

  4. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.

  5. Quantum signature of chaos and thermalization in the kicked Dicke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sinha, S.

    2016-09-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of the kicked Dicke model (KDM) in terms of the Floquet operator, and we analyze the connection between chaos and thermalization in this context. The Hamiltonian map is constructed by suitably taking the classical limit of the Heisenberg equation of motion to study the corresponding phase-space dynamics, which shows a crossover from regular to chaotic motion by tuning the kicking strength. The fixed-point analysis and calculation of the Lyapunov exponent (LE) provide us with a complete picture of the onset of chaos in phase-space dynamics. We carry out a spectral analysis of the Floquet operator, which includes a calculation of the quasienergy spacing distribution and structural entropy to show the correspondence to the random matrix theory in the chaotic regime. Finally, we analyze the thermodynamics and statistical properties of the bosonic sector as well as the spin sector, and we discuss how such a periodically kicked system relaxes to a thermalized state in accordance with the laws of statistical mechanics.

  6. A computational method for analysis of underwater dolphin kick hydrodynamics in human swimming.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Mark, Russell; Hahn, James

    2009-03-01

    We present a new method that combines the use of laser body scans, underwater video footage, software-based animation, and a fully unsteady computational fluid dynamics technique to simulate and examine the hydrodynamics of the dolphin kick. The focus of the current work is to model this particular stroke in all its complexity with minimal ad-hoc assumptions or simplifications. Simulations of one female and one male swimmer (both at about 1.7 m beneath the water surface) at velocities of 0.95 and 1.31 m/s and Strouhal numbers of 1.21 and 1.06 respectively are presented. Vorticity and fluid velocity profiles in the wake are examined in detail for both swimmers. A three-dimensional vortex ring is clearly identified in the wake for one of the cases and a two-dimensional slice through the ring corroborates previous experiments of Miwa et al. (2006). We also find that most of the thrust is produced by the feet and in both cases the down-kick produces much larger thrust than the up-kick.

  7. A computational method for analysis of underwater dolphin kick hydrodynamics in human swimming.

    PubMed

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Mark, Russell; Hahn, James

    2009-03-01

    We present a new method that combines the use of laser body scans, underwater video footage, software-based animation, and a fully unsteady computational fluid dynamics technique to simulate and examine the hydrodynamics of the dolphin kick. The focus of the current work is to model this particular stroke in all its complexity with minimal ad-hoc assumptions or simplifications. Simulations of one female and one male swimmer (both at about 1.7 m beneath the water surface) at velocities of 0.95 and 1.31 m/s and Strouhal numbers of 1.21 and 1.06 respectively are presented. Vorticity and fluid velocity profiles in the wake are examined in detail for both swimmers. A three-dimensional vortex ring is clearly identified in the wake for one of the cases and a two-dimensional slice through the ring corroborates previous experiments of Miwa et al. (2006). We also find that most of the thrust is produced by the feet and in both cases the down-kick produces much larger thrust than the up-kick. PMID:19391495

  8. The Contribution of Trunk Axial Kinematics to Poststrike Ball Velocity During Maximal Instep Soccer Kicking.

    PubMed

    Fullenkamp, Adam M; Campbell, Brian M; Laurent, C Matthew; Lane, Amanda Paige

    2015-10-01

    To date, biomechanical analyses of soccer kicking have focused predominantly on lower-extremity motions, with little emphasis on the trunk and upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in trunk axial kinematics between novice (n = 10) and skilled (n = 10) participants, as well as to establish the relationship of trunk axial motion and sagittal plane thigh rotation to poststrike ball velocity. Three-dimensional body segmental motion data were captured using high-resolution motion analysis (120 Hz) while each participant completed 5 maximal instep soccer-style kicks. The results demonstrate that skilled participants use 53% greater axial trunk range of motion compared with novice participants (P < .01), as well as 62% greater peak trunk rotation velocity (P < .01). The results also show a moderate, positive correlation of peak trunk rotation velocity with poststrike ball velocity (r = .57; P < .01), and peak hip flexion velocity with poststrike ball velocity (r = .63; P < .01). The current study highlights the potential for trunk rotation-specific training to improve maximum instep kick velocity in developing soccer athletes. PMID:26099160

  9. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. -1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. -8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. -12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. -6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching.

  10. Semiclassical catastrophes and cumulative angular squeezing of a kicked quantum rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Leibscher, M.; Averbukh, I.Sh.; Rozmej, P.; Arvieu, R.

    2004-03-01

    We present a detailed theory of spectacular semiclassical catastrophes happening during the time evolution of a kicked quantum rotor [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 163601 (2001)]. Both two- and three-dimensional rotational systems are analyzed. It is shown that the wave function of the rotor develops a cusp at certain delay after a kick, which results in a sharply focused rotational wave packet. The cusp is followed by a fold-type catastrophe manifested in the rainbow-type moving singularities. In the three-dimensional case, the rainbows are accompanied by additional singular features similar to the glory structures known in the wave optics. These catastrophes in the time-dependent angular wave function are well described by the appropriate tools of the quasiclassical wave mechanics, i.e., by Airy and Bessel approximations and Pearcey's functions. A scenario of 'cumulative squeezing' is also presented in which a specially designed train of short kicks produces an unlimited narrowing of the rotor angular distribution. This scenario is relevant to the molecular alignment by short laser pulses, and also to the atom lithography schemes in which cold atoms are focused by an optical standing wave.

  11. Reliability and validity of a dual-task test for skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Dai, Jing; Chen, I-Fan; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2015-01-01

    The dual-task methodology, conducting two tasks simultaneously, may provide better validity than the traditional single-task tests in the environment that is closely related to real sport competitions. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a dual-task test that aims to measure the reaction time and skill proficiency in roundhouse kicks in elite and sub-elite taekwondo athletes. The dual-task results were compared to those in the single-task movements with various levels of complexity. The single-task movements A, B, and C were composed of one, three, and five roundhouse kicks, respectively. The dual-task movement D was composed of movement C and a push of a button in response to a light stimulus as the secondary task. The subjects were 12 elite and 12 sub-elite male taekwondo athletes. The test included four movements with five repeats of each movement in a randomized order. Each subject conducted the same test on two consecutive days. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed moderate-to-high correlation in the premotor time (ICC =0.439-0.634 in elite and ICC =0.681-0.824 in sub-elite), motor time (ICC =0.861-0.956 in elite and ICC =0.721-0.931 in sub-elite), and reaction time (ICC =0.692 in elite and ICC =0.676 in sub-elite) in the secondary task in both groups. The elite athletes had significantly faster premotor time than their sub-elite counterparts in all the four movements (all P<0.05). The largest difference lies in the reaction time in the secondary task, in which the elite group (0.248±0.026 seconds) was 33.0% faster than the sub-elite group (0.370±0.081 seconds) (P<0.001). This study shows that the test developed in this study has reasonable reliability and validity in both single- and dual-task methods. In addition, the dual-task method may be a more appropriate way to assess the reaction time and skill proficiency in taekwondo athletes.

  12. Influence of angles of attack, frequency and kick amplitude on swimmer's horizontal velocity during underwater phase of a grab start.

    PubMed

    Houel, Nicolas; Elipot, Marc; André, Frédéric; Hellard, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The underwater phase of starts represents an important part of the performance in sprint swimming's events. Kinematics variables that swimmers have to take into account to improve their underwater phase of starts are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the kinematics variables that improve performance during the underwater phase of grab starts. A three-dimensional analysis of the underwater phase of ten swimmers of national level was conducted. Stepwise multiple linear regressions identified the main kinematics variables that influence the horizontal velocity of the swimmer each 0.5 m in the range of 5 to 7.5 m. The results show that the kinematics parameters change during the range of 5 to 7.5 m of the underwater phase of the starts. For this population of swimmers, the results enable proposals of four principles to improve the underwater phase: i) to be streamlined at the beginning of the underwater gliding phase, ii) to start the dolphin kicking after 6 m, iii) to generate propulsive forces using only feet and legs during underwater undulatory swimming, iv) to improve the frequency of underwater undulatory swimming.

  13. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  14. Predictive Algorithm For Aiming An Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek K.

    1993-01-01

    Method of computing control signals to aim antenna based on predictive control-and-estimation algorithm that takes advantage of control inputs. Conceived for controlling antenna in tracking spacecraft and celestial objects, near-future trajectories of which are known. Also useful in enhancing aiming performances of other antennas and instruments that track objects that move along fairly well known paths.

  15. Lower Extremity Strength and Active Range of Motion in College Baseball Pitchers: A Comparison between Stance Leg and Kick Leg.

    PubMed

    Tippett, S R

    1986-01-01

    The role of the lower extremities and torso is vital in the pitching mechanism. However, a review of the literature reveals information primarily dealing with the upper extremity's role in throwing. This pilot study was conducted to: 1) determine selected lower extremity strength and range of motion measurements in sixteen college baseball pitchers, and 2) compare measurements in the stance leg to the kick leg. When preseason profiling is not possible, clinical norms for those treating college pitchers can be valuable in proper rehabilitation of the lower extremity. Also, by determining trends in lower extremity strength and motion when comparing kick (plant) leg to stance (drive) leg, a better understanding of lower extremity kinematics in the pitching act can be appreciated. Statistically significant differences were found in the active range of motion in plantarflexion, hip internal rotation, and hip extension of the stance leg, as well as hip flexion of the kick leg. lsokinetic evaluations at slow and fast speeds revealed significant differences in the strength of ankle dorsiflexors and hip flexors at slow speeds of the kick leg. Strength of the hamstrings on the kick leg was significant at fast speeds as was strength of the hip external rotators on the stance leg. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(1):10-14.

  16. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  17. Constraints on the Nature of CID-42: Recoil Kick or Supermassive Black Hole Pair?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsecscale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity approximately greater than 1300 km s(exp -1). Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk approximately greater than 2000 km s(exp -1)). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton-thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad and narrow line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  18. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  19. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  20. Kinematics analyses related to stretch-shortening cycle during soccer instep kicking after different acute stretching.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Mohammadkazemi, Reza; Sarafrazi, Soodeh; Riyahi-Malayeri, Shahin; Sotoodeh, Vahid

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching within a preexercise warm-up on angular velocity of knee joint, deepest knee flexion (DKF), and duration of eccentric and concentric contractions, which are relative to the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) during instep kicking in professional soccer players. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from 18 Olympic professional male soccer players (height: 180.38 ± 7.34 cm; weight: 69.77 ± 9.73 kg; age: 19.22 ± 1.83 years) using 4 digital video cameras at 50 Hz. There was a significant difference in the DKF after the dynamic stretching (-3.22 ± 3.10°) vs. static stretching (-0.18 ± 3.19°) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. Moreover, there was significant difference in eccentric duration after the dynamic stretching (0.006 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (-0.003 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.015. There was a significant difference in the concentric duration after the dynamic stretching (-0.007 ± 0.01 seconds) vs. static stretching (0.002 ± 0.01 seconds) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. There was also a significant difference in knee angular velocity after the dynamic stretching (4.08 ± 3.81 rad·s) vs. static stretching (-5.34 ± 4.40 rad·s) relative to the no-stretching method with p < 0.001. We concluded that dynamic stretching during warm-ups, as compared with static stretching, is probably the most effective way as preparation for the kinematics characteristics of soccer instep kick, which are relative to the SSC.

  1. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  2. Barrier-induced chaos in a kicked rotor: Classical subdiffusion and quantum localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanku; Pal, Harinder; Santhanam, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between classically chaotic dynamics and quantum localization is studied in a system that violates the assumptions of the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem, namely, the kicked rotor in a discontinuous potential barrier. We show that the discontinuous barrier induces chaos and more than two distinct subdiffusive energy growth regimes, the latter being an unusual feature for Hamiltonian chaos. We show that the dynamical localization in the quantized version of this system carries the imprint of non-KAM classical dynamics through the dependence of quantum break time on subdiffusion exponents. We briefly comment on the experimental feasibility of this system.

  3. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. COMPARISON OF OFF-LINE IR BUMP AND ACTION-ANGLE KICK MINIMIZATION.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    The interaction region bump (IR bump) nonlinear correction method has been used for the sextupole and octupole field error on-line corrections in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) . Some differences were found for the sextupole and octupole corrector strengths between the on-line IR bump correction and the predictions from the action-angle kick minimization. In this article, we compare the corrector strengths from these two methods based on the RHIC Blue ring lattice with the IR nonlinear modeling. The comparison confirms the differences between resulting corrector strengths. And the reason for the differences is found and discussed.

  4. Contributions to the Galactic Halo from In-Situ, Kicked-Out, and Accreted Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne; Majewski, Steven

    2015-08-01

    The chemical and kinematical properties of stars in the Galactic halo provide a means to study the formation history of the Milky Way. Stars formed within a satellite galaxy will bear the imprint of their host dark matter subhalo: star formation is less efficient in less massive protogalactic clumps, so we should observe a specific pattern in [Fe/H] as a function of α-elements and slow/rapid neutron capture elements that reflects this efficiency. Due to their formation in Type II supernovae, α-elements probe the relative timescale of formation for populations of stars. The addition of s- and r-process elements gives a more complete evolutionary picture of the Galaxy. The yields of s- and r-process elements, which are synthesized in Type II supernovae and thermally pulsating AGB stars, respectively, are coupled to the Fe seed nuclei present in the formation site; thus, neutron capture element yields vary with metallicity and provide further constraints on the subhalo’s star formation history.We will report chemical abundances for a sample of 109 M giants in the nearby halo of the Milky Way. The stars were selected for high-resolution spectroscopy based upon their radial velocities: the radial velocities vary significantly from those expected for stars moving on uniform circular orbits in the Galactic disk. Thus, we expect a sample dominated by halo stars. Abundances are derived for α-elements and neutron capture elements. By analyzing the multi-dimensional abundance space, the formation site of the halo giants can be assessed. Of particular interest are a class of stars that form in situ, deep in the Milky Way’s gravitational potential well, but are “kicked out” of the disk into the halo due to a perturbation event. A kicked-out population has recently been identified in Andromeda. N-body simulations predict a range in the percentage of stars belonging to the kicked-out disk population in galaxies. We will present our results within the context of

  5. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  6. Locusts use a composite of resilin and hard cuticle as an energy store for jumping and kicking.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Sutton, Gregory P

    2012-10-01

    Locusts jump and kick by using a catapult mechanism in which energy is first stored and then rapidly released to extend the large hind legs. The power is produced by a slow contraction of large muscles in the hind femora that bend paired semi-lunar processes in the distal part of each femur and store half the energy needed for a kick. We now show that these energy storage devices are composites of hard cuticle and the rubber-like protein resilin. The inside surface of a semi-lunar process consists of a layer of resilin, particularly thick along an inwardly pointing ridge and tightly bonded to the external, black cuticle. From the outside, resilin is visible only as a distal and ventral triangular area that tapers proximally. High-speed imaging showed that the semi-lunar processes were bent in all three dimensions during the prolonged muscular contractions that precede a kick. To reproduce these bending movements, the extensor tibiae muscle was stimulated electrically in a pattern that mimicked the normal sequence of its fast motor spikes recorded in natural kicking. Externally visible resilin was compressed and wrinkled as a semi-lunar process was bent. It then sprung back to restore the semi-lunar process rapidly to its original natural shape. Each of the five nymphal stages jumped and kicked and had a similar distribution of resilin in their semi-lunar processes as adults; the resilin was shed with the cuticle at each moult. It is suggested that composite storage devices that combine the elastic properties of resilin with the stiffness of hard cuticle allow energy to be stored by bending hard cuticle over only a small distance and without fracturing. In this way all the stored energy is returned and the natural shape of the femur is restored rapidly so that a jump or kick can be repeated.

  7. First report of behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes: right-biased kicking behaviour against males in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. functional and/or structural specialisations of left and right sides of the brain) of aggressive traits has been studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. Mosquito females display aggressive responses against undesired males, performing rejection kicks with the hind legs. In this research, we examined lateralisation of kicking behaviour in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. We found a right-biased population-level lateralisation of kicking behaviour. Four repeated testing phases on mosquito females confirmed the preferential use of right legs. However, when left legs were used, the mean number of kicks per rejection event was not different to that performed with right legs. Both left and right kicking behaviour lead to successful displacement of undesired partners. This is the first report about behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes.

  8. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony, kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast, that began with the Bumper rockets. From left are Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. Also present (but not seen) is Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  9. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities. PMID:25265360

  10. Alternative Stable States, Coral Reefs, and Smooth Dynamics with a Kick.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Stephen; Naudot, Vincent; Noonburg, Erik G

    2016-03-01

    We consider a computer simulation, which was found to be faithful to time series data for Caribbean coral reefs, and an analytical model to help understand the dynamics of the simulation. The analytical model is a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE), and the authors claim this model demonstrates the existence of alternative stable states. The existence of an alternative stable state should consider a sudden shift in coral and macroalgae populations, while the grazing rate remains constant. The results of such shifts, however, are often confounded by changes in grazing rate. Although the ODE suggest alternative stable states, the ODE need modification to explicitly account for shifts or discrete events such as hurricanes. The goal of this paper will be to study the simulation dynamics through a simplified analytical representation. We proceed by modifying the original analytical model through incorporating discrete changes into the ODE. We then analyze the resulting dynamics and their bifurcations with respect to changes in grazing rate and hurricane frequency. In particular, a "kick" enabling the ODE to consider impulse events is added. Beyond adding a "kick" we employ the grazing function that is suggested by the simulation. The extended model was fit to the simulation data to support its use and predicts the existence cycles depending nonlinearly on grazing rates and hurricane frequency. These cycles may bring new insights into consideration for reef health, restoration and dynamics. PMID:26951249

  11. Measurement of nonlinear observables in the Large Hadron Collider using kicked beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, E. H.; Tomás, R.; Schmidt, F.; Persson, T. H. B.

    2014-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circular accelerator such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may significantly impact its performance. As the LHC progresses to more challenging regimes of operation it is to be expected that the nonlinear single particle dynamics in the transverse planes will play an increasing role in limiting the reach of the accelerator. As such it is vital that the nonlinear sources are well understood. The nonlinear fields of a circular accelerator may be probed through measurement of the amplitude detuning: the variation of tune with single particle emittance. This quantity may be assessed experimentally by exciting the beam to large amplitudes with kicks, and obtaining the tunes and actions from turn-by-turn data at Beam Position Monitors. The large amplitude excitations inherent to such a measurement also facilitate measurement of the dynamic aperture from an analysis of beam losses following the kicks. In 2012 these measurements were performed on the LHC Beam 2 at injection energy (450 GeV) with the nominal magnetic configuration. Nonlinear coupling was also observed. A second set of measurements were performed following the application of corrections for b4 and b5 errors. Analysis of the experimental results, and a comparison to simulation are presented herein.

  12. Localization-Delocalization Transition in a System of Quantum Kicked Rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Creffield, C.E.; Hur, G.; Monteiro, T.S.

    2006-01-20

    The quantum dynamics of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced {delta} kicks from optical potentials are shown to be quite different from the well-known paradigm of quantum chaos, the single {delta}-kick system. We find the unitary matrix has a new oscillating band structure corresponding to a cellular structure of phase space and observe a spectral signature of a localization-delocalization transition from one cell to several. We find that the eigenstates have localization lengths which scale with a fractional power L{approx}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup -0.75} and obtain a regime of near-linear spectral variances which approximate the 'critical statistics' relation {sigma}{sub 2}(L){approx_equal}{chi}L{approx_equal}(1/2)(1-{nu})L, where {nu}{approx_equal}0.75 is related to the fractal classical phase-space structure. The origin of the {nu}{approx_equal}0.75 exponent is analyzed.

  13. TURBOVELOCITY STARS: KICKS RESULTING FROM THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF SOLITARY STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Manukian, Haik; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; O'Leary, Ryan M.

    2013-07-10

    The centers of most known galaxies host supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In orbit around these black holes are a centrally concentrated distribution of stars, both in single and in binary systems. Occasionally, these stars are perturbed onto orbits that bring them close to the SMBH. If the star is in a binary system, the three-body interaction with the SMBH can lead to large changes in orbital energy, depositing one of the two stars on a tightly-bound orbit, and its companion into a hyperbolic orbit that may escape the galaxy. In this Letter, we show that the disruption of solitary stars can also lead to large positive increases in orbital energy. The kick velocity depends on the amount of mass the star loses at pericenter, but not on the ratio of black hole to stellar mass, and are at most the star's own escape velocity. We find that these kicks are usually too small to result in the ejection of stars from the Milky Way, but can eject the stars from the black hole's sphere of influence, reducing their probability of being disrupted again. We estimate that {approx} 10{sup 5} stars, {approx} 1% of all stars within 10 pc of the galactic center, are likely to have had mass removed by the central black hole through tidal interaction, and speculate that these 'turbovelocity' stars will at first be redder, but eventually bluer, and always brighter than their unharassed peers.

  14. Kick the habit: a social marketing campaign by Aboriginal communities in NSW.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R

    2014-01-01

    Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.

  15. Alternative Stable States, Coral Reefs, and Smooth Dynamics with a Kick.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Stephen; Naudot, Vincent; Noonburg, Erik G

    2016-03-01

    We consider a computer simulation, which was found to be faithful to time series data for Caribbean coral reefs, and an analytical model to help understand the dynamics of the simulation. The analytical model is a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE), and the authors claim this model demonstrates the existence of alternative stable states. The existence of an alternative stable state should consider a sudden shift in coral and macroalgae populations, while the grazing rate remains constant. The results of such shifts, however, are often confounded by changes in grazing rate. Although the ODE suggest alternative stable states, the ODE need modification to explicitly account for shifts or discrete events such as hurricanes. The goal of this paper will be to study the simulation dynamics through a simplified analytical representation. We proceed by modifying the original analytical model through incorporating discrete changes into the ODE. We then analyze the resulting dynamics and their bifurcations with respect to changes in grazing rate and hurricane frequency. In particular, a "kick" enabling the ODE to consider impulse events is added. Beyond adding a "kick" we employ the grazing function that is suggested by the simulation. The extended model was fit to the simulation data to support its use and predicts the existence cycles depending nonlinearly on grazing rates and hurricane frequency. These cycles may bring new insights into consideration for reef health, restoration and dynamics.

  16. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's (CCAS) Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast that began with the Bumper rockets. At left is artist Darlene Egli who designed the 50th anniversary logo next to her. On stage, from left to right, are Lt. Col. Randall K. Horn, Commander, CCAS; Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  17. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's (CCAS) Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast that began with the Bumper rockets. At right, Norris Gray, a Bumper Program veteran, unveils a street sign that will be used to mark the road leading to the launch complex from which Bumper was launched. Seen on the stage are, left to right, Lt. Col. Randall K. Horn (at the podium), Commander, CCAS; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. Also present (but not seen) is Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  18. Ceremony at CCAS to kick off year-long celebration of 50 years of space launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Cape Canaveral Air Station's (CCAS) Complex 3/4, officials held a ceremony kicking off a year-long series of events commemorating 50 years of launches from the Space Coast that began with the Bumper rockets. At left is Jim Thompson, who is with CCAS. Unveiling the 50th anniversary logo at left is the artist Darlene Egli. On stage, from left to right, are Lt. Col. Randall K. Horn, Commander, CCAS; Congressman David Weldon, 15th Congressional District of the State of Florida; Lieutenant Governor of the State of Florida Frank T. Brogan; Center Director Roy D. Bridges; and Executive Director Edward F. Gormel, Joint Performance Management Office. Also present (but not seen) is Brig. Gen. Donald P. Pettit, Commander, 45th Space Wing. After six Bumper launches at White Sands Proving Grounds, N.M., and a failed Bumper 7, a successful Bumper 8 lifted off July 24, 1950, from Complex 3/4 to conduct aerodynamic investigations around Mach 7 at relatively low altitudes. The kick-off event also inaugurated a student art contest to design a commemorative etching. The winning artwork will be permanently displayed on a 24-inch black granite square in the U.S. space Walk hall of Fame in Titusville, Fla.

  19. Teacher Research and the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne; Wardekker, Willem

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of a course for experienced teachers in the Netherlands, intended to enhance their professionalism by engaging them in doing research based on reflection on the aims of their educational efforts. The course was accompanied by design-based research. The research question was whether and how the course stimulated…

  1. PRAGUE SEMINAR ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIED, VILEM

    AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, WHOSE PURPOSE IT WAS TO DISCUSS THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, IS REPORTED ON IN THIS ARTICLE. THE THREE PAPERS PRESENTED BY IVAN POLDAUF, VALENTINA ZETLINA, AND JOHN B. CARROLL ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR DISCUSSIONS ON LINGUISTICS, DIDACTICS, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE DISCUSSION FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION OF…

  2. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    PubMed

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  3. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  5. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  6. Preventing Aim At An Undesired Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic system controls changes in orientation of optical instrument. Slew-control system includes avoidance-control logic, which overrides slew-control error generator when line of sight of instrument comes within cone of avoidance around line of sight to Sun. Normal slewing trajectory interrupted by avoidance-control logic, which computes actuator torques taking line of sight around cone of avoidance. Used to protect delicate photodetectors in servocontrolled infrared spectrometer or imaging instrument against damage occurring if instrument aimed at Sun or another excessively bright object.

  7. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  8. Acute effect of static and dynamic stretching on hip dynamic range of motion during instep kicking in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Abu Osman, Noor A; Yusof, Ashril

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching within a pre-exercise warm-up on hip dynamic range of motion (DROM) during instep kicking in professional soccer players. The kicking motions of dominant legs were captured from 18 professional adult male soccer players (height: 180.38 ± 7.34 cm; mass: 69.77 ± 9.73 kg; age: 19.22 ± 1.83 years) using 4 3-dimensional digital video cameras at 50 Hz. Hip DROM at backward, forward, and follow-through phases (instep kick phases) after different warm-up protocols consisting of static, dynamic, and no-stretching on 3 nonconsecutive test days were captured for analysis. During the backswing phase, there was no difference in DROM after the dynamic stretching compared with the static stretching relative to the no-stretching method. There was a significant difference in DROM after the dynamic stretching compared with the static stretching relative to the no-stretching method during (a) the forward phase with p < 0.03, (b) the follow-through phase with p < 0.01, and (c) all phases with p < 0.01. We concluded that professional soccer players can perform a higher DROM of the hip joint during the instep kick after dynamic stretching incorporated in warm-ups, hence increasing the chances of scoring and injury prevention during soccer games. PMID:21358428

  9. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gabriela L.; Bueno, Thaís B.; Tudella, Eloisa; Dionisio, Jadiane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb), and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05), with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001) for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks. PMID:25003276

  10. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  11. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  12. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  13. Night vision adapter for an aiming telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granciu, Dana; Mitricica, Doina-Narcisa; Serban, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Actual requirements impose more and more to convert rapidly a daytime aiming telescope, (called also telescopic sight or riflescope) into a night vision device. Recent progress achieved in the development of various image sensors over a wide spectral range, from visible to Long-wave infrared (LWIR), made possible to develop new solutions for performant night vision adapters. These attachments can increase the visibility at night but can be designed to cover also some low visibility conditions during the day such as fog, smoke and dust, especially if we refer to the Short-wave infrared spectral band (SWIR). The paper analyzes possible constructive solutions for digital riflescope attachments, destined to work at night and/or in low visibility during the day.

  14. SWIR detectors for night vision at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Benecke, M.; Hofmann, K.; Oelmaier, R.; Sieck, A.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.

    2014-06-01

    Detectors for the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range are particularly suitable for observation under hazy weather conditions as well as under twilight or moon light conditions. In addition, SWIR detectors allow using the airglow for observation under moonless sky. SWIR detectors are commonly based on InGaAs or HgCdTe (MCT) and demand extremely low dark currents to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio under low background light conditions. AIM has developed a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with 640×512 pixels and a 15 μm pixel pitch for low light level applications. The ROIC supports analog or digital correlated double sampling (CDS) for the reduction of reset-noise (also known as kTC-noise). Along with CDS, a rolling shutter (RS) mode has been implemented. The input stage of the ROIC is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable gain settings. The dark current of our SWIR MCT detectors has recently been significantly reduced to allow for high operating temperatures. In contrast to InGaAs, the MCT material offers the unique possibility to adjust the cut-off wavelength according to the application while maintaining the matching of the lattice constant to the one of the CdZnTe substrate. The key electro-optical performance parameters of lately developed MCT based SWIR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) with a 1.75 μm cut-off wavelength will be presented. In addition, AIMs SWIR detectors covering the spectral range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and available in formats of 384×288 pixels - 24 μm pitch and 1024×256 pixels - 24×32 μm2, will be introduced.

  15. Effect of Leg Dominance on The Center-of-Mass Kinematics During an Inside-of-the-Foot Kick in Amateur Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Motta, Andrea Francesco; Mapelli, Andrea; Annoni, Isabella; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2014-09-29

    Soccer kicking kinematics has received wide interest in literature. However, while the instep-kick has been broadly studied, only few researchers investigated the inside-of-the-foot kick, which is one of the most frequently performed techniques during games. In particular, little knowledge is available about differences in kinematics when kicking with the preferred and non-preferred leg. A motion analysis system recorded the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers placed upon the body of nine amateur soccer players (23.0 ± 2.1 years, BMI 22.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2), who performed 30 pass-kicks each, 15 with the preferred and 15 with the non-preferred leg. We investigated skill kinematics while maintaining a perspective on the complete picture of movement, looking for laterality related differences. The main focus was laid on: anatomical angles, contribution of upper limbs in kick biomechanics, kinematics of the body Center of Mass (CoM), which describes the whole body movement and is related to balance and stability. When kicking with the preferred leg, CoM displacement during the ground-support phase was 13% higher (p<0.001), normalized CoM height was 1.3% lower (p<0.001) and CoM velocity 10% higher (p<0.01); foot and shank velocities were about 5% higher (p<0.01); arms were more abducted (p<0.01); shoulders were rotated more towards the target (p<0.01, 6° mean orientation difference). We concluded that differences in motor control between preferred and non-preferred leg kicks exist, particularly in the movement velocity and upper body kinematics. Coaches can use these results to provide effective instructions to players in the learning process, moving their focus on kicking speed and upper body behavior.

  16. Effect of Leg Dominance on The Center-of-Mass Kinematics During an Inside-of-the-Foot Kick in Amateur Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Motta, Andrea Francesco; Mapelli, Andrea; Annoni, Isabella; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2014-09-29

    Soccer kicking kinematics has received wide interest in literature. However, while the instep-kick has been broadly studied, only few researchers investigated the inside-of-the-foot kick, which is one of the most frequently performed techniques during games. In particular, little knowledge is available about differences in kinematics when kicking with the preferred and non-preferred leg. A motion analysis system recorded the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers placed upon the body of nine amateur soccer players (23.0 ± 2.1 years, BMI 22.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2), who performed 30 pass-kicks each, 15 with the preferred and 15 with the non-preferred leg. We investigated skill kinematics while maintaining a perspective on the complete picture of movement, looking for laterality related differences. The main focus was laid on: anatomical angles, contribution of upper limbs in kick biomechanics, kinematics of the body Center of Mass (CoM), which describes the whole body movement and is related to balance and stability. When kicking with the preferred leg, CoM displacement during the ground-support phase was 13% higher (p<0.001), normalized CoM height was 1.3% lower (p<0.001) and CoM velocity 10% higher (p<0.01); foot and shank velocities were about 5% higher (p<0.01); arms were more abducted (p<0.01); shoulders were rotated more towards the target (p<0.01, 6° mean orientation difference). We concluded that differences in motor control between preferred and non-preferred leg kicks exist, particularly in the movement velocity and upper body kinematics. Coaches can use these results to provide effective instructions to players in the learning process, moving their focus on kicking speed and upper body behavior. PMID:25414739

  17. Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity

    SciTech Connect

    Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca

    2010-08-01

    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation.

  18. Stabilizing coherence with nested environments: a numerical study using kicked Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gutiérrez, C.; Villaseñor, E.; Pineda, C.; Seligman, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    We study a tripartite system of coupled spins, where a first set of one or two spins is our central system which is coupled to another set considered, the near environment, in turn coupled to the third set, the far environment. The dynamics considered are those of a generalized kicked spin chain in the regime of quantum chaotic dynamics. This allows us to test recent results that suggest that the presence of a far environment, coupled to the near environment, slows decoherence of the central system. After an extensive numerical study, we confirm previous results for extreme values and special cases. In particular, under a wide variety of circumstances an increasing coupling between near and far environment, slows decoherence, as measured by purity, and protects internal entanglement.

  19. Neutron star natal kicks and the long-term survival of star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contenta, Filippo; Varri, Anna Lisa; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a star cluster in an external tidal field by using N-body simulations, with focus on the effects of the presence or absence of neutron star natal velocity kicks. We show that, even if neutron stars typically represent less than 2 per cent of the total bound mass of a star cluster, their primordial kinematic properties may affect the lifetime of the system by up to almost a factor of 4. We interpret this result in the light of two known modes of star cluster dissolution, dominated by either early stellar evolution mass-loss or two-body relaxation. The competition between these effects shapes the mass-loss profile of star clusters, which may either dissolve abruptly (`jumping'), in the pre-core-collapse phase, or gradually (`skiing'), after having reached core collapse.

  20. Study on the orbital maneuvering capability of H-2A kick stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenaga, Toshinori; Utashima, Masayoshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Hiraiwa, Tetsuo; Noda, Atsushi

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a concept study of an optional kick stage system named "PLUS (for Planetary mission, Long-duration small-thrust Upper Stage)" equipped with a relatively small-thrust engine for interplanetary missions. The thrust force of PLUS assumed in this study is a maximum 29.4 kN, which is relatively small, used to inject a payload into interplanetary orbit with sufficiently low gravity loss i.e. less than 2%, although two split delta-Vs such as the Russian Proton/Breeze-M will improve performance efficiency (Proton Launch System Mission Planner's Guide, 2009 [1]). The orbital maneuvering capability of PLUS system is evaluated through Mars orbital maneuvering simulations. In this study, two types of PLUS systems are assumed. First, a 29.4 kN thrust force kicks stage system designated as "PLUS1" to inject the 3000 kg main payload into Mars transfer orbit. Second, a 9.8 kN thrust force small PLUS system designated as "PLUS2" to inject a 500 kg secondary payload into Mars transfer orbit. In the first case, the above-mentioned split delta-Vs are conducted to inject the main payload into Mars transfer orbit with sufficiently low gravity loss. In the second case, on the other hand, PLUS2 attached to the secondary payload is dual launched together with a primary payload into a geostationary transfer orbit, GTO, whereupon PLUS2 is initiated slightly before perigee to inject the secondary payload into Mars transfer orbit utilizing Electric delta-V Earth Gravity Assist, EDVEGA scheme via the on-board Ion Electric propulsion System, IES (Kawaguchi, 2001 [2,3]). Throughout the simulations, some optimized configurations of PLUS system covering a wide variety of space missions are suggested in this paper.

  1. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pražnikar, Jure; Turk, Dušan

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  2. UNDERSTANDING COMPACT OBJECT FORMATION AND NATAL KICKS. III. THE CASE OF CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Valsecchi, Francesca; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Fragos, Tassos E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: tfragos@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-03-10

    In recent years, accurate observational constraints have become available for an increasing number of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs). Together with proper-motion measurements, we could reconstruct the full evolutionary history of XRBs back to the time of compact object formation. In this paper, we present the first study of the persistent X-ray source Cygnus X-1 that takes into account all available observational constraints. Our analysis accounts for three evolutionary phases: orbital evolution and motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of a black hole (BH), and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. We find that the mass of the BH immediate progenitor is 15.0-20.0 M{sub Sun }, and at the time of core collapse, the BH has potentially received a small kick velocity of {<=}77 km s{sup -1} at 95% confidence. If the BH progenitor mass is less than {approx}17 M{sub Sun }, a non-zero natal kick velocity is required to explain the currently observed properties of Cygnus X-1. Since the BH has only accreted mass from its companion's stellar wind, the negligible amount of accreted mass does not explain the observationally inferred BH spin of a{sub *} > 0.95, and the origin of this extreme BH spin must be connected to the BH formation itself. Right after the BH formation, we find that the BH companion is a 19.8-22.6 M{sub Sun} main-sequence star, orbiting the BH at a period of 4.7-5.2 days. Furthermore, recent observations show that the BH companion is currently super-synchronized. This super-synchronism indicates that the strength of tides exerted on the BH companion should be weaker by a factor of at least two compared to the usually adopted strength.

  3. Flank Collapse Assessment At Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano (Lesser Antilles): A Combined Approach Using Modelling and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Heap, Michael; Robert, Richard E. A.; Dorville, Jean-Francois M.; Carey, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landslides - the result of volcanic flank failure - are highly hazardous mass movements due to their high mobility, the wide area they can impact, and their potential to generate tsunamis. In the Lesser Antilles at least 53 episodes of flank collapse have been identified, with many of them associated with voluminous (Vdeposit exceeding 1 km3) submarine volcanic landslide deposits. The existence of such voluminous deposits highlights the hazard of potentially devastating tsunami waves to the populated islands of the Lesser Antilles. To help understand and mitigate such hazards, we applied a relative stability assessment method to the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles island arc: Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ). KeJ - located 8 km north of the island of Grenada - is the southernmost edifice in the arc with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide prehistoric episodes, one is associated with a collapse volume of about 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. A volume estimate of the present day edifice is about 1.5 km3. We aim to quantify potential initial volumes of collapsed material using relative instability analysis (RIA). The RIA evaluates the critical potential failure surface associated with factor of safety (Fs) inferior to 1 and compares them to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume obtained from the comparison of an high resolution digital elevation model of the edifice with an ideal 3D surface named Volcanoid. To do so we use freeware programs VolcanoFit 2.0 and SSAP 4.5. We report, for the first time, results of a Limit Equilibrium Method (Janbu's rigorous method) as a slope stability computation analysis performed using geomechanical parameters retrieved from rock mechanics tests performed on two rock basaltic-andesite rock samples collected from within the crater of the volcano during the 1

  4. Numerical tsunami hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Landslide-generated tsunami are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional tsunami. However no clear field evidence of tsunami associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical models, the tsunami source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code

  5. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  6. Ground reaction forces and kinematics of plant leg position during instep kicking in male and female collegiate soccer players.

    PubMed

    Orloff, Heidi; Sumida, Bryce; Chow, Janna; Habibi, Lalae; Fujino, Aaron; Kramer, Brian

    2008-05-01

    The players' ability to achieve the greatest distance in kicking is determined by their efficiency in transferring kinetic energy from the body to the ball. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetics and kinematics of the plant leg position between male and female collegiate soccer players during instep kicking. Twenty-three soccer players (11 males and 12 females) were filmed in both the sagittal and posterior views while performing a maximal instep kick. Plant leg kinetic data were also collected using an AMTI 1000 force platform. There were no significant differences between the sexes in plant leg position, but females had significantly greater trunk lean, plant leg angle, and medial-lateral ground reaction force than the males. Males showed higher vertical ground reaction forces at ball contact, but there were no significant differences in ball speed at take-off between the sexes. Ball speed at take-off was inversely related to peak anterior-posterior ground reaction force (-0.65). The anatomical differences between the sexes were reflected in greater trunk lean and lower leg angle in the females.

  7. Modeling the Effect of Kick Velocity during the Accretion Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs on Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taani, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The kick velocity which arises during the binary interaction plays an important role in disruption or surviving the binary systems. This paper attempts to draw an evolutionary connection of the long-period (Porb ≥ 2 d) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with orbits of low eccentricity (e ≤ 0.2). We propose that a kick velocity caused by dynamical effects of asymmetric collapse imparted to the companion star through an accretion induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs-that become unstable once they approach the Chandrasekhar limit-can account for the differences in their orbital period distributions. Furthermore, in some cases, an appropriate kick can disrupt the binary system and result in the birth of isolated MSPs. Otherwise, the binary survives and an eccentric binary MSP is formed. In this case only the binding energy equivalent (0.2M⊙) of mass is lost and the system remains intact in a symmetric collapse. Consequently, the AIC decreases the mass of the neutron star and increases the orbital period leading to orbit circularization. We present the results of our model and discuss the possible implications for the binary MSPs in galactic disk and globular clusters.

  8. Impact force and time analysis influenced by execution distance in a roundhouse kick to the head in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Alvarez, Octavio; Falco, Coral; Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    The execution distance is a tactic factor that affects mechanical performance and execution technique in taekwondo. This study analyzes the roundhouse kick to the head by comparing the maximum impact force, execution time, and impact time in 3 distances according to the athletes' competition level. It also analyzes the relationship between impact force and weight in each group. It examines whether the execution distance affects the maximum impact force, execution time, and impact time, in each level group or 2 different competition levels. Participants were 27 male taekwondo players (13 medallists and 14 nonmedallists). The medallists executed the roundhouse kick to the head with greater impact force and in a shorter execution time than did the nonmedallists when they kicked from any distance different to their combat distance. However, the results showed that the execution distance is influential in the execution time and impact time in the nonmedallist group. It is considered appropriate to orientate the high-level competitors to train for offensive actions from any distance similar to the long execution distance because it offers equally effectiveness and a greater security against the opponent. Also, practitioners should focus their training to improve time performance because it is more affected by distance than impact force.

  9. IS IGR J11014-6103 A PULSAR WITH THE HIGHEST KNOWN KICK VELOCITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Fornasini, Francesca; Rodriguez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid

    2012-05-10

    We report on Chandra X-ray and Parkes radio observations of IGR J11014-6103, which is a possible pulsar wind nebula with a complex X-ray morphology and a likely radio counterpart. With the superb angular resolution of Chandra, we find evidence that a portion of the extended emission may be related to a bow shock due to the putative pulsar moving through the interstellar medium. The inferred direction of motion is consistent with IGR J11014-6103 having been born in the event that produced the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-61A. If this association is correct, then previous constraints on the expansion of MSH 11-61A imply a transverse velocity for IGR J11014-6103 of 2400-2900 km s{sup -1}, depending on the SNR model used. This would surpass the kick velocities of any known pulsars and rival or surpass the velocities of any compact objects that are associated with SNRs. While it is important to confirm the nature of the source, our radio pulsation search did not yield a detection.

  10. Constraining X-ray binary natal kicks with Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Jones, James

    2016-07-01

    The sub-milliarcsecond astrometric precision of modern very long baseline interferometric arrays enables us to measure the proper motion of any radio-emitting Galactic source. For sufficiently nearby sources, we can also measure their geometric parallax, providing model-independent distance estimates. When combined with a systemic radial velocity measured from optical or infrared spectroscopy, we can then determine the full three-dimensional space velocity of such sources. X-ray binary systems in their hard and quiescent states power compact, steady jets, which, if sufficiently nearby, produce detectable, unresolved radio emission, making them ideal astrometric targets. By tracing their orbits in the Galactic potential, and combining this kinematic information with measurements of the system parameters, it is possible to place detailed constraints on the formation mechanism of the compact object, determining the magnitude of any natal kick. In this talk I will provide an overview of what we have learned from the few existing studies in this area, and discuss the potential for future progress in this field.

  11. Stardust silicate nucleation kick-started by SiO+TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Goumans, T P M; Bromley, Stefan T

    2013-07-13

    Dust particles are quintessential for the chemical evolution of the Universe. Dust nucleates in stellar outflows of dying stars and subsequently travels through the interstellar medium, continuously evolving via energetic processing, collisions and condensation. Finally, dust particles are incorporated in the next-generation star or its surrounding planetary system. In oxygen-rich stellar outflows, silicates are observed in the condensation zone (1200-1000 K), but, in spite of several decades of experimental and theoretical study, the stardust nucleation process remains poorly understood. We have previously shown that under these conditions ternary Mg-Si-O clusters may start forming at high enough rates from SiO, Mg and H₂O through heteromolecular association processes. In this reaction scheme, none of the possible initial association reactions was thermodynamically favourable owing to the large entropy loss at these temperatures. Here, we follow a previous idea that the incorporation of TiO₂ could help to initiate stardust nucleation. In contrast to these studies, we find that there is no need for TiO₂ cluster seeds-instead, one molecule of TiO₂ is sufficient to kick-start the subsequent nucleation of a silicate dust particle.

  12. Stardust silicate nucleation kick-started by SiO+TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Goumans, T P M; Bromley, Stefan T

    2013-07-13

    Dust particles are quintessential for the chemical evolution of the Universe. Dust nucleates in stellar outflows of dying stars and subsequently travels through the interstellar medium, continuously evolving via energetic processing, collisions and condensation. Finally, dust particles are incorporated in the next-generation star or its surrounding planetary system. In oxygen-rich stellar outflows, silicates are observed in the condensation zone (1200-1000 K), but, in spite of several decades of experimental and theoretical study, the stardust nucleation process remains poorly understood. We have previously shown that under these conditions ternary Mg-Si-O clusters may start forming at high enough rates from SiO, Mg and H₂O through heteromolecular association processes. In this reaction scheme, none of the possible initial association reactions was thermodynamically favourable owing to the large entropy loss at these temperatures. Here, we follow a previous idea that the incorporation of TiO₂ could help to initiate stardust nucleation. In contrast to these studies, we find that there is no need for TiO₂ cluster seeds-instead, one molecule of TiO₂ is sufficient to kick-start the subsequent nucleation of a silicate dust particle. PMID:23734047

  13. Understanding compact object formation and natal kicks. IV. The case of IC 10 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Valsecchi, Francesca; Ansari, Asna; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Fragos, Tassos; McClintock, Jeffrey; Glebbeek, Evert E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: tfragos@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: ansari@ldeo.columbia.edu

    2014-08-01

    The extragalactic X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 has attracted attention as it is possibly the host of the most massive stellar-mass black-hole (BH) known to date. Here we consider all available observational constraints and construct its evolutionary history up to the instant just before the formation of the BH. Our analysis accounts for the simplest possible history, which includes three evolutionary phases: binary orbital dynamics at core collapse, common envelope (CE) evolution, and evolution of the BH-helium star binary progenitor of the observed system. We derive the complete set of constraints on the progenitor system at various evolutionary stages. Specifically, right before the core collapse event, we find the mass of the BH immediate progenitor to be ≳ 31 M{sub ☉} (at 95% of confidence, same hereafter). The magnitude of the natal kick imparted to the BH is constrained to be ≲ 130 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, we find that the 'enthalpy' formalism recently suggested by Ivanova and Chaichenets is able to explain the existence of IC 10 X-1 without the need to invoke unreasonably high CE efficiencies. With this physically motivated formalism, we find that the CE efficiency required to explain the system is in the range of ≅ 0.6-1.

  14. Effects of an electrostimulation training program on strength, jumping, and kicking capacities in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Billot, Maxime; Martin, Alain; Paizis, Christos; Cometti, Carole; Babault, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a 5-week electrostimulation (EMS) training program on muscular strength, kicking velocity, sprint, and vertical jump performance in soccer players. Twenty amateur soccer players participated in the study, 10 in the electrostimulated group and the remaining 10 in a control group. Electrostimulation was applied on the quadriceps muscles over 5 weeks. Subjects were tested before, during (wk-3), and after (wk-5) the EMS training program. Maximal voluntary contraction using different contraction mode (i.e., eccentric, concentric, and isometric), vertical jump height, sprint running for 10 m, and ball speed were examined. We observed an increase in isometric and eccentric maximal knee extension torques and also a gain in ball speed performance without run up at wk-3. After 5 weeks of EMS training, eccentric, isometric, and concentric torques and ball speed had significantly improved. It appeared appropriate to conduct EMS training during at least 3 weeks to observe beneficial effects in specific soccer skills such as ball speed.

  15. Luminous Blue Variables are Antisocial: Their Isolation Implies they are Kicked Mass Gainers in Binary Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombleson, Ryan; Smith, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Based on their relatively isolated environments, we argue that luminous blue variables (LBVs) must be primarily the product of binary evolution, challenging the traditional single-star view wherein LBVs mark a brief transition between massive O-type stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. If the latter were true, then LBVs should be concentrated in young massive clusters like early O-type stars. This is decidedly not the case. Examining locations of LBVs in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds reveals that, with few exceptions, LBVs systematically avoid clusters of O-type stars. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, LBVs are statistically much more isolated than O-type stars, and (perhaps most surprisingly) even more isolated than WR stars. This makes it impossible for LBVs to be single 'massive stars in transition' to WR stars. Instead, we propose that massive stars and supernova (SN) subtypes are dominated by bifurcated evolutionary paths in interacting binaries, wherein most WR stars and SNe Ibc correspond to the mass donors, while LBVs (and their lower-mass analogs like B[e] supergiants, which are even more isolated) are the mass gainers. In this view, LBVs are evolved massive blue stragglers. Through binary mass transfer, rejuvinated mass gainers get enriched, spun up, and sometimes kicked far from their clustered birthsites by their companion's SN. This scenario agrees better with LBVs exploding as Type IIn SNe in isolation, and it predicts that many massive runaway stars may be rapid rotators. Mergers or Thorne-Zykow objects might also give rise to LBVs, but these scenarios may have a harder time explaining why LBVs avoid clusters.

  16. Interpreting short gamma-ray burst progenitor kicks and time delays using the host galaxy-dark matter halo connection

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Fryer, Christopher L.

    2014-09-10

    Nearly 20% of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) have no observed host galaxies. Combining this finding with constraints on galaxies' dark matter halo potential wells gives strong limits on the natal kick velocity distribution for sGRB progenitors. For the best-fitting velocity distribution, one in five sGRB progenitors receives a natal kick above 150 km s{sup –1}, consistent with merging neutron star models but not with merging white dwarf binary models. This progenitor model constraint is robust to a wide variety of systematic uncertainties, including the sGRB progenitor time-delay model, the Swift redshift sensitivity, and the shape of the natal kick velocity distribution. We also use constraints on the galaxy-halo connection to determine the host halo and host galaxy demographics for sGRBs, which match extremely well with available data. Most sGRBs are expected to occur in halos near 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} and in galaxies near 5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} (L {sub *}); unobserved faint and high-redshift host galaxies contribute a small minority of the observed hostless sGRB fraction. We find that sGRB redshift distributions and host galaxy stellar masses weakly constrain the progenitor time-delay model; the active versus passive fraction of sGRB host galaxies may offer a stronger constraint. Finally, we discuss how searches for gravitational wave optical counterparts in the local universe can reduce follow-up times using these findings.

  17. A Study of Kinematics Modeling and the Computational Optimization of the Human Underwater Undulatory Kick by Comparison of Swimmers and Body Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoran; Liu, Geng; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Underwater Undulatory Swimming (UUS), better known as the underwater dolphin kick, is the most important technique in competitive swimming. Faster than three of the four strokes in swimming, UUS is permitted in the 15 m after dives and turns. In this study, we compared the UUS of a college-level swimmer and a younger swimmer. 3D human models were built and reconstructed using stereo-videos for identifying key components of undulatory kick kinematics with respect to strongly flexing joints. A gradient-based optimizer and an immersed boundary method based CFD solver was then used to study the hydrodynamic performance of each swimmer. Optimal settings of current kinematic models will help us to understand the efficiency of the observed undulatory kick mechanisms and further improvements of the human UUS strategy. This work is supported by NSF CEBT-1313217 and UVa HooS-STER program.

  18. Spin-perpendicular kicks from evanescent binaries formed in the aftermath of rotational core-collapse and the nature of the observed bimodal distribution of pulsar peculiar velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colpi, M.; Wasserman, I.

    2003-07-01

    We argue that if core collapse leads to the formation of a rapidly rotating proto-neutron star core or a fizzler surrounded by fall-back material, a lighter proto-neutron star forms around the main star moving in a super-close orbit, as an end result of a fully developed dynamical non-axisymmetric instability. Tidal mass exchange (even through a common envelope phase) propels the lighter star toward the minimum stable mass for a proto-neutron star, whereupon it explodes and the short-lived binary disrupts. The star that remains, a newly born neutron star (or a black hole) acquires a recoil velocity Vkick, according to the law of conservation of linear momentum. A noteworthy feature of this process is that the final kick is determined by nuclear physics, and produces in reality a widespread range in peculiar velocities, up to the highest values observed in the pulsar sample >~ 1600 km/s. Interestingly, Vkick scales with the mass M of the star that remains as M-2/3. The kick, lying in the orbital plane of the binary, is expected to be nearly perpendicular to the spin vector of the post-collapse unstable core, and thus of the neutron star newly formed. Nearly spin-perpendicular kicks of large amplitude are required to explain the observations of geodesic precession in double neutron star binaries such as B1913+16. On the contrary, spin-kick alignment has been claimed for the Vela and Crab pulsars whose transverse speeds are >~ 70 and ~170 km/s respectively. We suggest that the larger kick component, when present in a pulsar, results from the formation and disruption of an evanescent binary, and is perpendicular to the spin axis; the smaller kick component is associated with some other mechanism that leads to less vigorous kicks, predominantly parallel to the spin axis because of phase averaging. This could give rise to a bimodal distribution in the peculiar velocities of neutron stars, as it is observed in the pulsar sample. This scenario may explain the run

  19. Identifying Contributions to the Stellar Halo from Accreted, Kicked-out, and In Situ Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Cheung, Andrew M.; Hampton, Christina M.; David, Trevor J.; Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel; Johnson, Marshall C.; Kaplan, Evan; Miller, Jacob; Patterson, Richard J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a medium-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type giant stars at mid-Galactic latitudes of (30° < |b| < 60°), designed to probe the properties of this population to distances of ~9 kpc. Because M giants are generally metal-rich and we have limited contamination from thin disk stars by the latitude selection, most of the stars in the survey are expected to be members of the thick disk (lang[Fe/H]rang ~ -0.6) with some contribution from the metal-rich component of the nearby halo. Here we report first results for 1799 stars. The distribution of radial velocity (RV) as a function of l for these stars shows (1) the expected thick disk population and (2) local metal-rich halo stars moving at high speeds relative to the disk, which in some cases form distinct sequences in RV-l space. High-resolution echelle spectra taken for 34 of these "RV outliers" reveal the following patterns across the [Ti/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane: 17 of the stars have abundances reminiscent of the populations present in dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, 8 have abundances coincident with those of the Galactic disk and a more metal-rich halo, and 9 of the stars fall on the locus defined by the majority of stars in the halo. The chemical abundance trends of the RV outliers suggest that this sample consists predominantly of stars accreted from infalling dwarf galaxies. A smaller fraction of stars in the RV outlier sample may have been formed in the inner Galaxy and subsequently kicked to higher eccentricity orbits, but the sample is not large enough to distinguish conclusively between this interpretation and the alternative that these stars represent the tail of the velocity distribution of the thick disk. Our data do not rule out the possibility that a minority of the sample could have formed from gas in situ on their current orbits. These results are consistent with scenarios where the stellar halo, at least as probed by M giants, arises from multiple formation mechanisms; however, when

  20. Cold seeps associated with a submarine debris avalanche deposit at Kick'em Jenny volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Ballard, Robert; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Bell, Richard J.; Connally, Patrick; Dondin, Frederic; Fuller, Sarah; Gobin, Judith; Miloslavich, Patricia; Phillips, Brennan; Roman, Chris; Seibel, Brad; Siu, Nam; Smart, Clara

    2014-11-01

    Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) exploration at the distal margins of a debris avalanche deposit from Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in Grenada has revealed areas of cold seeps with chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. The seeps occur on steep slopes of deformed, unconsolidated hemipelagic sediments in water depths between 1952 and 2042 m. Two main areas consist of anastomosing systems of fluid flow that have incised local sediments by several tens of centimeters. No temperature anomalies were observed in the vent areas and no active flow was visually observed, suggesting that the venting may be waning. An Eh sensor deployed on a miniature autonomous plume recorder (MAPR) recorded a positive signal and the presence of live organisms indicates at least some venting is still occurring. The chemosynthetic-based ecosystem included giant mussels (Bathymodiolus sp.) with commensal polychaetes (Branchipolynoe sp.) and cocculinid epibionts, other bivalves, Siboglinida (vestimentiferan) tubeworms, other polychaetes, and shrimp, as well as associated heterotrophs, including gastropods, anemones, crabs, fish, octopods, brittle stars, and holothurians. The origin of the seeps may be related to fluid overpressure generated during the collapse of an ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano. We suggest that deformation and burial of hemipelagic sediment at the front and base of the advancing debris avalanche led to fluid venting at the distal margin. Such deformation may be a common feature of marine avalanches in a variety of geological environments especially along continental margins, raising the possibility of creating large numbers of ephemeral seep-based ecosystems.

  1. Soccer penalty takers' uniform colour and pre-penalty kick gaze affect the impressions formed of them by opposing goalkeepers.

    PubMed

    Greenlees, Iain; Leyland, Alex; Thelwell, Richard; Filby, William

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of soccer players' uniform colour and gaze behaviour on the impressions that are formed of them by opposing goalkeepers. Twelve soccer goalkeepers observed video footage, filmed from between the goalposts to simulate their usual viewpoint, of four players preparing to take a penalty kick. Each of the four players displayed a different combination of gaze (either 90% or 10% with gaze operationalized as looking directly at the camera) and uniform colour (red or white). Goalkeepers rated each player on a series of descriptors (e.g. confidence, composure, assertiveness) and rated their expectancies for successfully saving penalty kicks from that player. Analysis revealed that those penalty takers displaying 90% gaze were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than penalty takers displaying 10% gaze. Results also revealed penalty takers wearing red were perceived to possess positive characteristics to a greater extent than those wearing white. Goalkeepers reported higher expectancies of saving penalties from penalty takers displaying 10% gaze and wearing white uniforms than any of the other combinations. Our results therefore support the potential importance of gaze and uniform colour in the formation of impressions and expectancies in sport. PMID:18344127

  2. Asymmetric Neutrino Emissions in Relativistic Mean-Field Approach and Observables: Pulsar Kick and Rapid Spin-Deceleration of Magnetized Proto-Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kajino, T.; Yasutake, N.; Hidaka, J.; Kuroda, T.; Cheoun, M. K.; Ryu, C. Y.; Mathews, G. J.

    2015-11-01

    We calculate absorption cross-sections of neutrino in proto-neutron stars with strong magnetic field in the relativistic mean-field theory. Then, we apply this result to the neutrino transfer in the matter, and study the pulsar kick and the rapid spin down of magnetars.

  3. Hydrothermal mineralization at Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, R.; Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Cornell, W. C.

    2011-12-01

    Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is an active submarine volcano located in the Lesser Antilles island arc, ~7.5 km northwest of Grenada. Of the twelve eruptions detected since 1939, most have been explosive as evidenced by eyewitness accounts in 1939, 1974, and 1988 and the dominance of explosive eruption products recovered by dredging. In 2003, vigorous hydrothermal activity was observed in the crater of KeJ. Video footage taken by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the cruise RB-03-03 of the R/V Ronald Brown documented the venting of a vapor phase in the form of bubbles that ascended through the water column and a clear fluid phase in the form of shimmering water. The shimmering water generally ascended through the water column but can also been seen flowing down gradient from a fissure at the top of a fine-grained sediment mound. These fine-grained sediment mounds are the only structure associated with hydrothermal venting; spire or chimney structures were not observed. Hydrothermal venting was also observed coming from patches of coarse-grained volcaniclastic sediment on the crater floor and from talus slopes around the perimeter of the crater. Samples were collected from these areas and from areas void of hydrothermal activity. XRD and ICPMS analyses of bulk sediment were carried out to investigate the geochemical relationships between sediment types. Sediment samples from the hydrothermal mound structures are comprised of the same components (plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, and scoria) as sediment samples from areas void of hydrothermal activity (primary volcaniclastic sediment) in the 500-63 μm size range. High resolution grain size analyses show that >78% of sediment in the hydrothermal mound samples are between 63-2 μm with 6-20% clay sized (<2 μm) whereas <40% of the primary volcaniclastic sediment is between 63-2 μm with ~2% clay sized. The presence of clay minerals (smectite, illite, talc, and I/S mixed layer) in the hydrothermal mound samples was

  4. Effects of a contrast training program without external load on vertical jump, kicking speed, sprint, and agility of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-López, Emilio J; Latorre-Román, Pedro A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week contrast training (CT) program (isometric + plyometric), with no external loads, on the vertical jump, kicking speed, sprinting, and agility skills of young soccer players. Thirty young soccer players (age, 15.9 ± 1.43 years; weight, 65.4 ± 10.84 kg; height, 171.0 ± 0.06 cm) were randomized in a control group (n = 13) and an experimental group (n = 17). The CT program was included in the experimental group's training sessions, who undertook it twice a week as a part of their usual weekly training regime. This program included 3 exercises: 1 isometric and 2 plyometric, without external loads. These exercises progressed in volume throughout the training program. Performance in countermovement jump (CMJ), Balsom agility test (BAT), 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint, and soccer kick were assessed before and after the training program. A 2-factor (group and time) analysis of variance revealed significant improvements (p < 0.001) in CMJ, BAT, and kicking speed in the experimental group players. Control group remained unchanged in these variables. Both groups significantly reduced sprint times over 5, 10, 20, and 30 m (p ≤ 0.05). A significant correlation (r = 0.492, p < 0.001) was revealed between ΔBAT and Δaverage kicking speed. Results suggest that a specific CT program without external loads is effective for improving soccer-specific skills such as vertical jump, sprint, agility, and kicking speed in young soccer players.

  5. VO2 Kinetics in All-out Arm Stroke, Leg Kick and Whole Stroke Front Crawl 100-m Swimming.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F A; Lätt, E; Jürimäe, J; Maestu, J; Purge, P; Rämson, R; Haljaste, K; Keskinen, K L; Jürimäe, T

    2016-03-01

    The VO2 response to extreme-intensity exercise and its relationship with sports performance are largely unexplored. This study investigated the pulmonary VO2 kinetics during all-out 100-m front crawl whole stroke swimming (S), arm stroke (A) and leg kick (L). 26 male and 10 female competitive swimmers performed an all-out S trial followed by A and L of equal duration in random order. Breath-by-breath VO2 was measured using a snorkel attached to a portable gas analyzer. Mean (±SD) primary component parameters and peak blood lactate (Lapeak) during S, A, and L were, respectively: time delay (s), 14.2 ± 4.7, 14.3 ± 4.5, 15.6 ± 5.1; amplitude (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 46.8 ± 6.1, 37.3 ± 6.9, 41.0 ± 4.7; time constant (τ, s): 9.2 ± 3.2, 12.4 ± 4.7, 10.1 ± 3.2; Lapeak (mmol·l(-1)), 6.8 ± 3.1, 6.3 ± 2.5, 7.9 ± 2.8. During A and L respectively, 80% and 87% of amplitude in S was reached, whereas A+L were 68% greater than in S. 100-m performance was associated to shorter cardiodynamic phase and greater VO2 amplitude and Lapeak (accounting up to 61% of performance variance), but not to τ. We conclude that (i) VO2 gain was proportional to exercise intensity and muscle mass involved, (ii) kicking is metabolically less efficient, and (iii) the main limiting factor of peak VO2 appears to be O2 delivery and not muscle extraction. PMID:26575404

  6. VO2 Kinetics in All-out Arm Stroke, Leg Kick and Whole Stroke Front Crawl 100-m Swimming.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F A; Lätt, E; Jürimäe, J; Maestu, J; Purge, P; Rämson, R; Haljaste, K; Keskinen, K L; Jürimäe, T

    2016-03-01

    The VO2 response to extreme-intensity exercise and its relationship with sports performance are largely unexplored. This study investigated the pulmonary VO2 kinetics during all-out 100-m front crawl whole stroke swimming (S), arm stroke (A) and leg kick (L). 26 male and 10 female competitive swimmers performed an all-out S trial followed by A and L of equal duration in random order. Breath-by-breath VO2 was measured using a snorkel attached to a portable gas analyzer. Mean (±SD) primary component parameters and peak blood lactate (Lapeak) during S, A, and L were, respectively: time delay (s), 14.2 ± 4.7, 14.3 ± 4.5, 15.6 ± 5.1; amplitude (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 46.8 ± 6.1, 37.3 ± 6.9, 41.0 ± 4.7; time constant (τ, s): 9.2 ± 3.2, 12.4 ± 4.7, 10.1 ± 3.2; Lapeak (mmol·l(-1)), 6.8 ± 3.1, 6.3 ± 2.5, 7.9 ± 2.8. During A and L respectively, 80% and 87% of amplitude in S was reached, whereas A+L were 68% greater than in S. 100-m performance was associated to shorter cardiodynamic phase and greater VO2 amplitude and Lapeak (accounting up to 61% of performance variance), but not to τ. We conclude that (i) VO2 gain was proportional to exercise intensity and muscle mass involved, (ii) kicking is metabolically less efficient, and (iii) the main limiting factor of peak VO2 appears to be O2 delivery and not muscle extraction.

  7. Hydrothermal venting and mineralization in the crater of Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Olsen, Rene; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Ballard, Robert; Dondin, Frederic; Roman, Chris; Smart, Clara; Lilley, Marvin; Lupton, John; Seibel, Brad; Cornell, Winton; Moyer, Craig

    2016-03-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently erupting, shallow submarine volcano located 7.5 km off the northern coast of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (˜70 × 110 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 m. Much of the crater is blanketed with a layer of fine-grained tephra that has undergone hydrothermal alteration. Clear fluids and gas are being discharged near the center of the depression from mound-like vents at a maximum temperature of 180°C. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. Gas flux measurements of individual bubble streams range from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5-35°C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are colonized by reddish-yellow bacteria with the production of Fe-oxyhydroxides as surface coatings, fragile spires up to several meters in height, and elongated mounds up to tens of centimeters thick. A high-resolution photomosaic of the inner crater depression shows fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression toward the crater floor. We suggest that the negatively buoyant fluid flow is the result of phase separation of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature.

  8. Improvements of AIMS D2DB matching for product patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Kana; Son, Donghwan; Tolani, Vikram; Satake, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    AIMSTM is mainly used in photomask industry for verifying the print impact of mask defects on wafer CD in DUV lithography process. AIMS verification is typically used in D2D configuration, wherein two AIMS images, reference and defect, are captured and compared. Criticality of defects is then analyzed off these images using a number of criteria. As photomasks with aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), and single-die are being routinely manufactured in production environment, it is required to improve cycle time through the AIMS step by saving time in searching for and capturing an adequate reference AIMS image. One solution is to use AIMS D2DB methodology which compares AIMS defect image with a reference image simulated from the corresponding mask design data. In general, such simulation needs calibration with the native images captured on the AIMS tool. In our previous paper we evaluated a calibration procedure directly using the defect AIMS image and compared the analysis results with a D2D capture using AIA (Aerial Image Analyzer) software product from Luminescent Technologies (now part of KLA-Tencor Corporation). The results showed that calibration using defect AIMS image does not influence AIMS judgment as long as the defect size is less than 100nm in case of typical basic patterns. When applying this methodology to product patterns, it was found that there were differences between reference AIMS image and simulation image. These differences influenced AIMS verification. Then new method to compensate would be needed. Our approach to compensate the difference between AIMS image and simulated image is examination with some factors likely to cause the difference.

  9. Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The release of "The New Zealand Curriculum" causes us to rethink the aims of education. Dr Cavanagh offers an alternative set of aims to the vision outlined in the Ministry of Education document, which is based, at least in part, on socialisation into the corporate industrial world. Dr Cavanagh's position is focused on putting relationships at the…

  10. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  11. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  12. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  13. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  14. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  15. Primarily Plants, A Plant Study for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  16. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  17. Ideas Exchange: Physical Education as a Dynamic Content Area Should Motivate Students to Be Physically Active. What New Ideas Can You Suggest to Kick Off the New School Year and Get Everyone "Moving" in the Right Direction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Melissa A.; Wright, James; Magnotta, John; Goldberg, Mark; Muller, Barbara; Reitz, Adam; Zavatto, Laura; Christenson, Bob; Winiecki, Tom; Beardsley, Rita; Connors, Shelly; Robelee, Margaret E.; Gosset, Michael; Mavrek, Srecko

    2010-01-01

    Physical education as a dynamic content area should motivate students to be physically active. In this article, readers suggest new ideas to kick off the new school year and get everyone "moving" in the right direction.

  18. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  19. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  20. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  1. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  2. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  3. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  4. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  5. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  6. (Ir)rationality in action: do soccer players and goalkeepers fail to learn how to best perform during a penalty kick?

    PubMed

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Azar, Ofer H; Lurie, Yotam

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses penalty kicks in soccer, interpreted within the framework of behavioral economics. We present two behaviors of professional soccer players during penalty kicks that seem nonoptimal, and possibly indicate biases in decision making. We ask whether, despite the huge incentives involved in professional soccer and the possibility of learning through feedback from the outcomes of previous penalty kicks, goalkeepers and penalty kickers are not optimizing their actions. We suggest that they do indeed learn to optimize, but have a different utility function; goalkeepers are not solely interested in minimizing the chances of the goal, and kickers are not solely interested in maximizing these chances. We believe that, in general, in cases where decision makers have the ability to learn through feedback about the outcome of their actions but exhibit behavior that seems nonoptimal, it is possible that they do optimize, but that their utility function is different from the one assumed. We propose that such decision makers' behavior be reconceived as "socially rational," in the sense that their social environment seems to be incorporated into their utility functions. Finally, the concept of "socio-emotional rationality" is suggested to account for possible implications in future studies of motion-cognition interactions.

  7. (Ir)rationality in action: do soccer players and goalkeepers fail to learn how to best perform during a penalty kick?

    PubMed

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Azar, Ofer H; Lurie, Yotam

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses penalty kicks in soccer, interpreted within the framework of behavioral economics. We present two behaviors of professional soccer players during penalty kicks that seem nonoptimal, and possibly indicate biases in decision making. We ask whether, despite the huge incentives involved in professional soccer and the possibility of learning through feedback from the outcomes of previous penalty kicks, goalkeepers and penalty kickers are not optimizing their actions. We suggest that they do indeed learn to optimize, but have a different utility function; goalkeepers are not solely interested in minimizing the chances of the goal, and kickers are not solely interested in maximizing these chances. We believe that, in general, in cases where decision makers have the ability to learn through feedback about the outcome of their actions but exhibit behavior that seems nonoptimal, it is possible that they do optimize, but that their utility function is different from the one assumed. We propose that such decision makers' behavior be reconceived as "socially rational," in the sense that their social environment seems to be incorporated into their utility functions. Finally, the concept of "socio-emotional rationality" is suggested to account for possible implications in future studies of motion-cognition interactions. PMID:19477333

  8. Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boshar, John

    1947-01-01

    Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

  9. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    PubMed

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim. PMID:27443059

  10. Head-aimed vision system improves tele-operated mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Kent

    2004-12-01

    A head-aimed vision system greatly improves the situational awareness and decision speed for tele-operations of mobile robots. With head-aimed vision, the tele-operator wears a head-mounted display and a small three axis head-position measuring device. Wherever the operator looks, the remote sensing system "looks". When the system is properly designed, the operator's occipital lobes are "fooled" into believing that the operator is actually on the remote robot. The result is at least a doubling of: situational awareness, threat identification speed, and target tracking ability. Proper system design must take into account: precisely matching fields of view; optical gain; and latency below 100 milliseconds. When properly designed, a head-aimed system does not cause nausea, even with prolonged use.

  11. Visual control when aiming at a far target.

    PubMed

    Vickers, J N

    1996-04-01

    Gaze behavior of elite basketball athletes was determined as they performed 10 accurate and 10 inaccurate free throws (FTs) to a regulation basket wearing an eye tracker that permitted normal accuracy. Experts (mean FT = 78%) differed significantly from near experts (mean FT = 56%) in having a longer fixation on the target combined with an earlier fixation offset during the shooting action. These results, which depart from current models of near aiming, are tentatively explained using a location-suppression hypothesis. During the early phases of the aiming action, a fixation of long duration is needed on a specific target location. As the aiming action is then performed, vision appears to be a liability and is suppressed.

  12. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  13. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  14. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  16. Psychological Considerations in Setting Aims for Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, J.B.

    The paper considers the results of theory and research in the psychological aspects of foreign language teaching as sources of guidance in making sound eucational decisions concerning the aims of language teaching at all levels. Major attention is given to the suggestion offered by research findings that language aptitude depends upon a somewhat…

  17. Goal-Directed Aiming: Two Components but Multiple Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J.; Hayes, Spencer J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior…

  18. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  19. Alienation, Art and Affirmation in the Work of Aime Cesaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    Aime Cesaire is one of the foremost French-speaking blacks in twentieth century literature. The concept of negritude--referring to the culture of French-speaking blacks--is often associated with his name. This paper discusses his life and work, and explores his life from his birth in Martinique, his early years, the years spent in Paris, and his…

  20. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  1. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    PubMed

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  2. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  3. Autonomy: The Aim of Education Envisioned by Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance

    The aim of education should be the development of morally and intellectually autonomous individuals. The opposite of heteronomy, which means being governed by someone else, autonomy means being governed by oneself. Moral autonomy results from the application of "sanctions by reciprocity" in the context of mutual respect between adults and…

  4. Aims College Operation Bridge Project. Phase 1, Preliminary Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Spanish Speaking Management Association, Washington, DC.

    Recognizing the adverse effects of poverty on Mexican Americans, and determined to help narrow the barriers caused by a low socioeconomic status, Aims college, a locally funded institution in Weld County, Colorado, conceptualized and implemented a special needs program designed to provide vocational and occupational training for disadvantaged…

  5. The 1918 Education Act: Origins, Aims and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherington, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    There has been some disagreement and confusion as to the origins of the 1918 Education Act, one of three major measures of twentieth-century English educational legislation. This article attempts to clarify and resolve that confusion. A fuller understanding of the aims of this important educational legislation is also explored. (Author/RK)

  6. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  7. Predicting the lateral direction of deceptive and non-deceptive penalty kicks in football from the kinematics of the kicker.

    PubMed

    Lopes, José E; Jacobs, David M; Travieso, David; Araújo, Duarte

    2014-08-01

    This study addresses the utility of the kinematics of penalty takers for goalkeepers in association football. Twelve professional and semi-professional players shot to one side of the goal with (deceptive condition) or without (non-deceptive condition) simulating a shot to the opposite side. The body kinematics of the penalty takers were registered with motion-capture apparatus. Correlation and regression techniques were used to determine the relation between the shot direction and aspects of the penalty taker's kinematics at different moments. Several kinematic variables were strongly correlated with shot direction, especially those related to the lower part of the body. Some of these variables, including the angle of the non-kicking foot, acquired high correlations at time intervals that are useful to goalkeepers. Compound variables, here defined as linear combinations of variables, were found to be more useful than locally defined variables. Whereas some kinematic variables showed substantial differences in their relation to ball direction depending on deception, other kinematic variables were less affected by deception. Results are interpreted with the hypothesis of non-substitutability of genuine action. The study can also be interpreted as extending the correlation and regression methodology, often used to analyze variables defined at single moments, to the analysis of variables in a time continuous fashion.

  8. Paternity protection can provide a kick-start for the evolution of male-only parental care.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Andrew T; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Sperm competition and uncertainty of paternity hamper the evolution of male parental care. Thus, maternal care predominates in most taxa. What if males can, however, limit cuckoldry by guarding the eggs postmating? Here, we show that this provides a reason to reconsider an old and nowadays rather discredited hypothesis: that external fertilization is associated with male care because the parent who releases its gametes first can depart leaving the other in a "cruel bind," having to care for the offspring. In our model, protection of paternity provides an additional incentive for the male to stay associated with its young. When we then assume that offspring survive better if guarded, paternity protection proves enough to kick-start the evolution of male-only parental care from a scenario with no care. This fits with data from fishes, where male-only care is associated with external fertilization, whereas female-only care almost always evolves after an initial transition to internal fertilization. Our model unifies disparate hypotheses regarding parental care roles and provides support for the idea that care roles can be influenced by sex differences in selection to be physically close to the offspring, including selection that is initially not based on offspring survival.

  9. Predicting the lateral direction of deceptive and non-deceptive penalty kicks in football from the kinematics of the kicker.

    PubMed

    Lopes, José E; Jacobs, David M; Travieso, David; Araújo, Duarte

    2014-08-01

    This study addresses the utility of the kinematics of penalty takers for goalkeepers in association football. Twelve professional and semi-professional players shot to one side of the goal with (deceptive condition) or without (non-deceptive condition) simulating a shot to the opposite side. The body kinematics of the penalty takers were registered with motion-capture apparatus. Correlation and regression techniques were used to determine the relation between the shot direction and aspects of the penalty taker's kinematics at different moments. Several kinematic variables were strongly correlated with shot direction, especially those related to the lower part of the body. Some of these variables, including the angle of the non-kicking foot, acquired high correlations at time intervals that are useful to goalkeepers. Compound variables, here defined as linear combinations of variables, were found to be more useful than locally defined variables. Whereas some kinematic variables showed substantial differences in their relation to ball direction depending on deception, other kinematic variables were less affected by deception. Results are interpreted with the hypothesis of non-substitutability of genuine action. The study can also be interpreted as extending the correlation and regression methodology, often used to analyze variables defined at single moments, to the analysis of variables in a time continuous fashion. PMID:24846289

  10. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  11. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a network of Sparcstations, including (a) NAS Parallel benchmarks CG and MG (White, Alund and Sunderam 1993); (b) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP (Wijngaart 1993); and (c) an overset grid flowsolver (Smith 1993). These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains (a) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (b) Monitor, a library of run-time trace-collection routines; (c) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (d) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses X11R5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (a) the impact of long message latencies; (b) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (c) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (a) Config

  12. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  13. [Mucosal healling: a realistic aim or marketing myth?].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Valle; Iglesias-Flores, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The classical aim of the treatment of ulcerative colitis is to induce and maintain remission. However, this aim has not been shown to prevent long-term complications. Current treatment goals attempt to prevent complications. In some studies, healing of the intestinal mucosa has been shown to improve long-term outcomes. In ulcerative colitis, mucosal healing reduces recurrence, the risk of colorectal cancer and the need for surgery, and improves patients' quality of life. The drugs for which there is greatest evidence of their efficacy in inducing and maintaining mucosal healing are salicylates and biological agents. In the near future, endoscopic monitoring may be required to evaluate response to the treatment and decisions may have to be taken according to the persistence or disappearance of these lesions.

  14. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events. PMID:22254534

  15. Simulation of AIMS measurements using rigorous mask 3D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Hsu-Ting; Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chu, Yuan-Chih; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image measurement system (AIMSTM) has been widely used for wafer level inspection of mask defects. Reported inspection flows include die-to-die (D2D) and die-to-database (D2DB) methods. For patterns that do not repeat in another die, only the D2DB approach is applicable. The D2DB method requires accurate simulation of AIMS measurements for a mask pattern. An optical vectorial model is needed to depict the mask diffraction effect in this simulation. To accurately simulate the imaging results, a rigorous electro-magnetic field (EMF) model is essential to correctly take account of the EMF scattering induced by the mask topography, which is usually called the mask 3D effect. In this study, the mask 3D model we use is rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which calculates the diffraction fields from a single plane wave incidence. A hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method with RCWA is used to calculate the EMF diffraction at a desired accuracy level while keeping the computation time practical. We will compare the speed of the hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method to the rigorous Abbe method. The matching between simulation and experiment is more challenging for AIMS than CD-SEM because its measurements provide full intensity information. Parameters in the mask 3D model such as film stack thickness or film optical properties, is optimized during the fitting process. We will report the fitting results of AIMS images for twodimensional structures with various pitches. By accurately simulating the AIMS measurements, it provides a necessary tool to perform the mask inspection using the D2DB approach and to accurately predict the mask defects.

  16. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  17. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  18. Refractive aiming corrections for satellite observation of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Vittitoe, C.N.; Schmidt, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Standard references describe how apparent zenith angles differ from true zenith angles for observers on the Earth. In fact, correction formulae are available for aiming Earth-based sensors at stars; some corrections give variations as a function of observer altitude. Such corrections have not been available for observers in space. This report develops formulae appropriate for proper aiming from space-based sensors toward the relatively few stars that are near the Earth`s limb at any given time. These formulae correct for refractive effects and may be critical for steerable space-borne sensors with fields of view less than one degree, tasked to observe starlight passing near the Earth`s surface. Ray tracing in the U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 including H{sub 2}O effects, is used to determine relations between the refracted tangent height, the apparent tangent height resulting from observation at the sensor, and the angle through which the detected rays have deviated. Analytic fits of the ray deviation as a function of apparent tangent height allows quick determination of corrections needed for a space-borne sensor. Using those results that apply in the plane of incidence and using the necessary coordinate rotations, alterations in the star`s apparent right ascension and declination are evaluated to improve the aim. Examples illustrate that alterations can be larger than one degree, with effects lasting up to a few minutes.

  19. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  20. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  1. The development of 3rd generation IR detectors at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, J.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, M.; Schallenberg, T.; Scheibner, R.; Wendler, J.; Wenisch, J.; Wollrab, R.; Daumer, V.; Rehm, R.; Rutz, F.; Walther, M.

    2011-06-01

    3rd generation IR modules - dual-color (DC), dual-band (DB), and large format two-dimensional arrays - require sophisticated production technologies such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as well as new array processing techniques, which can satisfy the rising demand for increasingly complex device structures and low cost detectors. AIM will extend its future portfolio by high performance devices which make use of these techniques. The DC MW / MW detectors are based on antimonide type-II superlattices (produced by MBE at Fraunhofer IAF, Freiburg) in the 384x288 format with a 40 μm pitch. For AIM, the technology of choice for MW / LW DB FPAs is MCT MBE on CdZnTe substrates, which has been developed in cooperation with IAF, Freiburg. 640x512, 20 μm pitch Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) have been processed at AIM. The growth of MW MCT MBE layers on alternate substrates is challenging, but essential for competitive fabrication of large two-dimensional arrays such as megapixel (MW 1280x1024, 15 μm pitch) FPAs. This paper will present the development status and latest results of the above-mentioned 3rd Gen FPAs and Integrated Detector Cooler Assemblies (IDCAs).

  2. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  3. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  4. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  5. Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, N; Landers, D M; Lyytinen, H

    2000-06-01

    The present study focused on an examination of competitive shooters' aiming process during a rifle shooting task. The barrel movements of the rifle, as detected by a laser system during the last 1000-ms time period preceding the triggering, were recorded from six elite and six pre-elite shooters. Electrocortical slow potentials (SPs) from frontal (Fz), centro-lateral (C3, C4), and occipital (Oz) brain areas were recorded to get an additional insight into the underlying covert processing. The results suggested that the elite shooters did not pull the trigger until they reached a sustained rifle position. In the pre-elite shooters the rifle appeared to be in a less stable position, and their strategy was to take advantage of the first appropriate moment of steadiness without a sustained rifle position so they could pull the trigger. The observed pre-trigger readiness potential (RP) shifts at Fz and Oz were more positive among the elite shooters relative to the pre-elite shooters, reflecting their more pronounced covert effort, rather than increasing preparedness for the trigger pull. The present study lends support for the view that a successful aiming strategy is mainly based on sustained rifle balancing. With regards to the brain slow potentials, it can be concluded that the RP shift does not specifically reflect the preparation for the trigger pull. PMID:10843511

  6. President to sign FACE bill aimed at deterring antiabortion violence.

    PubMed

    1994-05-23

    Both houses of the US Congress have approved the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) which, when it is signed into law by President Clinton, will become the first freestanding legislation in US history to protect abortion rights. The aim of the bill is to deter violence aimed at providers of abortion services and at abortion seekers while protecting the free speech rights of antiabortion protesters. The bill makes it a federal offense to use or threaten to use force or to physically obstruct or destroy property in an attempt to interfere with access to reproductive health services. Fines and penalties range from $10,000 and 6 months in jail to $250,000 and 3 years in jail. In addition, the bill provides for civil remedies; affected clinics and individuals as well as the US attorney general and state attorneys general will be able to sue protestors who commit acts prohibited by FACE for compensatory and punitive damages. Plaintiffs will also be able to obtain federal injunctions against such protestors.

  7. Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, N; Landers, D M; Lyytinen, H

    2000-06-01

    The present study focused on an examination of competitive shooters' aiming process during a rifle shooting task. The barrel movements of the rifle, as detected by a laser system during the last 1000-ms time period preceding the triggering, were recorded from six elite and six pre-elite shooters. Electrocortical slow potentials (SPs) from frontal (Fz), centro-lateral (C3, C4), and occipital (Oz) brain areas were recorded to get an additional insight into the underlying covert processing. The results suggested that the elite shooters did not pull the trigger until they reached a sustained rifle position. In the pre-elite shooters the rifle appeared to be in a less stable position, and their strategy was to take advantage of the first appropriate moment of steadiness without a sustained rifle position so they could pull the trigger. The observed pre-trigger readiness potential (RP) shifts at Fz and Oz were more positive among the elite shooters relative to the pre-elite shooters, reflecting their more pronounced covert effort, rather than increasing preparedness for the trigger pull. The present study lends support for the view that a successful aiming strategy is mainly based on sustained rifle balancing. With regards to the brain slow potentials, it can be concluded that the RP shift does not specifically reflect the preparation for the trigger pull.

  8. Breaks in Play: Do They Achieve Intended Aims?

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Cowley, Elizabeth; Anthony, Christina; Hinsley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Breaks in play represent a responsible gambling strategy designed to disrupt states of dissociation and enhance the likelihood of drawing attention to a player's session behaviour and expenditure with respect to time and money. The aim of the break in play is to motivate the player to modify or cease gambling so the activity remains within affordable levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether imposed breaks in play in the absence of accompanying warning messages were effective in reducing cravings. Participants (141 university students) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 15 min computer simulated Black Jack play followed by no break, a 3 or 8 min break in play. Participants were administered a battery of measures to assess problem gambling card play, cravings, and dissociation to assess the effects of length of break on cravings. Results indicated that cravings increased rather than decreased with imposed breaks in play, and that the strength of cravings were higher following the eight- compared to 3-min break. It was concluded that breaks in play in isolation might produce counterproductive, unintended, and even perverse effects. The policy implications for responsible gambling strategies is that breaks in play ought to be accompanied with warning and/or personal appraisal messages if optimal effects in reducing within session gambling expenditure are to be achieved.

  9. Cancer Immunotherapy Takes a Multi-Faceted Approach to Kick the Immune System into Gear

    PubMed Central

    Dimberu, Peniel M.; Leonhardt, Ralf M.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer accounts for about every fourth death in the United States, with approximately 1,500 people dying each day as a result of this disease. Despite some progress in the last decades, these numbers alone undoubtedly demonstrate the urgent need for new and more efficient treatments. Immunotherapy aims to activate an efficient immune response against tumors or even prevent cancers from occurring in the first place. It is a growing field currently flourishing with several successful trials, some of which have led to the recent approval of new anti-cancer drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This review addresses the manifold strategies that immunotherapy has taken in the past and discusses the most recent achievements in the field. PMID:22180675

  10. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  11. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  12. Accuracy of aimed arm movements in changed gravity.

    PubMed

    Bock, O; Howard, I P; Money, K E; Arnold, K E

    1992-11-01

    We studied the accuracy of aimed arm movements in normal gravity, and during the hypergravity (hyper-G) and microgravity (micro-G) episodes of KC-135 parabolic flights. Subjects pointed at mirror-viewed targets without sight of their arm, and final pointing position was measured by a digitizing pad. Compared with the normal gravity (normal-G) baseline, subjects pointed consistently higher in hyper-G, and still higher in micro-G. Results were not different if subjects viewed targets only during normal-G and pointed at their memorized position under changed gravity (changed-G); this suggests that the "elevator illusion" played a minor role in our study. The observed impairments were attributed to degraded proprioceptive feedback and/or inappropriate motor programs in changed-G. Pointing accuracy improved movement-to-movement but not parabola-to-parabola, indicating that prolonged exposure is needed for sustained adaptation.

  13. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  14. The Relationship Between Biomechanical-Anthropometrical Parameters and the Force Exerted on the Head When Heading Free Kicks in Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Teymouri, Meghdad; Sadeghi, Heydar; Nabaei, Amir; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Background: Soccer is a contact sport in which the players are frequently faced with the risk of injury. It has been shown that the force exerted on the head during heading can be as much as 500–1200 Newton (N). Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the force exerted on the head and several biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters related to heading free kicks. Patients and Methods: A total of 16 semi-professional soccer players with at least 5 years experience participated in this study. The mean age, height, and weight of the study participants were 21.36 ± 5.67, 178 ± 5.99 cm, and 70.55 ± 8.55 kg, respectively. To measure the force exerted on the heads of the players, a pressure gauge was installed on their foreheads. Each participant was asked to defend the ball using the heading technique three times. A camera with a sampling frequency of 150 frames per second was used to record the moment of impact between the ball and head during each heading event. For each participant and replicate, the ball and head velocity (m/s) as well as the angular body changes (degrees) were calculated using MATLAB and AutoCAD softwares, respectively. Descriptive statistics, including means and standard deviations were used to describe the data. Pearson correlation coefficient (alpha = 0.05) was used to examine potential relationships between the variables of interest. Results: Significant correlations existed between the force exerted on the head during heading, participant age, body mass, body fat percentage, and head perimeter (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The study revealed the significance of anthropometric variables related to heading, such as age and head perimeter. Therefore, it was concluded that these variables should be considered when teaching and practicing the heading technique with players of different ages and anthropometric sizes. PMID:24719842

  15. Luminous blue variables are antisocial: their isolation implies that they are kicked mass gainers in binary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan; Tombleson, Ryan

    2015-02-01

    Based on their relatively isolated environments, we argue that luminous blue variables (LBVs) must be primarily the product of binary evolution, challenging the traditional single-star view wherein LBVs mark a brief transition between massive O-type stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. If the latter were true, then LBVs should be concentrated in young massive clusters like early O-type stars. This is decidedly not the case. Examining locations of LBVs in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds reveals that, with only a few exceptions, LBVs systematically avoid clusters of O-type stars. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, LBVs are statistically much more isolated than O-type stars, and (perhaps most surprisingly) even more isolated than WR stars. This makes it impossible for LBVs to be single `massive stars in transition' to WR stars. Instead, we propose that massive stars and supernova (SN) subtypes are dominated by bifurcated evolutionary paths in interacting binaries, wherein most WR stars and Type Ibc supernovae (SNe Ibc) correspond to the mass donors, while LBVs (and their lower mass analogues like B[e] supergiants, which are even more isolated) are the mass gainers. In this view, LBVs are evolved massive blue stragglers. Through binary mass transfer, rejuvinated mass gainers get enriched, spun up, and sometimes kicked far from their clustered birth sites by their companion's SN. This scenario agrees better with LBVs exploding as SNe IIn in isolation, and it predicts that many massive runaway stars may be rapid rotators. Mergers or blue Thorne-Zytkow-like objects might also give rise to LBVs, but these scenarios may have a harder time explaining why LBVs avoid clusters.

  16. Ultra-high Resolution Mapping of the Inner Crater of the Active Kick'em Jenny Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, L.; Scott, C.; Tominaga, M.; Smart, C.; Vaughn, I.; Roman, C.; Carey, S.; German, C. R.; Participants, T.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted high-resolution geological characterization of a 0.015km^2 region of the inner crater of the most active submarine volcano in the Caribbean, Kick'em Jenny, located 8 km off Grenada in the Lesser Antilles Island Arc. We obtained digital still images and microbathymetery at an altitude of 3 m from the seafloor by using stereo cameras and a BlueView system mounted on Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Hercules during the NA054 cruise on E/V Nautilus (Sept. - Oct. 2014). The seafloor images were processed to construct 2-D photo mosaics of the survey area using Standard Hercules Imaging Suite. We systematically classified the photographed seafloor geology based on the distribution of seafloor morphology and the observable rock fragment and outcrop sizes. The center of the crater floor shows a smooth, coherent texture with little variation in sea floor morphology. From immediately outside this area toward the crater rim, we observe an extensive area covered with outcrops, small rocks, and sediment: and within this area, (1) the north section is partially covered by uneven outcrops with elongated lineaments and a course, rugged seafloor with individual rock fragments observable; (2) the middle section contains high variability and heterogeneity in seafloor morphology in a non-systematic manner; and (3) overall, the southern most section displays subdued seafloor features both in space and variability compared to the other areas. The distributions of rock fragments were classified into four distinct sizes. We observe: (i) little variation in size distribution near the center of the crater floor; and (ii) rock fragment size increasing toward the rim of the crater. To obtain a better understanding of the link between variation in seafloor morphology, rock size distribution, and other in situ processes, we compare our observations on the digital photo mosaic to bathymetry data and ROV visuals (e.g. vents and bacterial mats).

  17. A reinterpretation of the Triangulum-Andromeda stellar clouds: a population of halo stars kicked out of the Galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sheffield, Allyson A.; Laporte, Chervin F. P.; Sesar, Branimir

    2015-09-01

    The Triangulum-Andromeda stellar clouds (TriAnd1 and TriAnd2) are a pair of concentric ring- or shell-like overdensities at large R (≈30 kpc) and Z (≈-10 kpc) in the Galactic halo that are thought to have been formed from the accretion and disruption of a satellite galaxy. This paper critically reexamines this formation scenario by comparing the number ratio of RR Lyrae to M giant stars associated with the TriAnd clouds with other structures in the Galaxy. The current data suggest a stellar population for these overdensities (fRR: MG < 0.38 at 95 per cent confidence) quite unlike any of the known satellites of the Milky Way (fRR: MG ≈ 0.5 for the very largest and fRR: MG ≫ 1 for the smaller satellites) and more like the population of stars born in the much deeper potential well inhabited by the Galactic disc (fRR: MG < 0.01). N-body simulations of a Milky Way-like galaxy perturbed by the impact of a dwarf galaxy demonstrate that, in the right circumstances, concentric rings propagating outwards from that Galactic disc can plausibly produce similar overdensities. These results provide dramatic support for the recent proposal by Xu et al. that, rather than stars accreted from other galaxies, the TriAnd clouds could represent stars kicked out from our own disc. If so, these would be the first populations of disc stars to be found in the Galactic halo and a clear signature of the importance of this second formation mechanism for stellar haloes more generally. Moreover, their existence at the very extremities of the disc places strong constraints on the nature of the interaction that formed them.

  18. Interannual Variability in PMCs from AIM/CIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Holt, L. A.; Lumpe, J. D., Jr.; Bailey, S. M.; Russell, J. M., III

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission has measured polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) parameters since May of 2007, including eight PMC seasons in the northern hemisphere (NH) and seven in the southern hemisphere (SH). In this presentation we describe interannual variations in the clouds as measured by the AIM Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument, and relate these to measurements of temperature and water vapor from the NASA Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instruments. Overall, interannual variability is larger in the SH than in the NH. In both hemispheres, there is significant variability from season to season in the season onset, with somewhat less variability in the season end. There is about a 20-day spread in the season onset dates in the NH; the NH 2013 season was the earliest, and began a week earlier than any other NH season. In mid-season the NH PMC frequencies were generally highest in 2011, 2013 and 2014, and lowest in 2007 and 2009, but with substantial day-to-day variations that increase with decreasing latitude. In the SH, the earliest season onsets occurred in 2009-2010, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014, which started about a month earlier than 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The SH 2009-2010 season continued to show more PMCs than any other season throughout the summer, whereas PMC frequencies in the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons dropped to average values in mid-January. These results will be discussed in terms of teleconnections and solar cycle effects.

  19. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  20. Phase Calibration of Antenna Arrays Aimed at Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Lee, Dennis; Paal, Leslie; Mukai, Ryan; Cornish, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a method of calibrating phase differences among ground antennas in an array so that the maximum-intensity direction of the far-field interference pattern of the array coincides with the direction for aiming the antennas to enable radio communication with a distant spacecraft. The method pertains to an array typically comprising between two and four 34-m (or similar size) antennas. The antennas are first calibrated pair-wise to maximize the uplink power received at a different spacecraft that is close enough for communication via a single ground antenna. In the calibration procedure, the phase of the signal transmitted by one of the antennas is ramped through a complete cycle, thereby causing the interference pattern to sweep over this closer spacecraft and guaranteeing that, at some point during the sweep, this spacecraft is illuminated at maximum intensity. The varying received uplink power is measured by a receiver in the closer spacecraft and the measurement data are transmitted to a ground station to enable determination of the optimum phase adjustment for the direction to the closer spacecraft. This adjustment is then translated to the look direction of the distant spacecraft, which could not be reached effectively using only one antenna.

  1. Bone metastatic disease: taking aim at new therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, F; Di Bussolo, E; Mandatori, I; Mattia, C

    2011-01-01

    Conventional treatment for metastatic bone pain requires a multidisciplinary approach (medical therapy, surgery, and radiation), but is primarily palliative. Biphosphonates introduced the concept of disease-modifying therapy, by effectively reducing bone pain and skeletal related events in patients suffering from bone metastatic cancer. In the past decade, the growing knowledge of bone biology and our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the interaction between cancer cells and bone matrix led to the identification of new therapeutic targets for innovative "smart drugs". The most investigated is the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway, and denosumab, among novel targeted therapies, is the molecule that is in the most advanced development phase. Additional targets have been identified and potential novel therapeutic interventions, classified as inhibitors of bone resorption or stimulators of bone formation, are under preclinical and clinical evaluation. These promising targets include cathepsin K, the Src tyrosine kinases, integrins, chloride channels, the parathyroid hormone-related peptide, endotelin-1, sclerostin, and TGF-beta. Other pathways or molecules expressed by bone cells and cancer cells, such as CXCR4, GPNMB, EGF-family ligands, Wnt/DKK1, and MIP-1 alpha have recently emerged as potential targets. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular mechanisms behind these emerging therapeutic targets in bone metastases and to give an overview of results from those in advanced clinical phases.

  2. Paleographic Atlas of northern Eurasia: Aims and current progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1993-09-01

    A project aimed at paleographic reconstruction of northern Eurasia (the former USSR and adjacent territories) commenced in 1993 in Russia under the auspices of two nongovernmental scientific organizations: Scientific Council on Plate Tectonics and Institute of Tectonics of Lithospheric Plates. The project is sponsored by the State Committee on Geology and Exxon and Shell companies. Twenty-six data-base maps and corresponding paleogeographic maps on a set of new paleotectonic reconstructions are to be compiled within two years, covering a period from Devonian to present. The next two-year phase is expected to follow, with a compilation of similar maps for Early Paleozoic and late Riphean. the best experts on regional geology, paleoenvironment, paleomagnetics, and paleotectonic reconstructions participate in the program. A special group, Geocentre Company, is assigned to the computerization of maps. The 1993 compilation of 15 database maps is to be completed and the first reconstructions produced. The database maps (starting from Tithonian upward) contain information on lithology, facies and thickness of sedimentary formations, and magnetic and structural indicators of plate tectonic data; oil and gas deposits are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the paleogeographic evolution of sedimentary basins, potential reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Narrow time intervals between maps (about 10 m.y.) permit detailed reconstructions of the basins' evolution. Examples of database and paleogeographic maps are presented in the poster.

  3. Avoiding Obstructions in Aiming a High-Gain Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2006-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna Pointing and Obstruction Avoidance software performs computations for pointing a Mars Rover high-gain antenna for communication with Earth while (1) avoiding line-of-sight obstructions (the Martian terrain and other parts of the Rover) that would block communication and (2) taking account of limits in ranges of motion of antenna gimbals and of kinematic singularities in gimbal mechanisms. The software uses simplified geometric models of obstructions and of the trajectory of the Earth in the Martian sky(see figure). It treats all obstructions according to a generalized approach, computing and continually updating the time remaining before interception of each obstruction. In cases in which the gimbal-mechanism design allows two aiming solutions, the algorithm chooses the solution that provides the longest obstruction-free Earth-tracking time. If the communication session continues until an obstruction is encountered in the current pointing solution and the other solution is now unobstructed, then the algorithm automatically switches to the other position. This software also notifies communication- managing software to cease transmission during the switch to the unobstructed position, resuming it when the switch is complete.

  4. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS

  5. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT

  6. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  7. The German National Cohort: aims, study design and organization.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The German National Cohort (GNC) is a joint interdisciplinary endeavour of scientists from the Helmholtz and the Leibniz Association, universities, and other research institutes. Its aim is to investigate the causes for the development of major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory and infectious diseases, and their pre-clinical stages or functional health impairments. Across Germany, a random sample of the general population will be drawn by 18 regional study centres, including a total of 100,000 women and 100,000 men aged 20-69 years. The baseline assessments include an extensive interview and self-completion questionnaires, a wide range of medical examinations and the collection of various biomaterials. In a random subgroup of 20 % of the participants (n = 40,000) an intensified examination ("Level 2") programme will be performed. In addition, in five of the 18 study centres a total of 30,000 study participants will take part in a magnetic resonance imaging examination programme, and all of these participants will also be offered the intensified Level 2 examinations. After 4-5 years, all participants will be invited for a re-assessment. Information about chronic disease endpoints will be collected through a combination of active follow-up (including questionnaires every 2-3 years) and record linkages. The GNC is planned for an overall duration of 25-30 years. It will provide a major, central resource for population-based epidemiology in Germany, and will help to identify new and tailored strategies for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of major diseases.

  8. The Healthy Communities Study: Its Rationale, Aims, and Approach.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Crawford, Patricia B; Fawcett, Stephen B; Fishbein, Howard A; Gregoriou, Maria; John, Lisa V; Kelley, Melinda; Pate, Russell R; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Strauss, Warren J

    2015-10-01

    Communities across the U.S. are implementing programs and policies designed to address the epidemic of childhood obesity. These programs vary widely in their approaches, including the intensity level, duration, funding, target population, and implementation techniques. However, no previous studies have examined these variations and determined how such aspects of community programs and policies are related to childhood obesity outcomes. The Healthy Communities Study is an observational study that is assessing the associations between characteristics of community programs and policies and BMI, nutrition, and physical activity in children. The Healthy Communities Study was funded in 2010, field data collection and medical record abstraction will be completed in 2015, and data cleaning and analyses will be completed by mid-year 2016. One-hundred and thirty communities (defined as a high school catchment area) and approximately 5,000 children in kindergarten through eighth grade and their parents have been recruited from public elementary and middle schools across the country. The study is examining quantitative and qualitative information obtained from community-based initiatives; measures of community characteristics (e.g., school environment); and child and parent measures, including children's physical activity levels and dietary practices and children's and parents' BMI. The Healthy Communities Study employs a complex study design that includes a diverse sample of communities across the country and combines current/cross-sectional and retrospective data (abstracted from children's medical records). This paper describes the rationale for the Healthy Communities Study, the study aims and logic model, and a brief overview of the study design. PMID:26384931

  9. [Peptide synthesis aiming at elucidation and creation of protein functions].

    PubMed

    Futaki, S

    1998-11-01

    The recent development of molecular biology has been elucidating outlines of the cross-talk of biomolecules. The understanding of the function of these biomolecules from the viewpoint of chemistry is now demanded not only for the understanding of biological systems but also for the creation of novel functional molecules. Here two topics are described about peptide synthesis aiming at the elucidation and the creation of protein functions. The first topic is the development of approaches for the synthesis of Tyr (SO3H)-containing peptides. Tyrosine sulfation is one of the most popular protein post-translational modifications. Synthetic peptides are of great help for the elucidation of the biological significance of tyrosine sulfation. We have developed two approaches for the efficient synthesis of tyrosine sulfate [Tyr (SO3H)]-containing peptides. The first approach employs a dimethylformamide-sulfur trioxide (DMF-SO3) complex as a sulfating agent and safety-catch protecting groups for the selective sulfation of tyrosine in the presence of serine. The second approach employs the direct introduction of Tyr(SO3H) into the peptide chain in the form of Fmoc-Tyr(SO3Na) followed by deprotection at 4 degrees C in trifluoroacetic acid. These approaches were successfully applied for the synthesis of cholecystokinin (CCK)-related peptides. The second topic deals with new approaches for the creation of artificial proteins through assembling alpha-helical peptides via selective disulfide or thioether formation. Approaches to assemble individual peptide segments on a peptide template were also developed. Four peptides corresponding to the transmembrane segments of the sodium channel (S4 in repeat I-IV) were assembled on a peptide template to give a protein having ion channel activity with rectification.

  10. The Healthy Communities Study: Its Rationale, Aims, and Approach.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Crawford, Patricia B; Fawcett, Stephen B; Fishbein, Howard A; Gregoriou, Maria; John, Lisa V; Kelley, Melinda; Pate, Russell R; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Strauss, Warren J

    2015-10-01

    Communities across the U.S. are implementing programs and policies designed to address the epidemic of childhood obesity. These programs vary widely in their approaches, including the intensity level, duration, funding, target population, and implementation techniques. However, no previous studies have examined these variations and determined how such aspects of community programs and policies are related to childhood obesity outcomes. The Healthy Communities Study is an observational study that is assessing the associations between characteristics of community programs and policies and BMI, nutrition, and physical activity in children. The Healthy Communities Study was funded in 2010, field data collection and medical record abstraction will be completed in 2015, and data cleaning and analyses will be completed by mid-year 2016. One-hundred and thirty communities (defined as a high school catchment area) and approximately 5,000 children in kindergarten through eighth grade and their parents have been recruited from public elementary and middle schools across the country. The study is examining quantitative and qualitative information obtained from community-based initiatives; measures of community characteristics (e.g., school environment); and child and parent measures, including children's physical activity levels and dietary practices and children's and parents' BMI. The Healthy Communities Study employs a complex study design that includes a diverse sample of communities across the country and combines current/cross-sectional and retrospective data (abstracted from children's medical records). This paper describes the rationale for the Healthy Communities Study, the study aims and logic model, and a brief overview of the study design.

  11. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p < 0.05) and exhibited less collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p < 0.05)-compared with the lateral walls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of muscle fibers at a level deeper than that of the subendothelial connective tissue in the inferior wall of the SS, extending from its junction with the great cerebral vein

  12. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  13. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  14. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p < 0.05) and exhibited less collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p < 0.05)-compared with the lateral walls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of muscle fibers at a level deeper than that of the subendothelial connective tissue in the inferior wall of the SS, extending from its junction with the great cerebral vein

  15. Nisin production utilizing skimmed milk aiming to reduce process cost.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2007-04-01

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30 degrees C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0x10(6) AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 g(total solids) was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 g(total solids) and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 g(total solids). L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 g(total solids)) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30 degrees C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling. PMID:18478413

  16. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    The oldest isolated pulsar ever detected in X-rays has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This very old and exotic object turns out to be surprisingly active. The pulsar, PSR J0108-1431 (J0108 for short) is about 200 million years old. Among isolated pulsars -- ones that have not been spun-up in a binary system -- it is over 10 times older than the previous record holder with an X-ray detection. At a distance of 770 light years, it is one of the nearest pulsars known. Pulsars are born when stars that are much more massive than the Sun collapse in supernova explosions, leaving behind a small, incredibly weighty core, known as a neutron star. At birth, these neutron stars, which contain the densest material known in the Universe, are spinning rapidly, up to a hundred revolutions per second. As the rotating beams of their radiation are seen as pulses by distant observers, similar to a lighthouse beam, astronomers call them "pulsars". Astronomers observe a gradual slowing of the rotation of the pulsars as they radiate energy away. Radio observations of J0108 show it to be one of the oldest and faintest pulsars known, spinning only slightly faster than one revolution per second. The surprise came when a team of astronomers led by George Pavlov of Penn State University observed J0108 in X-rays with Chandra. They found that it glows much brighter in X-rays than was expected for a pulsar of such advanced years. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Milky Way’s Giant Black Hole Awoke from Slumber 300 Years Ago Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Some of the energy that J0108 is losing as it spins more slowly is converted into X-ray radiation. The efficiency of this process for J0108 is found to be higher than for any other known pulsar. "This pulsar is pumping out high-energy radiation much more efficiently than its younger cousins," said Pavlov. "So, although it's clearly fading as it ages, it is still more than holding its own with the younger generations." It's likely that two forms of X-ray emission are produced in J0108: emission from particles spiraling around magnetic fields, and emission from heated areas around the neutron star's magnetic poles. Measuring the temperature and size of these heated regions can provide valuable insight into the extraordinary properties of the neutron star surface and the process by which charged particles are accelerated by the pulsar. The younger, bright pulsars commonly detected by radio and X-ray telescopes are not representative of the full population of objects, so observing objects like J0108 helps astronomers see a more complete range of behavior. At its advanced age, J0108 is close to the so-called "pulsar death line," where its pulsed radiation is expected to switch off and it will become much harder, if not impossible, to observe. "We can now explore the properties of this pulsar in a regime where no other pulsar has been detected outside the radio range," said co-author Oleg Kargaltsev of the University of Florida. "To understand the properties of 'dying pulsars,' it is important to study their radiation in X-rays. Our finding that a very old pulsar can be such an efficient X-ray emitter gives us hope to discover new nearby pulsars of this class via their X-ray emission." The Chandra observations were reported by Pavlov and colleagues in the January 20, 2009, issue of The Astrophysical Journal. However, the extreme nature of J0108 was not fully apparent until a new distance to it was reported on February 6 in the PhD thesis of Adam Deller from Swinburne University in Australia. The new distance is both larger and more accurate than the distance used in the Chandra paper, showing that J0108 was brighter in X-rays than previously thought. "Suddenly this pulsar became the record holder for its ability to make X-rays," said Pavlov, "and our result became even more interesting without us doing much extra w

  17. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    The oldest isolated pulsar ever detected in X-rays has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This very old and exotic object turns out to be surprisingly active. The pulsar, PSR J0108-1431 (J0108 for short) is about 200 million years old. Among isolated pulsars -- ones that have not been spun-up in a binary system -- it is over 10 times older than the previous record holder with an X-ray detection. At a distance of 770 light years, it is one of the nearest pulsars known. Pulsars are born when stars that are much more massive than the Sun collapse in supernova explosions, leaving behind a small, incredibly weighty core, known as a neutron star. At birth, these neutron stars, which contain the densest material known in the Universe, are spinning rapidly, up to a hundred revolutions per second. As the rotating beams of their radiation are seen as pulses by distant observers, similar to a lighthouse beam, astronomers call them "pulsars". Astronomers observe a gradual slowing of the rotation of the pulsars as they radiate energy away. Radio observations of J0108 show it to be one of the oldest and faintest pulsars known, spinning only slightly faster than one revolution per second. The surprise came when a team of astronomers led by George Pavlov of Penn State University observed J0108 in X-rays with Chandra. They found that it glows much brighter in X-rays than was expected for a pulsar of such advanced years. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Milky Way’s Giant Black Hole Awoke from Slumber 300 Years Ago Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Some of the energy that J0108 is losing as it spins more slowly is converted into X-ray radiation. The efficiency of this process for J0108 is found to be higher than for any other known pulsar. "This pulsar is pumping out high-energy radiation much more efficiently than its younger cousins," said Pavlov. "So, although it's clearly fading as it ages, it is still more than holding its own with the younger generations." It's likely that two forms of X-ray emission are produced in J0108: emission from particles spiraling around magnetic fields, and emission from heated areas around the neutron star's magnetic poles. Measuring the temperature and size of these heated regions can provide valuable insight into the extraordinary properties of the neutron star surface and the process by which charged particles are accelerated by the pulsar. The younger, bright pulsars commonly detected by radio and X-ray telescopes are not representative of the full population of objects, so observing objects like J0108 helps astronomers see a more complete range of behavior. At its advanced age, J0108 is close to the so-called "pulsar death line," where its pulsed radiation is expected to switch off and it will become much harder, if not impossible, to observe. "We can now explore the properties of this pulsar in a regime where no other pulsar has been detected outside the radio range," said co-author Oleg Kargaltsev of the University of Florida. "To understand the properties of 'dying pulsars,' it is important to study their radiation in X-rays. Our finding that a very old pulsar can be such an efficient X-ray emitter gives us hope to discover new nearby pulsars of this class via their X-ray emission." The Chandra observations were reported by Pavlov and colleagues in the January 20, 2009, issue of The Astrophysical Journal. However, the extreme nature of J0108 was not fully apparent until a new distance to it was reported on February 6 in the PhD thesis of Adam Deller from Swinburne University in Australia. The new distance is both larger and more accurate than the distance used in the Chandra paper, showing that J0108 was brighter in X-rays than previously thought. "Suddenly this pulsar became the record holder for its ability to make X-rays," said Pavlov, "and our result became even more interesting without us doing much extra work." PSR J0108-1431 Chandra X-ray Image of PSR J0108-1431 The position of the pulsar seen by Chandra in X-rays in early 2007 is slightly different from the radio position observed in early 2001. This implies that the pulsar is moving at a velocity of about 440,000 miles per hour, close to a typical value for pulsars. Currently the pulsar is moving south from the plane of the Milky Way galaxy, but because it is moving more slowly than the escape velocity of the Galaxy, it will eventually curve back towards the plane of the Galaxy in the opposite direction. The detection of this motion has allowed Roberto Mignani of University College London, in collaboration with Pavlov and Kargaltsev, to possibly detect J0108 in optical light, using estimates of where it should be found in an image taken in 2000. Such a multi-wavelength study of old pulsars is critical for understanding the long-term evolution of neutron stars, such as how they cool with time, and how their powerful magnetic fields evolve. The team of astronomers that worked with Pavlov also included Gordon Garmire and Jared Wong at Penn State. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  18. Alive and Kicking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Street Life Soccer is a football project which was set up four years ago. It was the result of a workshop at a homeless hostel in Norwich, carried out by Blue Cat, a local company which develops engagement activities for learners traditionally considered "hard to reach". It was obvious that the one thing people desperately wanted was to play…

  19. Kicking the oil addiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilenchik, Yaakov; Peled, Emanuel; Andelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Few people were left unaffected by the soaring oil prices of summer 2008. Motorists were the hardest hit as the price at the pumps reached an all time high, but nobody could avoid paying more for their food as higher transport costs were passed on from the retailer to the consumer.

  20. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention at Colleges and Universities. A Collection of Presentations Made at the National Collegiate Drug Awareness Week Kick-Off Conference (Washington, D.C., February 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    The National Collegiate Drug Awareness Week 1988 (conceived and initiated by the Inter-Association Task Force on Alcohol and Other Substance Issues) began with a Kick-Off Conference of educators that provided students and professionals an opportunity to share ideas and experiences. One-page abstracts of 17 conference presentations are as follows:…

  1. Dynamical localization in chaotic systems: spectral statistics and localization measure in the kicked rotator as a paradigm for time-dependent and time-independent systems.

    PubMed

    Manos, Thanos; Robnik, Marko

    2013-06-01

    We study the kicked rotator in the classically fully chaotic regime using Izrailev's N-dimensional model for various N≤4000, which in the limit N→∞ tends to the quantized kicked rotator. We do treat not only the case K=5, as studied previously, but also many different values of the classical kick parameter 5≤K≤35 and many different values of the quantum parameter kε[5,60]. We describe the features of dynamical localization of chaotic eigenstates as a paradigm for other both time-periodic and time-independent (autonomous) fully chaotic or/and mixed-type Hamilton systems. We generalize the scaling variable Λ=l(∞)/N to the case of anomalous diffusion in the classical phase space by deriving the localization length l(∞) for the case of generalized classical diffusion. We greatly improve the accuracy and statistical significance of the numerical calculations, giving rise to the following conclusions: (1) The level-spacing distribution of the eigenphases (or quasienergies) is very well described by the Brody distribution, systematically better than by other proposed models, for various Brody exponents β(BR). (2) We study the eigenfunctions of the Floquet operator and characterize their localization properties using the information entropy measure, which after normalization is given by β(loc) in the interval [0,1]. The level repulsion parameters β(BR) and β(loc) are almost linearly related, close to the identity line. (3) We show the existence of a scaling law between β(loc) and the relative localization length Λ, now including the regimes of anomalous diffusion. The above findings are important also for chaotic eigenstates in time-independent systems [Batistić and Robnik, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 43, 215101 (2010); arXiv:1302.7174 (2013)], where the Brody distribution is confirmed to a very high degree of precision for dynamically localized chaotic eigenstates, even in the mixed-type systems (after separation of regular and chaotic eigenstates).

  2. FAILED-DETONATION SUPERNOVAE: SUBLUMINOUS LOW-VELOCITY Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR KICKED REMNANT WHITE DWARFS WITH IRON-RICH CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, George C. IV; Van Rossum, Daniel R.; Perets, Hagai B.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2012-12-20

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M{sub Sun} of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s{sup -1}. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

  3. Failed-detonation Supernovae: Subluminous Low-velocity Ia Supernovae and their Kicked Remnant White Dwarfs with Iron-rich Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, George C., IV; Perets, Hagai B.; Fisher, Robert T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.

    2012-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) originate from the thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen (C-O) white dwarfs (WDs). The single-degenerate scenario is a well-explored model of SNe Ia where unstable thermonuclear burning initiates in an accreting, Chandrasekhar-mass WD and forms an advancing flame. By several proposed physical processes, the rising, burning material triggers a detonation, which subsequently consumes and unbinds the WD. However, if a detonation is not triggered and the deflagration is too weak to unbind the star, a completely different scenario unfolds. We explore the failure of the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism of SNe Ia, and demonstrate through two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations the properties of failed-detonation SNe. We show that failed-detonation SNe expel a few 0.1 M ⊙ of burned and partially burned material and that a fraction of the material falls back onto the WD, polluting the remnant WD with intermediate-mass and iron-group elements that likely segregate to the core forming a WD whose core is iron rich. The remaining material is asymmetrically ejected at velocities comparable to the escape velocity from the WD, and in response, the WD is kicked to velocities of a few hundred km s-1. These kicks may unbind the binary and eject a runaway/hypervelocity WD. Although the energy and ejected mass of the failed-detonation SN are a fraction of typical thermonuclear SNe, they are likely to appear as subluminous low-velocity SNe Ia. Such failed detonations might therefore explain or are related to the observed branch of peculiar SNe Ia, such as the family of low-velocity subluminous SNe (SN 2002cx/SN 2008ha-like SNe).

  4. A new approach to detailed structural decomposition from the splash and phat surveys: Kicked-up disk stars in the Andromeda galaxy?

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; and others

    2013-12-20

    We characterize the bulge, disk, and halo subcomponents in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) over the radial range 4 kpc < R {sub proj} < 225 kpc. The cospatial nature of these subcomponents renders them difficult to disentangle using surface brightness (SB) information alone, especially interior to ∼20 kpc. Our new decomposition technique combines information from the luminosity function (LF) of over 1.5 million bright (20 < m {sub 814W} < 22) stars from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey, radial velocities of over 5000 red giant branch stars in the same magnitude range from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo survey, and integrated I-band SB profiles from various sources. We use an affine-invariant Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to fit an appropriate toy model to these three data sets. The bulge, disk, and halo SB profiles are modeled as a Sérsic, exponential, and cored power law, respectively, and the LFs are modeled as broken power laws. We present probability distributions for each of 32 parameters describing the SB profiles and LFs of the three subcomponents. We find that the number of stars with a disk-like LF is 5.2% ± 2.1% larger than the number with disk-like (dynamically cold) kinematics, suggesting that some stars born in the disk have been dynamically heated to the point that they are kinematically indistinguishable from halo members. This is the first kinematical evidence for a 'kicked-up disk' halo population in M31. The fraction of kicked-up disk stars is consistent with that found in simulations. We also find evidence for a radially varying disk LF, consistent with a negative metallicity gradient in the stellar disk.

  5. Application of Optical Measurement Techniques During Stages of Pregnancy: Use of Phantom High Speed Cameras for Digital Image Correlation (D.I.C.) During Baby Kicking and Abdomen Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Paired images were collected using a projected pattern instead of standard painting of the speckle pattern on her abdomen. High Speed cameras were post triggered after movements felt. Data was collected at 120 fps -limited due to 60hz frequency of projector. To ensure that kicks and movement data was real a background test was conducted with no baby movement (to correct for breathing and body motion).

  6. Natal Kicks and Time Delays in Merging Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for r-process Nucleosynthesis in Ultra-faint Dwarfs and in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-09-01

    Merging neutron star binaries are prime candidate sources for heavy r-process nucleosynthesis. The amount of heavy r-process material is consistent with the mass ejection and rates of mergers, and abundances of relic radioactive materials suggest that heavy r-process material is produced in rare events. Observations of possible macronovae provide further support for this model. Still, some concerns remain. One is the observation of heavy r-process elements in ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies. The escape velocities from UFDs are so small that the natal kicks, taking place at neutron stars’ birth, might eject such binaries from UFDs. Furthermore, the old stellar populations of UFDs require that r-process nucleosynthesis must have taken place very early on, while it may take several Gyr for compact binaries to merge. This last problem arises also within the Milky Way where heavy r-process materials have been observed in some low-metallicity stars. We show here that ≳ 0.5 of neutron star binaries form with a sufficiently small proper motion to remain bound even in a UFD. Furthermore, approximately 90% of double neutron stars with an initial separation of 1011 cm merge within 300 Myr and ≈ 15 % merge in less than 100 Myr. This population of “rapid mergers” explains the appearance of heavy r-process material in both UFDs and in the early Milky Way.

  7. Communicating Aims and Learning Goals in Physical Education: Part of a Subject for Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelius, Karin; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Öhman, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, the aim of this article is to examine how aims and learning goals are communicated in physical education (PE) practice. A special focus is on scrutinising how teaching practices are framed in terms of whether and how the aims and learning goals are made explicit or not to students. The aim is also…

  8. Adolescent Characteristics by Type of Long-Term Aim in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton; Finch, W. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were administered to adolescents (N = 144) to determine if young people varied based on the type of long-term aims they held. Using cluster analysis, four groups emerged from the data: youth without clear long-term aims, youth with self-oriented long-term aims, youth with other-oriented long-term aims, and youth with both self- and…

  9. Report from the kick-off meeting of the Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcome Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J; Deckert, S; Alam, M; Apfelbacher, C; Barbaric, J; Bauer, A; Chalmers, J; Chosidow, O; Delamere, F; Doney, E; Eleftheriadou, V; Grainge, M; Johannsen, L; Kottner, J; Le Cleach, L; Mayer, A; Pinart, M; Prescott, L; Prinsen, C A C; Ratib, S; Schlager, J G; Sharma, M; Thomas, K S; Weberschock, T; Weller, K; Werner, R N; Wild, T; Wilkes, S R; Williams, H C

    2016-02-01

    A major obstacle of evidence-based clinical decision making is the use of nonstandardized, partly untested outcome measurement instruments. Core Outcome Sets (COSs) are currently developed in different medical fields to standardize and improve the selection of outcomes and outcome measurement instruments in clinical trials, in order to pool results of trials or to allow indirect comparison between interventions. A COS is an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials of a specific disease or trial population. The international, multidisciplinary Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcome Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN) aims to develop and implement COSs in dermatology, thus making trial evidence comparable and, herewith, more useful for clinical decision making. The inaugural meeting of CSG-COUSIN was held on 17-18 March 2015 in Dresden, Germany, as the exclusive theme of the Annual Cochrane Skin Group Meeting. In total, 29 individuals representing a broad mix of different stakeholder groups, professions, skills and perspectives attended. This report provides a description of existing COS initiatives in dermatology, highlights current methodological challenges in COS development, and presents the concept, aims and structure of CSG-COUSIN.

  10. Assessing AIM: A Study of Grade 8 Students in an Ontario School Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-method study examines the proficiency in and perceptions of French language learning of Grade 8 students who were exposed to an instructional approach called the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM). Six AIM classes (n = 125) and six non-AIM classes (n = 135) were observed and their students tested using a four-skills French as a second…

  11. What Place Does Science Have in an Aims-Based Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that school curriculum development should start with aims rather than with subjects and that the fundamental aims of school education should be to enable each learner to lead a personally flourishing life and to help others to do so too. These overarching aims give rise to more specific ones by considering how human flourishing…

  12. Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing , and mathematics content that all Arizona students at the third grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS includes multiple-choice…

  13. Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students in the student's grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes…

  14. Arizona?s Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students in the student's grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes…

  15. Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well students know the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students at the sixth grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes multiple-choice…

  16. Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students in the student's grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes…

  17. Conformation switching of AIM2 PYD domain revealed by NMR relaxation and MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haobo; Yang, Lijiang; Niu, Xiaogang

    2016-04-29

    Protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a double-strand DNA (ds DNA) sensor mainly located in cytoplasm of cell. It includes one N terminal PYD domain and one C terminal HIN domain. When the ds DNA such as DNA viruses and bacteria entered cytoplasm, the HIN domain of AIM2 will recognize and bind to DNA, and the PYD domain will bind to ASC protein which will result in the formation of AIM2 inflammasome. Three AIM2 PYD domain structures have been solved, but every structure yields a unique conformation around the α3 helix region. To understand why different AIM2 PYD structures show different conformations in this region, we use NMR relaxation techniques to study the backbone dynamics of mouse AIM2 PYD domain and perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on both mouse and human AIM2 PYD structures. Our results indicate that this region is highly flexible in both mouse and human AIM2 PYD domains, and the PYD domain may exist as a conformation ensemble in solution. Different environment makes the population vary among pre-existing conformational substrates of the ensemble, which may be the reason why different AIM2 PYD structures were observed under different conditions. Further docking analysis reveals that the conformation switching may be important for the autoinhibition of the AIM2 protein.

  18. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) reduces cell number in canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    UCHIDA, Mona; SAEKI, Kohei; MAEDA, Shingo; TAMAHARA, Satoshi; YONEZAWA, Tomohiro; MATSUKI, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) is initially reported to protect macrophages from apoptosis. In this study, we determined the effect of AIM on the macrophage-derived tumor, histiocytic sarcoma cell lines (HS) of dogs. Five HS and five other tumor cell lines were used. When recombinant canine AIM was applied to non-serum culture media, cell numbers of all the HS and two of other tumor cell lines decreased dose-dependently. The DNA fragmentation, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry tests revealed that AIM induced both of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the HS. Although AIM is known as an apoptosis inhibitor, these results suggest that a high dose of AIM could have an opposite function in HS and some tumor cell lines. PMID:27246397

  19. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, W. L.; Kado, L.

    1975-01-01

    The Hypersonic Research Engine-Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE-AIM) was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility. The HRE-AIM is described along with its installation in the wind tunnel facility. Test conditions to which the HRE-AIM was subjected and observations made during the tests are discussed. The overall engine performance, component interaction, and ignition limits for the design are evaluated.

  20. Impact of feline AIM on the susceptibility of cats to renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients’ health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives. PMID:27731392

  1. A role for the apoptosis inhibitory factor AIM/Spalpha/Api6 in atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoko; Shelton, John M; Chen, Mingyi; Bradley, Michelle N; Castrillo, Antonio; Bookout, Angie L; Mak, Puiying A; Edwards, Peter A; Mangelsdorf, David J; Tontonoz, Peter; Miyazaki, Toru

    2005-03-01

    Macrophages play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis through the accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). AIM (Spalpha/Api6) has previously been shown to promote macrophage survival; however, its function in atherogenesis is unknown. Here we identify AIM as a critical factor that protects macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids. AIM protein is induced in response to oxLDL loading and is highly expressed in foam cells within atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, both expression of AIM in lesions and its induction by oxidized lipids require the action of LXR/RXR heterodimers. AIM-/- macrophages are highly susceptible to oxLDL-induced apoptosis in vitro and undergo accelerated apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Moreover, early atherosclerotic lesions in AIM-/-LDLR-/- double knockout mice are dramatically reduced when compared to AIM+/+LDLR-/- controls. We conclude that AIM production facilitates macrophage survival within atherosclerotic lesions and that loss of AIM decreases early lesion development by increasing macrophage apoptosis.

  2. An automated model-based aim point distribution system for solar towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbözl, Peter; Rong, Amadeus; Macke, Ansgar; Säck, Jan-Peter; Ulmer, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of heliostat aim points is a major task during central receiver operation, as the flux distribution produced by the heliostats varies continuously with time. Known methods for aim point distribution are mostly based on simple aim point patterns and focus on control strategies to meet local temperature and flux limits of the receiver. Lowering the peak flux on the receiver to avoid hot spots and maximizing thermal output are obviously competing targets that call for a comprehensive optimization process. This paper presents a model-based method for online aim point optimization that includes the current heliostat field mirror quality derived through an automated deflectometric measurement process.

  3. Design of orienting and aiming instrument based on fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Limin; Sun, Jiyu

    2007-12-01

    In order to improve the ground viability of missile weapon system, a quick orienting and aiming instrument is cried for the missile launching in modern war. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) based on Sagnac effect is a new type of all solid state rotation rate sensor that detects angular changes or angular rates relative to inertial space, which has many fine characteristics compared with traditional mechanical electronic gyro, such as low cost, light weight, long life, high reliability, wide dynamic range, etc. For the need of missile photoelectric aiming facility, It is necessary to design and manufacture a set of orienting and aiming instrument based on single axis FOG, to solve the close quarters aiming of missile launching, to measure the azimuth reference. Based on practical project, the principle of FOG orienting system and laser collimation theodolite aiming system is discussed and studied in this paper. Orienting and aiming system are constructed in the same basement. The influence of platform tilt on the precision of orientation is analyzed. An accelerator is used to compensate deviation caused by base tilt. The aiming precision affected by eccentricity of the encoders for laser collimation theodolite and the FOG orientation system are analyzed. The test results show that the aiming accuracy is 6' in three minutes. It is suitable for missile aiming in short range.

  4. Aim-less translation: loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial translation initiation factor mIF3/Aim23 leads to unbalanced protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Derbikova, Ksenia; Salvatori, Roger; Tankov, Stoyan; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Tenson, Tanel; Ott, Martin; Kamenski, Piotr; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome almost exclusively encodes a handful of transmembrane constituents of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Coordinated expression of these genes ensures the correct stoichiometry of the system’s components. Translation initiation in mitochondria is assisted by two general initiation factors mIF2 and mIF3, orthologues of which in bacteria are indispensible for protein synthesis and viability. mIF3 was thought to be absent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae until we recently identified mitochondrial protein Aim23 as the missing orthologue. Here we show that, surprisingly, loss of mIF3/Aim23 in S. cerevisiae does not indiscriminately abrogate mitochondrial translation but rather causes an imbalance in protein production: the rate of synthesis of the Atp9 subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase (complex V) is increased, while expression of Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3 subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) is repressed. Our results provide one more example of deviation of mitochondrial translation from its bacterial origins. PMID:26728900

  5. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  6. AIMS D2DB simulation for DUV and EUV mask inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Chen, Jerry; Hsu, S. C.; Lai, Rick; Lin, C. S.; Tuo, Laurent C. C.

    2012-02-01

    AIMS™ Die-to-Die (D2D) is widely used in checking the wafer printability of mask defects for DUV lithography. Two AIMS images, a reference and a defect image, are captured and compared with differences larger than certain tolerances identified as real defects. Since two AIMS images are needed, and since AIMS system time is precious, it is desirable to save image search and capture time by simulating reference images from the OPC mask pattern and AIMS optics. This approach is called Die-to-Database (D2DB). Another reason that D2DB is desirable is in single die mask, where the reference image from another die does not exist. This paper presents our approach to simulate AIMS optics and mask 3D effects. Unlike OPC model, whose major concern is predicting printed CD, AIMS D2DB model must produce simulated images that match measured images across the image field. This requires a careful modeling of all effects that impact the final image quality. We present a vector-diffraction theory that is based on solid theoretical foundations and a general formulation of mask model that are applicable to both rigorous Maxwell solver and empirical model that can capture the mask 3D-effects. We demonstrated the validity of our approach by comparing our simulated image with AIMS machine measured images. We also briefly discuss the necessary changes needed to model EUV optics. Simulation is particularly useful while the industry waits for an actinic EUV-AIMS tool.

  7. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study was designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview…

  8. Sensory Integration in the Learning of Aiming toward "Self-Defined" Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Christelle; Toussaint, Lucette; Blandin, Yannick; Vinter, Annie

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at supporting the specificity of learning hypothesis, when aiming was based on internal cues, as directing the hand toward a "self-defined" target location. Participants practiced modest (20 trials) or intensive (720 trials) training with visual and proprioceptive information or proprioceptive information only. Pretests and…

  9. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  10. An Aims-Based Curriculum Illustrated by the Teaching of Science in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.; White, John

    2014-01-01

    We begin by arguing that curriculum development should start with aims rather than, as is typically the case, with subjects. We, therefore, ask what might be the fundamental aims of school education. We conclude that they are twofold, namely, to enable each learner to lead a life that is personally flourishing and to help others to do so too.…

  11. Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS), a Standards-Based test, provides educators and the public with valuable information regarding the progress of Arizona's students toward mastering Arizona's reading, writing and mathematics Standards. This specific test, Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is…

  12. Primarily Physics, Investigations in Sound, Light and Heat for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  13. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines.

  14. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines. PMID:24934452

  15. The DNA Sensor AIM2 Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis via Regulation of Epithelial Antimicrobial Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuiqing; Peng, Lan; Kwak, Youn-Tae; Tekippe, Erin McElvania; Pasare, Chandrashekhar; Malter, James S; Hooper, Lora V; Zaki, Md Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial dysbiosis as represented by higher colonic burden of commensal Escherichia coli. Colonization of germ-free mice with Aim2(-/-) mouse microbiota leads to higher colitis susceptibility. In-depth investigation of AIM2-mediated host defense responses reveals that caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production are compromised in Aim2(-/-) mouse colons, consistent with defective inflammasome function. Moreover, IL-18 infusion reduces E. coli burden as well as colitis susceptibility in Aim2(-/-) mice. Altered microbiota in inflammasome-defective mice correlate with reduced expression of several antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these findings implicate DNA sensing by AIM2 as a regulatory mechanism for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

  16. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  17. Aims and Results of the 23rd International Conference on Vacuum Technique and Technology (VTT2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.; Pavlova, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this preface the main features, aims and results of the 23rd International Conference on Vacuum Technique and Technology (VTT2016) that was held on 7-9 June 2016 in Saint Petersburg, Russia are discussed.

  18. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  19. The Influence of Radiotherapy on AIM2 Inflammasome in Radiation Pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianyu; Hu, Qinyong; Chu, Yuxin; Xu, Bin; Song, Qibin

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of radiotherapy on absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome in radiation pneumonitis (RP). A rat model of RP was established. H&E staining was used to test radiation-induced lung tissue injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of AIM2 and IL-1β in rat lung tissues. Milliplex assay was used to test cytokine levels in rat serum. Comet assay was adopted to examine DNA breaks in THP1 cells. RT-PCR was used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of AIM2, caspase-1, and IL-1β in THP1 cells. As a result, the rat model indicated that irradiation induced obvious lung injury. A large amount of inflammatory cells infiltrated to the irradiated lung tissues. The structure of lung tissues collapsed. IHC revealed that AIM2 and IL-1β expressions were significantly higher in irradiated lung tissues than in the control. IL-1β level in rat serum significantly elevated on the 7th day post-irradiation, gradually decreased on the 15th day, and became minimal on the 30th day. Irradiation induced dsDNA break in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h after irradiation. Radiotherapy increased the mRNA expression level of AIM2 and IL-1β in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, radiotherapy triggered some critical components of AIM2 inflammasome in RP. The activation of AIM2 inflammasome by radiotherapy may contribute to the pathogenesis of RP. PMID:27525422

  20. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  1. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2-/- mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  2. The influence of beacon-aiming on the routes of wood ants.

    PubMed

    Graham, Paul; Fauria, Karine; Collett, Thomas S

    2003-02-01

    Many insects have an innate propensity to approach conspicuous objects. We explore how such beacon aiming determines the shape of a wood ant's habitual route. We find that a single large black cylinder within an arena biases the route taken by ants as they run from a start position at one end of the arena to reach a feeder at the other. Ants learn a stable route with the first segment of their trajectory aimed at the cylinder, which becomes an intermediate goal on the way to the feeder. When in occasional tests the cylinder is removed or displaced, ants head for the usual site of the cylinder. They also aim for the same site when the cylinder is removed and the ant's normal start position is changed. This behaviour suggests that visual features of the arena are learnt from the vantage point of the cylinder and that this stored snapshot guides the ant to that site. Ants thus reinforce their ability to reach the cylinder by learning other visual features in their surroundings that can also steer them to its location. The use of beacon aiming in fixing routes has several benefits. Because the same path will be traversed on every trial, beacon aiming facilitates the acquisition of routes. Beacon aiming also increases the robustness of learnt routes: ants straying from the route will be attracted to the closest beacon and so regain their habitual paths.

  3. Presence of Motor-Intentional Aiming Deficit Predicts Functional Improvement of Spatial Neglect with Prism Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, Kelly M.; Chen, Peii; Boston, Raymond C.; Foundas, Anne L.; Barrett, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a debilitating disorder for which there is no agreed upon course of rehabilitation. The lack of consensus on treatment may result from systematic differences in the syndromes’ characteristics, with spatial cognitive deficits potentially affecting perceptual-attentional Where or motor-intentional Aiming spatial processing. Heterogeneity of response to treatment might be explained by different treatment impact on these dissociated deficits: prism adaptation, for example, might reduce Aiming deficits without affecting Where spatial deficits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that classifying patients by their profile of Where-vs-Aiming spatial deficit would predict response to prism adaptation, and specifically that patients with Aiming bias would have better recovery than those with isolated Where bias. We classified the spatial errors of 24 sub-acute right-stroke survivors with left spatial neglect as: 1) isolated Where bias, 2) isolated Aiming bias or 3) both. Participants then completed two weeks of prism adaptation treatment. They also completed the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) tests of neglect recovery weekly for six weeks. As hypothesized, participants with only Aiming deficits improved on the CBS, whereas, those with only Where deficits did not improve. Participants with both deficits demonstrated intermediate improvement. These results support behavioral classification of spatial neglect patients as a potential valuable tool for assigning targeted, effective early rehabilitation. PMID:24376064

  4. At 100, NAACP Still Kicking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    When leaders of the NAACP gather this month to formally begin a year-long recognition of 100 years of civil rights work, they'll be talking as much about the organization's future as they will be honoring its past. On dozens of college campuses across the nation, where plenty of groups have taken on justice issues that for decades only the NAACP…

  5. School Kicks the Oil Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Underground geothermal water from an artesian well supplies heat for rural Haakon School District in Philip (South Dakota). The same water is then piped to the downtown business district a few blocks away and sold as fuel to participating merchants. (Author/MLF)

  6. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events. PMID:22618299

  7. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events.

  8. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  9. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-10-01

    The Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission (ASPECT) is a part of the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) project, and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the efects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA Asteroid Impact Detection Assessment (AIDA) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) by ESA and the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) by NASA. DART is targeted to impact the Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) while AIM monitors the impact efects. This will demonstrate the use of a kinetic impactor to detect potentially hazardous asteroids. Both spacecraft will be launched in 2020 and will arrive to Didymos in 2022. The AIM mission will also include two or three CubeSats, which will be released in the Didymos system. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientifc experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. ASPECT is a 3U CubeSat equipped with a VIS-NIR spectral imager and it will be used to measure the spectral characteristics of the impact site before and after the DART impact, as the impactor should bring fresh material to the surface. This gives a unique opportunity to study space weathering and shock efects on asteroids.

  10. Organizational technologies for transforming care: measures and strategies for pursuit of IOM quality aims.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Bolin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Progress on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 6 aims to bridge the "quality chasm" requires both measurement and the concerting of multiple organizational technologies. The basic thesis of this article is that rapid progress on the IOM's multiple aims calls for transformative change within and among healthcare organizations. The promise of a number of types of transformative approaches is closely linked to their ability to simultaneously build upon several organizational technologies: clinical, social, information, and administrative technologies. To encourage and advance such efforts, this article identifies illustrative measures of attainment of the IOM's 6 aims or targeted areas for improvement that reflect the contributions of the 4 organizational technologies. It discusses examples of relationships between the IOM aims and the organizational technologies considered. Finally, the article offers illustrations of the interplay of these organizational technologies and IOM aims-across an array of organizational innovations with transformative potential. Included among such innovations are information technology in the form of electronic medical records, computer-based physician order entry, and patient health records; organization-wide patient-centered cultural change such as Studer's Hardwiring Excellence; Six Sigma and Toyota Production Management/LEAN; major clinical technology change, for example, minimally invasive cardiac surgery and broader treatment innovations such as disease management. PMID:17873660

  11. Aim24 and MICOS modulate respiratory function, tafazzin-related cardiolipin modification and mitochondrial architecture

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Max Emanuel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Izawa, Toshiaki; Walther, Dirk M; Özbalci, Cagakan; Geimer, Stefan; Reggiori, Fulvio; Brügger, Britta; Mann, Matthias; Westermann, Benedikt; Neupert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function of mitochondria are intimately linked. In a search for components that participate in building the elaborate architecture of this complex organelle we have identified Aim24, an inner membrane protein. Aim24 interacts with the MICOS complex that is required for the formation of crista junctions and contact sites between inner and outer membranes. Aim24 is necessary for the integrity of the MICOS complex, for normal respiratory growth and mitochondrial ultrastructure. Modification of MICOS subunits Mic12 or Mic26 by His-tags in the absence of Aim24 leads to complete loss of cristae and respiratory complexes. In addition, the level of tafazzin, a cardiolipin transacylase, is drastically reduced and the composition of cardiolipin is modified like in mutants lacking tafazzin. In conclusion, Aim24 by interacting with the MICOS complex plays a key role in mitochondrial architecture, composition and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01684.001 PMID:24714493

  12. Listeria monocytogenes that lyse in the macrophage cytosol trigger AIM2-mediated pyroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E.; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary To gain insight into the mechanisms by which host cells detect cytosolic invasion by intracellular pathogens, a genetic screen was performed to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death. A mutation in lmo2473 resulted in hyper-stimulation of host cell death and IL-1β secretion (pyroptosis) following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 receptors, but dependent on ASC and AIM2. Importantly, wild type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. Since AIM2 is activated by DNA, these data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during lysis. PMID:20417169

  13. Childhood obesity affects postural control and aiming performance during an upper limb movement.

    PubMed

    Boucher, François; Handrigan, Grant A; Mackrous, Isabelle; Hue, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Obesity reduces the efficiency of postural and movement control mechanisms. However, the effects of obesity on a functional motor task and postural control in standing and seated position have not been closely quantified among children. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of obesity on the execution of aiming tasks performed in standing and seated conditions in children. Twelve healthy weight children and eleven obese children aged between 8 and 11 years pointed to a target in standing and seated position. The difficulty of the aiming task was varied by using 2 target sizes (1.0 cm and 5.0 cm width; pointing to the smaller target size needs a more precise movement and constitutes a more difficult task). Hand movement time (MT) and its phases were measured to quantify the aiming task. Mean speed of the center of pressure displacement (COP speed) was calculated to assess postural stability during the movement. Obese children had significantly higher MTs compared to healthy-weight children in seated and standing conditions explained by greater durations of deceleration phase when aiming. Concerning the COP speed during the movement, obese children showed significantly higher values when standing compared to healthy-weight children. This was also observed in the seated position. In conclusion, obesity adds a postural constraint during an aiming task in both seated and standing conditions and requires obese children to take more time to correct their movements due to a greater postural instability of the body when pointing to a target with the upper-limb.

  14. Telehealth and Occupational Therapy: Integral to the Triple Aim of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Cason, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Programs and concepts included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 are expected to transform health care in the United States from a volume-based health system to a value-based health system with increased emphasis on prevention and health promotion. The Triple Aim, a framework set forth by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, focuses on improving the health care experience, the health of populations, and the affordability of care. This article describes telehealth as an integral component in achieving the Triple Aim of health care and discusses implications for occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:26122676

  15. Changes in Obstetrics and Gynecologic Care Healthcare Triple Aims: Moving Women's Healthcare From Volume to Value.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barbara S; Mukherjee, Debjani

    2015-06-01

    Healthcare costs in the United States are over 17% of GDP and climbing. Yet compared with other countries in the developed world, the US healthcare system has the worst record for quality of care in relation to cost. This poor performance and lack of improvement in cost versus quality has led to the development of the Triple Aim framework spearheaded by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. The focus of the Triple Aim is to improve value of care by improving access to care, systems of care delivery, and quality of care while reducing the overall expenditure. PMID:25811123

  16. Measuring Motivation Multidimensionally: Development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Larry C.; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R. Patricia

    2008-01-01

    We report the development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q), a new instrument based on an evolutionary psychology theory of human motivation. It provides multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) assessment of individual differences on 15 motive scales. A total heterogeneous sample of N = 1,251 participated in eight studies that…

  17. "Views of Professionals on Aims and Outcomes of Transition for Young People with Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaehne, Axel; Beyer, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the findings of a study of professionals in strategic and operational positions who were involved in transition planning for young people with learning disabilities. Respondents were asked to comment on what they regarded as the optimal aim and outcome of transition from school to post-school placements. The results illustrate…

  18. Modal analysis of low-level-light aiming sight-glass based on shock testing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtang; Ding, Huan; Xue, Xiao; Xu, Yuan; Chang, Benkang

    2010-10-01

    Low-level-light ( LLL ) aiming sight-glass measurement technologies based on multiple circumstances testing conditions are always concerned by military equipments manufacturers. The article puts forward the concrete steps and method of shock circumstances testing measurement according to military optical equipments circumstances testing standard. Using shock theory and mathematical modeling analysis, shock model of LLL aiming sight-glass based on shock testing conditions is constructed and analyzed. Without considering resistances and under instantaneous half-sine shock pulse, the ratio of system response amplitude and half-sine pulse peak value is related to system inherent characteristic (inherent frequency, cycle T, etc.) and shock pulse duration D. The results indicate that given D/T>~ 10.5, / 1 max / A = , half-sine shock pulse is transmitted by 1:1. Testing device response acceleration is equal to shock pulse peak acceleration. Testing device response is more intense under this condition. LLL aiming sight-glass structural performance and reticle zero point moving are influenced. Optical lens offset of LLL aiming sight-glass testing parts is impacted. Optical path parameters change and light transmission is influenced. What is more serious is that objective lens will be broken due to shock pulse transmission.

  19. A Systematic Review of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Ledetra S.; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to systematically review the interventions aimed at reducing binge drinking in college students. A total of 18 interventions published between 2010 and 2015 were evaluated in this review. Two main study designs were used by these interventions: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs, with…

  20. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  1. The Role of Field Education in a University-Community Partnership Aimed at Curriculum Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Laura A.; Kusmaul, Nancy; Elze, Diane; Butler, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    University-community partnerships can play an important role in curriculum development, but little has been written about the role of community agencies in designing curricula. This article describes the role of field education in an innovative university-community partnership aimed at transforming an MSW curriculum to integrate a trauma-informed…

  2. The Moral and Ethical Aims of the School Viewed through a Cosmopolitan Prism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the author proposes to imagine the aims of the school in light of a cosmopolitan philosophy of education. The first section that follows provides a summary account of what the author takes cosmopolitanism to mean. The second section frames a philosophy of education that stems from this account. The third and penultimate section…

  3. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  4. HEART (Helping Everyone Aim for the Right Target): The Lived Experiences of a Freshmen Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Glade Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate a freshmen transition program for at-risk students at a large urban high school. The program is called HEART, which is an acronym for Helping Everyone Aim for the Right Target. This research consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative portion included a…

  5. Meat Training Council Aims to Make Willing Workers into Professional Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David

    2002-01-01

    Details the UK Meat Training Council's management development programme, aimed at increasing the levels of professionalism in the meat and poultry industry and making it more attractive to young people as a long-term career. Describes the course contents and assessment methods, and contains interviews with course participants.

  6. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  8. Aiming for Better Employment: A Holistic Analysis from Admission to Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…

  9. A Diminished Self: Entrepreneurial and Therapeutic Ethos Operating with a Common Aim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunila, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the aim of creating a flexible and self-centred self by means of entrepreneurial and therapeutic education. It is an analysis that uses documents from project-based educational programmes as well as interviews with young adults and the people who work with them in these programmes. The data are examined using a Foucauldian…

  10. REDUCTION IN ASTHMA MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN AS A RESULT OF HOME REMEDIATION AIMED AT MOISTURE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Home dampness, presence of mold and allergens have been associated with asthma morbidity. We examined changes in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources.

    Design: Prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Part...

  11. RE-AIM Checklist for Integrating and Sustaining Tier 2 Social-Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Douglas A.; Yong, Minglee

    2014-01-01

    Even though evidence-based Tier 2 programs are now more commonly available, integrating and sustaining these interventions in schools remain challenging. RE-AIM, which stands for Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance, is a public health framework used to maximize the effectiveness of health promotion programs in…

  12. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  13. Antagonism of the STING Pathway via Activation of the AIM2 Inflammasome by Intracellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Leticia; Woo, Seng-Ryong; Williams, Jason B; McWhirter, Sarah M; Dubensky, Thomas W; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that innate immune sensing of cytosolic DNA in dendritic cells via the host STING pathway is a major mechanism leading to spontaneous T cell responses against tumors. However, the impact of the other major pathway triggered by intracellular DNA, the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome, on the functional output from the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway is poorly understood. We found that dendritic cells and macrophages deficient in AIM2, apoptosis-associated specklike protein, or caspase-1 produced markedly higher IFN-β in response to DNA. Biochemical analyses showed enhanced generation of cyclic GMP-AMP, STING aggregation, and TANK-binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation in inflammasome-deficient cells. Induction of pyroptosis by the AIM2 inflammasome was a major component of this effect, and inhibition of caspase-1 reduced cell death, augmenting phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1/IFN regulatory factor 3 and production of IFN-β. Our data suggest that in vitro activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine macrophages and dendritic cells leads to reduced activation of the STING pathway, in part through promoting caspase-1-dependent cell death.

  14. Scientific Literacy, PISA, and Socioscientific Discourse: Assessment for Progressive Aims of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we explore the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) with a lens informed by the socioscientific issues (SSI) movement. We consider the PISA definition of scientific literacy and how it is situated with respect to broader discussions of the aims of science education. We also present an overview of the SSI framework…

  15. Circle of Strength: Tribal Colleges Aim to Recruit and Retain Native Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2011-01-01

    As tribal colleges aim to retain Native male students, they're finding that talking, drumming, construction, and spirituality may keep men in school. Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe Community College (LCOOCC, Hayward, Wisconsin) is just one of the tribal colleges across the country looking for innovative ways to attract and retain more men.…

  16. Theory of Knowledge Aims, Objectives and Assessment Criteria: An Analysis of Critical Thinking Descriptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,…

  17. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  18. AIM-Monitoring: a component of the BLM assessment, inventory, and monitoring strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy for Integrated Renewable Resources Management” (AIM Strategy) was completed in 2011 in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget. The strategy describes an approach for integrated, cross-program assessment, inventory, and m...

  19. AIM: A comprehensive Arabidopsis Interactome Module database and related interologs in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems biology analysis of protein modules is important for understanding the functional relationships between proteins in the interactome. Here, we present a comprehensive database named AIM for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interactome modules. The database contains almost 250,000 modules th...

  20. Optimizing rapid aiming behaviour: Movement kinematics depend on the cost of corrective modifications.

    PubMed

    Lyons, James; Hansen, Steve; Hurding, Suzanne; Elliott, Digby

    2006-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the initial impulse associated with goal-directed aiming movements typically brings the limb to a position short of the target. This is because target overshooting is associated with greater temporal and energy costs than target undershooting. Presumably these costs can be expected to vary not only with the muscular forces required to move the limb, but also the gravitational forces inherent in the aiming task. In this study we examined the degree to which primary movement endpoint distributions depend on the direction of the movement with respect to gravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of an undershoot bias would be greatest for downward movements because target overshooting necessitates a time and energy consuming movement reversal against gravity. Participants completed rapid aiming movements toward targets located above and below, as well as proximal and distal to a central home position. Movements were made both with and without additional mass attached to the limb. Although movement time did not vary with experimental condition, primary movement endpoint distributions were consistent with our predictions. Specifically, both greater undershooting and greater endpoint variability was associated with downward aiming movements. As well, a greater proportion of the overall movement time was spent in the corrective phase of the movement. These results are consistent with models of energy minimization that posit an inherent efficiency of control and hold that movements are organized to minimize movement time and energy expenditure and maximize mechanical advantages.

  1. Summer Program Aims to Improve Literacy Skills of Black Male Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a summer program at the African American Adolescent Male Summer Literacy Institute which aims to improve literacy skills of black male teens. The African American Adolescent Male Summer Literacy Institute is now in its fourth year at the University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC). Alfred Tatum, director of the…

  2. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

  3. Core Aims for Three Credits of First-Year Communications: Written Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a statement of core aims for first-year Communications writing courses that will serve to: (1) Facilitate the process of establishing equivalence of existing and future Communications courses for transfer purposes; (2) Address evolving challenges to the existing transfer and articulation process,…

  4. Surgeons' aims and pain assessment strategies when managing paediatric post-operative pain: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Twycross, Alison M; Williams, Anna M; Finley, G Allen

    2015-12-01

    Children experience moderate to severe pain post-operatively. Nurses have been found to have a variety of aims in this context. Surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain have not been explored. This qualitative study set out to explore paediatric surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain in one paediatric hospital in Canada. Consultant surgeons (n = 8) across various specialities took part in semi-structured interviews. Surgeons' overarching aim was to keep the child comfortable. Various definitions of comfortable were given, relating to the child's experience of pain itself and their ability to undertake activities of daily living. Children's behavioural pain cues seem to be a primary consideration when making treatment decisions. Parents' views regarding their child's pain were also seen as important, suggesting children may not be seen as competent to make decisions on their own behalf. The need to maintain a realistic approach was emphasised and pain management described as a balancing act. Surgeons may draw on both tacit and explicit knowledge when assessing children's pain. There appears to be an expectation among surgeons that some pain is to be expected post-operatively and that the diagnostic value of pain may, in some cases, supersede concerns for the child's pain experience. PMID:24728398

  5. R. S. Peters and J. H. Newman on the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis T.

    2013-01-01

    R. S. Peters never explicitly talks about wisdom as being an aim of education. He does, however, in numerous places, emphasize that education is of the whole person and that, whatever else it might be about, it involves the development of knowledge and understanding. Being educated, he claims, is incompatible with being narrowly specialized.…

  6. Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Leslie R.

    1982-09-01

    Readily accepting that study abroad programmes may have as many differing forms and aims as there are participating institutions, and that by no means all programmes include academic content in their goals, I would nevertheless maintain: 1. that a sociological perspective is as necessary as the hitherto predominantly psychological approach in obtaining a balanced assessment of study abroad programmes;

  7. Surgeons' aims and pain assessment strategies when managing paediatric post-operative pain: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Twycross, Alison M; Williams, Anna M; Finley, G Allen

    2015-12-01

    Children experience moderate to severe pain post-operatively. Nurses have been found to have a variety of aims in this context. Surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain have not been explored. This qualitative study set out to explore paediatric surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain in one paediatric hospital in Canada. Consultant surgeons (n = 8) across various specialities took part in semi-structured interviews. Surgeons' overarching aim was to keep the child comfortable. Various definitions of comfortable were given, relating to the child's experience of pain itself and their ability to undertake activities of daily living. Children's behavioural pain cues seem to be a primary consideration when making treatment decisions. Parents' views regarding their child's pain were also seen as important, suggesting children may not be seen as competent to make decisions on their own behalf. The need to maintain a realistic approach was emphasised and pain management described as a balancing act. Surgeons may draw on both tacit and explicit knowledge when assessing children's pain. There appears to be an expectation among surgeons that some pain is to be expected post-operatively and that the diagnostic value of pain may, in some cases, supersede concerns for the child's pain experience.

  8. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  9. Effects of Direction and Index of Difficulty on Aiming Movements after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Coqueiro, Paola; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Assunção e Silva, Cassandra Mendes; Alouche, Sandra Regina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Brain hemispheres play different roles in the control of aiming movements that are impaired after unilateral stroke. It is not clear whether those roles are influenced by the direction and the difficulty of the task. Objective. To evaluate the influence of direction and index of difficulty (ID) of the task on performance of ipsilesional aiming movements after unilateral stroke. Methods. Ten individuals with right hemisphere stroke, ten with left hemisphere stroke, and ten age- and gender-matched controls performed the aiming movements on a digitizing tablet as fast as possible. Stroke individuals used their ipsilesional arm. The direction (ipsilateral or contralateral), size (0.8 or 1.6 cm), and distance (9 or 18 cm) of the targets, presented on a monitor, were manipulated and determined to be of different ID (3.5, 4.5, and 5.5). Results. Individuals with right hemisphere lesion were more sensitive to ID of the task, affecting planning and final position accuracy. Left hemisphere lesion generated slower and less smooth movements and was more influenced by target distance. Contralateral movements and higher ID increased planning demands and hindered movement execution. Conclusion. Right and left hemisphere damages are differentially influenced by task constraints which suggest their complementary roles in the control of aiming movements. PMID:24803738

  10. The Aim of Philosophy of Religious Education in a Pluralist Society (Nigeria as an Example)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwanaju, Isidore U.

    2016-01-01

    The major aim and leitmotif of this paper is to highlight the Nigerian society and its diverse, multi-cultural and pluralist composition--a society which has experienced in the last fifty years, and is still experiencing fantastic and tremendous signs of growth in democracy, but which is also almost unsure of the right path and the correct…

  11. Chemistry Journal Articles: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Move Analysis with Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Fredricka L.; Robinson, Marin S.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights aspects of an interdisciplinary (chemistry-applied linguistics) English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course- and materials-development project. The project was aimed at raising genre awareness among chemistry students and faculty, in addition to improving students' disciplinary reading and writing. As part of the project,…

  12. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  13. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  14. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  15. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  16. A New Coupled Earth's Critical Zone Model: AgroIBIS - MODFLOW (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Soylu, M.; Zipper, Samuel C.; Loheide, Steven P., II; Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater may influence land surface energy, water, carbon balances and terrestrial ecosystems by altering the root zone soil moisture dynamics in 22 - 32% of the Earth's land area. However, our current understanding of the impacts of shallow groundwater on ecosystem dynamics and land surface processes is hampered by both a lack of observations and current capabilities of the state-of-the-art ecosystem models to simulate shallow groundwater as a working part of the groundwater-soil-vegetation-atmosphere (critical zone) transfer scheme. Existing models are able to simulate water and energy fluxes with highly accurate process-based approaches in a single compartment (e.g., vadose zone - HYDRUS, or groundwater - MODFLOW) or multiple compartments (e.g., groundwater & vadose zone MODFLOW-VSF, vadose zone & vegetation- Agro-IBIS) of the critical zone by oversimplifying or ignoring the other compartments. In this study, we present a newly developed critical zone model, AgroIBIS-MODFLOW (AIM). AIM is capable of simulating ecohydrological processes across the complete critical zone. AIM is a fully coupled agroecosystem/dynamic vegetation model (AgroIBIS), variably saturated flow model (HYDRUS-1D), and groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). We analyze the performance of AIM by comparing the model with saturated and unsaturated flow experiments as well as results from other models. Moreover, to demonstrate AIM's potential for simulating ecohydrological processes and feedbacks, we present a hypothetical watershed scale case where the indirect impacts of land use change on agricultural productivity due to altered groundwater recharge and water table depth.

  17. Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nursing work environments (NWEs) in Canada and other Western countries have increasingly received attention following years of restructuring and reported high workloads, high absenteeism, and shortages of nursing staff. Despite numerous efforts to improve NWEs, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve NWEs. The aim of this study was to review systematically the scientific literature on implemented interventions aimed at improving the NWE and their effectiveness. Methods An online search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ABI, Academic Search Complete, HEALTHstar, ERIC, Psychinfo, and Embase, and a manual search of Emerald and Longwoods was conducted. (Quasi-) experimental studies with pre/post measures of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, study populations of nurses, and quantitative outcome measures of the nursing work environment were required for inclusion. Each study was assessed for methodological strength using a quality assessment and validity tool for intervention studies. A taxonomy of NWE characteristics was developed that would allow us to identify on which part of the NWE an intervention targeted for improvement, after which the effects of the interventions were examined. Results Over 9,000 titles and abstracts were screened. Eleven controlled intervention studies met the inclusion criteria, of which eight used a quasi-experimental design and three an experimental design. In total, nine different interventions were reported in the included studies. The most effective interventions at improving the NWE were: primary nursing (two studies), the educational toolbox (one study), the individualized care and clinical supervision (one study), and the violence prevention intervention (one study). Conclusions Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, and published studies on this topic show weaknesses in their design. To advance the field, we recommend that

  18. A combined kick-out and dissociative diffusion mechanism of grown-in Be in InGaAs and InGaAsP. A new finite difference-Bairstow method for solution of the diffusion equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koumetz, Serge D. Martin, Patrick; Murray, Hugues

    2014-09-14

    Experimental results on the diffusion of grown-in beryllium (Be) in indium gallium arsenide (In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As) and indium gallium arsenide phosphide (In{sub 0.73}Ga{sub 0.27}As{sub 0.58}P{sub 0.42}) gas source molecular beam epitaxy alloys lattice-matched to indium phosphide (InP) can be successfully explained in terms of a combined kick-out and dissociative diffusion mechanism, involving neutral Be interstitials (Be{sub i}{sup 0}), singly positively charged gallium (Ga), indium (In) self-interstitials (I{sub III}{sup +}) and singly positively charged Ga, In vacancies (V{sub III}{sup +}). A new numerical method of solution to the system of diffusion equations, based on the finite difference approximations and Bairstow's method, is proposed.

  19. Research on shaftless fast-steering mirror used in a precision tracking-aiming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianmin; Yin, Hongyan; Wang, Yonghui; Guo, Jin

    2007-12-01

    Based on the analysis of principle of tracking and aiming system, some important factors to design the structure of tracking-aiming system and the layout of optical system are discussed. Besides, the paper gives the present developing situation of fast-steering mirror at home and abroad, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of FSM with axis, and presents a novel design of flexible axis FSM. The main axis of composite axis system is tracked by motor to drive the frame, and the sub-axis is tracked by voice coil motor (VCM) to drive FSM. The structure of FSM and designing principle of VCM are introduced, and the emulation analyses of inherent frequency and deformation under load of the FSM with software COSMOS are also given.

  20. Fish mating experiment in space--what it aimed at and how it was prepared.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, K

    1995-03-01

    The code name 'MEDAKA' was given to the fish experiment in the IML-2 (the second International Microgravity Laboratory), a Space-shuttle mission (STS-65) carried out in July 1994. Medaka is the Japanese name for a small fresh-water fish, Oryzias latipes. This experiment titled 'Mating behavior of the fish Medaka and development of their eggs in space' aimed to present data for designing the future fish-culture in space. The Medaka experiment accomplished its objectives to the point of 100%. The fish mated, laid eggs in space, and these eggs developed normally to hatching (coming out as a baby fish) under microgravity. Its success totally depended on selection of the four fish sent to space. This paper describes the aims of the IML-2 Medaka fish experiment and how it was prepared, together with a brief report on what were achieved in space.

  1. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the intervention. Sixty-two students (aged 14) and seven tutors participated. A majority of the students and all of the tutors were satisfied with the intervention. The students, both females and males, rated their depressed symptoms as significantly lower after the course; and for the females, this was maintained 1-year postintervention. The implementation costs for the initial 2 years were about US$300 per student. Positive effects of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral intervention aiming at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents were found, especially among females. PMID:24526572

  2. Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol.

    PubMed

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2010-05-20

    A host defense strategy against pathogens is the induction of cell death, thereby eliminating the pathogen's intracellular niche. Pyroptosis, one such form of cell death, is dependent on inflammasome activation. In a genetic screen to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death, we identified a mutation in lmo2473 that caused hyperstimulation of IL-1beta secretion and pyroptosis following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasome receptors but dependent on the inflammasome adaptor ASC and the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2. Importantly, wild-type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. These data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during cytosolic lysis.

  3. A RE-AIM evaluation of theory-based physical activity interventions.

    PubMed

    Antikainen, Iina; Ellis, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

  4. [Aims and tasks of the Chambers of Physicians before the year 1939].

    PubMed

    Wieckowska, E

    1998-01-01

    The main aims of the Chambers of Physicians, which were called into being at the time when Poland was partitioned, were to protect the interest of physicians employed at health service after the introduction of compulsory insurance against sickness. They played a function of quasi-trade unions (in former Prussian sector). After Poland regained independence, based on the Chamber of Physicians Act of 1921 the Chief Chamber and regional chambers were created. Their aim was to assemble all doctors practicing in the country on obligatory basis. They performed a role of trade union, carried out social activity, ran saving and loan banks as well as funeral funds, controlled even distribution of physicians all over Poland, worked on ethical and deonthological codes, carried out arbitration by colleagues, performed the function of an organ of professional supervision.

  5. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

    PubMed

    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress.

  6. AIM2 inflammasome is activated by pharmacological disruption of nuclear envelope integrity

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Antonia; Frera, Gianluca; Lugrin, Jérôme; Jamilloux, Yvan; Hsu, Erh-Ting; Tardivel, Aubry; De Gassart, Aude; Zaffalon, Léa; Bujisic, Bojan; Siegert, Stefanie; Quadroni, Manfredo; Broz, Petr; Henry, Thomas; Hrycyna, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are critical sensors that convey cellular stress and pathogen presence to the immune system by activating inflammatory caspases and cytokines such as IL-1β. The nature of endogenous stress signals that activate inflammasomes remains unclear. Here we show that an inhibitor of the HIV aspartyl protease, Nelfinavir, triggers inflammasome formation and elicits an IL-1R–dependent inflammation in mice. We found that Nelfinavir impaired the maturation of lamin A, a structural component of the nuclear envelope, thereby promoting the release of DNA in the cytosol. Moreover, deficiency of the cytosolic DNA-sensor AIM2 impaired Nelfinavir-mediated inflammasome activation. These findings identify a pharmacologic activator of inflammasome and demonstrate the role of AIM2 in detecting endogenous DNA release upon perturbation of nuclear envelope integrity. PMID:27462105

  7. Evaluation of a school-based program aimed at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the intervention. Sixty-two students (aged 14) and seven tutors participated. A majority of the students and all of the tutors were satisfied with the intervention. The students, both females and males, rated their depressed symptoms as significantly lower after the course; and for the females, this was maintained 1-year postintervention. The implementation costs for the initial 2 years were about US$300 per student. Positive effects of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral intervention aiming at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents were found, especially among females. PMID:24526572

  8. Ancient and Recent Selective Pressures Shaped Genetic Diversity at AIM2-Like Nucleic Acid Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Cagliani, Rachele; Forni, Diego; Biasin, Mara; Comabella, Manuel; Guerini, Franca R.; Riva, Stefania; Pozzoli, Uberto; Agliardi, Cristina; Caputo, Domenico; Malhotra, Sunny; Montalban, Xavier; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    AIM2-like receptors (ALRs) are a family of nucleic acid sensors essential for innate immune responses against viruses and bacteria. We performed an evolutionary analysis of ALR genes (MNDA, PYHIN1, IFI16, and AIM2) by analyzing inter- and intraspecies diversity. Maximum-likelihood analyses indicated that IFI16 and AIM2 evolved adaptively in primates, with branch-specific selection at the catarrhini lineage for IFI16. Application of a population genetics–phylogenetics approach also allowed identification of positive selection events in the human lineage. Positive selection in primates targeted sites located at the DNA-binding interface in both IFI16 and AIM2. In IFI16, several sites positively selected in primates and in the human lineage were located in the PYD domain, which is involved in protein–protein interaction and is bound by a human cytomegalovirus immune evasion protein. Finally, positive selection was found to target nuclear localization signals in IFI16 and the spacer region separating the two HIN domains. Population genetic analysis in humans revealed that an IFI16 genic region has been a target of long-standing balancing selection, possibly acting on two nonsynonymous polymorphisms located in the spacer region. Data herein indicate that ALRs have been repeatedly targeted by natural selection. The balancing selection region in IFI16 carries a variant with opposite risk effect for distinct autoimmune diseases, suggesting antagonistic pleiotropy. We propose that the underlying scenario is the result of an ancestral and still ongoing host–pathogen arms race and that the maintenance of susceptibility alleles for autoimmune diseases at IFI16 represents an evolutionary trade-off. PMID:24682156

  9. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  10. Technical Note - Project Icarus: The Origins and Aims of the Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. F.; Obousy, R.; Tziolas, A.

    A brief summary is presented on the origins and aims of Project Icarus, the joint British Interplanetary Society (BIS) and Tau Zero Foundation (TZF) theoretical engineering study for the design of an unmanned interstellar probe. This paper is intended to represent an introduction to the set of technical papers presented in this special issue as well as discussing some of the early history regarding the formation of Project Icarus. This is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  11. COPD Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in the United Kingdom: Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of Aims and Structure.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Soljak, Michael; Chavannes, Niels H; Elkin, Sarah L

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, community and hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been set up for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the UK. Meetings of the MDTs have become a regular occurrence, mostly on healthcare professionals' own initiatives. There are no standardized methods to conduct an MDT meeting, and although cancer MDT meetings are widely implemented, the value and purpose of COPD MDT meetings are less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive online survey to explore COPD MDT members' perceptions of the purpose and usefulness of MDT meetings, and to identify suggestions or requirements to improve the meetings. In total, we received 68 responses from 10 MDTs; six teams (n = 36 members) were located in London and four (n = 32 members) outside. Analysis of the replies by two independent researchers found that MDT meetings aim to optimise management and improve pathways for respiratory patients by improving communication between providers across settings and disciplines. Education of the MDT members also occurs with the aim of safer practice. Discussed patients are characterised by (multiple) co-morbidities, frequent exacerbations and admissions, social and mental health problems, unclear diagnosis and suboptimal responses to interventions. Members reported participating in a COPD MDT as very useful (74%) or useful (20%). Meetings could be improved by ensuring attendance through requirement in job plans, by clear documentation and sharing of derived plans with a wider audience including general practitioners and patients. PMID:26263193

  12. Effects of aircraft windscreen on helmet-mounted display/tracker aiming accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee

    1996-06-01

    Modern fighter aircraft windscreens are typically made of curved, transparent plastic for improved aero-dynamics and bird-strike protection. Since they are curved these transparencies often refract light in such a way that a pilot looking through the transparency will see a target in a location other than where it really is. This effect has been known for many years and methods to correct the aircraft head-up display (HUD) for these angular deviations have been developed and employed. The same problem will occur for helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) used for target acquisition only worse due to the fact the pilot can look through any part of the transparency instead of being constrained to just the forward section as in the case of the HUD. To determine the potential impact of these windscreen refraction errors two F-15 windscreens were measured; one acrylic and one multilayer acrylic and polycarbonate laminate. The average aiming error measured for the acrylic was 3.6 milliradians with a maximum error of 9.0 milliradians. The laminated windscreen was slightly worse at 4.1 milliradians average error and 10.5 milliradians maximum. These aiming errors were greatly reduced by employing correction algorithms which could be applied to the aiming information on the HMD. Subtleties of coordinate systems and roll correction are also addressed.

  13. COPD Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in the United Kingdom: Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of Aims and Structure.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Soljak, Michael; Chavannes, Niels H; Elkin, Sarah L

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, community and hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been set up for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the UK. Meetings of the MDTs have become a regular occurrence, mostly on healthcare professionals' own initiatives. There are no standardized methods to conduct an MDT meeting, and although cancer MDT meetings are widely implemented, the value and purpose of COPD MDT meetings are less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive online survey to explore COPD MDT members' perceptions of the purpose and usefulness of MDT meetings, and to identify suggestions or requirements to improve the meetings. In total, we received 68 responses from 10 MDTs; six teams (n = 36 members) were located in London and four (n = 32 members) outside. Analysis of the replies by two independent researchers found that MDT meetings aim to optimise management and improve pathways for respiratory patients by improving communication between providers across settings and disciplines. Education of the MDT members also occurs with the aim of safer practice. Discussed patients are characterised by (multiple) co-morbidities, frequent exacerbations and admissions, social and mental health problems, unclear diagnosis and suboptimal responses to interventions. Members reported participating in a COPD MDT as very useful (74%) or useful (20%). Meetings could be improved by ensuring attendance through requirement in job plans, by clear documentation and sharing of derived plans with a wider audience including general practitioners and patients.

  14. Measuring motivation multidimensionally: development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q).

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R Patricia

    2008-03-01

    We report the development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q), a new instrument based on an evolutionary psychology theory of human motivation. It provides multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) assessment of individual differences on 15 motive scales. A total heterogeneous sample of N = 1,251 participated in eight studies that evaluated the homogeneity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and MTMM convergent and discriminant validities of the AIM-Q's three methods. These studies generally support the overall strategy of assessing individual differences in multiple evolutionary-based motives with multiple methods. Additional validity studies are underway and, when validated further, the AIM-Q may offer a promising option for evolutionary psychologists and behavioral geneticists wanting to incorporate individual differences into their research but have had to use existing self-report measures of personality, which were not designed for such a purpose. It may also offer clinical and counseling psychologists an additional approach to personality measures for the prediction of behavior.

  15. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  16. Interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities among lay people.

    PubMed

    Seewooruttun, Leila; Scior, Katrina

    2014-12-01

    Despite policies aimed at ensuring equal rights and maximising respect and social inclusion for people with intellectual disabilities, in their daily lives many continue to face negative attitudes and discrimination within society. Misconceptions about what it means to have an intellectual disability and about the capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities appear widespread, and may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This review provides a summary and evaluation of empirical interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and targeting negative attitudes towards this population among lay people of working age. An electronic search using PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed identified 22 English language studies published between 1990 and early 2014 that reported a specific intervention with a lay population sample. The majority of studies reported promising outcomes, particularly those aimed at increasing knowledge of intellectual disability through education. Support for the positive influence of contact with people with intellectual disabilities was demonstrated across several interventions. Interventions delivered at least partly by individuals with intellectual disabilities, and educational interventions appear to hold the most promise. The evidence is limited though by the weaknesses of measurement tools employed. PMID:25213473

  17. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  18. NARRATIVE AND META-ANALYTIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS AIMING TO IMPROVE MATERNAL-CHILD ATTACHMENT SECURITY.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects. PMID:26112776

  19. NARRATIVE AND META-ANALYTIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS AIMING TO IMPROVE MATERNAL-CHILD ATTACHMENT SECURITY.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects.

  20. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking. PMID:15554118