Science.gov

Sample records for aims previous studies

  1. Aims in Music Education: A Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Constantijn

    1997-01-01

    Explores the concept of aims in music education through investigating the ideas of four philosophers: Wolfgang Brezinka, Richard S. Peters, Bennett Reimer, and David Elliott. Inquires into the empirical and logical aspects of aims and clarifies the relationships between "musical behaviors." Concludes by discussing the relevance of conceptual…

  2. The Healthy Communities Study: Its Rationale, Aims, and Approach.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Crawford, Patricia B; Fawcett, Stephen B; Fishbein, Howard A; Gregoriou, Maria; John, Lisa V; Kelley, Melinda; Pate, Russell R; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Strauss, Warren J

    2015-10-01

    Communities across the U.S. are implementing programs and policies designed to address the epidemic of childhood obesity. These programs vary widely in their approaches, including the intensity level, duration, funding, target population, and implementation techniques. However, no previous studies have examined these variations and determined how such aspects of community programs and policies are related to childhood obesity outcomes. The Healthy Communities Study is an observational study that is assessing the associations between characteristics of community programs and policies and BMI, nutrition, and physical activity in children. The Healthy Communities Study was funded in 2010, field data collection and medical record abstraction will be completed in 2015, and data cleaning and analyses will be completed by mid-year 2016. One-hundred and thirty communities (defined as a high school catchment area) and approximately 5,000 children in kindergarten through eighth grade and their parents have been recruited from public elementary and middle schools across the country. The study is examining quantitative and qualitative information obtained from community-based initiatives; measures of community characteristics (e.g., school environment); and child and parent measures, including children's physical activity levels and dietary practices and children's and parents' BMI. The Healthy Communities Study employs a complex study design that includes a diverse sample of communities across the country and combines current/cross-sectional and retrospective data (abstracted from children's medical records). This paper describes the rationale for the Healthy Communities Study, the study aims and logic model, and a brief overview of the study design.

  3. Primarily Plants, A Plant Study for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  4. The German National Cohort: aims, study design and organization.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The German National Cohort (GNC) is a joint interdisciplinary endeavour of scientists from the Helmholtz and the Leibniz Association, universities, and other research institutes. Its aim is to investigate the causes for the development of major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory and infectious diseases, and their pre-clinical stages or functional health impairments. Across Germany, a random sample of the general population will be drawn by 18 regional study centres, including a total of 100,000 women and 100,000 men aged 20-69 years. The baseline assessments include an extensive interview and self-completion questionnaires, a wide range of medical examinations and the collection of various biomaterials. In a random subgroup of 20 % of the participants (n = 40,000) an intensified examination ("Level 2") programme will be performed. In addition, in five of the 18 study centres a total of 30,000 study participants will take part in a magnetic resonance imaging examination programme, and all of these participants will also be offered the intensified Level 2 examinations. After 4-5 years, all participants will be invited for a re-assessment. Information about chronic disease endpoints will be collected through a combination of active follow-up (including questionnaires every 2-3 years) and record linkages. The GNC is planned for an overall duration of 25-30 years. It will provide a major, central resource for population-based epidemiology in Germany, and will help to identify new and tailored strategies for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of major diseases.

  5. DFT and AIM studies of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in dicoumarols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, Natasha; Bauer, Günther; Mihaylov, Tzvetan

    2004-07-01

    Density functional calculations with Becke's three parameter hybrid method using the correlation functional of Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) were carried out for 3,3 '-benzylidenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (phenyldicoumarol, PhDC), 3,3 '-methylenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (dicoumarol, DC) and the parent compound, 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC). Different basis sets were tested in the course of the calculations: 6-31G*, 6-31+G** and 6-311G*. In full agreement with available X-ray data, B3LYP/6-31G* calculations of the lowest-energy conformer, PhDC showed two O-H⋯O asymmetrical intramolecular hydrogen bonds with O⋯O distances 2.638 and 2.696 Å. The HB energies in PhDC were estimated of -55.46 and -52.32 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained correlated with the calculated and experimental O⋯O distances and predicted difference in the hydrogen bonding strengths in PhDC. The total HB energy in PhDC was calculated of -107.73 kJ/mol. At the same level of theory, both O⋯O intramolecular distances in DC were calculated identical (2.696 Å) and thus two symmetrical hydrogen bondings were obtained. The single HB strength was estimated of -50.89 kJ/mol and the total one of -101.79 kJ/mol. The electron density ( ρb) and Laplacian (∇ 2ρb) properties, estimated by AIM calculations, showed that both O⋯H bonds have low ρb and positive ∇ 2ρb values (consistent with electrostatic character of the HBs), whereas both O-H bonds have covalent character (∇ 2ρb<0). Natural population analysis data for PhDC, DC and 4-HC were used to predict electrostatic interactions in the exocyclic rings. The calculated oxygen natural charges were found to correlate with the O⋯O distances in PhDC and DC. On the basis of the calculated bond ellipticity, the π-delocalization in the exocyclic rings of PhDC and DC was estimated. The results thus obtained helped to describe the nature of the intramolecular O⋯H-O bonds and the forces driving their formation

  6. A Comparative Investigation of the Previous and New Secondary History Curriculum: The Issues of the Definition of the Aims and Objectives and the Selection of Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinc, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Discussions on history teaching in Turkey indicate that the previous versions of the history curriculum and the pedagogy of history in the country bear many problems and deficiencies. The problems of Turkish history curriculum mainly arise from the perspectives it takes and the selection of its content. Since 2003, there have been extensive…

  7. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  8. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  9. Assessing AIM: A Study of Grade 8 Students in an Ontario School Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-method study examines the proficiency in and perceptions of French language learning of Grade 8 students who were exposed to an instructional approach called the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM). Six AIM classes (n = 125) and six non-AIM classes (n = 135) were observed and their students tested using a four-skills French as a second…

  10. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers.…

  11. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  12. A Survival Association Study of 102 Polymorphisms Previously Associated with Survival Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingxiong; Werdyani, Salem; Shestopaloff, Konstantin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Green, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Several published studies identified associations of a number of polymorphisms with a variety of survival outcomes in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore 102 previously reported common genetic polymorphisms and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a colorectal cancer patient cohort from Newfoundland (n = 505). Genotypes were obtained using a genomewide SNP genotyping platform. For each polymorphism, the best possible genetic model was estimated for both overall survival and disease-free survival using a previously published approach. These SNPs were then analyzed under their genetic models by Cox regression method. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method. Univariate analysis results showed that RRM1-rs12806698, IFNGR1-rs1327474, DDX20-rs197412, and PTGS2-rs5275 polymorphisms were nominally associated with OS or DFS (p < 0.01). In stage-adjusted analysis, the nominal associations of DDX20-rs197412, PTGS2-rs5275, and HSPA5-rs391957 with DFS were detected. However, after FDR correction none of these polymorphisms remained significantly associated with the survival outcomes. We conclude that polymorphisms investigated in this study are not associated with OS or DFS in our colorectal cancer patient cohort. PMID:26064972

  13. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... valid study. 152.93 Section 152.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency....

  14. SU-E-T-531: Large--Scale DVH Quality Study: Correlated Aims Lead Relaxations

    SciTech Connect

    Nohadani, O; Roy, A; Das, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans are designed to optimally target a tumor while sparing surrounding tissue. Desired dose distributions are iteratively approached via inverse planning. This leads to tradeoffs between clinical objectives for the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk, and normal tissues. Dose volume histogram (DVHs) related aims are followed that are either institutional or internationally recommended. We analyze common goals and identify potential reasons that often lead to tradeoffs. Methods: 524 IMRT plans for various tumor sites were analyzed based on the main institutional DVH goal for PTV (D95) and the recommendations by ICRU-83 (D2, D50, and D98). Robust statistical tools are developed and applied to ensure that the results are immune to data uncertainties. The probability of violation was measured for each of the DVH goals based on the frequency of not meeting recommended doses. Conditional probabilities for satisfying and/or violating DVH aims were computed to test the hypothesized pair-wise relations between DVH aims. For example, for plans that satisfied D50, the probability of violating D98 was computed via P(D98 < 95% | 98% ≤ D50 ≤ 102%). The equality constraint D50 = 100% was relaxed to encompass the range [98,102]%. Results: A large majority of cases (88%) satisfied the institutional goal for PTV of D95 ≤ 95%. Similar consensus existed for D98. 51% of cases satisfied D2 ≥ 107%. However, only 18% of cases satisfied D50. The conditional probability showed correlations amongst the studied DVH goals. In fact, a negative correlation was revealed between D50 and D95 (and D98), suggesting that these competing goals cannot be satisfied concurrently. Conclusion: The majority of plans followed the institutional guidelines. The reason for their deviation from international recommendations seems to be that the latter goals are competing and cannot be satisfied concurrently in clinical practice.

  15. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts12

    PubMed Central

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  16. Aims and tasks in parental caregiving for children receiving palliative care at home: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Lisa M; Kars, Marijke C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Bosman, Diederik K; Colenbrander, Derk A; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-03-01

    In paediatric palliative care (PPC), parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. More children are cared for at home, and the need for PPC of children is lengthened due to technical and medical improvements. Therefore, a clear understanding of the content of parental caregiving in PPC becomes increasingly important. The objective is to gain insight into parental caregiving based on the lived experience of parents with a child with a life-limiting disease. An interpretative qualitative study using thematic analysis was performed. Single or repeated interviews were undertaken with 42 parents of 24 children with a malignant or non-malignant disease, receiving PPC. Based on their ambition to be a 'good parent', parents caring for a child with a life-limiting disease strived for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their ill child and family balance. These aims resulted in four tasks that parents performed: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care and treatment, making sound decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life.

  17. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  18. A Study on Estimating the Aiming Angle Error of Millimeter Wave Radar for Automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Okai, Fumihiko; Takano, Kazuaki

    The 76GHz millimeter wave radar has been developed for automotive application such as ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) and CWS (Collision Warning System). The radar is FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) monopulse type. The radar transmits 2 frequencies in time-duplex manner, and measures distance and relative speed of targets. The monopulse feature detects the azimuth angle of targets without a scanning mechanism. Conventionally a radar unit is aimed mechanically, although self-aiming capability, to detect and correct the aiming angle error automatically, has been required. The new algorithm, which estimates the aiming angle error and vehicle speed sensor error simultaneously, has been proposed and tested. The algorithm is based on the relationship of relative speed and azimuth angle of stationary objects, and the least squares method is used for calculation. The algorithm is applied to measured data of the millimeter wave radar, resulting in aiming angle estimation error of less than 0.6 degree.

  19. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    particulier la nuit et par mauvais temps, un système intégré perfectionné de surveillance multi- capteurs (AIMS) est en cours de développement. Ce...système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique. Il pourra ainsi servir à une multitude...mauvais temps, un système intégré perfectionné de surveillance multi- capteurs (AIMS) est en cours de développement. Ce système intègre en un cardan

  20. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  1. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    PubMed

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L

    2013-12-15

    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; p<0.05), and report substance use (16.35≤χ(2)≥27.57; p<0.01) before the acute injury, compared to those with no previous TBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  2. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with previous preeclampsia: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bramham, Kate; Briley, Annette L.; Seed, Paul; Poston, Lucilla; Shennan, Andrew H.; Chappell, Lucy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess recurrence rates of preeclampsia and neonatal outcomes in women with a history of preeclampsia that required preterm delivery. Study Design Five hundred women with previous preeclampsia that required delivery at <37 weeks' gestation were followed prospectively. Results Preeclampsia reoccurred in 117 women (23%). Predictive factors included black (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–4.53) or Asian (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.33–6.59) ethnicity, enrollment systolic blood pressure of >130 mm Hg (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.52–5.50), current antihypertensive use (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 2.38–17.16), and proteinuria of ≥2+ on enrollment urinalysis (OR, 12.35; 95% CI, 3.45–44.21). Women who previously delivered at <34 weeks' gestation were more likely to deliver preterm again (29% vs 17%; relative risk, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19–2.40) than were those women with previous delivery between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Conclusion Although this study confirms that women with previous preeclampsia that required early delivery are at high risk of the development of preeclampsia, the study identifies risk factors for recurrence and illustrates that women with previous preeclampsia are at greater risk of adverse neonatal outcome. PMID:21457915

  3. NREL Study Finds U.S. Wind Energy Potential Triples Previous Estimates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times greater than previously estimated, according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study. The new analysis is based on the latest computer models and examines the wind potential at wind turbine hub heights of 80 meters and 100 meters. These hub heights, which reflect current and future models of wind turbines, are higher than those used in previous national estimates and are mainly responsible for the increased wind potential in the study.

  4. a Study of 954-2A/IM7 Composite Laminates Containing a Central Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungwon

    Predicting microcracking properties of the composite laminates in nonuniform stress conditions was the subject in this paper. The uniform stress field meant the stresses were independent of the width direction. The material was the 954-2A/IM7 laminates containing a central hole. Microcracks initiated at the edge of the hole and propagated into the laminate. Because the tensile stress concentration decreased with distance, the microcracks were arrested before the edge of the laminate. Because carbon fiber composites were opaque, a x-ray method was used to detect the length of the propagating microcracks. The microcracking at the near edge of the hole could be reasonably predicted by considering the local laminate stresses and the microcracking toughness measured in unnotched laminates. However, the data away from the hole did not agree with the predictions. The local microcrack density was always much higher than that predicted by the local laminate stress.

  5. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  6. Intramolecular hydrogen bond in 3-imino-propenylamine isomers: AIM and NBO studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, H.; Jalbout, Abraham F.; Abbasi, B.; Fazli, F.; Farzad, F.; Nadim, E.; Leon, Aned De

    The molecular structure and intramolecular hydrogen bond energy of 18 conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were investigated at MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory using the standard 6-311++G** basis set. The atom in molecules or AIM theory of Bader, which is based on the topological properties of the electron density (rho), was used additionally and the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was also carried out. Furthermore calculations for all possible conformations of 3-imino-propenyl-amin in water solution were also carried out at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G** levels of theory. The calculated geometrical parameters and conformational analyses in gas phase and water solution show that the imine-amine conformers of this compound are more stable than the other conformers. B3LYP method predicts the IMA-1 as global minimum. This stability is mainly due to the formation of a strong N bond H···N intramolecular hydrogen bond, which is assisted by pi-electrons resonance, and this pi-electrons are established by NH2 functional group. Hydrogen bond energies for all conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were obtained from the related rotamers methods.

  7. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): Studying the geophysics of small binaries, measuring asteroid deflection and studying impact physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Michel, Patrick; AIM Team

    2016-10-01

    Binary asteroids and their formation mechanisms are of particular interest for understanding the evolution of the small bodies in the solar system. Also, hazards to Earth from impact of near-Earth asteroids and their mitigation have drawn considerable interest over the last decades.Those subjects are both addressed by ESA's Asteroid Impact mission, which is part of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) currently under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. NASA's DART mission will impact a projectile into the minor component of the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022. The basic idea is to demonstrate the effect of the impact on the orbital period of the secondary around the primary. ESA's AIM will monitor the Didymos system for several months around the DART impact time.AIM will be launched in aurumn 2020. It is foreseen to arrive at Didymos in April 2022. The mission takes advantage of a close approach of Didymos to Earth. The next opportunity would arise in 2040 only.AIM will stay near Didymos for approximately 6 months. Most of the time it will be placed on the illuminated side of the system, at distances of approximately 35 km and 10 km. AIM is expected to move away from Didymos for some time around the DART impact.The reference payload for AIM includes two visual imagers, a hyperspectral camera, a lidar, a thermal infrared imager, a monostatic high frequency radar, and a bistatic low frequency radar. In addition, AIM will deploy a small lander on the secondary asteroid, and two cubesats that will be used for additional, more risky investigations close to or on the surface of the asteroid.Major contributions from AIM are expected in the study of the geophysics of small asteroids (including for the first time, radar measurements of an interior structure), the formation of binary asteroids, the momentum enhancement factor from the DART impact (through measuring the mass and the change of orbit of the seondary), and impact physics

  8. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw < 5.5. In a second phase, a sensitivity analysis of the different input options on hazard results has been carried out in order to have criteria for defining the branches of the logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations

  10. Study of the U/Am separation with supported calix[6]arene in the aim of urinary actinides analysis.

    PubMed

    Poriel, L; Boulet, B; Cossonnet, C; Bouvier-Capely, C

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an alternative radiochemical procedure for the analysis of U, Pu and Am in urine, which is one of the controls used to monitor workers exposed to risk of internal contamination with actinides. Previous studies have demonstrated the extraction efficiency of these molecules towards uranium and plutonium, the affinity of calix[6]arenes bearing hydroxamic acid groups (LHH3) and carboxylic groups (LCH3) towards americium were studied in this paper by solvent extraction. The results showed that LHH3 and LCH3 have a very good affinity for americium and enhance the possibility of separating Pu from U and Am. Experiments were performed to perfect the separation of U/Am. The immobilisation of these calixarenes on polymer supports was also investigated for routine applications. Supported calixarenes LCH3 and LHH3 presented the same performances as those obtained in a liquid-liquid system and, hence, are a promising system for the analysis of actinides. These molecules and their uses have been protected (patent pending).

  11. The use of HIV-1 integration site analysis information in clinical studies aiming at HIV cure.

    PubMed

    Kiselinova, Maja; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms for the establishment and the persistence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir remain to be completely defined. HIV-1 infection is characterised by the integration of the reverse transcribed proviral DNA into the host's genome. This integrated proviral DNA can remain replication silent, but a small part of it is fully competent to restart viral replication when treatment is interrupted. Hence, this replication-competent provirus is the cause of viral rebound and is called the viral reservoir. The exact site of proviral integration within the host's cellular chromosome may affect the transcriptional activity of HIV. Thanks to recent technological advances, HIV-1 integration site analysis has been used to assess HIV-1 reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals. Analysis of HIV-1 integration sites in infected individuals undergoing suppressive ART led to identification of expanded clonal cell populations, indicating that clonal proliferation of the proviral reservoir may contribute to the long-term persistence of viral reservoirs. Here we describe the findings of several clinical studies, where a comprehensive HIV-1 integration site analysis was performed.

  12. A Comparative Study of Attitudes to the Aims of Practical Work in Science Education in Egypt, Korea and the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Julian; Monk, Martin; Johnson, Sally

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a comparative study of attitudes toward the aims of practical work given by science teachers from Egypt, Korea, and the United Kingdom. Finds that all three groups express a common attitude towards the aims of practical work that reflect an acknowledgement of the methods by which scientists make new knowledge. Contains 42 references.…

  13. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs

  14. Effect of previous miscarriage on the maternal birth experience in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of miscarriage is related to birth experience and/or maternal fear of an adverse birth outcome for self or infant during a subsequent delivery. Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, the First Baby Study. Sample Women aged 18-35 who were expecting to deliver their first live-born infants in Pennsylvania between January 2009 and April 2011. Participants Four hundred fifty-three pregnant women who reported perinatal loss prior to 20 weeks gestation (miscarriage) in a previous pregnancy and 2401 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage were interviewed during pregnancy and again one month after their first live birth. Methods Maternal birth experience and fear of an adverse birth outcome measured via telephone interview were compared across groups. Results Maternal birth experience scores did not significantly differ between women with and without previous miscarriage. Women with a history of miscarriage reported that they feared an adverse birth outcome for themselves or their infants more frequently than women without a history of miscarriage (52.1% vs. 46.6%; p=0.033), however, this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that there is no association between miscarriage history and birth experience. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial including an in-depth examination of fear of adverse outcome during birth. However, nurses and midwives may consider using therapeutic communication techniques to ensure that women with a history of miscarriage receive strong emotional support and reassurance during birth. PMID:23772602

  15. Surgical Outcome in Patients Taking Concomitant or Recent Intake of Oral Isotretinoin: A Multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Omprakash Heggadahalli; Mysore, Venkataram; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thurakkal, Salim; Majid, Imran; Talwar, Suresh; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Chatterjee, Manas; Bhat, M Ramesh; Barua, Shyamanta; Ganjoo, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. Aim: To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Materials and Methods: Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2 laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. Results: No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. Conclusion: The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised. PMID:27398012

  16. A Review of Chemical Bonding Studies: Needs, Aims, Methods of Exploring Students' Conceptions, General Knowledge Claims and Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents a detailed thematic review of chemical bonding studies. To achieve this, a matrix is developed to summarize and present the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methods of exploring students' conceptions, general knowledge claims,…

  17. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  18. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male) across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A

  19. Benchmarking Investments in Advancement: Results of the Inaugural CASE Advancement Investment Metrics Study (AIMS). CASE White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Juidith A.

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural Advancement Investment Metrics Study, or AIMS, benchmarked investments and staffing in each of the advancement disciplines (advancement services, alumni relations, communications and marketing, fundraising and advancement management) as well as the return on the investment in fundraising specifically. This white paper reports on the…

  20. What Are We Aiming For?--A Delphi Study on the Development of Civic Scientific Literacy in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the EU FP 7 project, PROFILES, this article presents our findings from a three-round Delphi study conducted in Sweden that aimed at establishing a consensus on how science education should be developed for citizens to enhance civic scientific literacy. A total of 100 stakeholders (9th graders, school teachers, scientists, and science…

  1. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Case-control study of current validity of previously described risk factors for SIDS in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    l'Hoir, M P; Engelberts, A C; van Well, G T; Westers, P; Mellenbergh, G J; Wolters, W H; Huber, J

    1998-11-01

    This study aimed to assess whether previously established risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are still valid now that the incidence in the Netherlands has dropped to 0.26 per 1000 liveborn infants. A distinction was made between immutable and mutable risk factors. This case-control study (part of the European Concerted Action on SIDS) comprised 73 SIDS cases and 146 controls and lasted from March 1995 to September 1996. Adjustments were made for sleeping position and bedding factors by treating them as covariables. Apart from these factors, well known risk factors that remain of importance in the Netherlands are: male sex, young maternal age, twins, and low socioeconomic status. These factors are largely immutable. Other well known risk factors which might reflect attitudes to child care and could possibly be mutable are: smoking, alcohol consumption by the mother, bottle feeding, and change of babycare routine. Intervention strategies should focus on early signalling, thereby assisting parents in changing these unfavourable parenting attitudes. Information on optimal child care and extra support by public health nurses specifically aimed at families at risk could help to decrease further the incidence of SIDS in the Netherlands.

  3. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    PubMed

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  4. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  5. Identification of a new locus and validation of previously reported loci showing differential methylation associated with smoking. The REGICOR study

    PubMed Central

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Salas, Lucas A; Vilahur, Nadia; Corella, Dolores; Muñoz, Dani; Segura, Antonio; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Moran, Sebastián; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Lopez-Farré, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of many diseases and could act through changes in DNA methylation patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the association between smoking and DNA methylation throughout the genome at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site level and genomic regions. A discovery cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was designed and included 645 individuals. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Smoking status was self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. We identified 66 differentially methylated CpG sites associated with smoking, located in 38 genes. In most of these CpG sites, we observed a trend among those quitting smoking to recover methylation levels typical of never smokers. A CpG site located in a novel smoking-associated gene (cg06394460 in LNX2) was hypomethylated in current smokers. Moreover, we validated two previously reported CpG sites (cg05886626 in THBS1, and cg24838345 in MTSS1) for their potential relation to atherosclerosis and cancer diseases, using several different approaches: CpG site methylation, gene expression, and plasma protein level determinations. Smoking was also associated with higher THBS1 gene expression but with lower levels of thrombospondin-1 in plasma. Finally, we identified differential methylation regions in 13 genes and in four non-coding RNAs. In summary, this study replicated previous findings and identified and validated a new CpG site located in LNX2 associated with smoking. PMID:26829059

  6. Revisiting Previously Investigated Plants: A Molecular Networking-Based Study of Geissospermum laeve.

    PubMed

    Fox Ramos, Alexander E; Alcover, Charlotte; Evanno, Laurent; Maciuk, Alexandre; Litaudon, Marc; Duplais, Christophe; Bernadat, Guillaume; Gallard, Jean-François; Jullian, Jean-Christophe; Mouray, Elisabeth; Grellier, Philippe; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien; Poupon, Erwan; Champy, Pierre; Beniddir, Mehdi A

    2017-03-10

    Three new monoterpene indole alkaloids (1-3) have been isolated from the bark of Geissospermum laeve, together with the known alkaloids (-)-leuconolam (4), geissolosimine (5), and geissospermine (6). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by analysis of their HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of geissolaevine (1) was deduced from the comparison of experimental and theoretically calculated ECD spectra. The isolation workflow was guided by a molecular networking-based dereplication strategy using an in-house database of monoterpene indole alkaloids. In addition, five known compounds previously undescribed in the Geissospermum genus were dereplicated from the G. laeve alkaloid extract network and were assigned with various levels of identification confidence. The antiparasitic activities against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani as well as the cytotoxic activity against the MRC-5 cell line were determined for compounds 1-5.

  7. Assessment of mycotoxin exposure in the Belgian population using biomarkers: aim, design and methods of the BIOMYCO study.

    PubMed

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful food contaminants. Currently, human exposure assessment to these toxins is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, biomarkers have been proposed as a suitable alternative whereby a more accurate assessment of exposure at the individual level can be performed. The BIOMYCO study is designed to assess human mycotoxin exposure using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Over the different seasons of 2013 and 2014, morning urine is gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a designed study protocol, whereby 140 children (3-12 years old) and 278 adults (19-65 years old) are selected based on random cluster sampling stratified for sex, age and geographical areas. Every participant completes a food frequency questionnaire to assess the consumption of relevant foodstuffs (n = 43) of both the day before the urine collection and the previous month. Validated multi-toxin LC-MS/MS methods are used to analyse aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone and their metabolites in morning urine. The study protocol is approved by the ethical committee of the Ghent University Hospital. Within this paper, study design and methods are described. The BIOMYCO study is the first study whereby a multi-toxin approach is applied for mycotoxin exposure assessment in adults and children on a large scale. Moreover, it is the first study that will describe the exposure to an elaborated set of mycotoxins in the Belgian population. In first instance, descriptive analysis will be performed, describing the exposure to mycotoxins for the child and adult group. Exposure of different subgroups will be compared. Furthermore, correlations between the mycotoxin concentrations measured and the food consumption reported will be estimated to explore whether the mycotoxin exposure could be explained by the consumption

  8. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  9. Management of Electronic Test Equipment. Volume 2. Previous Studies and Initiatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    standard on definition of with respect to testability because of the testability terms. absence of universally accepted terminology . The proliferation of...effectiveness of the ,JLC 4Q82AT Program. ACQUISITION SUPPORT Terminology Compilation and revision of Joint Service termi- 4Q83 nology standard , MIL-STD... Terminology 1- .1 Organization 1- 1 42. OSD EFFORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2- 1 *Defense Science Board Study

  10. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  11. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    PubMed Central

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  12. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C.; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  13. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph M.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Carlile, David J.; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  14. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-07

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205.

  15. A 3-Month Jump-Landing Training Program: A Feasibility Study Using the RE-AIM Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Inne; Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Mathieu, Niels; Van Schuerbeeck, Sander; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention program has become as important as determining the effectiveness of the intervention. Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a 3-month jump-landing training program in basketball players, using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National and regional basketball teams. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four teams of the second highest national division and regional basketball divisions in Flanders, Belgium, were randomly assigned (1:1) to a control group and intervention group. A total of 243 athletes (control group = 129, intervention group = 114), ages 15 to 41 years, volunteered. Intervention(s): All exercises in the intervention program followed a progressive development, emphasizing lower extremity alignment during jump-landing activities. Main Outcome Measure(s): The results of the process evaluation of the intervention program were based on the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. The injury incidence density, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Results: The participation rate of the total sample was 100% (reach). The hazard ratio was different between the intervention group and the control group (0.40 [95% confidence interval = 0.16, 0.99]; effectiveness). Of the 12 teams in the intervention group, 8 teams (66.7%) agreed to participate in the study (adoption). Eight of the participating coaches (66.7%) felt positively about the intervention program and stated that they had implemented the training sessions of the program as intended (implementation). All coaches except 1 (87.5%) intended to continue the intervention program the next season (maintenance). Conclusions: Compliance of the coaches in this coach-supervised jump-landing training program was high. In addition, the program was effective in preventing lower extremity injuries. PMID:23675788

  16. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf, Ali Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  17. [Incidence of previous engagement in sports among patients with symptomatic arthrosis. Controlled study].

    PubMed

    Boyer, T; Delaire, M; Beranek, L; Lasserre, P P; Tekaya, M; Kahn, M F

    1981-12-01

    The authors investigated sports-related precedents in two groups of male subjects, aged 40 years and over, of French nationality. One group had consulted for a degenerative, chronic rheumatic disorder, and the control group showed no signs of this type of disorder. Care was taken to verify that the two groups did not differ in terms of profession, means of commuting from home to work, and non-sporting leisure physical activities. The authors observed that the subjects of the first group (chronic degenerative rheumatic disease) more frequently engaged in a sports activity, and in a significant manner, than did the control subjects. A separate study of the certain kinds of sports and the various arthritic localisations also revealed significant correlations. Although this involved a retrospective enquiry, the authors feel that the results provide arguments in favor of the pathogenic role of sports activity, with regard to peripheral joints and the spine. However, this role of sports is probably only partial and irregular. The risks of sports activity must be put in perspective and balanced with the various advantages afforded by the practice of sports.

  18. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  19. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  20. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  1. Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: A multicentric phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Vincenzo . E-mail: vvalentini@rm.unicatt.it; Morganti, Alessio G.; Gambacorta, M. Antonietta; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Doglietto, G. Battista; Coco, Claudio; De Paoli, Antonino; Rossi, Carlo; Di Russo, Annamaria; Valvo, Francesca; Bolzicco, Giampaolo; Dalla Palma, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and total mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma has significantly lowered the incidence of local recurrence. However, a new problem is represented by the patient with locally recurrent cancer who has received previous irradiation to the pelvis. In these patients, local recurrence is very often not easily resectable and reirradiation is expected to be associated with a high risk of late toxicity. The aim of this multicenter phase II study is to evaluate the response rate, resectability rate, local control, and treatment-related toxicity of preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically proven pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinoma, with the absence of extrapelvic disease or bony involvement and previous pelvic irradiation with doses {<=}55 Gy; age {>=}18 years; performance status (PS) (Karnofsky) {>=}60, and who gave institutional review board-approved written informed consent were treated by preoperative chemoradiation. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (PTV2) including the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus a 4-cm margin, with a dose of 30 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily with a minimum 6-h interval). A boost was delivered, with the same fractionation schedule, to a PTV1 including the GTV plus a 2-cm margin (10.8 Gy). During the radiation treatment, concurrent chemotherapy was delivered (5-fluorouracil, protracted intravenous infusion, 225 mg/m{sup 2}/day, 7 days per week). Four to 6 weeks after the end of chemoradiation, patients were evaluated for tumor resectability, and, when feasible, surgical resection of recurrence was performed between 6-8 weeks from the end of chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed to all patients, using Raltitrexed, 3 mg/square meter (sm), every 3 weeks, for a total of 5 cycles. Patients were staged using the computed tomography (CT)-based F

  2. Precision disablement aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  3. The Effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among Young People: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…

  4. Precision laser aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  5. Study of vibrational spectra and hydrogen bonding network in dimeric and tetrameric model of ampicillin using DFT and AIM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anuradha; Khan, Eram; Tandon, Poonam; Sinha, Kirti

    2017-03-01

    Ampicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic that is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and is widely used for the treatment of infections. In this work, molecular properties of ampicillin are calculated on the basis of calculations on its dimeric and tetrameric models using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). HOMO-LUMO energy gap shows that chemical reactivity of tetrameric model of ampicillin is higher than the dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. To get a better understanding of intra and intermolecular bonding and interactions among bonds, NBO analysis is carried out with tetrameric model of ampicillin, and is further finalized with an 'quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules' (QTAIM) analysis. The binding energy of dimeric model of ampicillin is calculated as -26.84 kcal/mol and -29.34 kcal/mol using AIM and DFT calculations respectively. The global electrophilicity index (ω = 2.8118 eV) of tetrameric model of ampicillin shows that this behaves as a strong electrophile in comparison to dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded in the solid phase, and interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. A collective theoretical and experimental vibrational analysis approves the presence of hydrogen bonds in the ampicillin molecule.

  6. Plant-based strategies aimed at expressing HIV antigens and neutralizing antibodies at high levels. Nef as a case study.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Carla; Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Donini, Marcello; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Bock, Ralph; Dix, Philip J; McCabe, Matthew S; Bellucci, Michele; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    The first evidence that plants represent a valid, safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems for large-scale production of antigens and antibodies was described more than 10 years ago. Since then, considerable improvements have been made to increase the yield of plant-produced proteins. These include the use of signal sequences to target proteins to different cellular compartments, plastid transformation to achieve high transgene dosage, codon usage optimization to boost gene expression, and protein fusions to improve recombinant protein stability and accumulation. Thus, several HIV/SIV antigens and neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have recently been successfully expressed in plants by stable nuclear or plastid transformation, and by transient expression systems based on plant virus vectors or Agrobacterium-mediated infection. The current article gives an overview of plant expressed HIV antigens and antibodies and provides an account of the use of different strategies aimed at increasing the expression of the accessory multifunctional HIV-1 Nef protein in transgenic plants.

  7. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  8. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  9. Aiming for Progress in Understanding Underwater Noise Impact on Fish: Complementary Need for Indoor and Outdoor Studies.

    PubMed

    Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise can be detrimental to aquatic life through physical harm and behavioral impact. Physical harm to fish only occurs very close to typically brief but high-power sources. Behavioral impact occurs at more moderate levels and is spatially and temporally much more widespread. More studies are needed to get a better understanding of the behavioral impact on fish. Indoor and outdoor studies vary in their acoustic and behavioral validity and in the amount of experimental control. Although each approach has its limitations, scientific progress and applied insights will depend on the exploitation of their complementary potential.

  10. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  11. Fire First, Aim Later: A Qualitative Meta-Analytic Study of the Assessment Methods of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Flores, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research has been conducted to identify and analyze how schools are determining that the activities of their Professional Learning Community (PLC) are directly tied to student achievement as there is currently a gap in the existing literature with regards to this topic. For the purpose of this study, a "successful" PLC was defined as one…

  12. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results of a seismic risk assessment study are often applied and interpreted by users unspecialised on the topic or lacking a scientific background. In this context, the availability of tools that help translating essentially scientific contents to broader audiences (such as decision makers or civil defence officials) as well as representing and managing results in a user-friendly fashion, are on indubitable value. On of such tools is the visualization tool VISOR-RISNA, a web tool developed within the RISNA project (financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre, Spain) for regional seismic risk assessment of Navarre and the subsequent development of emergency plans. The RISNA study included seismic hazard evaluation, geotechnical characterization of soils, incorporation of site effects to expected ground motions, vulnerability distribution assessment and estimation of expected damage distributions for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The main goal of RISNA was the identification of higher risk area where focusing detailed, local-scale risk studies in the future and the corresponding urban emergency plans. A geographic information system was used to combine different information layers, generate tables of results and represent maps with partial and final results. The visualization tool VISOR-RISNA is intended to facilitate the interpretation and representation of the collection of results, with the ultimate purpose of defining actuation plans. A number of criteria for defining actuation priorities are proposed in this work. They are based on combinations of risk parameters resulting from the risk study (such as expected ground motion and damage and exposed population), as determined by risk assessment specialists. Although the values that these parameters take are a result of the risk study, their distribution in several classes depends on the intervals defined by decision takers or civil defense officials. These criteria provide a ranking of

  13. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  14. General practitioners' adoption of new drugs and previous prescribing of drugs belonging to the same therapeutic class: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Dybdahl, Torben; Andersen, Morten; Kragstrup, Jakob; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Søndergaard, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that general practitioners (GPs) with high prescribing levels of certain drugs will adopt new drugs belonging to the same therapeutic group faster than those with low prescribing levels. Methods The adoption of four new drugs: esomeprazol, selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, new triptans, and angiotensin-II receptor blockers were analysed using population-based prescription data. We used the preference proportion (prescriptions for new rather than older alternatives for the same indication) to measure GPs' adoption rate. Annual prescribing volume and prevalence were used to measure previous prescribing of older drug alternatives. We modelled the preference proportion using multiple linear regression analysis and the prescribing of older drugs as independent variables. We controlled for the GPs' general prescribing level and weighted for practice size. In the first three analyses, we dichotomized data using the median, lower and upper quartile as cut-off point. Next, we grouped data into quartiles and finally, we used continuous data. Results For esomeprazol and new triptans there was a higher preference for new drugs among ‘high prescribers’, but only when this term was defined as the upper quarter and the upper half of previous prescribing levels, respectively (mean difference in preference proportion: 10.2% (99% confidence interval = 1.3%, 19.1%) and 8.2% (0.2%, 16.2%)). For the remaining two drug classes the associations were weak and almost all statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion There is no consistent association between GPs' level of drug prescribing and their adoption of new drugs of the same therapeutic group. PMID:16236043

  15. Study and Optimization of CPT Resonance Parameters in 87 Rb/Ar/Ne Microcells Aimed for Application in Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masian, Y.; Sivak, A.; Sevostianov, D.; Vassiliev, V.; Velichansky, V.

    The paper shows the presents results of studies of small-size rubidium cells with argon and neon buffer gases, produced by a patent pended technique of laser welding [Fishman et al. (2014)]. Cells were designed for miniature frequency standard. Temperature dependence of the frequency of the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance was measured and used to optimize the ratio of partial pressures of buffer gases. The influence of duration and regime of annealing on the CPT-resonance frequency drift was investigated. The parameters of the FM modulation of laser current for two cases which correspond to the highest amplitude of CPT resonance and to the smallest light shifts of the resonance frequency were determined. The temperature dependences of the CPT resonance frequency were found to be surprisingly different in the two cases. A non-linear dependence of CPT resonance frequency on the temperature of the cell with the two extremes was revealed for one of these cases.

  16. A radio-frequency system for in vivo pilot experiments aimed at the studies on biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ardoino, Lucia; Lopresto, Vanni; Mancini, Sergio; Marino, Carmela; Pinto, Rosanna; Lovisolo, Giorgio A

    2005-08-07

    An exposure system consisting of two long transversal electromagnetic (TEM) cells, operating at a frequency of 900 MHz, is presented and discussed. The set-up allows simultaneous exposure of a significant number of animals (up to 12 mice per cell) in a blind way to a uniform plane wave at a frequency of 900 MHz, for investigating possible biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields produced by wireless communication systems. A heating/refrigerating system has also been designed for maintaining comfortable environmental conditions within the TEM cells during experiments. An accurate dosimetric study has been performed both numerically and by means of direct measurements on phantoms and living mice. The results have shown that good homogeneity of exposure and adequate power efficiency, in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) per 1 W of input power, are achievable for the biological target.

  17. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Malcolm H.

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  18. Impact of proton transfer phenomena on the electronic structure of model Schiff bases: An AIM/NBO/ELF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panek, Jarosław J.; Filarowski, Aleksander; Jezierska-Mazzarello, Aneta

    2013-10-01

    Understanding of the electronic structure evolution due to a proton dynamics is a key issue in biochemistry and material science. This paper reports on density functional theory calculations of Schiff bases containing short, strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds where the bridged proton is located: (i) at the donor site, (ii) strongly delocalized, and (iii) at the acceptor site. The mobility of the bridged proton and its influence on the molecular structure and properties of the chosen Schiff base derivatives have been investigated on the basis of Atoms in Molecules, Natural Bond Orbitals, and Electron Localization Function theories. It has been observed that the extent of the bridged proton delocalization is strongly modified by the steric and inductive effects present in the studied compounds introduced by various substituents. It has been shown that: (i) potential energy profiles for the proton motion are extremely dependent on the substitution of the aromatic ring, (ii) the topology of the free electron pairs present at the donor/acceptor site, as well as their electron populations, are affected qualitatively by the bridged proton position, (iii) the distortion of the molecular structure due to the bridged proton dynamics includes the atomic charge fluctuations, which are in some cases non-monotonic, and (iv) topology of the ELF recognizes events of proton detachment from the donor and attachment to the acceptor. The quantitative and qualitative results shed light onto molecular consequences of the proton transfer phenomena.

  19. AIM High Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    The AIM High Program was developed for elementary school children in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District who demonstrate unusually high ability, interest, and motivation in language arts, mathematics, science, and art. Students are identified for the program through standardized test scores, teacher recommendation, student interest,…

  20. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús

    2003-11-01

    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  1. Study of solar activity and cosmic ray modulation during solar cycle 24 in comparison to previous solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V. K.; Mishra, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the monthly data of sunspot numbers (SSN), sunspot area of full disc (SSA) and cosmic ray intensity (CRI) observed by neutron monitors (NM) located at Oulu (Cut off Rigidity = 0.8 GV) and Moscow (Cut off Rigidity = 2.3 GV), the trend of solar activity variation and cosmic ray modulation has been studied during the cycles 23 & 24. The SSN have maintained its minimum level exceptionally for a long period (July 2008-Aug. 2009) of time. The intensity of galactic cosmic rays measured by ground based detectors is the highest ever recorded by Oulu NM since April 1964 during the recent solar minimum. Furthermore, the maximum value of SSN is found to be very low in the present cycle in comparison to previous solar cycles (19-23). The correlation coefficient between SSN and CRI without and with time-lag as well as regression analysis during the solar cycle 24 (Jan. 2008-Dec. 2015) has been estimated and compared with previous solar cycle. Based on the maximum value of correlation coefficient, the time-lag during present solar cycle is found to be 4 and 10 months for both the stations, while it is 13-14 months during cycle 23. The behaviour of running cross correlation function has also been examined during present solar cycle and it is found that it attains its maximum value -0.8 to -0.9 for a long duration in comparison to previous cycles. The variation of SSN and SSA has also been compared and found that they are highly correlated to each other (r > .92) for both the cycles. In the light of exceptional behaviour of solar cycle 24, the trend of cosmic ray modulation has been discussed and compared with earlier cycles.

  2. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000–2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 104 person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  3. Observational cohort study focused on treatment continuity of patients administered XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotaka, Masahito; Ikeda, Fusao; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshioka, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Kyogoku, Takahisa; Kato, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been remarkable progress in systemic chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer due to the widespread use of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. It is important to continue treatment with the optimal combination of these drugs and prolong progression-free survival (PFS) to improve overall survival (OS). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 40 patients treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer to investigate treatment continuity. Patients and methods Eligibility criteria were as follows: 1) histologically confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer; 2) lesions evaluable by imaging; 3) previously untreated; 4) suitable condition to receive XELOX plus bevacizumab; and 5) written informed consent. Outcomes were treatment continuity, overall response rate, resection rate, liver resection rate, time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS. Forty patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 years. Results Between July 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were enrolled. The median number of treatment cycles was 7.5, and the reasons for discontinuation of treatment were as follows: complete response (five patients), resection (ten patients), progression (15 patients), adverse events (seven patients), and patient refusal (three patients). The overall response rate was 57.5%, resection rate was 25%, and liver resection rate was 15%. After a median follow-up of 31.4 months, the median time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS were 5.3, 13.3, and 38.9 months, respectively. Conclusion Although the median time to treatment failure was 5.3 months, the median PFS and OS were prolonged to 13.3 and 38.9 months, respectively. This may have resulted from the chemotherapy-free interval due to complete response in five patients and resection in ten patients. PMID:27468238

  4. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  5. Disease surveillance based on Internet-based linear models: an Australian case study of previously unmodeled infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rohart, Florian; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Avril, Simon M. R.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Effective disease surveillance is critical to the functioning of health systems. Traditional approaches are, however, limited in their ability to deliver timely information. Internet-based surveillance systems are a promising approach that may circumvent many of the limitations of traditional health surveillance systems and provide more intelligence on cases of infection, including cases from those that do not use the healthcare system. Infectious disease surveillance systems built on Internet search metrics have been shown to produce accurate estimates of disease weeks before traditional systems and are an economically attractive approach to surveillance; they are, however, also prone to error under certain circumstances. This study sought to explore previously unmodeled diseases by investigating the link between Google Trends search metrics and Australian weekly notification data. We propose using four alternative disease modelling strategies based on linear models that studied the length of the training period used for model construction, determined the most appropriate lag for search metrics, used wavelet transformation for denoising data and enabled the identification of key search queries for each disease. Out of the twenty-four diseases assessed with Australian data, our nowcasting results highlighted promise for two diseases of international concern, Ross River virus and pneumococcal disease. PMID:27994231

  6. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  7. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  8. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  9. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Naoya; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Uhara, Hisashi; Uehara, Jiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Otsuka, Masaki; Uchi, Hiroshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Minami, Hironobu

    2017-03-25

    Treating advanced or recurrent melanoma remains a challenge. Cancer cells can evade the immune system by blocking T-cell activation via overexpression of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligands. The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab blocks the inhibitory signal in T cells, thus overcoming the immune resistance of cancer cells. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising anti-cancer activity in various cancers. We conducted a single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in previously untreated Japanese patients with advanced melanoma. Twenty-four patients with stage III/IV or recurrent melanoma were enrolled and received intravenous nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate evaluated by an independent radiology review committee. The independent radiology review committee-assessed overall response rate was 34.8% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 20.8, 51.9), and the overall survival rate at 18 months was 56.5% (90% CI: 38.0, 71.4). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) of grade 3 or 4 only occurred in three patients (12.5%). Two patients discontinued nivolumab because of AEs, but all AEs were considered manageable by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Subgroup analyses showed that nivolumab was clinically beneficial and tolerable regardless of BRAF genotype and that patients with treatment-related select AEs and with vitiligo showed tendency for better survival. In conclusion, nivolumab demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent melanoma, with or without BRAF mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density is associated with previous fracture during childhood and adolescence in males: the GOOD study.

    PubMed

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Rudäng, Robert; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2010-03-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been associated with fracture risk in children and adolescents, but it remains unclear whether this association is due to volumetric BMD (vBMD) of the cortical and/or trabecular bone compartments or bone size. The aim of this study was to determine whether vBMD or bone size was associated with X-ray-verified fractures in men during growth. In total, 1068 men (aged 18.9 +/- 0.6 years) were included in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study. Areal BMD was measured by DXA, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD and bone size were measured by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). X-ray records were searched for fractures. Self-reported fractures in 77 men could not be confirmed in these records. These men were excluded, resulting in 991 included men, of which 304 men had an X-ray-verified fracture and 687 were nonfracture subjects. Growth charts were used to establish the age of peak height velocity (PHV, n = 600). Men with prevalent fractures had lower aBMD (lumbar spine 2.3%, p = .005; total femur 2.6%, p = .004, radius 2.1%, p < .001) at all measured sites than men without fracture. Using pQCT measurements, we found that men with a prevalent fracture had markedly lower trabecular vBMD (radius 6.6%, p = 7.5 x 10(-8); tibia 4.5%, p = 1.7 x 10(-7)) as well as a slightly lower cortical vBMD (radius 0.4%, p = .0012; tibia 0.3%, p = .015) but not reduced cortical cross-sectional area than men without fracture. Every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD of the radius and tibia was associated with 1.46 [radius 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.69; tibia 95% CI 1.26-1.68] times increased fracture prevalence. The peak fracture incidence coincided with the timing of PHV (+/-1 year). In conclusion, trabecular vBMD but not aBMD was independently associated with prevalent X-ray-verified fractures in young men. Further studies are

  11. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population

    PubMed Central

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wisetborisut, Anawat; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Uaphanthasath, Ronnaphob; Gomutbutra, Patama; Jiraniramai, Surin; Lerssrimonkol, Chawin; Aramrattanna, Apinun; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Background Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual’s behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU) Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. Methods A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. Results From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%). About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg) and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2). A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL), and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL), which was found in 19.2% of participants. Discussion The study of health workers offers three potential advantages. The first is that the study of migrants was possible. Socioenvironmental influence on NCD risk factors can be explored, as changes in environmental exposures can be documented. Second, it allows the investigators to control for access to care. Access to care is potentially a key confounder toward understanding the development of NCDs. Lastly, a study of health personnel allows easy access to laboratory investigations and potential for long-term follow-up. This enables ascertainment of a number of clinical outcomes and provides potential for future studies focusing on

  12. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study of the effects of irbesartan on aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome (AIMS trial): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Marfan syndrome (MFS), a dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes fibrillin-1. There are approximately 18,000 patients in the UK with MFS. Current treatment includes careful follow-up, beta blockers, and prophylactic surgical intervention; however, there is no known treatment which effectively prevents the rate of aortic dilatation in MFS. Preclinical, neonatal, and pediatric studies have indicated that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may reduce the rate of aortic dilatation. This trial will investigate the effects of irbesartan on aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome. Methods/Design The Aortic Irbesartan Marfan Study (AIMS) is an investigator-led, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III, multicenter trial. Currently, 26 centers in the UK will recruit 490 clinically confirmed MFS patients (aged ≥6 to ≤40 years) using the revised Ghent diagnostic criteria. Patients will be randomized to irbesartan or placebo. Aortic root dilatation will be measured by transthoracic echocardiography at baseline and annually thereafter. The primary outcome is the absolute change in aortic root diameter per year measured by echocardiography. The follow-up period will be a minimum of 36 months with an expected mean follow-up period of 48 months. Discussion This is the first clinical trial to evaluate the ARB irbesartan versus placebo in reducing the rate of aortic root dilatation in MFS. Not only will this provide useful information on the safety and efficacy of ARBs in MFS, it will also provide a rationale basis for potentially lifesaving therapy for MFS patients. Trial registration ISRCTN, 90011794 PMID:24289736

  13. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Impact of a University Module That Aims to Challenge Students' Perspectives on Ageing and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if a module on an undergraduate degree programme had challenged students' perspectives on ageing and older adults. Courses on gerontology are on the increase within the UK to support increasingly ageing populations, with agendas to promote ethical care and to challenge the incidence of elderly abuse. Research…

  14. Data scan. With access to a newly available trove of private insurers' claims data, new institute aims to study what's driving spiraling healthcare costs.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2011-09-26

    A new research initiative aims to delve into private-insurer claims data to study utilization and what's driving healthcare costs. The Health Care Cost Institute will help researchers, who have been limited to Medicare data or limited private claims. "We're optimistic. We have nothing to hide here," says Michael Richards, left, of Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center.

  15. A Study of Impact and Effectiveness of the Comprehensive Manpower Project of Cleveland (AIM-JOBS). Vol 1, Summary Vol 2, Technical Report. Vol 3, Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allerhand, Melvin F.; And Others

    This study investigated AIM-JOBS effectiveness in placing disadvantaged, unemployed Cleveland, Ohio, adults and youth in meaningful jobs; ways in which it might improve its effectiveness; and implications of the first 18 months for other comprehensive employment programs. Data on the 1,865 participants were gathered at the beginning and end of…

  16. Operational Design and Convergent Threats: A Comparison Case Study of Plan Colombia and Afghanistan Aimed to Enhance the Fight Against Narcotic-Funded Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Monograph JUN 2011- MAY 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Operational Design and Convergent Threats: A Comparison Case Study of...in the strength government that enforces the law , provides services, and uphold the social contract established by people and their government. The...Operational Design and Convergent Threats: A Comparison Case Study of Plan Colombia and Afghanistan Aimed to Enhance the Fight against Narcotic

  17. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  18. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  19. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Leong, C.; Schroeder, J.; Lee, B.

    2014-03-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  1. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    PubMed

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.

  2. Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms during Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Results Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 – 2.69). Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

  3. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  4. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  5. ACTG-HIV symptoms changes in patients switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to previous intolerance to CART. Interim analysis of the PRO-STR study

    PubMed Central

    Podzamczer, Daniel; Rozas, Nerea; Domingo, Pere; Ocampo, Antonio; Van den Eynde, Eva; Deig, Elisabeth; Vergara, Antonio; Knobel, Hernando; Pasquau, Juan; Antela, Antonio; Crespo, Manuel; Clotet, Bonaventure; Muñoz, Jessica; Fernandez, Pedro; Geijo, Paloma; Rodríguez de Castro, Eduardo; Diz, Julio; Casado, Araceli; Torres, Covadonga

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tolerability and convenience are crucial aspects for the long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact in routine clinical practice of switching to the single tablet regimen (STR) RPV/FTC/TDF in patients with intolerance to previous cART, in terms of patients’ well-being, assessed by several validated measures. Methods Prospective, multicenter study. Adult HIV-infected patients with viral load under 1.000 copies/mL while receiving a stable ART for at least the last three months and switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to intolerance of previous regimen, were included. Analyses were performed by ITT. Presence/magnitude of symptoms (ACTG-HIV Symptom Index), quality of life (EQ-5D, EUROQoL & MOS-HIV), adherence (SMAQ), preference of treatment and perceived ease of medication (ESTAR) through 48 weeks were performed. Results Interim analysis of 125 patients with 16 weeks of follow up was performed. 100 (80%) were male, mean age 46 years. Mean CD4 at baseline was 629.5±307.29 and 123 (98.4%) had viral load <50 copies/mL; 15% were HCV co-infected. Ninety two (73.6%) patients switched from a NNRTI (84.8% from EFV/FTC/TDF) and 33 (26.4%) from a PI/r. The most frequent reasons for switching were psychiatric disorders (51.2%), CNS adverse events (40.8%), gastrointestinal (19.2%) and metabolic disorders (19.2%). At the time of this analysis (week 16), four patients (3.2%) discontinued treatment: one due to adverse events, two virologic failures and one with no data. A total of 104 patients (83.2%) were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL). The average degree of discomfort in the ACTG-HIV Symptom Index significantly decreased from baseline (21±15.55) to week 4 (10.89±12.36) & week 16 (10.81±12.62), p<0.001. In all the patients, quality of life tools showed a significant benefit in well-being of the patients (Table 1). Adherence to therapy significantly and progressively increased (SMAQ) from

  6. Headlines Previous Editions

    Science.gov Websites

    Previous Editions: Volume 17 Volume 16 Volume 15 Volume 14 Volume 13 FEB 2017 JAN 2017 DEC 2016 NOV 2016 OCT 2016 SEP 2016 AUG 2016 JUL 2016 JUN 2016 MAY 2016 APR 2016 MAR 2016 FEB ...

  7. A case study evaluation of an intervention aiming to strengthen the midwifery professional role in Morocco: anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Abou Malham, Sabina; Hatem, Marie; Leduc, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, Morocco is strongly committed to strengthen its midwifery professional role. This study aimed to identify barriers that could potentially hinder an action plan to strengthen the midwifery professional role from achieving desired outcomes. We used a conceptual framework, which is derived from Hatem-Asmar’s (1997) framework on the interaction of educational, professional, and sociocultural systems in which a professional role evolves and from Damschroder et al’s (2009) framework for the implementation analysis. Methods This paper builds on a qualitative case study on the factors affecting the action plan’s implementation process that also revealed rich data about anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes. Data were collected through training sessions, field observations, documents, focus groups (n=20), and semistructured interviews (n=11) with stakeholders pertaining to the three systems under study. Content analysis was used to identify themes related to barriers. Results Seven barriers that may compromise the achievement of desired results were found. They relate to the legal framework, social representations, and media support in the sociocultural system and the practice environment, networks and communication mechanisms, and characteristics related to the role and the readiness in the professional system. Conclusion Disregarding sociocultural and professional system level, barriers may impede efforts to strengthen the midwife’s role and to provide qualified midwives who can improve the quality of maternal care. Making changes in the educational system cannot be thought of as an isolated process. Its success is closely tied with multiple contextual factors pertaining to the two other systems. Activities recommended to address these barriers may have great potential to build a competent midwifery workforce that contributes to positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:26445547

  8. Aiming for excellence - A simulation-based study on adapting and testing an instrument for developing non-technical skills in Norwegian student nurse anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Fiona M; Sandaker, Kjersti; Ballangrud, Randi

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing focus on building safety into anaesthesia practice, with excellence in anaesthesia as an aspirational goal. Non-technical skills are an important factor in excellence and improved patient safety, though there have been few systematic attempts at integrating them into anaesthesia nursing education. This study aimed to test the reliability of NANTS-no, a specially adapted behavioural marker system for nurse anaesthetists in Norway, and explore the development of non-technical skills in student nurse anaesthetists. The pre-test post-test design incorporated a 10-week simulation-based programme, where non-technical skills in 14 student nurse anaesthetists were rated on three different occasions during high-fidelity simulation, before and after taking part in a training course. NANTS-no demonstrated high overall inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.91), high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.92). A significant improvement was demonstrated across all categories of non-technical skills, with greatest improvements between the first and third and second and third sessions. There was also a significant improvement in two categories between the first and second sessions. NANTS-no is therefore suitable for assessing non-technical skills during simulation training in anaesthesia nursing education. More research is needed to validate its use in clinical practice.

  9. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  10. An Exploration of Factors Related to Dissemination of and Exposure to Internet-Delivered Behavior Change Interventions Aimed at Adults: A Delphi Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oenema, Anke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Background The Internet is an attractive medium for delivering individualized, computer-tailored behavior change interventions to large numbers of people. However, the actual numbers of people reached seem to fall behind the high expectations. Insight into factors that determine use of and exposure to these Internet interventions is important to be able to increase the reach and improve exposure. Objective The aim was to identify potentially important factors that determine whether adults visit an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention, extend their visit, and revisit the intervention. Methods A systematic, three-round Delphi study was conducted among national and international experts from Internet intervention research and practice, e-marketing/e-commerce, Web design, and technical website development. In the first round, 30 experts completed a structured, open-ended online questionnaire assessing factors that were, in their opinion, important for a first visit, an extended visit, a revisit and for effective promotion strategies. Based on the responses in this first questionnaire, a closed-ended online questionnaire was developed for use in the second round. A total of 233 experts were invited to complete this questionnaire. Median and interquartile deviation (IQD) scores were computed to calculate agreement and consensus on the importance of the factors. The factors for which no consensus was obtained (IQD > 1) were included in the third-round questionnaire. Factors with a median score of six or higher and with an IQD ≤ 1 were considered to be important. Results Of the 62 experts invited for the first round, 30 completed the questionnaire (48% response rate); 93/233 experts completed the second-round questionnaire (40% response rate), and 59/88 completed the third round (67% response rate). Being motivated to visit an Internet intervention and perceiving the intervention as personally relevant appeared to be important factors related to a first visit

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  12. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  13. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  14. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  15. 1981 Follow-Up Study of Students Enrolled and Previously Enrolled in the Michigan School for the Blind and the Michigan School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston-White, Deborah J. H.

    A followup study of currently and previously enrolled students of the Michigan School for the Blind (MSB) and the Michigan School for the Deaf (MSD) is reported. Eligibility guidelines, services, enrollment, costs, and nature of the student body at each institution are described. Development and use of four questionnaires to evaluate eight…

  16. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  17. Using International Study Series and Meta-Analytic Research Syntheses to Scope Pedagogical Development Aimed at Improving Student Attitude and Achievement in School Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Taking lower-secondary schooling within the English educational system as an example, this paper illustrates the contribution of two bodies of international scholarship to the scoping of research-based pedagogical development aimed at improving student attitude and achievement in science and mathematics. After sketching the English context of…

  18. Citizenship and Nationality in Changing Europe: A Comparative Study of the Aims of Citizenship Education in Russian and Finnish National Education Policy Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses how the formal aims of citizenship education, as declared in legislation and policy documents, have changed since the end of the 1980s in response to the transformation of the political scenery in Finland and the Russian Federation. One central question framing the analysis of Finnish citizenship education is whether…

  19. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget: first highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Khaykhin, Sergey; Ghysels, Melanie; Mappe-Fogaing, Irene; Stoeffler, Clara; Toledo-Tarasco, Daniel; Rannou, Pascal; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small size, fast but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign that took place in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, in March 2012 and from November 2012 to March 2013 (most of the wet season) with a peak phase in January-February 2013 (during the most active convective season). The campaign involved a series of light weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser spectrometers (H2O, CO2 or CH4), a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based S-Band radar and an optical depth sensor so-called ODS, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, and adequate modelling tools that is of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico included a two time-scale campaign with a total of 37 balloon flights including 34 flights using H2O sensors in the flight train: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering to the full wet season

  20. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  1. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p < 0.001). Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  2. The diverse aims of science.

    PubMed

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science.

  3. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  4. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    PubMed

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  5. Toxicity of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with or without rituximab as initial therapy for patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomised phase II study.

    PubMed

    Eve, Heather E; Linch, David; Qian, Wendi; Ross, Moira; Seymour, John F; Smith, Paul; Stevens, Lindsey; Rule, Simon A J

    2009-02-01

    The National Cancer Research Network (NCRN) is currently coordinating a Phase III randomised study (LY05) comparing fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) with or without rituximab (R) for previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The combination of FC is well-recognised as significantly immunosuppressive and there are concerns that adding rituximab may increase infection risk further. The impact of rituximab on other markers of toxicity is also unclear. We analysed the toxicity data on 139 patients treated within the NCRN LY05 trial. Non-hematological toxicity was similar between the two treatment arms. The only difference in hematological toxicity was a higher rate of lymphocytopenia with fludarabine cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), which did not translate into increased febrile episodes or infections. In conclusion, the addition of rituximab to FC for previously untreated MCL has no significant impact on toxicity.

  6. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  7. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment. PMID:28056595

  8. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Trufero, J; Isla, D; Adansa, J C; Irigoyen, A; Hitt, R; Gil-Arnaiz, I; Lambea, J; Lecumberri, M J; Cruz, J J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Platinum-based therapy (PBT) is the standard therapy for recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), but the incidence of recurrence remains high. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine as palliative monotherapy for recurrent HNC previously treated with PBT. Methods: Patients aged 18–75 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, squamous HNC with locoregional and/or metastatic recurrence previously treated with PBT and adequate organ functions, were included. Capecitabine (1.250 mg m−2 BID) was administered on days 1–14 every 21 days for at least two cycles. Results: A total of 40 male patients with a median age of 58 years were analysed. All patients received a median number of four cycles of capecitabine (range: 1–9) and the median relative dose intensity was 91%. Seven patients were not evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 24.2%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.8 and 7.3 months, respectively. Haematological adverse events (AEs) grade 3/4 were reported in six patients. Most common grade 3/4 non-haematological AEs were asthenia (12.5%), palmar-plantar eritrodisestesia (10%), mucositis (10%), dysphagia (10%) and diarrhoea (7.5%). Conclusions: Capecitabine seems to be an active, feasible and well-tolerated mode of palliative treatment for advanced HNC patients who have previously received PBT schedules. PMID:20485287

  9. Aiming for the ideal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaich, Tanja; Baran, Phil S

    2010-07-16

    The field of total synthesis has a rich history and a vibrant future. Landmark advances and revolutionary strides in the logic of synthesis have put the practicing chemist in the enviable position of being able to create nearly any molecule with enough time and effort. The stage is now set for organic chemists to aim for "ideality" in the way molecules are synthesized. This perspective presents a simple and informative definition of "ideality" and demonstrates its use during the self-evaluation of several syntheses from our laboratory.

  10. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  11. A Quantification of Methane Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Extraction Regions in the Central/Western U.S. and a Comparison to Previous Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne measurements of methane and ethane taken aboard a NOAA WP-3D research aircraft over five regions of oil and natural gas extraction in March and April, 2015, as part of the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field study. The five regions are the (1) Haynesville, (2) Barnett, and (3) Eagle Ford regions in Texas, (4) the Denver-Julesburg region of Colorado, and (5) the Bakken region of North Dakota. From these measurements, we derive methane emission rates from these regions using the mass balance method. Next, we attribute the methane emissions to oil and natural gas extraction, livestock operations, and other source sectors based on correlations of methane with ethane and ammonia. We then compare these emissions to those reported from previous studies, where applicable. Finally, we compare reported methane emissions from multiple regional-scale studies with inventory estimates of methane emissions from U.S. oil and natural gas production.

  12. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  13. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  14. Impact of availability and use of ART/PMTCT services on fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Lindsay E.; Makumbi, Frederick E.; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess fertility desires by availability and use of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai, Uganda. Design Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Methods Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai was defined in three periods: 1) Pre-ART/PMTCT (<2005), 2) ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-06), and 3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by chi-square. “Modified” Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRR were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. Results 4,227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout (adjusted PRR: 1.08, CI: 1.04-1.13) and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, CI: 1.08-1.14) compared to pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and non-users in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, CI: 0.62-1.14) and one year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, CI: 0.83-1.94). Conclusion Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women. PMID:25835605

  15. MonitorNet: the Italian multi-centre observational study aimed at estimating the risk/benefit profile of biologic agents in real-world rheumatology practice.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, P; Salaffi, F; Montecucco, C M; Bombardieri, S; Todesco, S

    2009-01-01

    MonitorNet is a database established by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) in January 2007 and funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), for the active long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated with biologic agents. All hospital Rheumatology Units in Italy were invited to participate in a non-interventional, observational, epidemiological study. The study is conducted in a routine clinical setting (real-world practice) where biologics are prescribed on the basis of current recommendations. In this report we describe the design, methodology, and present preliminary data of the study. At the time of the analysis (April 2009) the database included 3510 patients: 2469 (70.3%) with established RA, 675 (19.2%) with PsA and 366 (10.4%) with AS. The cumulative follow up period was 8,787 patient-years (RA: 8,388, PsA: 157; AS: 242). There were 1,538 adverse events in 938 (26.7%) patients. Infections were recorded in 630 patients, skin-related adverse events in 142 and post-infusion reactions in 90. A total of 30 malignancies were reported. An interim analysis of efficacy was conducted on 2,148 RA patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one patients (35.8%) achieved EULAR remission (defined as DAS28<2.4). When assessed with the more restrictive CDAI and SDAI criteria, the frequency of remission was lower (17.9% and 14.7% respectively). Availability of funding for this study provided an opportunity to organize a collaborative national network of rheumatology clinics to develop a large multicentre observational study.

  16. Topological description of the bond-breaking and bond-forming processes of the alkene protonation reaction in zeolite chemistry: an AIM study.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, María Fernanda; Peruchena, Nélida Maria

    2011-10-01

    Density functional theory and atoms in molecules theory were used to study bond breakage and bond formation in the trans-2-butene protonation reaction in an acidic zeolitic cluster. The progress of this reaction along the intrinsic reaction coordinate, in terms of several topological properties of relevant bond critical points and atomic properties of the key atoms involved in these concerted mechanisms, were analyzed in depth. At B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level, the results explained the electron density redistributions associated with the progressive bond breakage and bond formation of the reaction under study, as well as the profiles of the electronic flow between the different atomic basins involved in these electron reorganization processes. In addition, we found a useful set of topological indicators that are useful to show what is happening in each bond/atom involved in the reaction site as the reaction progresses.

  17. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  18. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  19. Feasibility study and pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial of the GoActive intervention aiming to promote physical activity among adolescents: outcomes and lessons learnt

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Kirsten; Brown, Helen E; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Assess the feasibility of implementing the GoActive intervention in secondary schools, to identify improvements, test study procedures, determine preliminary effectiveness to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and inform power calculations to establish programme effectiveness. Setting Feasibility study (1 school) and pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial (CRCT; 2 intervention; 1 control school(s)). Participants 460 participants (46.6% female; 13.2 (0.4) years old). Interventions 8-week intervention (2013) involved: classes choosing weekly activities encouraged by mentors (older adolescents) and in-class peer leaders. Students gain points for trying activities which are entered into an intramural competition. Primary and secondary outcome measures Planned quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (focus groups) process evaluation addressed enjoyment, confidence, participation, suggested improvements. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and follow-up (week 8) in pilot CRCT and included accelerometer-assessed MVPA; adolescent-reported activity type, well-being, peer support, shyness, sociability. Analysis of covariance was used to assess preliminary effectiveness as change in MVPA adjusted for baseline. Results All year 9 students in intervention schools were exposed to the intervention; over all schools 77% of eligible students were measured. 71% boys and 74% girls found GoActive ‘fun’; 38% boys and 32% girls said it increased confidence, and 64% boys and 59% girls said they would continue with a GoActive activity. Suggested improvements included more mentorship; improved training; streamlined points recording. Pilot results indicated potential effectiveness ((adjusted mean difference (95% CI) p value; MVPA mins; 5.1 (1.1 to 9.2) p=0.014)) and suggest recruitment of 16 schools (2400 adolescents) for a full trial. Compared with control, intervention students reported greater peer support 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9) p=0.03, well-being 1

  20. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of rehabilitation aimed at improving outdoor mobility for people after stroke: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Up to 42% of all stroke patients do not get out of the house as much as they would like. This can impede a person’s quality of life. This study is testing the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a new outdoor mobility rehabilitation intervention by comparing it to usual care. Methods/design This is a multi-centre parallel group individually randomised, controlled trial. At least 506 participants will be recruited through 15 primary and secondary care settings and will be eligible if they are over 18 years of age, have had a stroke and wish to get out of the house more often. Participants are being randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. Intervention group participants receive up to 12 rehabilitation outdoor mobility sessions over up to four months. The main component of the intervention is repeated practice of outdoor mobility with a therapist. Control group participants are receiving the usual intervention for outdoor mobility limitations: verbal advice and provision of leaflets provided over one session. Outcome measures are being collected using postal questionnaires, travel calendars and by independent assessors. The primary outcome measure is the Social Function domain of the SF36v2 quality of life assessment six months after recruitment. The secondary outcome measures include: functional ability, mobility, the number of journeys (monthly travel diaries), satisfaction with outdoor mobility, mood, health-related quality of life, resource use of health and social care. Carer mood information is also being collected. The mean Social Function score of the SF-36v2 will be compared between treatment arms using a multiple membership form of mixed effects multiple regression analysis adjusting for centre (as a fixed effect), age and baseline Social Function score as covariates and therapist as a multiple membership random effect. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals will be presented

  1. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-10-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  3. Studies Spotlight Charter Schools Aimed at Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    Nearly six decades after "Brown" v. "Board of Education," the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that ushered in an era of efforts to integrate public schools, charter school advocates and researchers are shining a light on a number of those independent public schools that are integrated by design. Two new reports--one from…

  4. When patients report diseases that prescribers seem unaware of: discordance between patient and physician reporting of risk-related previous history in NSAID users from the CADEUS study.

    PubMed

    Fourrier-Réglat, A; Lacoin, L; Pariente, A; Lassalle, R; Robinson, P; Droz-Perroteau, C; Bégaud, B; Blin, P; Moore, N D

    2010-11-01

    Prescribers are often unaware of possibly dangerous previous medical histories (PMHs) of their patients. Data from a study of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) users served to identify factors associated with this lack of awareness. In this study, we analyzed the factors that may have led prescribers to report the absence of some PMHs that the patients reported as being present. Of 26,618 patients prescribed an NSAID, 469 (1.7%) reported a PMH of unstable angina, 648 (2.4%) reported heart failure, 2,244 (8.4%) reported gastric or duodenal ulcer, 489 (1.8%) reported upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (UGIB), 5,343 (20.0%) reported gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and 7,832 (29.4%) reported dyspepsia. Between 64 (GERD) and 92% (UGIB) of these patient-reported PMHs were absent in the corresponding prescribers' reports. This discordance was associated with the following factors: patients of younger age, female patients, less frequent patient-prescriber contact, prescription of NSAID by a specialist, no recent specialist consultation, hospitalization or surgery related to the PMH, and no dispensation of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for digestive disorder-related PMHs. The study showed that a substantial proportion of prescribers seemed unaware of the presence of risk-related PMHs that the patient reported when asked.

  5. Everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma previously treated with bevacizumab: a prospective multicenter study CRAD001LRU02T.

    PubMed

    Tsimafeyeu, Ilya; Snegovoy, Anton; Varlamov, Sergei; Safina, Sufia; Varlamov, Ilya; Gurina, Ludmila; Manzuk, Ludmila

    2015-09-01

    Everolimus is an orally administered inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) recommended for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progressed on previous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Efficacy of everolimus in patients who progressed on anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab is unknown. We did a multicenter prospective trial of everolimus in patients with mRCC whose disease had progressed on bevacizumab ± interferon alpha (IFN). Patients with clear-cell mRCC which had progressed on bevacizumab ± IFN received everolimus 10 mg once daily. The primary end point was the proportion of patients remaining progression-free for 56 days, and a two-stage Simon design was used, with 80% power and an alpha risk of 5%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02056587. From December 2011 to October 2013, a total of 37 patients (28 M, 9 F) were enrolled. Median age was 60.5 years (range 41-66), 1% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) >2, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) favorable/intermediate risk was 38/62%. Five (14%) patients had a confirmed partial response and 26 (70%) patients had a stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI, 8.8-14.2). Median overall survival was not reached. No grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities were observed. The most common grade 2 adverse events were fatigue (19%) and pneumonitis (8%). Everolimus demonstrated a favorable toxicity profile and promising anti-tumor activity as a second-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients previously treated with bevacizumab ± IFN.

  6. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  8. Preoperative Association of Abdominal Striae Gravidarum with Intraabdominal Adhesions in Pregnant Women with a History of Previous Cesarean Section: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, A.; Ertas, I. E.; Uyar, I.; Karaca, I.; Bozgeyik, B.; Töz, E.; Ozeren, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraabdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause problems during surgery. Complications can include difficult intraabdominal entry; injury to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; longer operation times, and increased blood loss. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intraabdominal adhesions in the preoperative period in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study included 247 pregnant women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation admitted to the labor unit for delivery; all had undergone at least one previous cesarean section. Abdominal striae were assessed preoperatively using the Davey scoring system; the severity and intensity of adhesions were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively according to the modified Nair scoring system. Results: No striae were seen in 104 pregnant women; 41 had mild striae and 102 had severe striae. Overall, 113 cases had no adhesions (grade 0), 106 had grade 1–2 adhesions, and 28 had grade 3–4 adhesions. Among patients with grade 0 adhesions, 34 (13.7 %) had no striae, while 79 (31.9 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001; sensitivity 55 %; specificity 67 %; positive predictive value 69 %; negative predictive value 52 %). Among women with grade 1–2 adhesions, 48 (19.4 %) had no striae, while 58 (23.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae. Finally, among women with grade 3–4 adhesions, 22 (8.9 %) had no striae, while 6 (2.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Conclusions: The abdominal adhesion score dropped as the abdominal striae gravidarum score rose during the preoperative period. Addition of this useful, easy-to-apply, inexpensive, adjunctive, observational, abdominal scoring method to the obstetrical work-up can provide important clues about the intraabdominal adhesion

  9. A phase 2 study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in poor-risk and elderly patients with previously untreated acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lancet, Jeffrey E; Gojo, Ivana; Gotlib, Jason; Feldman, Eric J; Greer, Jacqueline; Liesveld, Jane L; Bruzek, Laura M; Morris, Lawrence; Park, Youn; Adjei, Alex A; Kaufmann, Scott H; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Peter L; Wright, John J; Karp, Judith E

    2007-02-15

    Outcomes for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are poor due to both disease and host-related factors. In this phase 2 study, we tested the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in 158 older adults with previously untreated, poor-risk AML. The median age was 74 years, and a majority of patients had antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 22 patients (14%); partial remission or hematologic improvement occurred in 15 patients, for an overall response rate of 23%. The median duration of CR was 7.3 months and the median survival of complete responders was 18 months. Adverse karyotype, age 75 years or older, and poor performance status correlated negatively with survival. Early death in the absence of progressive disease was rare, and drug-related nonhematologic serious adverse events were observed in 74 patients (47%). Inhibition of farnesylation of the surrogate protein HDJ-2 occurred in the large majority of marrow samples tested. Baseline levels of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT did not correlate with clinical response. Tipifarnib is active and well tolerated in older adults with poor-risk AML and may impart a survival advantage in those patients who experience a clinical response.

  10. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-06-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20-41) and 285 days (range 50-1,240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients.

  11. Adverse events, bone mineral density and discontinuation associated with generic alendronate among postmenopausal women previously tolerant of brand alendronate: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A rise in gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) and a decline in bone mineral density (BMD) was observed in patients previously tolerant to brand alendronate shortly after generic versions were introduced in July 2005 to the Canadian market. The objective of our study was to quantify changes in AE rates and BMD scores, as well as associated alendronate discontinuation among patients before and after switch from brand to generic alendronate. Methods A chart review of postmenopausal women 50 years of age and older between 2003 and 2007 was conducted in two specialized tertiary care referral centers. Patients on alendronate both before and after July 2005 were included. The change in the number of AEs, changes in BMD and associated alendronate discontinuation was compared before and after the switch from brand to generic alendronate. Results 301 women with an average age of 67.6 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.5) had a total of 47 AEs between July 2003 and December 2007 that resulted in discontinuation of the medication. There was a significant increase in the rate of AEs per patient-months-at-risk from 0.0001 before to 0.0044 after October 2005 (p < 0.001). The most common AEs were GI in nature (stomach pain, GI upset, nausea, and reflux). In addition, 23 patients discontinued alendronate due to BMD reduction after January 2006. In these patients, BMD scores were significantly reduced from their prior BMD measures (change of -0.0534, p < 0.001 for spine BMD and change of -0.0338, p = 0.01 for femur BMD). Among patients who discontinued due to BMD reduction, BMD was stable in the period prior to January 2006 (change of -0.0066, p = 0.5 for spine BMD and change of 0.0011, p = 0.9 for femur BMD); however, testing for reduction after January 2006 in BMD measures (one-sided T-test) revealed there was a significant reduction in BMD scores for both anatomic sites (change of -0.0321, p = .005 for spine, change of -0.0205, p = 0.05 for femur). Conclusions

  12. Prognostic nomogram for overall survival in previously untreated patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhang, Y-J; Zhu, Y; Cao, J-Z; Yuan, Z-Y; Xu, L-M; Wu, J-X; Wang, W; Wu, T; Lu, B; Zhu, S-Y; Qian, L-T; Zhang, F-Q; Hou, X-R; Liu, Q-F; Li, Y-X

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a widely accepted prognostic nomogram for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (NKTCL). The clinical data from 1383 patients with NKTCL treated at 10 participating institutions between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. A nomogram was developed that predicted overall survival (OS) based on the Cox proportional hazards model. To contrast the utility of the nomogram against the widely used Ann Arbor staging system, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI), we used the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration curve to determine its predictive and discriminatory capacity. The 5-year OS rate was 60.3% for the entire group. The nomogram included five important variables based on a multivariate analysis of the primary cohort: stage; age; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; and primary tumor invasion. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was able to predict 5-year OS accurately. The C-index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.72 for both cohorts, which was superior to the predictive power (range, 0.56-0.64) of the Ann Arbor stage, IPI and KPI in the primary and validation cohorts. The proposed nomogram provides an individualized risk estimate of OS in patients with NKTCL.

  13. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  14. Phase I study of dasatinib in combination with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab followed by an expanded cohort in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Strickler, John H.; McCall, Shannon; Nixon, Andrew B.; Brady, John C.; Pang, Herbert; Rushing, Christel; Cohn, Allen; Starodub, Alexander; Arrowood, Christy; Haley, Sherri; Meadows, Kellen L.; Morse, Michael A.; Uronis, Hope E.; Blobe, Gerard C.; Hsu, S. David; Zafar, S. Yousuf; Hurwitz, Herbert I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dasatinib inhibits src family kinases and has anti-angiogenic properties. We conducted a phase I study of dasatinib, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab (CapeOx/bevacizumab), with an expansion cohort in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Patients were enrolled in a dose escalation cohort to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Using a “3+3” design, twelve patients with advanced solid tumors received dasatinib (50mg twice daily or 70mg daily), capecitabine (850mg/m2 twice daily, days 1-14), oxaliplatin (130mg/m2 on day 1) and bevacizumab (7.5mg/kg on day1), every 3 weeks. Ten patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC were then enrolled in an expansion cohort. Activated src (srcact) expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, using an antibody that selectively recognizes the active conformation of src (clone 28). Results Twenty-two patients were enrolled between June 2009 and May 2011. Two DLTs were observed in the 50mg bid dasatinib cohort, and one DLT was observed in the 70mg daily dasatinib cohort. The MTD and RP2D for dasatinib was 70mg daily. The most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (20; 91%) and diarrhea (18; 82%). Biomarker analysis of srcact expression demonstrated that the overall response rate (ORR) was 75% (6/8) for patients with high srcact expression (IHC≥ 2), compared to 0% (0/8) for patients with low srcact expression (IHC 0 or 1); (p =0.007). Conclusions The RP2D of dasatinib is 70 mg daily in combination with CapeOx/bevacizumab. High levels of srcact expression may predict those patients most likely to benefit from dasatinib. PMID:24173967

  15. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  16. A phase II/III randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of rigosertib plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer†

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. H.; Scott, A. J.; Ma, W. W.; Cohen, S. J.; Aisner, D. L.; Menter, A. R.; Tejani, M. A.; Cho, J. K.; Granfortuna, J.; Coveler, L.; Olowokure, O. O.; Baranda, J. C.; Cusnir, M.; Phillip, P.; Boles, J.; Nazemzadeh, R.; Rarick, M.; Cohen, D. J.; Radford, J.; Fehrenbacher, L.; Bajaj, R.; Bathini, V.; Fanta, P.; Berlin, J.; McRee, A. J.; Maguire, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Maniar, M.; Jimeno, A.; Gomes, C. L.; Messersmith, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a first-in-class Ras mimetic and small-molecule inhibitor of multiple signaling pathways including polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), has shown efficacy in preclinical pancreatic cancer models. In this study, rigosertib was assessed in combination with gemcitabine in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle plus rigosertib 1800 mg/m2 via 2-h continuous IV infusions given twice weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle (RIG + GEM) versus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle (GEM). Results A total of 160 patients were enrolled globally and randomly assigned to RIG + GEM (106 patients) or GEM (54). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were neutropenia (8% in the RIG + GEM group versus 6% in the GEM group), hyponatremia (17% versus 4%), and anemia (8% versus 4%). The median overall survival was 6.1 months for RIG + GEM versus 6.4 months for GEM [hazard ratio (HR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–1.81]. The median progression-free survival was 3.4 months for both groups (HR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.68–1.36). The partial response rate was 19% versus 13% for RIG + GEM versus GEM, respectively. Of 64 tumor samples sent for molecular analysis, 47 were adequate for multiplex genetic testing and 41 were positive for mutations. The majority of cases had KRAS gene mutations (40 cases). Other mutations detected included TP53 (13 cases) and PIK3CA (1 case). No correlation between mutational status and efficacy was detected. Conclusions The combination of RIG + GEM failed to demonstrate an improvement in survival or response compared with GEM in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Rigosertib showed a similar safety profile to that seen in previous trials using the IV

  17. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of ‘Yaws’ in Districts of Ghana Which Have Previously Undertaken Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C. W.; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5–17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  19. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    PubMed

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  20. Perceived Utility of the RE-AIM Framework for Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Initiatives for Older Adults: A Case Study from the U.S. Evidence-Based Disease Prevention Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) frameworks are increasingly being promoted in public health research. However, less is known about their uptake in the field, especially for diverse sets of programs. Limited questionnaires exist to assess the ways that frameworks can be utilized in program planning and evaluation. We present a case study from the United States that describes the implementation of the RE-AIM framework by state aging services providers and public health partners and a questionnaire that can be used to assess the utility of such frameworks in practice. An online questionnaire was developed to capture community perspectives about the utility of the RE-AIM framework. Distributed to project leads in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults, 40 key stakeholders responded representing a 100% state-participation rate among the 27 funded states. Findings suggest that there is perceived utility in using the RE-AIM framework when evaluating grand-scale initiatives for older adults. The RE-AIM framework was seen as useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation with relevance for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet, the uptake was not universal, and some respondents reported difficulties in use, especially adopting the framework as a whole. This questionnaire can serve as the basis to assess ways the RE-AIM framework can be utilized by practitioners in state-wide D&I efforts. Maximal benefit can be derived from examining the assessment of RE-AIM-related knowledge and confidence as part of a continual quality assurance process. We recommend such an assessment be performed before the implementation of new funding initiatives and throughout their course to assess RE-AIM uptake and to identify areas for technical assistance. PMID:25964897

  1. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  2. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  3. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  4. Phase II study of alemtuzumab-rituximab therapy in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: short- and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frankfurt, Olga; Ma, Shuo; Gordon, Leo; Winter, Jane N; Horowitz, Jeanne M; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Peterson, LoAnn C; Altman, Jessica K; Tallman, Martin S; Petrich, Adam; Rosen, Steven T

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of alemtuzumab and rituximab (AR) combination therapy in previously untreated patients with CLL. Thirty patients, ages 28-80 years, 47% older than 60 years, 90% Rai clinical stages II-IV, and 67% without favorable cytogenetics received AR. Based on the NCI-WG 1996 criteria, OR was 100%, with 60% CR. With CT scans OR was 70%, with 23% CR, 47% PR, and 30% SD. Sixty-seven percent of patients showed no evidence of MRD in the bone marrow by 6-color flow cytometry. Median PFS, TFS, and 5-year OS were 24.4, 50.7 months, and 80%, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 30% and 7% of patients, respectively. CMV reactivation, asymptomatic in all but one patient, occurred in 8 patients. Immunotherapy with alemtuzumab and rituximab results in robust responses and long asymptomatic therapy-free intervals. It is well tolerated with infrequent, predictable, and easily managed complications.

  5. Multiclass pesticide analysis in fruit-based baby food: A comparative study of sample preparation techniques previous to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Mateus H; Fernandes, José O; Godoy, Helena T; Cunha, Sara C

    2016-12-01

    With the aim to develop a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze 24 pesticide residues in baby foods at the level imposed by established regulation two simple, rapid and environmental-friendly sample preparation techniques based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, robust and safe) were compared - QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and QuEChERS with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Both sample preparation techniques achieved suitable performance criteria, including selectivity, linearity, acceptable recovery (70-120%) and precision (⩽20%). A higher enrichment factor was observed for DLLME and consequently better limits of detection and quantification were obtained. Nevertheless, d-SPE provided a more effective removal of matrix co-extractives from extracts than DLLME, which contributed to lower matrix effects. Twenty-two commercial fruit-based baby food samples were analyzed by the developed method, being procymidone detected in one sample at a level above the legal limit established by EU.

  6. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  7. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  8. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  9. Risk factors for fatal and non-fatal child maltreatment in families previously investigated by CPS: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Sheridan; Romano, Patrick S; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Thurston, Holly; Dharmar, Madan; Joseph, Jill G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify individual, family and caregiver risk factors for serious child maltreatment, resulting in hospitalization or death, among children and families investigated by Child Protective Services (CPS). We conducted a matched case-control study of 234 children who sustained fatal or serious nonfatal maltreatment due to physical abuse or neglect and whose mother was named in a CPS investigation between 1999 and 2013. A total of 702 children and their caregivers were included in the study with 234 cases matched 2:1,resulting in 468 controls. Data on potential risk factors were abstracted from three county administrative databases. Differences between cases and controls were calculated and multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate risk models. Variables associated with increased risk for serious maltreatment included male child gender,younger caregivers, three or more children under the age of 5 living in the home, families in which a biologic child was not living with either parent, and scoring moderate or high on the Structured Decision Making Risk Tool(®). Caregiver involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV) and child enrollment in public health insurance appears to mitigate the risk of serious maltreatment.

  10. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kaliner, Michael A; Baraniuk, James N; Benninger, Michael S; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli O; Naclerio, Robert M; Settipane, Russell A; Farrar, Judith R

    2009-08-15

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise.

  11. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Machín, Rubén P; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case-control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action.

  12. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise. PMID:24228856

  13. Phase II and Coagulation Cascade Biomarker Study of Bevacizumab with or without Docetaxel in Patients with Previously Treated Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Astsaturov, Igor A.; Meropol, Neal J.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Burtness, Barbara A.; Cheng, Jonathan D.; McLaughlin, Sue; Rogatko, André; Xu, Zhiheng; Watson, James C.; Weiner, Louis M.; Cohen, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Treatment options are limited for advanced pancreatic cancer progressive after gemcitabine therapy. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is biologically important in pancreatic cancer, and docetaxel has modest anti-tumor activity. We evaluated the role of the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab as second-line treatment for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Design Patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who had progressive disease on a gemcitabine-containing regimen were randomized to receive bevacizumab alone or bevacizumab in combination with docetaxel. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled; 16 to bevacizumab alone (Arm A) and 16 to bevacizumab plus docetaxel (Arm B). Toxicities were greater in Arm B with the most common grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities including fatigue, diarrhea, dehydration and anorexia. No confirmed objective responses were observed. At 4 months, 2/16 patients in Arm A and 3/16 in Arm B were free from progression. The study was stopped according to the early stopping rule for futility. Median PFS and OS were 43 days and 165 days in Arm A and 48 days and 125 days in Arm B. Elevated D-dimer levels and thrombin-antithrombin complexes were associated with decreased survival and increased toxicity. Conclusion Bevacizumab with or without docetaxel does not have antitumor activity in gemcitabine-refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer. Baseline and on-treatment D-dimer and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels are associated with increased toxicity and decreased survival. PMID:20458210

  14. [Coming-out, support from family of origin and relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born in a previous heterosexual relationship: an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.

  15. A Phase II study of trabectedin single agent in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer previously treated with platinum-based regimens

    PubMed Central

    Krasner, C N; McMeekin, D S; Chan, S; Braly, P S; Renshaw, F G; Kaye, S; Provencher, D M; Campos, S; Gore, M E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the objective response rate in patients with platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer to treatment with trabectedin (Yondelis®) administered as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. We carried out a multicentre Phase II trial of trabectedin in patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer. Trabectedin (0.58 mg m−2) was administered via a central line, after premedication with dexamethasone, to 147 patients as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1-week rest. Major eligibility criteria included measurable relapsed advanced ovarian cancer and not more than two prior platinum-containing regimens. Patients were stratified according to the treatment-free interval (TFI) between having either platinum-sensitive (⩾6 months TFI) or platinum-resistant disease (<6 months TFI)/platinum-refractory disease (progression during first line therapy). In the platinum-sensitive cohort, 62 evaluable patients with measurable disease had an overall response rate (ORR) of 29.0% (95% CI: 18.2–41.9%) and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–6.2). Four patients with measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. In the platinum-resistant/refractory cohort, 79 patients were evaluable with an ORR of 6.3% (95% CI: 2.1–14.2%). Median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI: 1.7–3.5 months). Two patients with measurable disease per RECIST criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. The most frequent (⩾2% of patients) drug-related treatment-emergent grade 3/4 adverse events were reversible liver alanine transferase elevation (10%), neutropaenia (8%), nausea, vomiting, and fatigue (5% each). Trabectedin is an active treatment, with documented responses in patients with platinum sensitive advanced relapsed ovarian cancer, and has a manageable toxicity profile. PMID

  16. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.

  17. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E

    2014-01-01

    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  19. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  20. Marksmanship Aiming and Tracking Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    1 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 91- 10218 ®Disk...2 THEN - ISO .- ’ DEINE X AIM POINT ADJUSTMENTS 8125, 3 ThEN G3E - DEFINE Y AIM POINT ADJUSTMKSTS 18130 *F -. - ,:.NE’S. 780 SEFINE BAiMLESIGT RANGE

  1. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization of novel 16α-(3-acetyl phenyl amino)-3β-hydroxy pregn-5-ene-20-one, its molecular structure, NBO analysis, intramolecular interactions studied by DFT and AIM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Arun; Shukla, Dolly; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap

    2014-09-01

    A novel compound 16α-(3-acetyl phenyl amino)-3β-hydroxy pregn-5-ene-20-one was synthesized by Michael addition reaction and characterized with the aid of 1H, 13C NMR, IR, UV and mass spectrometry. The molecular geometry of synthesized compound was calculated in the ground state by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated using Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) approach and these values were correlated with the experimental observations. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Stability of the molecule as a result of hyperconjugative interactions and electron delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Intramolecular interactions were analyzed by AIM approach. Local reactivity descriptors were calculated to study the reactive site within the molecule.

  3. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  4. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de.

  5. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-08

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statisti-cally analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommenda-tions, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria.

  6. Previous Mental Health Service Utilization and Change in Clients' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, James F.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Although a potentially important factor in case conceptualization and treatment planning, the impact of previous treatment on subsequent counseling response has received little empirical attention. Using archival data, this study aimed to (a) report the prevalence of previous treatment utilization in a counseling population, (b) examine potential…

  7. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  8. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  9. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change

  10. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  11. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bridget L.; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H.; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Methods: Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Results: Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). Conclusions: More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. PMID:27027790

  12. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Background Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP among cases with and without previous LBP. Methods A questionnaire survey among 5696 newly qualified health care workers who completed a baseline questionnaire shortly before completing their education and a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. Participants were selected on the following criteria: (a) being female, (b) working in the health care sector (n = 2677). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs on the severity of LBP. Results For those with previous LBP, physical work load has an importance, but not among those without previous LBP. In relation to fear-avoidance beliefs, there is a positive relation between it and LBP of than 30 days in both groups, i.e. those without and with previous LBP. No moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP was found among cases with and without LBP. Conclusion Both physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those with previous LBP. Only fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those without previous LBP. The study did not find a moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP. PMID:19778413

  13. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  14. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  16. AIMS: Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.

    2016-11-01

    AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) estimates stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of seismic frequency data and so-called classic constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm; interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modeling consists of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classic spectroscopic constraints.

  17. What Should Religious Education in Germany Be about and How Does Religiosity Fit into This Picture? An Empirical Study of Pre-Service Religious Education Teachers' Beliefs on the Aims of RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Ulrich; Mendl, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In secularising Germany the aim of religious education (RE) is under discussion. The churches opt for denominational education familiarising the students with their own religious tradition. Humanists claim an ethical education, giving students objective information about different religions. Which perspective do students who will become RE…

  18. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  19. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  20. A phase I pilot study of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor pathway modulator AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Georg; Bergström, Stefan; Harmenberg, Johan; Ringbom, Magnus; Klockare, Maria; Jerling, Markus; Ekman, Simon; Lundström, Kristina Lamberg; Koyi, Hirsh; Brandén, Eva; Larsson, Olle; Bergqvist, Michael

    2015-04-01

    AXL1717 is an orally bioavailable IGF-1R pathway modulator that has been shown to have anti-tumoral effects. The objectives of the present study were to define maximum tolerated dose and the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) of AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic NSCLC (squamous cell cancer or adenocarcinoma) in good performance status and with preserved major organ functions were enrolled in the study. The study was an open-label phase I study with planned cohorts of three patients per dose level of AXL1717 (215, 290, and 390 mg BID). In total, 12 patients were enrolled in the study, and of these, two were prematurely excluded. AXL1717 was administered at one dose level, 215 mg BID. A total number of 81 unique adverse events were reported. Bone marrow toxicity was reported in 10 out of 12 patients, and this organ class showed the largest number of related events. AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin is a possible treatment approach in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, due to the bone marrow toxicity profile shown in the present study, further dose increases of AXL1717 above 215 mg BID will probably not be feasible. Therefore, 215 mg BID constitutes maximum tolerated dose and RPTD.

  1. The aims and accomplishments of comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Greenberg, Partridge, Weiss, and Pisula propose a new perspective of comparative psychology, based in large part on an anagenetic and dynamic systems approach to the development and evolution of behavior. Their view appreciates the probabilistic nature of behavioral development and promotes the value of an integrative levels concept for generating testable hypothesis regarding the complex relationship between biology, context, and developmental history underlying behavioral and psychological functioning. However, the authors fail to represent the full scope of contemporary comparative psychology by overlooking several core aims of the field, including (a) the use of animal models to shed light on human behavior and development and (b) understanding the role of behavior as a leading edge in the evolutionary process.

  2. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in government...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  3. In Vitro Culture of Previously Uncultured Oral Bacterial Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2015-01-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture. PMID:26407883

  4. In vitro culture of previously uncultured oral bacterial phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G

    2015-12-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture.

  5. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  6. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on the molecular structures, spectroscopy, and inhibitor activity of 3-(2-thienyl)acrylic acid through AIM, NBO,FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and HOMO-LUMO analyses, and molecular docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, N.; Ghalla, H.; Bardak, F.; Karabacak, M.; Aouled Dlala, N.; Flakus, H. T.; Oujia, B.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the molecular structures and vibrational spectral analyses of 3-(2-Theinyl)acrylic acid (3-2TAA) monomer and dimer structures have been reported by using density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The complete assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes were obtained using potential energy distribution. Intermolecular interactions were analyzed by orbital NBO and topological AIM approaches. The electronic properties have been carried out using TD-DFT approach. Great agreements between experimental and theoretical values were achieved throughout the analysis of structural parameters and spectroscopic features. Inhibitor characteristics on human monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) enzyme of two determined stable conformers of 3-2TAA (β and γ) along with four selective inhibitors, namely safinamide, a coumarin analogue, farnesol, and phenyethylhydrazine were investigated via molecular docking. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and temperature dependency of thermodynamic functions have been reported.

  7. Many Visions, Many Aims, One Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1997-01-01

    According to newly released Third International Mathematics and Science Study data, American children may score low on international comparisons because teachers are trying to teach them too many topics. Surprisingly, Florida's minimum competency testing program has not increased low-achievers' dropout rate. A recent "American…

  8. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-442 AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be... Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module sec - seconds STD - Standard TV - Technical View AIM-9X Blk II December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 15:14:10

  9. Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Daisuke; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Indo, Hiroko; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Yano, Sachiko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

    Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum radiation protection. We estimated the shielding ability of regolith against each atomic number of space radiation particles. Using stopping power data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73, we simulated the approximate expression (function of the energy of the atomic nucleus as x and the atomic number as Z) of the stopping power for the space proton particle (nucleus of H) against silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron (Fe), which are the main components of regolith. Based on the expression, we applied the manipulation to the other particles of space radiation to up to argon particle (Ar). These simulated expressions complied well the data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73 except alpha particle (nucleus of He). The simulation values of stop-ping power of ten elements from potassium to nickel those we had no data in ICRU REPORT were further simulated. Using the obtained expressions, the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose and depth of a silicon dioxide was obtained. The space radiation relative dose with every depth in the moon could be estimated by this study.

  10. Bortezomib Added to Daunorubicin and Cytarabine During Induction Therapy and to Intermediate-Dose Cytarabine for Consolidation in Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Age 60 to 75 Years: CALGB (Alliance) Study 10502

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Eyal C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Amrein, Philip C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Voorhees, Peter; Wang, Eunice S.; Blum, William; Stone, Richard M.; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Moser, Barry; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC). Patients and Methods Ninety-five adults (age 60 to 75 years; median, 67 years) with previously untreated AML (including therapy-related and previous myelodysplastic syndrome) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion on days 1 through 7. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received up to two courses of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine 2 gm/m2 on days 1 through 5 with bortezomib. Three cohorts with escalating dose levels of bortezomib were tested (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m2). Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during the first cycle of consolidation. The relationship between cell surface expression of CD74 and clinical outcome was assessed. Results Frequency of CR was 65% (62 of 95), and 4% of patients (four of 95) achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Eleven patients developed grade 3 sensory neuropathy. Bortezomib plus Int-DAC proved tolerable at the highest dose tested. Lower CD74 expression was associated with CR/CRp (P = .04) but not with disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion The addition of bortezomib to standard 3 + 7 daunorubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy for AML resulted in an encouraging remission rate. The maximum tested dose of bortezomib administered in combination with Int-DAC for remission consolidation was 1.3 mg/m2 and proved tolerable. Further testing of this regimen is planned. PMID:23129738

  11. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  12. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (Bax326) in previously treated patients with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B undergoing surgical or other invasive procedures: a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, multicentre, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Ghandehari, H; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Wong, W-Y; Pavlova, B G; Abbuehl, B E

    2014-09-01

    Haemostatic management of haemophilia B patients undergoing surgery is critical to patient safety. The aim of this ongoing prospective trial was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (rFIX) (Bax326) in previously treated subjects (12-65 years, without history of FIX inhibitors) with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B, undergoing surgical, dental or other invasive procedures. Haemostatic efficacy was assessed according to a predefined scale. Blood loss was compared to the average and maximum blood loss predicted preoperatively. Haemostatic FIX levels were achieved peri- and postoperatively in 100% of subjects (n = 14). Haemostasis was 'excellent' intraoperatively in all patients and postoperatively in those without a drain, and 'excellent' or 'good' at the time of drain removal and day of discharge in those with a drain employed. Following the initial dose, the mean FIX activity level rose from 6.55% to 107.58% for major surgeries and from 3.60% to 81.4% for minor surgeries. Actual vs. predicted blood loss matched predicted intraoperative blood loss but was equal to or higher than (but less than 150%) the maximum predicted postoperative blood loss reflecting the severity of procedure and FIX requirements. There were no related adverse events, severe allergic reactions or thrombotic events. There was no evidence that BAX326 increased the risk of inhibitor or binding antibody development to FIX. BAX326 was safe and effective for peri-operative management of 14 subjects with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B.

  13. Modelling the Role of Dietary Habits and Eating Behaviours on the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome or Stroke: Aims, Design, and Validation Properties of a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J.; Goudevenos, John A.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the methodology and procedures of a case-control study that will be developed for assessing the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome and stroke is presented. Based on statistical power calculations, 1000 participants will be enrolled; of them, 250 will be consecutive patients with a first acute coronary event, 250 consecutive patients with a first ischaemic stroke, and 500 population-based healthy subjects (controls), age and sex matched to the cases. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological, and other lifestyle characteristics will be measured. Dietary habits and eating behaviours will be evaluated with a special questionnaire that has been developed for the study. PMID:20871842

  14. Species diversity can be overestimated by a fixed empirical threshold: insights from DNA barcoding of the genus Cletus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and the meta-analysis of COI data from previous phylogeographical studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guang; Lv, Min-Hua; Yi, Wen-Bo; Zhu, Wei-Bing; Bu, Wen-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The use of genetic distances to identify species within the framework of DNA barcoding has to some extent improved the development of biodiversity studies. However, using a fixed empirical threshold to delimit species may lead to overestimating species diversity. In this study, we use a new data set of COI sequences for 366 specimens within the genus of Cletus as well as conduct an analysis on the same genetic data for collected morphologically defined species from previous phylogeographical studies, to test whether high intraspecific genetic divergences are common with the premises of comprehensive sampling. The results indicate C. graminis Hsiao & Cheng , is the same species with C. punctiger (Dallas, 1852) and should be synonymized and that the distributional record of C. pugnator (Fabricius, 1787) in China is correct. High intraspecific genetic differentiations (0%-4.35%) were found in C. punctiger. Furthermore, as to the mined data, the maximum intraspecific K2P distances of 186 species (48.44% of 384) exceed 3%, and 101 species (26.30%) can be divided into two or more clusters with a threshold of 3% in cluster analysis. If genetic distance is used to delimit species boundaries, the minimum interspecific K2P distance of the congeneric species should be considered rather than only using the fixed empirical value; otherwise, the species richness may be overestimated in some cases.

  15. Learning from Texts: Activation of Information from Previous Texts during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; van den Broek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts…

  16. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N

    2016-02-01

    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock.

  17. Phase II study of the effectiveness and safety of trastuzumab and paclitaxel for taxane‐ and trastuzumab‐naïve patients with HER2‐positive, previously treated, advanced, or recurrent gastric cancer (JFMC45‐1102)

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Miki, Akira; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Nishida, Yasunori; Iwasa, Satoru; Miwa, Hiroto; Masuishi, Toshiki; Boku, Narikazu; Yamada, Yasuhide; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard second‐line gastric cancer treatment in Japan. Trastuzumab could be active as second‐line chemotherapy for taxane/trastuzumab‐naïve patients with epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)‐positive advanced gastric cancer. Patients aged ≥20 years with HER2‐positive, previously treated (except for trastuzumab and taxane), unresectable or recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma underwent combined trastuzumab (first and subsequent doses of 8 and 6 mg kg−1, respectively, every 3 weeks) and paclitaxel (days 1, 8, 15, every 4 weeks) treatment. Study endpoints were best overall response, progression‐free survival, overall survival, and safety. From September 2011 to March 2012, 47 Japanese patients were enrolled. Forty patients discontinued treatment after a median of 128.5 (range 4–486) days. Complete and partial responses were obtained in one and 16 patients (response rate of 37% [95% CI 23–52]), respectively. Median progression‐free survival and overall survival were 5.1 (95% CI 3.8–6.5) and 17.1 (95% CI 13.5–18.6) months, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (32.6%), leukopenia (17.4%), anemia (15.2%) and hypoalbuminemia (8.7%). There was no clinically significant cardiotoxicity or cumulative toxicity. Three (disturbed consciousness, pulmonary fibrosis, and rapid disease progression) grade 5 events occurred. In conclusion, trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel was well tolerated and was a promising regimen for patients with HER2‐positive, previously treated, advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. PMID:27521503

  18. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. Methods/Design A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis

  19. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): with the aim of the drug interactions probing.

    PubMed

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-25

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  20. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): With the aim of the drug interactions probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  1. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes.

    PubMed

    Maranzana, Andrea; Giordana, Anna; Indarto, Antonius; Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo; Causà, Mauro; Pavone, Michele

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔEAB. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔEAB are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A-B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [EMP2/CBS] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔECC-MP, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔEAB with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational

  2. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Maranzana, Andrea E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Giordana, Anna E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Indarto, Antonius Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Causà, Mauro E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Pavone, Michele E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ΔE{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ΔE{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A−B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ωB97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ΔE{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ΔE{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting

  3. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Applicable O&S - Operating and Support Oth - Other PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element Proc - Procurement...IATO - Interim Authorization to Operate IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture in - Inches IP - Internet Protocol IT - Information Technology ...Block II SAR. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 07 0207161N Project Name 0457 Tactical Aim Missile (Shared) Air Force 3600 07 0207161F

  4. Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E.; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Context  Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. Objective  To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Preparticipation physical examinations. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Results  Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Conclusions  Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the

  5. Taking Aims: New CASE Study Benchmarks Advancement Investments and Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Advancement professionals have always been thirsty for information that will help them understand how their programs compare with those of their peers. But in recent years the demand for benchmarking data has exploded as budgets have become leaner, leaders have become more business minded, and terms like "performance metrics and return on…

  6. Physics Studies in Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) Related Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-23

    chamber data Molecular time - td Molecular time << td Chamber wall affects lifetime Wp = Wrf Wp << Wrf High energy absorption per molecule alters...A recent experiment designed to measure ionization rate in nitrogen (N2) at high values of EIP (EIP = 144-3840) is described in [Hays et al, 1987...nominal value, such as its average, v, over the electron energy distribution gives good agreement with experimental measurements . Using this

  7. Efficacy of Zofenopril vs. Irbesartan in Combination with a Thiazide Diuretic in Hypertensive Patients with Multiple Risk Factors not Controlled by a Previous Monotherapy: A Review of the Double-Blind, Randomized "Z" Studies.

    PubMed

    Omboni, Stefano; Malacco, Ettore; Napoli, Claudio; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Manolis, Athanasios; Parati, Gianfranco; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Combinations between an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) are among the recommended treatments for hypertensive patients uncontrolled by monotherapy. Four randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies with a similar design, including 1469 hypertensive patients uncontrolled by a previous monotherapy and with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor, compared the efficacy of a combination of a sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor (zofenopril at 30 or 60 mg) or an ARB (irbesartan at 150 or 300 mg) plus HCTZ 12.5 mg. The extent of blood pressure (BP)-lowering was assessed in the office and over 24 h. Pleiotropic features of the treatments were evaluated by studying their effect on systemic inflammation, organ damage, arterial stiffness, and metabolic biochemical parameters. Both treatments similarly reduced office and ambulatory BPs after 18-24 weeks. In the ZODIAC study a larger reduction in high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) was observed under zofenopril (-0.52 vs. +0.97 mg/dL under irbesartan, p = 0.001), suggesting a potential protective effect against the development of atherosclerosis. In the ZENITH study the rate of carotid plaque regression was significantly larger under zofenopril (32% vs. 16%; p = 0.047). In the diabetic patients of the ZAMES study, no adverse effects of treatments on blood glucose and lipids as well as an improvement of renal function were observed. In patients with isolated systolic hypertension of the ZEUS study, a slight and similar improvement in renal function and small reductions in pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AI), and central systolic BP were documented with both treatments. Thus, the fixed combination of zofenopril and HCTZ may have a relevant place in the treatment of high-risk or monotherapy-treated uncontrolled hypertensive patients requiring a more prompt, intensive, and sustained BP reduction, in line with the

  8. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  9. Completed Suicides and their Previous Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)

  10. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs).

    PubMed

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Salzano, Francisco M; Hutz, Mara H

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow.

  11. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  12. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in previously shunted children.

    PubMed

    Brichtova, Eva; Chlachula, Martin; Hrbac, Tomas; Lipina, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%). There were two serious complications (4.7%)-one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  13. The OptiMUM-study: EMDR therapy in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder after previous childbirth and pregnant women with fear of childbirth: design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Baas, M. A. M.; Stramrood, C. A. I.; Dijksman, L. M.; de Jongh, A.; van Pampus, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 3% of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after giving birth, and 7.5% of pregnant women show a pathological fear of childbirth (FoC). FoC or childbirth-related PTSD during (a subsequent) pregnancy can lead to a request for an elective caesarean section as well as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. For PTSD in general, and several subtypes of specific phobia, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven effective, but little is known about the effects of applying EMDR during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the protocol of the OptiMUM-study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether EMDR therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pregnant women with childbirth-related PTSD or FoC. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of this approach will be analysed. Method: The single-blind OptiMUM-study consists of two two-armed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overlapping design. In several hospitals and community midwifery practices in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, all eligible pregnant women with a gestational age between eight and 20 weeks will be administered the Wijma delivery expectations questionnaire (WDEQ) to asses FoC. Multiparous women will also receive the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to screen for possible PTSD. The clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS-5) will be used for assessing PTSD according to DSM-5 in women scoring above the PCL-5 cut-off value. Fifty women with childbirth-related PTSD and 120 women with FoC will be randomly allocated to either EMDR therapy carried out by a psychologist or care-as-usual. Women currently undergoing psychological treatment or women younger than 18 years will not be included. Primary outcome measures are severity of childbirth-related PTSD or FoC symptoms. Secondary outcomes are percentage of PTSD diagnoses, percentage caesarean sections, subjective childbirth experience, obstetrical and neonatal complications

  14. Research Project on Educational Aims. Research Bulletin 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.; And Others

    Summaries of classroom research studies conducted in Finland on the development of educational aims are presented. Papers in this document deal with: (1) an overview of the purposes of the research project; (2) cognitive processes in classroom verbal interaction; (3) taxonomy of physical education; (4) objectives of religious education; (5)…

  15. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  16. Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Part II: overview of the results at the CENICA supersite and comparison to previous studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, D.; Dzepina, K.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2005-06-01

    An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study from 31 March-4 May 2003. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. Measurements of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer, and estimated soil concentrations from Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates are also presented and combined with the AMS in order to include refractory material and estimate the total PM2.5 mass concentration at CENICA during this campaign. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents 54.6% of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds (mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5; BC mass concentration is about 11%; while soil represents about 6.9%. The NR species and BC have diurnal cycles that can be qualitatively interpreted as the interplay of direct emissions, photochemical production in the atmosphere followed by condensation and gas-to-particle partitioning, boundary layer dynamics, and/or advection. Bi- and trimodal size distributions are observed for the AMS species, with a small combustion (likely traffic) organic particle mode and an accumulation mode that contains mainly organic and secondary inorganic compounds. The AMS and BC mass concentrations, size distributions, and diurnal cycles are found to be qualitatively similar to those from most previous field measurements in Mexico City.

  17. Integration of alternating monocular samples during goal-directed aiming.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steve; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of interocular delay in a manual aiming task that required accurate end-point placement, but not precise control of a grip aperture. Participants aimed in binocular, monocular, or alternating monocular vision conditions. For the latter, 25ms monocular samples were provided to alternate eyes without delay (0ms), or a delay of 25 or 50ms. The interocular delay resulted in a longer movement time, caused by a longer time-to-peak and time-after-peak velocity, and a reduction in peak velocity. We suggest that the change in kinematics reflect a strategic response to preserve terminal aiming accuracy and variability when faced with an informational perturbation. These findings indicate that the response to the interocular delay between alternating monocular samples depends on the task-specific information used to control that behavior.

  18. Randomized Phase II Study of Cabazitaxel Versus Methotrexate in Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Previously Treated With Platinum-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Maanen, Aline; Vandenbulcke, Jean-Marie; Filleul, Bertrand; Seront, Emmanuel; D’Hondt, Lionel; Lonchay, Christophe; Holbrechts, Stéphane; Boegner, Petra; Brohee, Dany; Dequanter, Didier; Louviaux, Ingrid; Sautois, Brieuc; Whenham, Nicolas; Berchem, Guy; Vanderschueren, Brigitte; Fontaine, Christel; Schmitz, Sandra; Gillain, Aline; Schoonjans, Joelle; Rottey, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. For the first time, cabazitaxel was investigated in incurable patients with recurrent SCCHN. Patients were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks or weekly methotrexate. This phase II study did not meet its primary endpoint. Cabazitaxel has low activity in SCCHN. The toxicity profile in this population also was not favorable owing to the high rate of febrile neutropenia observed (17%). Background. Cabazitaxel is a second-generation taxane that improves the survival of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer following docetaxel therapy. Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. In this randomized phase II trial, we investigated cabazitaxel in patients with recurrent SCCHN. Methods. Patients with incurable SCCHN with progression after platinum-based therapy were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks (cycle 1, 20 mg/m2, increased to 25 mg/m2 for subsequent cycles in the absence of nonhematological adverse events [AEs] greater than grade 2 and hematological AEs greater than grade 3) or methotrexate (40 mg/m2/week). The patients were stratified according to their performance status and previous platinum-based chemotherapy for palliation versus curative intent. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate (PFSR) at 18 weeks. Results. Of the 101 patients, 53 and 48, with a median age of 58.0 years (range, 41–80), were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel or methotrexate, respectively. The PFSR at 18 weeks was 13.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%–25%) for cabazitaxel and 8.3% (95% CI, 2%–20%) for methotrexate. The median progression-free survival was 1.9 months in both arms. The median overall survival was 5.0 and 3.6 months for cabazitaxel and methotrexate, respectively. More patients experienced serious adverse

  19. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    PubMed

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  20. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB282 and TB284, a Widespread and a Unique Strain, Respectively, Identified in a Previous Study of Tuberculosis Transmission in Central Los Angeles, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the genome sequences of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates previously identified in central Los Angeles, CA, in the 1990s using a PacBio platform. Isolate TB282 represents a large-cluster strain that caused 27% of the tuberculosis cases, while TB284 represents a strain that caused disease in only one patient. PMID:28082486

  1. Inspections of Previously Monitored Coastal Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    Facility Breakwater, Hawaii .... 12 Yaquina Bay North Jetty, Oregon 14 Siuslaw River Jetties, Oregon 17 Umpqua River Training Jetty, Oregon 21...Facility breakwater, Hawaii 4 Yaquina Bay north jetty, Oregon 5 Siuslaw River jetties, Oregon 6 Umpqua River training jetty, Oregon 7 Crescent City...and the jetty spur head as previously discussed. Umpqua River Training Jetty, Oregon The Federal Navigation Project at the Umpqua River lies within

  2. Why scientists perform animal experiments, scientific or personal aim?

    PubMed Central

    Mayir, Burhan; Doğan, Uğur; Bilecik, Tuna; Yardımcı, Erdem Can; Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Mayir, Yeliz Akpınar; Oruç, Mehmet Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although all animal studies are conducted in line with a specific purpose, we think that not all animal studies are performed for a scientific purpose but for personal curiosity or to fulfill a requirement. The aim of the present study is to reveal the purposes of experimental studies conducted on animals. Matherial and Methods We searched for experimental studies performed on rats in general surgery clinics via PubMed, and obtained the e-mail addresses of the corresponding authors for each study. Afterwards, we sent a 7-item questionnaire to the authors and awaited their responses. Results Seventy-three (22.2%) of 329 authors responded to the questionnaire. Within these studies, 31 (42.5%) were conducted as part of a dissertation, while the remaining 19 (26.0%) were conducted to meet the academic promotion criteria. Only 23 (31.5%) were conducted for scientific purposes. The cost of 41% of those studies was higher than 2500 $. Conclusion As shown in this study, the main objective of carrying out animal studies in Turkey is usually to prepare a dissertation or to be entitled to academic promotion. Animal experiments must be planned and performed as scientific studies to support related clinical studies. Additionally, animal studies must have well-defined objectives and be carried out in line with scientific purposes that may lead to useful developments in medicine, rather than personal interests. PMID:28149122

  3. [Mucosal healling: a realistic aim or marketing myth?].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Valle; Iglesias-Flores, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The classical aim of the treatment of ulcerative colitis is to induce and maintain remission. However, this aim has not been shown to prevent long-term complications. Current treatment goals attempt to prevent complications. In some studies, healing of the intestinal mucosa has been shown to improve long-term outcomes. In ulcerative colitis, mucosal healing reduces recurrence, the risk of colorectal cancer and the need for surgery, and improves patients' quality of life. The drugs for which there is greatest evidence of their efficacy in inducing and maintaining mucosal healing are salicylates and biological agents. In the near future, endoscopic monitoring may be required to evaluate response to the treatment and decisions may have to be taken according to the persistence or disappearance of these lesions.

  4. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  5. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  6. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  7. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  8. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  9. Obinutuzumab for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jame; Stegner, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Obinutuzumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The approval was based on results of an open-label phase 3 trial that showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone. Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre B- and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis by engaging immune effector cells, directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways, and activating the complement cascade. Immune effector cell activities include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

  10. Quality-of-life and performance status results from the phase III RAINBOW study of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma†

    PubMed Central

    Al-Batran, S.-E.; Van Cutsem, E.; Oh, S. C.; Bodoky, G.; Shimada, Y.; Hironaka, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Lipatov, O. N.; Kim, T.-Y.; Cunningham, D.; Rougier, P.; Muro, K.; Liepa, A. M.; Chandrawansa, K.; Emig, M.; Ohtsu, A.; Wilke, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine–platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. Patients and methods Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ≥10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ≥2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ≥1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ≥2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ≥ 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ≥1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ≥2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. Conclusion In patients with previously treated advanced gastric

  11. Mathematical literacy in Plant Physiology undergraduates: results of interventions aimed at improving students' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-09-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant Physiology course. We have performed individual analyses of results obtained during the period 2000-2011, for questions in the examinations requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. Additionally, we present the outcome of two interventions introduced with the aim of helping students improve their prospects for success in the course. Our results confirm previous research showing students' deficiencies in mathematical skills. However, the scores obtained for mathematical questions in the examinations are good predictors of the final grades attained in Plant Physiology, as there are strong correlations at the individual level between results for questions requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. The introduction of a laboratory session devoted to strengthening the application of students' previously acquired mathematical knowledge did not change significantly the results obtained for mathematical questions. Since mathematical abilities of students entering university have declined in recent years, this intervention may have helped to maintain students' performance to a level comparable to that of previous years. The outcome of self-assessment online tests indicates that although Mathematics anxiety is lower than during examinations, the poor results obtained for questions requiring mathematical skills are, at least in part, due to a lack of self-efficacy.

  12. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  13. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.

  14. A proteolytic modification of AIM promotes its renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Takai, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Senda, Yoshie; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nelson, Peter S.; Lucas, Jared M.; Morgan, Andrew; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l) is a multi-functional circulating protein that has a beneficial role in the regulation of a broad range of diseases, some of which are ameliorated by AIM administration in mice. In blood, AIM is stabilized by association with IgM pentamers and maintains its high circulating levels. The mechanism regulating the excessive accumulation of blood AIM remains unknown, although it is important, since a constitutive increase in AIM levels promotes chronic inflammation. Here we found a physiological AIM-cleavage process that induces destabilization of AIM and its excretion in urine. In blood, IgM-free AIM appeared to be cleaved and reduced in size approximately 10 kDa. Cleaved AIM was unable to bind to IgM and was selectively filtered by the glomerulus, thereby excreted in urine. Amino acid substitution at the cleavage site resulted in no renal excretion of AIM. Interestingly, cleaved AIM retained a comparable potency with full-length AIM in facilitating the clearance of dead cell debris in injured kidney, which is a key response in the recovery of acute kidney injury. Identification of AIM-cleavage and resulting functional modification could be the basis for designing safe and efficient AIM therapy for various diseases. PMID:27929116

  15. A phase I/II study of oral clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine in previously treated acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients at least 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sarah A; Mawad, Raya; Gooley, Ted A; Becker, Pamela S; Sandhu, Vicky; Hendrie, Paul; Scott, Bart L; Wood, Brent L; Walter, Roland B; Smith, Kelly; Dean, Carol; Estey, Elihu H; Pagel, John M

    2015-08-01

    Outcomes for older adults with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are generally poor, and new effective therapies are needed. We investigated oral clofarabine combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) in patients aged 60 years and above with relapsed or refractory AML or high-risk MDS in a phase I/II trial. A 3 + 3 dose escalation of oral clofarabine was followed by a phase II expansion with the aim of obtaining a complete response (CR) rate ≥30%. We identified 20 mg/d for 5 d as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral clofarabine. A total of 35 patients, with a median age of 72 years, were treated. Of 26 patients enrolled at the MTD, 4 had treatment-related grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicities, but none died within 28 d. The observed CR rate and median survival were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 18-50%] and 6.8 months overall and 38% [95% CI, 19-57%] and 7.2 months at the MTD. The median disease-free survival was 7.4 months. Fifty-two percent (23/44) of cycles administered at the MTD were done without hospital admission. This combination of oral clofarabine and LDAC demonstrated efficacy with a CR rate of >30% and acceptable toxicity in older patients.

  16. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p < 0.0001; GLIMMIX). In the cancer-positive TB cores, CaDR with suspicious lesions by mpMRI was higher than that by CEUS (86.8% vs. 60.5%, p= 0.02; paired t-test) and concordant rate between mpMRI and CEUS was significantly different with discordant rate (48% vs. 52%, p=0.04; McNemar’s test). Conclusion The mpMRI-CEUS correlated TB technique for the repeat prostate biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  17. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  18. Stabilization precision control methods of photoelectric aim-stabilized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoru; Chen, Hua; Xue, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    To solve the question that photoelectric aim-stabilized system can be controlled with high precision and stability, this paper researches a new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm, analyzes the photoelectric aim-stabilized system architecture, sets up stability control system mathematical model, designs the stability of the photoelectric aim-stabilized LSSVM identification and control system, discusses uncertain factors and calculates the LSSVM parameters by the Chaos theory, gives the predictive controller model by the LSSVM and designs new photoelectric aim-stabilized system. Through the simulation calculation and experimental analysis, new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm was verified; the results show the new photoelectric aim-stabilized control method can meet the demand of high precision control in photoelectric aim-stabilized system.

  19. Prosocial Behavior in Advertising Aimed at Children: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Daniel A., Jr.; Mouritsen, Russell H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes network, independent, and cable television advertisements aimed at children in terms of their beneficial or "prosocial" examples. Reveals that several commercials aimed at children are rich in examples of sharing, courtesy, and physical affection. (MM)

  20. Education Reform and Students At Risk. Volume III: Synthesis and Evaluation of Previous Efforts To Improve Educational Practice and Development of Strategies for Achieving Positive Outcomes. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert J.

    Despite the widespread attention given to education reform, no substantial knowledge base has existed for identifying and implementing effective reforms for at-risk student populations. This document, the third of three volumes, describes the research design for a study that identified the essential mechanics of effective reforms for students at…

  1. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  2. Visual regulation of manual aiming: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve

    2010-11-01

    Visual regulation of upper limb movements occurs throughout the trajectory and is not confined to discrete control in the target area. Early control is based on the dynamic relationship between the limb, the target, and the environment. Despite robust outcome differences between protocols involving visual manipulations, it remains difficult to identify the kinematic events that characterize these differences. In this study, participants performed manual aiming movements with and without vision. We compared several traditional approaches to movement analysis with two new methods of quantifying online limb regulation. As expected, participants undershot the target and their movement endpoints were more variable when vision was not available. Although traditional measures such as reaction time, time after peak velocity, and the presence of discontinuities in acceleration were sensitive to the visual manipulation, measures quantifying the trial-to-trial spatial variability throughout the trajectory were the most effective in isolating the time course of online regulation.

  3. Efficacy of Zofenopril Compared With Placebo and Other Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Previous Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Pooled Individual Data Analysis of 4 Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled, Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Omboni, Stefano; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Bacchelli, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Daniela; Ambrosioni, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-term Evaluation (SMILE) 1, 3, and 4 studies, early administration of zofenopril in acute myocardial infarction showed to be prognostically beneficial versus placebo or ramipril. The SMILE-2 showed that both zofenopril and lisinopril are safe and showed no significant differences in the incidence of major cardiovascular (CV) complications. In this pooled analysis of individual data of the SMILE studies, we evaluated whether the superior efficacy of zofenopril is maintained also in patients with ≥1 CV risk factor (CV+, n = 2962) as compared to CV− (n = 668). The primary study end point was set to 1-year combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for CV causes. The risk of CV events was significantly reduced with zofenopril versus placebo either in the CV+ (−37%; hazard ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.51–0.78; P = 0.0001) or in the CV− group (−55%; hazard ratio: 0.45; 0.26–0.78; P = 0.004). Also, the other angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduced the risk of major CV outcomes, though the reduction was not statistically significant versus placebo (CV+: 0.78; 0.58–1.05; P = 0.107; CV−: 0.71; 0.36–1.41; P = 0.334). The benefit was larger in patients treated with zofenopril than other angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, with a statistically significant difference for CV+ (0.79; 0.63–0.99; P = 0.039) versus CV− (0.62; 0.37–1.06; P = 0.081). In conclusion, zofenopril administered to patients after acute myocardial infarction has a positive impact on prognosis, regardless of the patient's CV risk profile. PMID:27798417

  4. An open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study of single-agent carfilzomib in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma who have been previously treated with bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Vij, Ravi; Siegel, David S; Jagannath, Sundar; Jakubowiak, Andrzej J; Stewart, Alexander Keith; McDonagh, Kevin; Bahlis, Nizar; Belch, Andrew; Kunkel, Lori A; Wear, Sandra; Wong, Alvin F; Wang, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Carfilzomib is a next-generation proteasome inhibitor that selectively and irreversibly binds to its target. In clinical studies, carfilzomib has shown efficacy in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (MM) and has demonstrated a tolerable safety profile. In this phase 2, open-label, multicentre clinical trial, 35 patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM following 1-3 prior therapies, including at least one bortezomib-based regimen, received carfilzomib 20 mg/m(2) in a twice-weekly, consecutive-day dosing schedule for ≤12 monthly cycles. The best overall response rate (ORR) was 17·1% and the clinical benefit response rate (ORR + minimal response) was 31·4%. The median duration of response was >10·6 months and the median time to progression was 4·6 months. The most common adverse events were fatigue (62·9%), nausea (60·0%), and vomiting (42·9%). No exacerbation of baseline peripheral neuropathy was observed. Single-agent carfilzomib was generally well tolerated for up to 12 treatment cycles and showed activity in patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM who had received prior treatment with bortezomib. These data, combined with an acceptable toxicity profile, support the potential use of carfilzomib in patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM and warrant continued investigation of carfilzomib as single agent or in combination with other agents.

  5. Two-stage replication of previous genome-wide association studies of AS3MT-CNNM2-NT5C2 gene cluster region in a large schizophrenia case-control sample from Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fanglin; Zhang, Tianxiao; Li, Lu; Fu, Dongke; Lin, Huali; Chen, Gang; Chen, Teng

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric condition with high heritability. Replicating the specific genetic variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia in different populations is critical to better understand schizophrenia. CNNM2 and NT5C2 are genes recently identified as susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in Europeans, but the exact mechanism by which these genes confer risk for schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, we examined the potential for genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia of a three-gene cluster region, AS3MT-CNNM2-NT5C2. We implemented a two-stage strategy to conduct association analyses of the targeted regions with schizophrenia. A total of 8218 individuals were recruited, and 45 pre-selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. Both single-marker and haplotype-based analyses were conducted in addition to imputation analysis to increase the coverage of our genetic markers. Two SNPs, rs11191419 (OR=1.24, P=7.28×10(-5)) and rs11191514 (OR=1.24, P=0.0003), with significant independent effects were identified. These results were supported by the data from both the discovery and validation stages. Further haplotype and imputation analyses also validated these results, and bioinformatics analyses indicated that CALHM1, which is located approximately 630kb away from CNNM2, might be a susceptible gene for schizophrenia. Our results provide further support that AS3MT, CNNM2 and CALHM1 are involved with the etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia, suggesting these genes are potential targets of interest for the improvement of disease management and the development of novel pharmacological strategies.

  6. Automated Diagnosis Of Faults In Antenna-Aiming Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Mellstrom, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses research directed toward automated diagnosis of faults in complicated electromechanical and hydraulic systems aiming 70-m and 34-m antennas of Deep Space Network communication system.

  7. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  8. Relationship between tumor biomarkers and efficacy in TH3RESA, a phase III study of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) vs. treatment of physician's choice in previously treated HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Wildiers, Hans; Krop, Ian E; Smitt, Melanie; Yu, Ron; Lysbet de Haas, Sanne; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    In the phase III TH3RESA study (NCT01419197), 602 patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer who received prior taxane therapy and ≥2 HER2-directed regimens, including trastuzumab and lapatinib (advanced setting), were randomized to trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) or treatment of physician's choice (TPC). A statistically significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit favoring T-DM1 was demonstrated. Here, we examine the relationship between HER2-related biomarkers and PFS in an exploratory analysis. Biomarkers assessed included HER2 (n = 505) and HER3 (n = 505) mRNA expression, PIK3CA mutation status (n = 410) and PTEN protein expression (n = 358). For biomarkers with continuous data (HER2, HER3, PTEN), subgroups were defined using median values (>median and ≤median). For all biomarker subgroups, median PFS was longer with T-DM1 vs. TPC. The PFS benefit favoring T-DM1 vs. TPC was numerically greater in the HER2 mRNA >median subgroup (7.2 vs. 3.4 months; unstratified hazard ratio [HR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.59; p < 0.0001) vs. ≤median subgroup (5.5 vs. 3.9 months; HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.92; p = 0.0131). The PFS benefit with T-DM1 was similar among HER3, PIK3CA and PTEN subgroups. Consistent with other reports, benefit was seen with T-DM1 regardless of PIK3CA mutation status. In a multivariate analysis including an interaction term (treatment group by log2-transformed HER2 mRNA), patients with higher HER2 mRNA levels benefited more from receiving T-DM1 (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.94; interaction p value = 0.0027). In summary, T-DM1 prolonged median PFS in all biomarker subgroups analyzed, including activating PIK3CA mutations, with numerically greater benefit in patients with tumors expressing HER2 mRNA >median vs. ≤median.

  9. Relationship between HER2 expression and efficacy with first-line trastuzumab emtansine compared with trastuzumab plus docetaxel in TDM4450g: a randomized phase II study of patients with previously untreated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the relationship between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and efficacy in patients receiving trastuzumab plus docetaxel (HT) or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). Methods Patients with HER2-positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were randomly assigned to HT (n = 70) or T-DM1 (n = 67). HER2 status was assessed locally using immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization and confirmed retrospectively by central testing. HER2 mRNA expression was assessed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results HER2 mRNA levels were obtained for 116/137 patients (HT = 61; T-DM1 = 55). Median pretreatment HER2 mRNA was 8.9. The risk of disease progression in the overall population was lower with T-DM1 than with HT (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 to 0.97). This effect was more pronounced in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median (HR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.85) versus < median (HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.67). In the T-DM1 arm, median progression-free survival (PFS) was not reached in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median and was 10.6 months in patients with HER2 mRNA < median. In the HT arm, PFS was 8.8 versus 9.8 months in patients with HER2 mRNA ≥ median versus < median, respectively. The effect of HER2 mRNA expression on objective response rates was less pronounced. Conclusions This exploratory analysis suggests that while overall, patients with HER2-positive MBC show improved PFS with T-DM1 relative to HT, the effect is enhanced in patients with tumor HER2 mRNA ≥ median. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00679341 PMID:24887458

  10. Indiscriminate Behaviors in Previously Institutionalized Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. RESULTS: In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs 3.5%; P < .001). Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1–2.5]). CONCLUSIONS: Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors. PMID:24488743

  11. ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operations in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Mutoh, T.; Komori, A.; Inagaki, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Notake, T.

    2007-09-28

    In the Large helical device (LHD), super dense core (SDC) regime [1] and high electron temperature regime with formation of the electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB) [2][3] have been studied strenuously. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in such regimes can be powerful tools for heating and control of the plasma confinement. In this paper, recent progress of ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operation in these regimes is reported. Study of fundamental ECH by electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) has been required in the SDC regime. Early experimental results of EBW-ECH by so-called O-X-B and X-B method are introduced. In a newly realized enhanced magnetic field configuration, the highest central electron temperature over 10 keV was obtained in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges. ECCD will be very important in both of high density and high temperature regimes. It has been progressed with the optimization of microwave injection and magnetic field configuration. Progress of ECCD experiment is shortly introduced.

  12. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  13. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  14. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  15. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  16. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  17. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  18. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  19. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  20. Estimating areas contributing recharge to wells, lessons from previous studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Factors relating to the estimation of areas contributing recharge to wells, such as complexity of the ground-water flow system, effects of changing hydrologic conditions, and effects of well-screen locations and pumping rates, are reviewed. The point of view that simulation is the best means to obtain physically based estimates of contributing areas is emphasized. An extensive list of USGS reports that include estimation of contributing areas is provided.

  1. Stabilization and Augmentation of Circulating AIM in Mice by Synthesized IgM-Fc

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Owing to rapid and drastic changes in lifestyle and eating habits in modern society, obesity and obesity-associated diseases are among the most important public health problems. Hence, the development of therapeutic approaches to regulate obesity is strongly desired. In view of previous work showing that apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) blocks lipid storage in adipocytes, thereby preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet, we here explored a strategy to augment circulating AIM levels. We synthesized the Fc portion of the soluble human immunoglobulin (Ig)M heavy chain and found that it formed a pentamer containing IgJ as natural IgM does, and effectively associated with AIM in vitro. When we injected the synthesized Fc intravenously into mice lacking circulating IgM, it associated with endogenous mouse AIM, protecting AIM from renal excretion and preserving the circulating AIM levels. As the synthesized Fc lacked the antigen-recognizing variable region, it provoked no undesired immune response. In addition, a challenge with the Fc-human AIM complex in wild-type mice, which exhibited normal levels of circulating IgM and AIM, successfully maintained the levels of the human AIM in mouse blood. We also observed that the human AIM was effectively incorporated into adipocytes in visceral fat tissue, suggesting its functionality against obesity. Thus, our findings reveal potent strategies to safely increase AIM levels, which could form the basis for developing novel therapies for obesity. PMID:24804991

  2. Analgesic strategies aimed at stimulating the endogenous production of allopregnanolone

    PubMed Central

    Poisbeau, Pierrick; Keller, Anne Florence; Aouad, Maya; Kamoun, Nisrine; Groyer, Ghislaine; Schumacher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids are remarkable analgesics in various pain states. This is the case for allopregnanolone (AP), one of the most potent endogenous positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptor function. From the pioneering work of Hans Selye, who described the sedative properties of steroids, synthetic compounds resembling the progesterone metabolite AP have been developed. If some of them have been used as anesthetics, it seems difficult to propose them as a therapeutic option for pain since they display several adverse side effects such as sedation, amnesia and functional tolerance. An alternative strategy, chosen by few laboratories around the world, is aimed at stimulating the local production of 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids in order to limit these well-known side effects. This pharmacological approach has the advantage of targeting specific structures, fully equipped with the necessary biosynthetic enzymatic machinery, where neurosteroids already act as endogenous pain modulators. The various pharmacological trials which attempted to treat pain symptoms by stimulating the production of 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids are reviewed here, as well as novel neurotransmitter systems possibly regulating their endogenous production. PMID:24987335

  3. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  4. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  5. Researchers Take Aim At Insecticide-Resistant Bedbugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aim at Insecticide-Resistant Bedbugs New fungal-based pesticide might knock out insects that survive current chemicals ... use in bedbug management," Jenkins said. The new pesticide worked on all four strains of bedbugs, the ...

  6. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  7. Distractor Repetitions Retrieve Previous Responses and Previous Targets: Experimental Dissociations of Distractor-Response and Distractor-Target Bindings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, Carina; Rothermund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Even an irrelevant distractor stimulus is integrated into event files. Subsequently repeating the distractor triggers retrieval of the event file; however, an unresolved issue concerns the question of "what" is retrieved by the distractor. While recent studies predominantly assume that the distractor retrieves the previous response, it…

  8. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed Central

    Callender, J S

    1998-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy. PMID:9752632

  9. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  10. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  11. Does the patients’ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    PubMed Central

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M.; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients’ knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients’ educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. METHODS: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients’ medication knowledge and the pharmacists’ performance during counseling. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants’ education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications’ side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous

  12. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs.

  13. Ghosts in the machine: memory interference from the previous trial.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Charalampos; Ferdoash, Afreen; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-01-15

    Previous memoranda can interfere with the memorization or storage of new information, a concept known as proactive interference. Studies of proactive interference typically use categorical memoranda and match-to-sample tasks with categorical measures such as the proportion of correct to incorrect responses. In this study we instead train five macaques in a spatial memory task with continuous memoranda and responses, allowing us to more finely probe working memory circuits. We first ask whether the memoranda from the previous trial result in proactive interference in an oculomotor delayed response task. We then characterize the spatial and temporal profile of this interference and ask whether this profile can be predicted by an attractor network model of working memory. We find that memory in the current trial shows a bias toward the location of the memorandum of the previous trial. The magnitude of this bias increases with the duration of the memory period within which it is measured. Our simulations using standard attractor network models of working memory show that these models easily replicate the spatial profile of the bias. However, unlike the behavioral findings, these attractor models show an increase in bias with the duration of the previous rather than the current memory period. To model a bias that increases with current trial duration we posit two separate memory stores, a rapidly decaying visual store that resists proactive interference effects and a sustained memory store that is susceptible to proactive interference.

  14. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A; Thomas, Jacob; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Mayandy, Sivadasan; Hennekens, Stephan M; Schaminėe, Joop H J; Mucina, Ladislav; Alansari, Abdulla M

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations) agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd) of Saudi Arabia - the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD). The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés) collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment), and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés) have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds), agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  16. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  17. The International Particle Physics Outreach Group (ippog):. Aims and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, David

    2012-08-01

    The International Particle Physics Outreach Group, IPPOG, is a network of particle physics communication and education experts. IPPOG's principle aim is to maximize the impact of education and outreach efforts related to particle physics through information exchange and the sharing of expertise. IPPOG has initiated several major European and Worldwide activities, such as the "International Particle Physics Masterclasses" where each year thousands of high school students in more than 20 countries come to one of about 120 nearby universities or research centres for a day in order to unravel the mysteries of particle physics. IPPOG has also initiated a global database of education and outreach materials, aimed at supporting other particle physicists and education professionals. The aims and activities of IPPOG will be described, as well as plans to include more countries & laboratories in the network.

  18. Goal-Directed Aiming: Two Components but Multiple Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J.; Hayes, Spencer J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior…

  19. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  20. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  1. An Examination of OMB Forms Clearance Aims, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.; Bertram, Charles L.

    The purposes of this paper are four-fold: (1) to delineate the principal aims and policy objectives of Office of Management and Budget Forms Clearance (OMB FC), as embodied in Federal legislation and executive directives since 1942; (2) to identify the major current thrusts of OMB FC; (3) to suggest possible future policy directions of OMB FC,…

  2. Goal-directed aiming: two components but multiple processes.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J; Hayes, Spencer J

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior expectations about the efferent and afferent consequences of a planned movement. The model considers the relationship between movement speed and accuracy, and how performers adjust their trial-to-trial aiming behavior to find a safe, but fast, zone for movement execution. The model also outlines how the energy and safety costs associated with different movement outcomes contribute to movement planning processes and the control of aiming trajectories. Our theoretical position highlights the importance of advance knowledge about the sensory information that will be available for online control and the need to develop a robust internal representation of expected sensory consequences. We outline how early practice contributes to optimizing strategic planning to avoid worst-case outcomes associated with inherent neural-motor variability. Our model considers the role of both motor development and motor learning in refining feed-forward and online control. The model reconciles procedural and representational accounts of the specificity-of-learning phenomenon. Finally, we examine the breakdown of perceptual-motor precision in several special populations (i.e., Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, normal aging) within the framework of a multiple-process approach to goal-directed aiming.

  3. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  4. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  5. Philosophical Analysis, Research on Teaching, and Aim-Oriented Empiricism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at providing cohesion and structure for a range of disparate activities and examining their interrelationships. Among concepts considered are: (1) the relationship of philosophic analysis in education; (2) the nature of pedagogical research; (3) the process-product paradigm; (4) aim-oriented empiricism; (5) the reduction thesis;…

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  8. Student Aims Performance in a Predominately Hispanic District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebultz, Lance

    2012-01-01

    School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). Expectations were established for all students, varying by group of students based on grade, special education status, free/reduced…

  9. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. Methods A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Results Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Conclusions Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess

  10. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim.

  11. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study was designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview…

  12. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events.

  13. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Hazel; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Gowri, Vaidayanathan; Al-Azri, Mohammed; Salahuddin, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Results Most women were 25–35 years old (76.5%) and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%). The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%). Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5%) and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%), although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%), intrapartum fever (4.4%), rupture of the membranes (2.9%) and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%). However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%). Conclusion The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications. PMID:28003890

  14. Impact of previous cyst-enterostomy on patients’ outcome following resection of bile duct cysts

    PubMed Central

    Ouaissi, Mehdi; Kianmanesh, Reza; Ragot, Emilia; Belghiti, Jacques; Majno, Pietro; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Dubois, Remi; Revillon, Yann; Cherqui, Daniel; Azoulay, Daniel; Letoublon, Christian; Pruvot, François-René; Paye, François; Rat, Patrick; Boudjema, Karim; Roux, Adeline; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Gigot, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the impact of previous cyst-enterostomy of patients underwent congenital bile duct cysts (BDC) resection. METHODS: A multicenter European retrospective study between 1974 and 2011 were conducted by the French Surgical Association. Only Todani subtypes I and IVb were included. Diagnostic imaging studies and operative and pathology reports underwent central revision. Patients with and without a previous history of cyst-enterostomy (CE) were compared. RESULTS: Among 243 patients with Todani types I and IVb BDC, 16 had undergone previous CE (6.5%). Patients with a prior history of CE experienced a greater incidence of preoperative cholangitis (75% vs 22.9%, P < 0.0001), had more complicated presentations (75% vs 40.5%, P = 0.007), and were more likely to have synchronous biliary cancer (31.3% vs 6.2%, P = 0.004) than patients without a prior CE. Overall morbidity (75% vs 33.5%; P < 0.0008), severe complications (43.8% vs 11.9%; P = 0.0026) and reoperation rates (37.5% vs 8.8%; P = 0.0032) were also significantly greater in patients with previous CE, and their Mayo Risk Score, during a median follow-up of 37.5 mo (range: 4-372 mo) indicated significantly more patients with fair and poor results (46.1% vs 15.6%; P = 0.0136). CONCLUSION: This is the large series to show that previous CE is associated with poorer short- and long-term results after Todani types I and IVb BDC resection. PMID:27358675

  15. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  16. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  17. Myosin II regulatory light chain as a novel substrate for AIM-1, an aurora/Ipl1p-related kinase from rat.

    PubMed

    Murata-Hori, M; Fumoto, K; Fukuta, Y; Iwasaki, T; Kikuchi, A; Tatsuka, M; Hosoya, H

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the phosphorylated myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC) is localized at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells, suggesting that phosphorylation of MRLC plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, it remains unclear which kinase(s) phosphorylate MRLC during cytokinesis. AIM-1, an Aurora/Ipl1p-related kinase from rat, is known as a serine/threonine kinase that is required for cytokinesis. Here we examined the possibility that AIM-1 is a candidate for a kinase that phosphorylates MRLC during cytokinesis. As a result, we showed that AIM-1 monophosphorylated MRLC at Ser19 using two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping analysis and several MRLC mutants. Furthermore, AIM-1 was colocalized with monophosphorylated MRLC at the cleavage furrow of dividing cells. We propose here that AIM-1 may participate in monophosphorylation of MRLC during cytokinesis.

  18. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed.

  19. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  20. Taxonomies in L1 and L2 Reading Strategies: A Critical Review of Issues Surrounding Strategy-Use Definitions and Classifications in Previous Think-Aloud Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…

  1. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  2. Does previous open renal surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy affect the outcomes and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Sarılar, Omer; Toptas, Mehmet; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Binbay, Murat

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PNL in patients with a history of open renal surgery or PNL by comparing with primary patients and to compare impact of previous open renal surgery and PNL on the success and complications of subsequent PNL. Charts of patients, who underwent PNL at our institute, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups according to history of renal stone surgery. Patients without history of renal surgery were enrolled into Group 1. Other patients with previous PNL and previous open surgery were categorized as Group 2 and Group 3. Preoperative characteristic, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complication rates were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was accepted as completing clearance of stone and residual fragment smaller than 4 mm. Eventually, 2070 patients were enrolled into the study. Open renal surgery and PNL had been done in 410 (Group 2) and 131 (Group 3) patients, retrospectively. The mean operation time was longer (71.3 ± 33.5 min) in Group 2 and the mean fluoroscopy time was longer (8.6 ± 5.0) in Group 3 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Highest stone clearance was achieved in primary PNL patients (81.62%) compared to the other groups (77.10% in Group 2 and 75.61% in Group 3). Stone-free rate was not significantly different between Group 2 and Group 3. Fever, pulmonary complications, and blood transfusion requirement were not statically different between groups but angioembolization was significantly higher in Group 2. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with renal stones regardless history of previous PNL or open renal surgery. However, history of open renal surgery but not PNL significantly reduced PNL success.

  3. Association between previous enterobiasis and current wheezing: evaluation of 1018 children.

    PubMed

    Bahceciler, Nerin N; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Kucukosmanoglu, Ercan; Arikan, Cigdem; Over, Ufuk; Karavelioglu, Salim; Akkoc, Tunc; Yazi, Didem; Yesil, Ozlem; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa; Barlan, Isil B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between parasitosis and allergy. We surveyed all children aged 4-12 years living in poor hygienic conditions in a shantytown of Istanbul. After obtaining data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and an additional questionnaire, performing a skin-prick test (SPT), and determining total IgE, stool and perianal tape specimens were obtained from 1018 participating children. The prevalence of past episodes of wheezing, current wheezing, asthma, and rhinitis was 31, 14.6, 10.7, and 26.2%, respectively. Parasitosis was present in 49.1%, Enterobius vermicularis (23.3%), being the most common. A history of treatment for enterobiasis was present in 37%. Comparison of children with and without current enterobiasis revealed no significant difference in allergic manifestations and SPT results, except for serum total IgE level (p = 0.018), whereas children with previous enterobiasis were more likely to have current wheezing (p = 0.012). Current wheezers were more likely to have previous enterobiasis (p = 0.01) and a higher maternal employment level (p = 0.036) when compared with those without. According to logistic regression analysis, covariables significantly positively related with current wheezing were previous enterobiasis (p = 0.003) and being < or =5 years of age (p = 0.043), whereas being the first child of the family (p = 0.043) was negatively related. A previous infection with E. vermicularis was found to potentiate current wheezing in a population living in a shantytown in Istanbul.

  4. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Satwant K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. Aims: To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. Settings and Design: The study is based on field investigations. Materials and Methods: Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects′ mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. Results: The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. Conclusions: The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases. PMID:21431003

  5. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  6. Gaussian benchmark for optical communication aiming towards ultimate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-05-01

    We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore, the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [F. E. Becerra et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.316] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.

  7. People, technology, and process meet the triple aim.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Deborah; Reisetter, Julie A; Zismann, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Banner Health is addressing the Triple Aim (quality care and satisfaction, improved health, and reduced cost) for Medicare beneficiaries by combining the people of one of the largest nonprofit health care systems in the United States (Banner Health) with innovative telehealth technology and leveraging high-reliability, standardized processes. The program, known as Banner iCare, builds on a highly successful tele-ICU program (some of the lowest mortality and length of stay results in the country) and expands the service to progressive care, medical-surgical, and emergency departments. These successes have led to the introduction of a home-based telehealth program with the strengths of the acute care programs. The top 5% high-cost patients with multiple chronic conditions receive coordinated intensive ambulatory care managed by an integrated team of health care professionals using cost-effective telehealth technology. The benefits expected from the proposed project include a reduction in overall costs while improving patient satisfaction through delivery of more personalized and interactive care.

  8. Paleographic Atlas of northern Eurasia: Aims and current progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1993-09-01

    A project aimed at paleographic reconstruction of northern Eurasia (the former USSR and adjacent territories) commenced in 1993 in Russia under the auspices of two nongovernmental scientific organizations: Scientific Council on Plate Tectonics and Institute of Tectonics of Lithospheric Plates. The project is sponsored by the State Committee on Geology and Exxon and Shell companies. Twenty-six data-base maps and corresponding paleogeographic maps on a set of new paleotectonic reconstructions are to be compiled within two years, covering a period from Devonian to present. The next two-year phase is expected to follow, with a compilation of similar maps for Early Paleozoic and late Riphean. the best experts on regional geology, paleoenvironment, paleomagnetics, and paleotectonic reconstructions participate in the program. A special group, Geocentre Company, is assigned to the computerization of maps. The 1993 compilation of 15 database maps is to be completed and the first reconstructions produced. The database maps (starting from Tithonian upward) contain information on lithology, facies and thickness of sedimentary formations, and magnetic and structural indicators of plate tectonic data; oil and gas deposits are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the paleogeographic evolution of sedimentary basins, potential reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Narrow time intervals between maps (about 10 m.y.) permit detailed reconstructions of the basins' evolution. Examples of database and paleogeographic maps are presented in the poster.

  9. [Location of the placenta in pregnancy with previous caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Karagiozova, J; Ivanov, St; Masseva, A; Frandeva, B; Ibriam, I

    2014-01-01

    Previous Caesarean section (SC) is considered to be established predisposing factor for abnormal placentation. In this study we examined whether prior SC is a risk factor for low laying placenta. Retrospective documentation was studied of 171 pregnant women after a SC (test group) and of 150 pregnant women after a normal birth (control), and cases of hysterectomy after giving birth to five years. Pathological lying placenta have established at 1.34% in the test group versus 0.67% in controls (p - 0.058), i.e. no proven link between prior Cesarean section and location of the placenta in the lower uterine segment during the next pregnancy. The analysis of cases of postpartum hysterectomy is found that the combination of condition after Cesarean section, placenta praevia and placenta accreta is a risk factor for hysterectomy after childbirth.

  10. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS

  11. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT

  12. Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates from Previously Vaccinated Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ADENOVIRUS ISOLATES FROM PREVIOUSLY VACCINATED YOUNG ADULTS D. A. Blasiole...Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates From Previously Vaccinated Young Adults . 6. AUTHORS Daniel A Blasiole, David Metzgar, Luke T Daum, Margaret AK

  13. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  14. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  15. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  16. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  17. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  18. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.405 Use of highest previous rate. (a)(1) Subject to the... new grade which does not exceed the employee's highest previous rate. (2) However, if the...

  19. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  20. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  1. Influence of previous physical activity on the outcome of patients treated by thrombolytic therapy for stroke.

    PubMed

    Decourcelle, Amélie; Moulin, Solène; Sibon, Igor; Murao, Kei; Ronzière, Thomas; Godefroy, Olivier; Poli, Mathilde; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Sagnier, Sharmila; Lassalle, Veronica; Okada, Yasushi; Mas, Jean-Louis; Bordet, Régis; Leys, Didier

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity prevents stroke and is associated with less severe strokes. The neuroprotective effect in patients treated with intravenous (i.v.) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), remains uncertain. We aimed at evaluating the relationship between previous physical activity and outcomes in stroke patients treated with i.v. rt-PA. OPHELIE-SPORT was a prospective observational multicenter study conducted in French and Japanese stroke patients treated with i.v. rt-PA. We evaluated the presence, weekly duration (<2, 2-5, >5 h) and intensity (light, moderate, heavy) of previous leisure-time physical activity according to standardized criteria. The primary end-point was an excellent outcome [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-1 or similar to the pre-stroke mRS] after 3 months. Secondary end-points were good outcome (mRS 0-2 or similar to the pre-stroke mRS), and death. Of 519 patients, 74 (14.3 %) had regular physical activity before stroke. They were 14 years younger (p < 0.001), treated 25 min earlier (p = 0.004) and more likely to be men, free of pre-stroke handicap (mRS = 0), atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, at baseline (p = 0.183) and 24 h later (p = 0.203), did not differ between patients with and without physical activity. After adjustment on confounders, there was no association between previous leisure-time physical activity and outcome. Outcomes 3 months after treatment of cerebral ischaemia with i.v. rt-PA are not influenced by previous physical activity.

  2. ORNL Physicist Aims for the Stars with JENSA System

    SciTech Connect

    Chipps, Kelly

    2016-04-26

    Physicists studying stellar explosions, the origin of life and just about everything in between could gain light years in precision because of a system inspired by a team led by Kelly Chipps of the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. ORNL Physicist Aims for the Stars with JENSA System

    ScienceCinema

    Chipps, Kelly

    2016-07-12

    Physicists studying stellar explosions, the origin of life and just about everything in between could gain light years in precision because of a system inspired by a team led by Kelly Chipps of the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. Multicentric spinal cord and brain glioblastoma without previous craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    de Eulate-Beramendi, Sayoa A.; Piña-Batista, Kelvin M.; Rodrigo, Victor; Torres-Rivas, Hector E.; Rial-Basalo, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBS) is a highly malignant glioma that rarely presents as an infratentorial tumor. Multicentric gliomas lesions are widely separated in site and/or time and its incidence has been reported between 0.15 and 10%. Multicentric gliomas involving supratentorial and infratentorial region are even more rare. In most cases, infratentorial disease is seen after surgical manipulation or radiation therapy and is usually located in the cerebellum or cervical region. Case Report: We present a rare case of symptomatic multicentric glioma in the brain, fourth ventricle, cervical as well as lumbar glioblastoma in an adult without previous therapeutic intervention. We also review the literature of this rare presentation. Conclusions: This report suggests that GBM is a diffuse disease; the more extended the disease, the worse prognosis it has. The management still remains controversial and further studies are required to understand the prognosis factors of dissemination. PMID:27512613

  5. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  6. Photometric Properties of Ceres and Comparisons with Previous HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-Y.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Sykes, M. V.; Hoffmann, M.; Mottola, S.; Schröder, S. E.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; McFadden, L. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the first science orbit around its second target, dwarf planet Ceres, in April 2015. The photometric properties of Ceres not only reveal clues about the physical state of the regolith, surface composition, and geological history, but also are important for correcting the data collected under various observing and illumination geometries to a common geometry to facilitate the interpretations of all photometric and spectral data. The Dawn data collected during its approach to Ceres cover phase angles from a few degrees to ~155º, and almost cover the full range of incidence angles and emission angles from 0º to 90º, making an excellent dataset for studying the spectrophotometric properties of Ceres. We report the analysis of the photometric properties of Ceres in the visible wavelengths using the Framing Camera (FC) [1] data through all seven color filters and one clear filter, acquired during the approach and the Survey orbit of the mission. Although previous studies [2-4] suggested a remarkably uniform surface of Ceres, the images collected by Dawn during its approach to the target at a scale of a few km/pixel revealed some small but extremely bright spots and regions, with albedos up to >4 times the average albedo of Ceres, representing the highest contrast so far observed in all asteroids imaged from close distances by spacecraft missions. These bright spots should be geologically young, and might be related to the episodic water sublimation activity of Ceres [5-7]. We performed detailed comparisons of the albedos of these bright spots between previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and the Dawn observations that span about 10 years to search for any possible changes. By the time of preparing this abstract, the Dawn FChas collected images at pixel scale down to 2.1 km/pixel. By June 2015, the data with a scale of 0.4 km/pixel will have been collected during the Survey Orbit phase.

  7. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  8. On Aims and Methods in the Neuroimaging of Derived Relations

    PubMed Central

    Dickins, David W

    2005-01-01

    Ingenious and seemingly powerful technologies have been developed recently that enable the visualization in some detail of events in the brain concomitant upon the ongoing behavioral performance of a human participant. Measurement of such brain events offers at the very least a new set of dependent variables in relation to which the independent variables familiarly manipulated in the operant laboratory may be explored. Two related paradigms in which a start has been made in such research concern the derivation of novel or emergent relations from a baseline set of trained relations, and include the phenomenon of transitive inference (TI), observed in studies of stimulus equivalence (SE) and serial learning (SL) or seriation. This paper reviews some published and forthcoming neuroimaging studies of these and related phenomena, and considers how this line of research both demands and represents a welcome synthesis between types of question and levels of explanation in behavioral science that often have been seen as antithetical. PMID:16596975

  9. Status of research aimed at predicting structural integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Considerable research has been performed throughout the world on measuring the fracture toughness of metals. The existing capability fills the need encountered when selecting materials, thermal-mechanical treatments, welding procedures, etc., but cannot predict the fracture process of structural components containing cracks. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been collaborating for a number of years on developing capabilities for using fracture toughness results to predict structural integrity. Because of the high cost of fabricating and testing structural components, these studies have been limited to predicting the fracture process in specimens containing surface cracks. This paper summarizes the present status of the experimental studies of using fracture toughness data to predict crack growth initiation in specimens (structural components) containing surface cracks. These results are limited to homogeneous base materials.

  10. Does previous abdominal surgery effect the feasibility of total laparoscopic hysterectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Cem; Abalı, Remzi; Taşdemir, Nicel; Aksu, Erson; Akkuş, Didem; Gül, Abdülaziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of previous abdominal surgery on the feasibility of performing and the safety of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, we analysed 62 laparoscopic hysterectomies which were performed at our institute between February 2011 and January 2013. We chose to perform laparoscopic surgery for all patients, including those who had previously undergone abdominal surgery. The patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 included patients with a history of abdominal surgery (n=24) and Group 2 included patients without a history of abdominal surgery (n=38). Results: The operating period was compared in both groups: 184.43±51.0 min. for Group 1 and 195.41±64.1 min. for Group 2 (p=0.471). Postoperative hospital stay and blood loss was also compared. There was just 1 conversion from TLH to a laparotomy in both groups. None of the patients in Group 1 needed a blood transfusion, whereas 1 in Group 2 did. Conclusion: We found that operation time, postoperative hospital stay, blood loss, rate of operative complications or conversion rate to open surgery between patients with and without a history of abdominal surgery were comparable. Therefore, it appears that a history of abdominal surgery does not adversely affect the safety of TLH. PMID:24592078

  11. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  12. Design of orienting and aiming instrument based on fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Limin; Sun, Jiyu

    2007-12-01

    In order to improve the ground viability of missile weapon system, a quick orienting and aiming instrument is cried for the missile launching in modern war. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) based on Sagnac effect is a new type of all solid state rotation rate sensor that detects angular changes or angular rates relative to inertial space, which has many fine characteristics compared with traditional mechanical electronic gyro, such as low cost, light weight, long life, high reliability, wide dynamic range, etc. For the need of missile photoelectric aiming facility, It is necessary to design and manufacture a set of orienting and aiming instrument based on single axis FOG, to solve the close quarters aiming of missile launching, to measure the azimuth reference. Based on practical project, the principle of FOG orienting system and laser collimation theodolite aiming system is discussed and studied in this paper. Orienting and aiming system are constructed in the same basement. The influence of platform tilt on the precision of orientation is analyzed. An accelerator is used to compensate deviation caused by base tilt. The aiming precision affected by eccentricity of the encoders for laser collimation theodolite and the FOG orientation system are analyzed. The test results show that the aiming accuracy is 6' in three minutes. It is suitable for missile aiming in short range.

  13. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  14. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  15. Forecasting changes in amphibian biodiversity: aiming at a moving target.

    PubMed

    Collins, James P; Halliday, Tim

    2005-02-28

    Amphibian population declines and sudden species' extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost as a percentage of the current fauna can be a misleading statistic in some parts of the globe. The number of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies of single-species populations are needed, but this approach has its limits. Amphibian populations often show great annual variation in population size making it difficult, if not impossible, to use short-term studies as a basis for deciding if a population is increasing or decreasing in the long term. Aggregating single studies into databases and searching for patterns of variation is a way of overcoming this limitation. Several databases on species and population time series are available or in development. These records show that declines are continuing worldwide with some species and populations, especially in the tropics and at higher elevations, at greater risk of extinction than others. Unfortunately, amphibian databases with population time series have much less information for the tropics compared to the temperate zone, and less for Africa and Asia compared with Europe and North America. Focusing limited resources using comprehensive statistical designs is a way to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of monitoring efforts. It is clear that, in the first decades of the twenty-first century, the regions of the globe with the highest diversity of amphibian species will experience the greatest rates of decrease of forests and increase in human population size, fertilizer use, agricultural production, creation of new croplands and irrigation. Many of these changes are likely negatively to

  16. Research aimed at immiscible CO/sub 2/ flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, F.T.H.; Burchfield, T.E.

    1987-04-27

    The National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Niper) is conducting reserach to develop improved methods for oil recovery by immiscible CO/sub 2/ displacement. The research includes fundamental studies of displacement mechanisms and coreflooding tests for development of an optimal injection method. Heavy oils are the major target of this research. For heavier crudes (API gravity below 25/sup 0/), high viscosity is a major constraint in oil recovery and pipeline transportation. Therefore, reducing oil viscosity becomes critical. Methods currently being used for viscous oil recovery include thermal methods (steamflooding and in situ combustion) and CO/sub 2/ methods. Steamflooding has been widely applied. The number of immiscible CO/sub 2/ projects is small but increasing.

  17. Influence of antenna aiming on ECE in MAST

    SciTech Connect

    Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub; Pavlo, Pavol; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Valovic, Martin; Vahala, Linda; Vahala, George

    2004-10-01

    The effect of the direction of the detected beam on the intensity of ECE is studied. It is found that the combined effects of the strong dependence of the conversion efficiencey of O mode at the plasma resonance on the direction of the incident wave and the partial screening of the beam waist by the MAST vessel wall, can be responsible for the weakening of ECE emission for some frequencies. The theoretical model for ECE data interpretation on MAST has been significantly improved. New features of the model are as follows: the quasioptical treatment of the receiving antenna, interference, polarization and screening effects of the vacuum window and collisional damping of EBWs in the peripheral plasma.

  18. Underground and Previously Undiscovered Rivers in the Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, A.; Breaux, A.; Coleman, D.; Inniss, L. V.; Telfeyan, K.; Kim, J.; Schneider, A.; Allison, M. A.; Cable, J. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we show that there are large, and previously undiscovered, groundwater pathways by which water from the Mississippi River is transported to the wetlands and estuaries of the Mississippi River Delta. Results from multiple methodologies suggest that the total flux of groundwater to the coastal zone in the Mississippi River Delta averages 1,000 m3 s-1, and can reach 5,000 m3 s-1 at high flow. We suggest that flow preferentially occurs through paleo-crevasse channels, relict bayous, and other buried deposits of permeable and coarse grained material. These conduits were formed during the present and previous stages of the delta cycle, which occurred in historical (102 y) and late Holocene(103 y) times, respectively. Flow is driven by the hydrological head difference between the river and the estuary, which is seasonally variable in magnitudeand can reach 5-8 m during peak river floods. This talk will present data from hydrological budgets that show a missing fraction in the Mississippi River water budget, and a missing source of fresh water to a large estuary. We will show that water levels in wells in New Orleans fluctuate with the stage of the Mississippi River. Data of Rn concentration indicate advective submarine groundwater flow, whereas Ba concentrations suggest geochemical leachates are entering the estuary. Furthermore, seismic data indicate the prevalence of paleochannels and other buried features that could carry flow. Given the importance of deltas to global geochemical budgets, we suggest that these results may be generalizable: submarine groundwater discharge in deltas may prove to be an important but understudied pathway by which dissolved materials are transported from the continents to the ocean.

  19. Short-term outcomes after laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with previous abdominal surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan; Panis, Yves

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To perform a systematic review focusing on short-term outcomes after colorectal surgery in patients with previous abdominal open surgery (PAOS). METHODS: A broad literature search was performed with the terms “colorectal”, “colectomy”, “PAOS”, “previous surgery” and “PAOS”. Studies were included if their topic was laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with PAOS, whether descriptive or comparative. Endpoints of interest were conversion rates, inadvertent enterotomy and morbidity. Analysis of articles was made according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. RESULTS: From a total of 394 citations, 13 full-texts achieved selection criteria to be included in the study. Twelve of them compared patients with and without PAOS. All studies were retrospective and comparative and two were case-matched. The selected studies comprised a total of 5005 patients, 1865 with PAOS. Among the later, only 294 (16%) had history of a midline incision for previous gastrointestinal surgery. Conversion rates were significantly higher in 3 of 12 studies and inadvertent enterotomy during laparoscopy was more prevalent in 3 of 5 studies that disclosed this event. Morbidity was similar in the majority of studies. A quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the studies. CONCLUSION: Conversion rates were slightly higher in PAOS groups, although not statistical significant in most studies. History of PAOS did not implicate in higher morbidity rates. PMID:27462396

  20. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, E.; Medica, P.; Cravana, C.; Ferlazzo, and A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B), bad (Group D), and minimal handling (Group C) conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport. PMID:27651674

  1. Baltic Sea nutrient reductions--what should we aim for?

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Heini; Artell, Janne; Elmgren, Ragnar; Hasselström, Linus; Håkansson, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient load reductions are needed to improve the state of the Baltic Sea, but it is still under debate how they should be implemented. In this paper, we use data from an environmental valuation study conducted in all nine Baltic Sea states to investigate public preferences of relevance to three of the involved decision-dimensions: First, the roles of nitrogen versus phosphorus reductions causing different eutrophication effects; second, the role of time - the lag between actions to reduce nutrient loads and perceived improvements; and third; the spatial dimension and the roles of actions targeting the coastal and open sea environment and different sub-basins. Our findings indicate that respondents view and value the Baltic Sea environment as a whole, and are not focussed only on their local sea area, or a particular aspect of water quality. We argue that public preferences concerning these three perspectives should be one of the factors guiding marine policy. This requires considering the entire range of eutrophication effects, in coastal and open sea areas, and including long-term and short-term measures.

  2. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  3. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  4. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  5. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  6. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  7. 77 FR 21144 - Extension of a Previously Approved Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Office of the Secretary Extension of a Previously Approved Collection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except on Federal holidays...: 4532, 4533, 4534, 4535. Type of Review: Extension of a Previously Approved Collection....

  8. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  9. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Subtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  10. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Subtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  11. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  12. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    PubMed

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  13. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  14. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification...

  15. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  16. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  17. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  18. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352... highest previous rate. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding the discretionary use of an... circumstances approved by DHS. If an employee in a Coast Guard NAFI position is converted to an...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352... highest previous rate. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding the discretionary use of an... circumstances approved by DHS. If an employee in a Coast Guard NAFI position is converted to an...

  1. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance....

  2. 2 CFR 220.40 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 220.40 Section 220.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.40 Relationship to previous issuance....

  3. 2 CFR 220.40 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 220.40 Section 220.40 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.40 Relationship to previous issuance. (a) The guidance in this...

  4. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a)...

  5. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a) The guidance in this...

  6. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General... fissile material package, previously approved by the NRC but without the designation “-85” in the.... (c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved...

  7. 25 CFR 83.8 - Previous Federal acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Previous Federal acknowledgment. 83.8 Section 83.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING THAT AN AMERICAN INDIAN GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.8 Previous Federal acknowledgment....

  8. 25 CFR 83.8 - Previous Federal acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previous Federal acknowledgment. 83.8 Section 83.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING THAT AN AMERICAN INDIAN GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.8 Previous Federal acknowledgment....

  9. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  10. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  11. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  12. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  13. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  14. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  15. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  16. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  17. The safety and efficacy of vitamin K antagonist in atrial fibrillation patients with previous ulcer bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Sung, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Bae; Ahn, Min-Soo; Lee, Hye Young; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Kim, Jong-Yun; Joung, Boyoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with previous ulcer bleeding. In this multicenter, retrospective analysis, clinical outcomes of 754 AF patients with a history of ulcer bleeding were evaluated. After ulcer treatment, 458 patients (61%) were treated with VKA, and the outcomes were compared to 296 patients (39%) without VKA. VKA treatment significantly increased major bleeding (7.3%/year vs 3.2%/year, P < 0.001), and reduced major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (5.4%/year vs 10.0%/year, P < 0.001). Specifically, risk of gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly higher in the VKA group than no-VKA group (5.7%/year vs 2.6%/year, P < 0.001). Consequently, there was no difference in the incidence of composite of a MACE and major bleeding, between the 2 groups. In patients with time in the therapeutic range (TTR) ≥65%, VKA significantly decreased MACE (2.8%/year vs 10.0%/year, P < 0.001) without increasing major bleeding. Net clinical benefit model showed beneficial effects of VKA in patients with TTR ≥65%, and harmful effects in those with TTR < 55%. In AF patients with previous ulcer bleeding, VKA treatment did not improve clinical outcomes unless the international normalized ratio level was constantly maintained (TTR ≥65%), as the gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) risk significantly increased. PMID:27893694

  18. Effects of Previous Laparoscopic Surgical Diagnosis of Endometriosis on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Hong-Lan; Chang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yi; Wang, Yue; Guan, Jing; Cui, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Background: The association between the previous history of endometriosis and obstetric outcomes is still ambiguous. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of previous history of operatively diagnosed endometriosis on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A total of 98 primiparous women who had been diagnosed with endometriosis by previous laparoscopic surgery were included in this retrospective cohort study. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between these women (study group) who had a live birth and 300 women without endometriosis (control group) who had a live birth. In the study group, the pregnancy outcomes of 74 women who conceived naturally (no assisted reproductive technology [ART] subgroup) were simultaneously compared with 24 women who conceived by ART (ART subgroup). Results: Miscarriage was observed in 23 of 98 women with endometriosis (23.5%). There were 75 women who had a live birth after laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis in the study group eventually. On multivariate analysis, the postpartum hemorrhage rate increased significantly in the study group when compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio: 2.265, 95% confidence interval: 1.062, 4.872; P = 0.034). There was an upward tendency of developing other pregnancy-related complications, such as preterm birth, placental abruption, placenta previa, cesarean section, fetal distress/anemia, and others in the study group than in the control group. However, the differences showed no statistical significance. Within the study group, the occurrence rate of postpartum hemorrhage and preterm birth was both higher in the ART subgroup than in the no ART subgroup. The differences both had statistical significance (44.4% vs. 17.5%, P = 0.024 and 27.8% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.010, respectively). At the same time, median (interquartile range) for gestational age at delivery in the ART subgroup was significantly shorter than that in the no ART subgroup (38 weeks [36–39 weeks] vs. 39 weeks [38–40 weeks]; P = 0

  19. Open3DALIGN: an open-source software aimed at unsupervised ligand alignment.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas; Shiri, Fereshteh

    2011-08-01

    An open-source, cross-platform software aimed at conformer generation and unsupervised rigid-body molecular alignment is presented. Different algorithms have been implemented to perform single and multi-conformation superimpositions on one or more templates. Alignments can be accomplished by matching pharmacophores, heavy atoms or a combination of the two. All methods have been successfully validated on eight comprehensive datasets previously gathered by Sutherland and co-workers. High computational performance has been attained through efficient parallelization of the code. The unsupervised nature of the alignment algorithms, together with its scriptable interface, make Open3DALIGN an ideal component of high-throughput, automated cheminformatics workflows.

  20. OCCULT AND PREVIOUS HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN US PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Anna S.; Everhart, James E.; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Kim, Hae-Young; Hussain, Munira; Morgan, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aim Previous studies have suggested that prior exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may increase the risk of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of previous or occult HBV infection in a cohort of HBsAg-negative patients with histologically advanced chronic hepatitis C in the United States who did or did not develop HCC. Methods Stored sera from 91 patients with HCC and 182 matched controls who participated in the HALT-C Trial were tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV DNA. Frozen liver samples from 28 HCC cases and 55 controls were tested for HBV DNA by real-time PCR. Results Anti-HBc (as a marker of previous HBV infection) was present in the serum of 41.8% HCC cases and 45.6% controls (P=0.54); anti-HBc alone was present in 16.5% of HCC cases and 24.7% of controls. HBV DNA was detected in the serum of only one control subject and no patient with HCC. HBV DNA (as a marker of occult HBV infection) was detected in the liver of 10.7% HCC cases and 23.6% controls (P=0.18). Conclusion Although almost half the patients in the HALT-C Trial had serological evidence of previous HBV infection there was no difference in prevalence of anti-HBc in serum or HBV DNA in liver between patients who did or did not develop HCC. In the United States, neither previous nor occult HBV infection is an important factor in HCC development among patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. PMID:21374690

  1. Hypokalemia in diabetic ketoacidosis is less common than previously reported.

    PubMed

    Jang, Timothy B; Chauhan, Vijai; Morchi, Raveendra; Najand, Hares; Naunheim, Roseanne; Kaji, Amy H

    2015-03-01

    [K+] < 3.5 mmol/L is reported to occur in approximately 4 % of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA.) Therefore, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) recommend the assessment of [K+] before the initiation of insulin treatment to avoid the precipitation of morbid hypokalemia. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of hypokalemia in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with DKA. This was a multicenter retrospective, cross-sectional study at EDs with a combined annual adult census of 155,000. Adult patients diagnosed with DKA in the ED, or who were admitted from the ED and subsequently diagnosed with DKA as determined from the hospital electronic database between January 2008 and December 2008, were included for analysis if they had the following initial laboratory values: (1) serum glucose >13.9 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), (2) serum bicarbonate <18 mmol/L (18 mEq/L) or anion gap >15, and (3) evidence of ketonaemia or ketonuria. 537 patients were diagnosed with DKA in the ED at the participating institutions during the reference period. The median [K+] was 4.9 mmol/L (IQR 4.3, 5.5). There were a total of seven patients with an initial 3.3 < [K+] < 3.5 mmol/L, but none with a [K+] < 3.3 mmol/L. Thus, no patients in our study sample required potassium supplementation before the initiation of insulin treatment. The incidence of hypokalemia in our sample of patients with DKA was much less than previously reported, with no cases requiring potassium supplementation before insulin administration.

  2. Aiming Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    positive definite solution of A1Qy+QyAo+I--QyBBTQY=O (5.2) The logarithmic residence time of system (3.1) with the stabilizing control (5.1) in a I...a bounded is E bou,,,,dby, ii I)-2=(6 2 This completes the prooof the necesity. Suffidency: The proof is by conatnction. Select a stabilizing control u...a - . Q.LD. Proof of Theorem 3.3: It follows from the results of [151, [21] that for each y > 0, K? defined by (3.4) is a stabilizing control and

  3. Switch to Aflibercept in Diabetic Macular Edema Patients Unresponsive to Previous Anti-VEGF Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Manuel; Henriques, Filipe; Figueira, João

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) unresponsive to prior anti-VEGF therapy. Methods. Retrospective review of DME unresponsive to previous anti-VEGF switched to aflibercept with 3 months of follow-up. Changes in best correct visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and frequency of injections were analyzed. The percentage of subjects who had ≥20/40 (logMAR equivalent 0.3) and ≤20/200 (logMAR equivalent 1) was evaluated. Results. A total of 32 eyes from 26 patients were included. Mean age was 65 ± 10 years old. The mean number of previous anti-VEGF injections was 5.34 ± 2.38, and the mean number of aflibercept injections at the end of the study was 2.00 ± 0.00. The CRT at baseline was 501.47 ± 150.51 μm and 367.97 ± 124.61 μm at 3 months of follow-up (P < 0.001). The logMAR BCVA at baseline was 0.71 ± 0.36 and 0.65 ± 0.33 at the end of the follow-up (P = 0.037). At baseline, 12.5% of patients had ≥20/40 compared with 25% at the end of follow-up. At baseline, 28.13% of patients had 20/200 or inferior vision compared with 15.63% at the end of the follow-up. Conclusions. DME patients unresponsive to previous multiple ranibizumab injections demonstrate a significant anatomical and functional improvement with the switch to aflibercept. PMID:28348885

  4. Venetoclax in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew W; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Seymour, John F; Huang, David C S

    2017-01-18

    Venetoclax is the first BCL2 inhibitor to enter routine clinical practice. It is an orally bioavailable small molecule that binds BCL2 very specifically. Acting as a pharmacological mimic of the proteins that initiate apoptosis (a so-called BH3-mimetic), venetoclax rapidly induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells which express high levels of BCL2 and rely on it to maintain their survival. As a single agent, daily venetoclax treatment induced durable responses in 79% of patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma in a Phase 1 study, including complete remissions in 20% of patients. Its use was approved by the FDA in April 2016 for patients with previously treated del(17p) CLL on the basis of a single arm Phase 2 trial demonstrating a 79% response rate and an estimated 1 year progression-free survival of 72% with 400mg/day continuous therapy. This review focuses on venetoclax, its mechanism-of-action, pharmacology and clinical trial data, and seeks to place it in the context of rapid advances in therapy for patients with relapsed CLL, especially those with del(17p) CLL.

  5. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  6. A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking northwest, provides a closer image of the brick penthouse and other devices - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  7. 76 FR 76189 - 2002 Reopened-Previously Denied Determinations;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration 2002 Reopened--Previously Denied Determinations; Notice of Negative... negative determinations on reconsideration regarding eligibility to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance for workers by case (TA-W-) number regarding negative determinations issued during the period...

  8. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17 Previously... the use of such an FSTD after May 30, 2014 for flight crewmember training, evaluation or...

  9. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  10. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  11. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  12. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

  13. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  14. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  15. The effects of previous open renal stone surgery types on PNL outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Methods: Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. Results: 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure. PMID:28255416

  16. Evidence for a previously unrecognized species of owlet-nightjar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the systematic relationships of the three large owlet-nightjars (Aegothelidae) to determine the taxonomic status of a fawn-colored lowland form currently classified as Aegotheles insignis tatei. I examined most of the existing specimens of A. i. insignis (n = 158) and A. crinifrons (n = 23) and all known specimens of A. i. tatei (n = 4). I also examined specimens of A. albertisi (n = 70), A. archboldi (n = 25), A. bennettii (n = 55), A. cristatus (n = 50), A. savesi (n = 1), and A. wallacii (n = 21). Aegotheles i. tatei was distinguishable from A. i. insignis and A. crinifrons by its small size and in seven plumage characters. Aegotheles i. tatei was further distinguishable from one or the other of these taxa by four additional characters. Unique among owlet-nightjars, A. i. tatei has the shortest tarsi, does not have recurved filamentous tips on its facial feathers, and has stiffer feathers on the auricular area and throat. My search of museums revealed two new specimens of A. i. tatei, expanding the known geographic range of this taxon 1,000 km eastward along the southern coast of Papua New Guinea from the upper Fly River to Nunumai, near the Ulamanu River. Unlike the montane A. i. insignis, A. i. tatei inhabits lowland forests where rivers emerge from foothills of the main cordillera. I propose that tatei be elevated to species status and that the name Starry Owlet-Nightjar be adopted based on the bird's markings. Aegotheles crinifrons, A. insignis, and A. tatei pass through a previously unrecognized but distinctive rufous juvenal plumage. These are the only owlet-nightjars known to exhibit this plumage, which calls for reexamination of generic limits within the Aegothelidae.

  17. 76 FR 72436 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Reinstatement with Change of a Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Previously Approved Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey: Pilot Study AGENCY: U.S. Department of the...' willingness to pay for improvements in environmental quality. A stated preference survey will be required for...: Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study. Type of Request: This is a reinstatement of a previously...

  18. Do previous sports experiences influence the effect of an enrichment programme in basketball skills?

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Mateus, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2016-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14), (ii) early specialisation (n = 34), and (iii) late specialisation (n = 28), according to information previously provided by the participants about the quantity and type of sporting activities performed throughout their sporting careers. Then, the participants of each path were randomly distributed across control and experimental groups. Variables under study included agility, technical skills circuit, as well as tactical actions performed in a 4-on-4 full-court basketball game. The results indicated improvements in the early and late specialisation paths namely in the experimental training groups. However, the late specialisation path revealed larger benefits, in contrast with the non-structured path, which showed less sensitivity to the enrichment programme, mostly sustained in physical literacy and differential learning. Higher improvements were observed in agility, and also in reducing the number of unsuccessful actions performed during the game. Overall, this study provided evidence of how early sports experiences affect basketball skill acquisition and contribute to adapt to new contexts with motor and technical-tactical challenges. In addition, a path supported by late specialisation might present several advantages in sport performance achievement.

  19. Examination of previously identified associations within the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 data.

    PubMed

    Howey, Richard A J; Eu-Ahsunthornwattana, Jakris; Darlay, Rebecca; Cordell, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possible replication of "known" associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with blood pressure and expression phenotypes. Previous studies have provided a list of 95 SNPs thought to be associated with blood pressure phenotypes, of which 44 were present in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) family-imputed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data and 4 in the GAW19 unrelateds sequence data. Using only the real (not simulated) GAW19 data, we show through the use of statistical tests that account for family relatedness, using FaST-LMM (Factored Spectrally Transformed Linear Mixed Model), that none of our candidate SNPs yields a significant p value. Furthermore, a study of epistasis, aiming to detect statistical interactions between loci with respect to their association with transcription levels has provided a list of 30 associated interacting SNP pairs, of which 13 are present in the GAW19 family GWAS and expression data. We show for this set of results, using the program GEMMA (genome-wide efficient mixed-model analysis) to account for family relatedness, that there is evidence of replication within the real GAW19 data. Two individual SNP pairs reach significance, and the set of remaining results give a combined p value of 0.017 that at least 1 of these remaining SNP pairs interacts to influence an expression phenotype.

  20. Plantar pressure and daily cumulative stress in persons affected by leprosy with current, previous and no previous foot ulceration.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Carine H M; Slim, Frederik J; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R; Nollet, Frans

    2013-03-01

    Not only plantar pressure but also weight-bearing activity affects accumulated mechanical stress to the foot and may be related to foot ulceration. To date, activity has not been accounted for in leprosy. The purpose was to compare barefoot pressure, in-shoe pressure and daily cumulative stress between persons affected by leprosy with and without previous or current foot ulceration. Nine persons with current plantar ulceration were compared to 15 with previous and 15 without previous ulceration. Barefoot peak pressure (EMED-X), in-shoe peak pressure (Pedar-X) and daily cumulative stress (in-shoe forefoot pressure time integral×mean daily strides (Stepwatch™ Activity Monitor)) were measured. Barefoot peak pressure was increased in persons with current and previous compared to no previous foot ulceration (mean±SD=888±222 and 763±335 vs 465±262kPa, p<0.05). In-shoe peak pressure was only increased in persons with current compared to without previous ulceration (mean±SD=412±145 vs 269±70kPa, p<0.05). Daily cumulative stress was not different between groups, although persons with current and previous foot ulceration were less active. Although barefoot peak pressure was increased in people with current and previous plantar ulceration, it did not discriminate between these groups. While in-shoe peak pressure was increased in persons with current ulceration, they were less active, resulting in no difference in daily cumulative stress. Increased in-shoe peak pressure suggests insufficient pressure reducing footwear in persons with current ulceration, highlighting the importance of pressure reducing qualities of footwear.

  1. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  2. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  3. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  4. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  5. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  6. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A... prior to the establishment of title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * *...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use...

  8. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship...

  9. 25 CFR 83.8 - Previous Federal acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... evidence of previous Federal action acknowledging tribal status shall be made during the technical assistance review of the documented petition conducted pursuant to § 83.10(b). If a petition is awaiting...(b) to demonstrate that it comprises a distinct community at present. However, it need not...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Certification of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... suspended under the laws of the state, the registration with the Secretary shall be ineffective from...

  11. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  12. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  13. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  14. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  15. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use...

  17. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Rhabdomyosarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-13

    Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Alveolar Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Embryonal Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Embryonal-botryoid Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  19. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 60.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17 Previously... retain its qualification basis as long as it continues to meet the standards, including the...

  20. 31 CFR 202.5 - Previously designated depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Previously designated depositaries. 202.5 Section 202.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DEPOSITARIES AND FINANCIAL...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use...

  2. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-10-01

    The Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission (ASPECT) is a part of the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) project, and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the efects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA Asteroid Impact Detection Assessment (AIDA) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) by ESA and the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) by NASA. DART is targeted to impact the Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) while AIM monitors the impact efects. This will demonstrate the use of a kinetic impactor to detect potentially hazardous asteroids. Both spacecraft will be launched in 2020 and will arrive to Didymos in 2022. The AIM mission will also include two or three CubeSats, which will be released in the Didymos system. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientifc experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. ASPECT is a 3U CubeSat equipped with a VIS-NIR spectral imager and it will be used to measure the spectral characteristics of the impact site before and after the DART impact, as the impactor should bring fresh material to the surface. This gives a unique opportunity to study space weathering and shock efects on asteroids.

  3. Influence of a previous neck sprain on recovery after whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Nee, Patrick A

    2008-12-01

    The impact of a previous neck sprain on recovery from whiplash injury is unknown as published studies have produced conflicting results. This article reviews the literature on the prognosis of a second whiplash injury, distinguishing between previous injuries with and without complete recovery. The best available evidence suggests that a previous injury with incomplete recovery represents an adverse prognostic indicator. However, where there has been complete recovery, the prior injury does not influence the prognosis.

  4. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  5. Observation of energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sawad, A.; Saloniemi, O.; Laitinen, T. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Valtonen, E.

    2009-12-01

    We report new evidence on energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave. We have chosen four Multi Eruption Solar Energetic Particle (MESEP) events from the list presented by Al-Sawad 2007, and observed by Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Two events were studied in details, the event of 2001 October 19-21, which was in association with two X1.6/2B solar flares and halo CMEs separated by ~15 hours and the event of 2000 April 04, which was associated with two CMEs separated by ~8 hours. The other two new MESEP events were on 2000 February 17-19 and 2005 August 22-25. The first event was associated with two CMEs. The first halo CME was associated with M 1.3 solar flare at S29E07 Hα location from the NOAA AR 8827, and with metric and later D-H type II radio bursts, indicating a formation of shock wave, which was later passed near the Earth's orbit and registered, by SOHO, ACE and Wind spacecrafts. The second CME erupted from the south-west after ~13 hours. The second event was associated with two halo CMEs separated by ~16 and erupted from same NOAA AR 10798 in association with M class solar flares. The first halo was in association with metric type II but both were in association with D-H type II. In both events the first CME was decelerating and both events can be classified as gradual SEP events. Our analysis for proton flux anisotropy data, He/P ratio and possible velocity dispersion in the second peak of the intensity-time profile are related to the second CME in both events. This suggests that the energetic protons > 10 MeV penetrate the first shock waves associated with first CMEs in order to reach 1 AU and thus, these observations indicate that capability of interplanetary shock to accelerate high-energy protons gradually declines as shock travels from near the Sun to beyond 1~AU.

  6. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity.

  7. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  8. "Views of Professionals on Aims and Outcomes of Transition for Young People with Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaehne, Axel; Beyer, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the findings of a study of professionals in strategic and operational positions who were involved in transition planning for young people with learning disabilities. Respondents were asked to comment on what they regarded as the optimal aim and outcome of transition from school to post-school placements. The results illustrate…

  9. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  10. Effects of an Inconsistency-Detection Training Aimed at Improving Comprehension Monitoring in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; Bos, Lisanne T.; de Koning, Björn B.; van der Schoot, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Grounded within the situation model framework, this study investigated the effectiveness of a reading comprehension strategy training aimed at improving children's comprehension monitoring strategies. Sixty-four third and fourth graders received a 4-week training targeted at situation model updating, evaluative and self-regulatory strategies, and…

  11. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Johnson F.; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:27882057

  12. Characteristics of pregnant women who report previous induced abortions*

    PubMed Central

    Harlap, Susan; Davies, A. Michael

    1975-01-01

    Associations between previous induced abortion and demographic and health factors in pregnancy were measured in 9 874 women who gave birth and who had been interviewed during pregnancy. Previous abortion was most rare among women having their first baby and increased with increasing birth order up to the fourth, thereafter decreasing. It was positively correlated with maternal age and negatively with age at marriage. There was no effect of years of schooling, when other variables were taken into account, but there were significant differences between ethnic groups, abortion being commonest among Jewish women from North African countries and more prevalent in those from western and Asian countries than in the second-generation Israel-born or in Arab women. Women who reported abortions were less likely to be strict as regards religious observance and less likely to have had a previous stillbirth or child death, other variables being equal. They were more likely to be smokers or former smokers and to be delivered of their babies in certain obstetric units. They more often reported vomiting, bleeding, and medication in early pregnancy. On the other hand, there was no significant association with diabetes, anaemia, blood groups, or season of birth. The findings show that women reporting previous induced abortions differ significantly from other pregnant women in a wide range of demographic and health characteristics. Such women may also be biased for complications of pregnancy and outcome, particularly if selected from a clinic population. Observations that indicate a deleterious effect of induced abortions on subsequent pregnancy outcomes must therefore be interpreted with considerable caution. PMID:1083303

  13. Pleuritis due to Brevundimonas diminuta in a previously healthy man.

    PubMed

    Lu, Binghuai; Shi, Yanli; Zhu, Fengxia; Xu, Xiaolin

    2013-03-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta is rarely associated with invasive infections. We report the case of a previously healthy young man with pleural effusion, in which B. diminuta was recovered but incorrectly identified as Kingella kingae when it was freshly isolated. Consequently, the misidentification resulted in initial treatment failure. The correct identification was achieved through further incubation, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and MS.

  14. Cutaneous responses to vaccinia in individuals with previous smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Eric L; Hercher, Michelle; Hammarlund, Erika K; Lewis, Matthew W; Slifka, Mark K; Hanifin, Jon M

    2007-09-01

    The durability of immune responses to smallpox vaccine is a subject of considerable debate. We compared cutaneous vaccinia responses in patients vaccinated in the distant past with vaccine-naïve individuals using serial close-up photographs. The previously vaccinated group had a significantly reduced time course and milder cutaneous reactions. Vaccinated individuals appear to maintain clinically detectable immunity against vaccinia for at least 20 years after smallpox vaccination.

  15. Septa in the appendix: a previously undescribed condition.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, A A

    1985-12-01

    A previously undescribed condition of the appendix, consisting of complete and incomplete septa is reported in 25 cases. The abnormality occurred in persons younger than 30 years. In all cases the lesion was found to be associated with acute appendicitis. Possible factors discussed with respect to aetiology and pathogenesis are: a congenital abnormality similar to intestinal atresia; post-inflammatory fusion of ulcerated, swollen mucosal folds; ischaemia caused by thrombosed vessels; mucosal folding in the process of expulsion of appendiceal contents.

  16. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  17. Previously Unrecognized Large Lunar Impact Basins Revealed by Topographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of a large population of apparently buried impact craters on Mars, revealed as Quasi- Circular Depressions (QCDs) in Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [1,2,3] and as Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) [4] in crustal thickness model data [5] leads to the obvious question: are there unrecognized impact features on the Moon and other bodies in the solar system? Early analysis of Clementine topography revealed several large impact basins not previously known [6,7], so the answer certainly is "Yes." How large a population of previously undetected impact basins, their size frequency distribution, and how much these added craters and basins will change ideas about the early cratering history and Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon remains to be determined. Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data [8] will be able to address these issues. As a prelude, we searched the state-of-the-art global topographic grid for the Moon, the Unified Lunar Control Net (ULCN) [9] for evidence of large impact features not previously recognized by photogeologic mapping, as summarized by Wilhelms [lo].

  18. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  19. Object files across eye movements: Previous fixations affect the latencies of corrective saccades.

    PubMed

    Schut, Martijn J; Fabius, Jasper H; Van der Stoep, Nathan; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    One of the factors contributing to a seamless visual experience is object correspondence-that is, the integration of pre- and postsaccadic visual object information into one representation. Previous research had suggested that before the execution of a saccade, a target object is loaded into visual working memory and subsequently is used to locate the target object after the saccade. Until now, studies on object correspondence have not taken previous fixations into account. In the present study, we investigated the influence of previously fixated information on object correspondence. To this end, we adapted a gaze correction paradigm in which a saccade was executed toward either a previously fixated or a novel target. During the saccade, the stimuli were displaced such that the participant's gaze landed between the target stimulus and a distractor. Participants then executed a corrective saccade to the target. The results indicated that these corrective saccades had lower latencies toward previously fixated than toward nonfixated targets, indicating object-specific facilitation. In two follow-up experiments, we showed that presaccadic spatial and object (surface feature) information can contribute separately to the execution of a corrective saccade, as well as in conjunction. Whereas the execution of a corrective saccade to a previously fixated target object at a previously fixated location is slowed down (i.e., inhibition of return), corrective saccades toward either a previously fixated target object or a previously fixated location are facilitated. We concluded that corrective saccades are executed on the basis of object files rather than of unintegrated feature information.

  20. Low dark current LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Fick, W.; Figgemeier, H.; Mahlein, M.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper AIM presents an update on its results for both n-on-p and p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode technology LWIR and VLWIR two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays with a cut-off wavelength >11μm at 80K and a 640×512 pixel format. The arrays are stitched from two 512×320 pixel photodiode arrays at a 20μm pixel pitch. Thermal dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' at a yet good detection efficiency <60% as well as results from NETD and photo response performance characterization are presented over a wide operating temperature range. The improvements made allow for the same dark current performance at a 20K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. The demonstrated detector performance paces the way for a new generation of higher operating temperature low SWaP LWIR MCT FPAs with a <30mK NETD up to a 110K detector operating temperature and with good operability. Alternatively, lower dark currents at common operating temperatures may be attained, enabling cutting edge next generation LWIR/VLWIR detectors for space instruments.

  1. Colour-induced relationship between affect and reaching kinematics during a goal-directed aiming task.

    PubMed

    Williams, Camille K; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Carnahan, Heather

    2011-08-01

    A link between affect and action has been supported by the discovery that threat information is prioritized through an action-centred pathway--the dorsal visual stream. Magnocellular afferents, which originate from the retina and project to dorsal stream structures, are suppressed by exposure to diffuse red light, which diminishes humans' perception of threat-based images. In order to explore the role of colour in the relationship between affect and action, participants donned different pairs of coloured glasses (red, yellow, green, blue and clear) and completed Positive and Negative Affect Scale questionnaires as well as a series of target-directed aiming movements. Analyses of affect scores revealed a significant main effect for affect valence and a significant interaction between colour and valence: perceived positive affect was significantly smaller for the red condition. Kinematic analyses of variable error in the primary movement direction and Pearson correlation analyses between the displacements travelled prior to and following peak velocity indicated reduced accuracy and application of online control processes while wearing red glasses. Variable error of aiming was also positively and significantly correlated with negative affect scores under the red condition. These results suggest that only red light modulates the affect-action link by suppressing magnocellular activity, which disrupts visual processing for movement control. Furthermore, previous research examining the effect of the colour red on psychomotor tasks and perceptual acceleration of threat-based imagery suggest that stimulus-driven motor performance tasks requiring online control may be particularly susceptible to this effect.

  2. Prognostic factors for re-mobilization using plerixafor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma previously failing mobilization with G-CSF with or without chemotherapy: the Korean multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Park, Seonyang; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Cho, Seok-Goo; Min, Chang-Ki; Lee, Je-Jung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Hawk; Do, Young Rok; Moon, Joon Ho; Lee, Jihye; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-03-01

    Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to improve the rates of successful peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM) who experienced prior failure of PBSC mobilization. We evaluated the mobilization results of re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF in insufficiently mobilizing patients. Forty-four patients with lymphoma (n = 29) or MM (n = 15) were included in the study. The median age was 50 (range, 24-64) years. Previous mobilization regimens were chemotherapy with G-CSF (n = 28), including cyclophosphamide with G-CSF (n = 15), and G-CSF only (n = 16). All patients with lymphoma achieved at least partial response (PR) before the mobilization, including 13 complete responses (CRs). Eleven patients with MM achieved at least PR and four patients with MM were in stable disease before mobilization. The median number of apheresis was 3 (range, 1-6). The median yield of PBSC collections was 3.41 (0.13-38.11) × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Thirty-four (77.3 %) patients had successful collections defined as at least 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. The rate of successful collections was not different between the two underlying diseases (79.3 % in lymphoma and 73.3 % in MM). Of the entire cohort, 38 (86.4 %) of patients went on to receive an autologous transplant. Previous long-term use of high-risk drugs (>4 cycles use of alkylating agents, platinum-containing agents, or thalidomide) (HR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-110.0, P = 0.043) and low platelet count (<100 × 10(9)/L) 1 day before the first apheresis (HR 27.9, 95 % CI 2.9-273.7, P = 0.004) were independent prognostic factors for predicting failure of PBSC re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF. In conclusion, re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF showed a success rate of 77.3 % in patients with lymphoma or MM who experienced prior failure of PBSC

  3. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Jacks, Stephanie K; Thielen, Scott P; Johnson, Andrea K; Brodell, Robert T; Bass, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  4. Learning from texts: activation of information from previous texts during reading.

    PubMed

    Beker, Katinka; Jolles, Dietsje; Lorch, Robert F; van den Broek, Paul

    Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts (experiment 2). In both experiments, texts with inconsistent target sentences were preceded by texts that either did or did not contain explanations that resolved the inconsistencies. In experiment 1, the reading times of the target sentences introducing inconsistencies were faster if the preceding text contained an explanation for the inconsistency than if it did not. This result demonstrates that relevant information from a prior text is spontaneously activated when the target sentence is read. In experiment 2 free recall was used to gain insight into the representation after reading. The reading time results for experiment 2 replicated the reading time results for experiment 1. However, the effects on reading times did not translate to measurable differences in text representations after reading. This research extends our knowledge about the processes involved in multiple text comprehension: Prior text information is spontaneously activated during reading, thereby enabling integration between different texts.

  5. Women with previous stress fractures show reduced bone material strength

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Fink Eriksen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Bone fragility is determined by bone mass, bone architecture, and the material properties of bone. Microindentation has been introduced as a measurement method that reflects bone material properties. The pathogenesis of underlying stress fractures, in particular the role of impaired bone material properties, is still poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that impaired bone material strength might play a role in the development of stress fractures, we used microindentation in patients with stress fractures and in controls. Patients and methods — We measured bone material strength index (BMSi) by microindentation in 30 women with previous stress fractures and in 30 normal controls. Bone mineral density by DXA and levels of the bone markers C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type-1 procollagen (P1NP) were also determined. Results — Mean BMSi in stress fracture patients was significantly lower than in the controls (SD 72 (8.7) vs. 77 (7.2); p = 0.02). The fracture subjects also had a significantly lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than the controls (0.9 (0.02) vs. 1.0 (0.06); p = 0.03). Bone turnover—as reflected in serum levels of the bone marker CTX—was similar in both groups, while P1NP levels were significantly higher in the women with stress fractures (55 μg/L vs. 42 μg/L; p = 0.03). There was no correlation between BMSi and BMD or bone turnover. Interpretation — BMSi was inferior in patients with previous stress fracture, but was unrelated to BMD and bone turnover. The lower values of BMSi in patients with previous stress fracture combined with a lower BMD may contribute to the increased propensity to develop stress fractures in these patients. PMID:27321443

  6. High-dose etoposide plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor as an effective chemomobilization regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin Lymphoma previously treated with CHOP-based chemotherapy: a study from the Consortium for Improving Survival of Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Shin Young; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Min, Yoo Hong; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Sik; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Do, Young Rok; Lee, Ho Sup; Lee, Jae Hoon; Oh, Sung Yong; Suh, Cheolwon; Yhim, Ho-Young; Kim, Jin Seok

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to compare the efficacy and toxicity of various chemomobilization regimens: high-dose (HD) cyclophosphamide, HD etoposide (VP-16), and platinum-based chemotherapies. We reviewed the experiences of 10 institutions with 103 non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients who had previously only been treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-based chemotherapy. The mobilization yields for each regimen were analyzed. HD VP-16 mobilized a significantly higher median number of CD34(+) cells (16.22 × 10(6) cells/kg) than HD cyclophosphamide (4.44 × 10(6) cells/kg) or platinum-based chemotherapies (6.08 × 10(6) cells/kg, P < .001). The rate of successful mobilization (CD34(+) cell count ≥ 5.0 × 10(6) cells/kg) was also significantly higher for HD VP-16 (86%) than for HD cyclophosphamide (45%) or platinum-based chemotherapies (61%, P = .004). The successful mobilization rate on day 1 of 72% for HD VP-16 was significantly higher than the rates for HD cyclophosphamide (13%) and platinum-based chemotherapies (26%, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, HD VP-16 was a significant predictor of successful mobilization (P = .014; odds ratio, 5.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 19.63). Neutropenic fever occurred in 67% of patients treated with HD VP-16. The incidence was similar for HD cyclophosphamide (58%, P = .454) but was significantly lower for platinum-based chemotherapies (12%, P < .001). However, fatal (grade ≥ 4) infection and treatment-related mortality were not observed in this study. In conclusion, the mobilization yield was significantly influenced by the chemomobilization regimen, and HD VP-16 was a highly effective mobilization regimen in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  7. [Influencing factors of previous testing on blood determination (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwerd, W; Birkenberger, H

    1977-11-18

    The demonstration of individual characteristics, especially those of the blood group types are substantially disturbed through the hydrogenperoxide- and the luminol spray procedure, which when it is previously employed, can cause changes in the blood spot. These changes are expecially by very small blood spots to be expected, but even larger ones under intensive spraying can be effected. Only with great caution are such spray procedures to be used and then only if it is impossible any other way to gather information about the existance of blood spots.

  8. Mycoplasma hominis necrotizing pleuropneumonia in a previously healthy adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis is a fastidious micro-organism causing systemic infections in the neonate and genital infections in the adult. It can also be the cause of serious extra-genital infections, mainly in immunosuppressed or predisposed subjects. Case Presentation We describe a case of severe pneumonia and pericarditis due to Mycoplasma hominis in a previously healthy adolescent who did not respond to initial therapy. Conclusions Mycoplasma hominis could be an underestimated cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent patients and should be particularly suspected in those not responding to standard therapy. PMID:21106079

  9. Statin-induced myopathy in a patient with previous poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mika H; Gardberg, Maria; Kohonen, Ia; Lähdesmäki, Janne

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a patient with a history of poliomyelitis who developed new, progressive symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness, suggestive of postpoliomyelitis syndrome. However, comprehensive investigations led to the diagnosis of statin-induced myopathy as the cause of the patient's symptoms. This case highlights the possibility of statin-induced myopathy in patients with a history of poliomyelitis and the differential diagnosis between postpoliomyelitis syndrome and statin-induced myopathy in these patients. The possibility of statin-induced myopathy should be considered when patients with previous poliomyelitis who take statin medication develop symptoms suggestive of postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

  10. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  11. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  12. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  13. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N.; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. PMID:27460800

  14. Reconsolidation may incorporate state-dependency into previously consolidated memories.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rodrigo O; Cassini, Lindsey F; Santana, Fabiana; Crestani, Ana P; Duran, Johanna M; Haubrich, Josué; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas; Quillfeldt, Jorge A

    2013-06-19

    Some memories enter into a labile state after retrieval, requiring reconsolidation in order to persist. One functional role of memory reconsolidation is the updating of existing memories. There are reports suggesting that reconsolidation can be modulated by a particular endogenous process taking place concomitantly to its natural course, such as water or sleep deprivation. Here, we investigated whether an endogenous process activated during a natural/physiological experience, or a pharmacological intervention, can also contribute to memory content updating. Using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rats, we found that the endogenous content of an aversive memory can be updated during its reconsolidation incorporating consequences of natural events such as water deprivation, transforming a previously stored memory into a state-dependent one. This updating seems to be mediated by the activation of angiotensin AT1 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus and local infusion of human angiotensin II (ANGII) was shown to mimic the water deprivation effects on memory reconsolidation. Systemic morphine injection was also able to turn a previously acquired experience into a state-dependent memory, reproducing the very same effects obtained by water deprivation or local angiotensin II infusion, and suggesting that other state-dependent-inducing protocols would also be able to contribute to memory updating. These findings trigger new insights about the influence of ordinary daily life events upon memory in its continuing reconstruction, adding the realm of reconsolidation to the classical view of endogenous modulation of consolidation.

  15. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  16. AIM2 Drives Joint Inflammation in a Self-DNA Triggered Model of Chronic Polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Christopher; Perner, Sven; Hornung, Veit

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking DNase II display a polyarthritis-like disease phenotype that is driven by translocation of self-DNA into the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells, where it is sensed by pattern recognition receptors. While pro-inflammatory gene expression is non-redundantly linked to the presence of STING in these mice, the contribution of the inflammasome pathway has not been explored. To this end, we studied the role of the DNA-sensing inflammasome receptor AIM2 in this self-DNA driven disease model. Arthritis-prone mice lacking AIM2 displayed strongly decreased signs of joint inflammation and associated histopathological findings. This was paralleled with a reduction of caspase-1 activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in diseased joints. Interestingly, systemic signs of inflammation that are associated with the lack of DNase II were not dependent on AIM2. Taken together, these data suggest a tissue-specific role for the AIM2 inflammasome as a sensor for endogenous DNA species in the course of a ligand-dependent autoinflammatory condition.

  17. Assessment of renal function in workers previously exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Edling, C; Lindberg, E; Kågedal, B; Vesterberg, O

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium induced renal effects were examined in 60 workers (58 men, 2 women) previously exposed to cadmium. Tubular damage in the form of beta 2-microglobulinuria was found in 40%, and urinary albumin and orosomucoid increased significantly with increasing urinary cadmium and increasing relative clearance of beta 2-microglobulin. It is suggested that increased albumin excretion is secondary to the tubular damage. In no case was typical glomerular proteinuria found that could be related to cadmium. Histories of renal stones were more common among the workers with high urinary cadmium concentrations. The glomerular filtration rate was measured in 17 of the workers who had pronounced tubular dysfunction. The average glomerular filtration rate for these men was less than the age adjusted predicted value (mean = 84%). Furthermore, there was a significant (p less than 0.05) correlation (r = -0.47) between tubular reabsorption loss and a decreased glomerular filtration rate. PMID:3904816

  18. Long-term thermal sensitivity of previously irradiated skin.

    PubMed

    Law, M P; Ahier, R G

    1982-12-01

    The response of the mouse ear to hyperthermia was investigated at 7-64 weeks after irradiation with X rays. Thermal sensitivity was increased by 12 weeks after single doses of 18 to 20 Gy but showed no further changes up to 64 weeks after exposure. It is suggested that the increase in sensitivity to retreatment by hyperthermia several months after the initial course of radiation may be related to the turnover time of the tissue. Although there are reports which suggest that prior irradiation, given more than two months earlier, does not affect the response of human skin or superficial tumours to the mild hyperthermic treatment in current clinical use, more aggressive heat therapy may produce unexpectedly severe responses in previously irradiated sites.

  19. Lessons from Previous Expeditions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuster, J.

    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and future space missions. From an engineering perspective, the differences between future and past expeditions are considerable. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, and one of the factors that drives the complexity is the requirement to support the crew in the hostile environment of space. The technological differences are significant, but from a behavioral perspective, are the differences really that great between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space? The psychological differences probably are few. This paper discusses some of the most salient behavioral and technical lessons from previous expeditions that can be applied to facilitate the human explora- tion of Mars.

  20. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  1. Medial subluxation of the patella without previous lateral retinacular release.

    PubMed

    Richman, N M; Scheller, A D

    1998-07-01

    This case presented a 17-year-old patient with persistent complaints localized to the right patellofemoral joint. Clinical examination demonstrated increased medial translation of the patella on manual stress. In contrast to previous published reports on medial patellar subluxation, this patient had not undergone prior lateral retinacular release. Arthroscopic examination documented medial tracking of the patella as well as excess medial translation. Imbrication of the patient's lateral patellar retinaculum centralized patella tracking and diminished medial translation on stress testing as observed arthroscopically and clinically. This case illustrates that medial patellar subluxation is a subtle problem that may be overlooked in the patient presenting with patellofemoral complaints and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  2. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Yub; Ryu, Woo Sang; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  3. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  4. Is visual-based, online control of manual-aiming movements disturbed when adapting to new movement dynamics?

    PubMed

    Mackrous, Isabelle; Proteau, Luc

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has shown that for goal-directed movements, online visual feedback is not necessary for the adaptation of movement planning to novel movement dynamics. In the present study, we wanted to put this proposition to a stringent test and determine whether the usually dominant role of online visual feedback in movement control is diminished when goal-directed movements are performed in a condition that modifies limb dynamics. Participants performed a video-aiming task while the center of mass of their forearm was experimentally displaced by a 1.5-kg mass attached laterally to its longitudinal axis. A cursor representing the position of the participant's hand was either visible or not visible during the acquisition phase. Then, in a transfer test, the participants performed the task without online visual feedback and either with or without the lateral mass. During the acquisition phase, the participants adapted to the new movement dynamics imposed by the added mass regardless of whether online visual feedback was available. An important new finding of the present study was the observation that the role usually played by online visual feedback in refining movement planning and ensuring control of the initial portion of goal-directed movements was suppressed during adaptation to novel movement dynamics. This resulted in an increase in the role played by visual feedback late in the movement to ensure endpoint accuracy.

  5. A New Coupled Earth's Critical Zone Model: AgroIBIS - MODFLOW (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Soylu, M.; Zipper, Samuel C.; Loheide, Steven P., II; Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater may influence land surface energy, water, carbon balances and terrestrial ecosystems by altering the root zone soil moisture dynamics in 22 - 32% of the Earth's land area. However, our current understanding of the impacts of shallow groundwater on ecosystem dynamics and land surface processes is hampered by both a lack of observations and current capabilities of the state-of-the-art ecosystem models to simulate shallow groundwater as a working part of the groundwater-soil-vegetation-atmosphere (critical zone) transfer scheme. Existing models are able to simulate water and energy fluxes with highly accurate process-based approaches in a single compartment (e.g., vadose zone - HYDRUS, or groundwater - MODFLOW) or multiple compartments (e.g., groundwater & vadose zone MODFLOW-VSF, vadose zone & vegetation- Agro-IBIS) of the critical zone by oversimplifying or ignoring the other compartments. In this study, we present a newly developed critical zone model, AgroIBIS-MODFLOW (AIM). AIM is capable of simulating ecohydrological processes across the complete critical zone. AIM is a fully coupled agroecosystem/dynamic vegetation model (AgroIBIS), variably saturated flow model (HYDRUS-1D), and groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). We analyze the performance of AIM by comparing the model with saturated and unsaturated flow experiments as well as results from other models. Moreover, to demonstrate AIM's potential for simulating ecohydrological processes and feedbacks, we present a hypothetical watershed scale case where the indirect impacts of land use change on agricultural productivity due to altered groundwater recharge and water table depth.

  6. Previous hospital admissions and disease severity predict the use of antipsychotic combination treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although not recommended in treatment guidelines, previous studies have shown a frequent use of more than one antipsychotic agent among patients with schizophrenia. The main aims of the present study were to explore the antipsychotic treatment regimen among patients with schizophrenia in a catchment area-based sample and to investigate clinical characteristics associated with antipsychotic combination treatment. Methods The study included 329 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia using antipsychotic medication. Patients were recruited from all psychiatric hospitals in Oslo. Diagnoses were obtained by use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Additionally, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and number of hospitalisations and pharmacological treatment were assessed. Results Multiple hospital admissions, low GAF scores and high PANSS scores, were significantly associated with the prescription of combination treatment with two or more antipsychotics. The use of combination treatment increased significantly from the second hospital admission. Combination therapy was not significantly associated with age or gender. Regression models confirmed that an increasing number of hospital admission was the strongest predictor of the use of two or more antipsychotics. Conclusions Previous hospital admissions and disease severity measured by high PANSS scores and low GAF scores, predict the use of antipsychotic combination treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Future studies should further explore the use of antipsychotic drug treatment in clinical practice and partly based on such data establish more robust treatment guidelines for patients with persistently high symptom load. PMID:21812996

  7. Strontium ranelate effect on bone mineral density is modified by previous bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Brun, Lucas R; Galich, Ana M; Vega, Eduardo; Salerni, Helena; Maffei, Laura; Premrou, Valeria; Costanzo, Pablo R; Sarli, Marcelo A; Rey, Paula; Larroudé, María S; Moggia, María S; Brance, María L; Sánchez, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strontium ranelate (SrR) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of SrR in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve) compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior) was analyzed. This retrospective study included 482 postmenopausal women treated with SrR (2 g/day) for 1 year in ten Argentine centers; 41 patients were excluded due to insufficient data, while 441 were included. Participants were divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment in two groups: BP-naïve (n = 87) and BP-prior (n = 350). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with SrR the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased (p < 0.0001), while the bone resorption marker s-CTX was decreased (p = 0.0579). Also increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (LS, 3.73%), femoral neck (FN, 2.00%) and total hip (TH, 1.54%) [p < 0.0001] were observed. These increments were significant (p < 0.0001) both among BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. Interestingly, the change in BMD after 1 year of SrR treatment was higher in BP-naïve patients: LS: BP-naïve = 4.58 ± 0.62%; BP-prior = 3.45 ± 0.28% (p = 0.078). FN: BP-naïve = 2.79 ± 0.56%; BP-prior = 2.13 ± 0.29% (p = 0.161). TH: BP-naïve = 3.01 ± 0.55%; BP-prior = 1.22 ± 0.27% (p = 0.0006). SrR treatment increased BMD and bone formation markers and decreased a bone resorption marker in the whole group, with better response in BP-naïve patients.

  8. Previous Lung Diseases and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Darren R.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to review the epidemiologic evidence concerning previous lung diseases as risk factors for lung cancer, a meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted. Methods Relevant studies were identified through MEDLINE searches. Using random effects models, summary effects of specific previous conditions were evaluated separately and combined. Stratified analyses were conducted based on smoking status, gender, control sources and continent. Results A previous history of COPD, chronic bronchitis or emphysema conferred relative risks (RR) of 2.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66, 2.97) (from 16 studies), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.84) (from 23 studies) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.72, 2.41) (from 20 studies), respectively, and for all these diseases combined 1.80 (95% CI: 1.60, 2.11) (from 39 studies). The RR of lung cancer for subjects with a previous history of pneumonia was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.22–1.68) (from 22 studies) and for subjects with a previous history of tuberculosis was 1.76 (95% CI = 1.49, 2.08), (from 30 studies). Effects were attenuated when restricting analysis to never smokers only for COPD/emphysema/chronic bronchitis (RR = 1.22, 0.97–1.53), however remained significant for pneumonia 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69) (from 8 studies) and tuberculosis 1.90 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.50) (from 11 studies). Conclusions Previous lung diseases are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer with the evidence among never smokers supporting a direct relationship between previous lung diseases and lung cancer. PMID:21483846

  9. [Effectiveness of training interventions aimed at reducing physical restraints in institutionalised older people: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Briones-Peralta, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz

    There is some controversy about the use of physical restraints in institutionalised elderly people. The aim of this review is to analyse studies that evaluated the effectiveness of training interventions targeting interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, reducing or eliminating the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. A systematic search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science to find clinical trials, published in English or in Spanish, that examined training sessions for interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, minimising or eliminating the use of physical restrains in institutionalised people over 65 years. Ten papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings show conflicting results on the effectiveness of training sessions. Furthermore, they lack sufficient empirical evidence to be able to assert that training sessions brought about a reduction in the use of physical restraints. More studies are needed that analyse the effectiveness of these interventions to prevent or eliminate the use of physical restraints in these institutions.

  10. Analysis on Population Level Reveals Trappability of Wild Rodents Is Determined by Previous Trap Occupant

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Live trapping is central to the study of small mammals. Thus, any bias needs to be understood and accounted for in subsequent analyses to ensure accurate population estimates. One rarely considered bias is the behavioural response of individuals to the trap, in particular the olfactory cues left behind by previous occupants (PO). We used a data set of 8,115 trap nights spanning 17 separate trapping sessions between August 2002 and November 2013 in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK to examine if the decision to enter a trap was affected by the PO, if this was detectable in traditional Capture-Mark-Recapture trapping data (i.e., individuals not uniquely marked), and if it was possible for this effect to bias the population estimates obtained. Data were collected on Apodemus sylvaticus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus agrestis. Three Generalised Linear Models revealed a significant tendency for the three species to enter traps with same-species PO. With, for example, A. sylvaticus 9.1 times more likely to enter a same species PO trap compared to one that contained a M. agrestis in the grassland during the nocturnal period. Simulation highlighted that, when all other factors are equal, the species with the highest PO effect will have the highest capture rate and therefore return more accurate population estimates. Despite the large dataset, certain species-, sex-, and/ or age-combinations were under-represented, and thus no effects of any additional individual-specific characteristics could be evaluated. Uniquely marking individuals would allow for the PO effect to be disentangled from other biases such as trap-shyness and spatial heterogeneity, but may not be possible in all cases and will depend on the aims of the study and the resources available. PMID:26689683

  11. Content analysis of previously suicidal college students' experiences.

    PubMed

    Knott, E C; Range, L M

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain actual helpful and unhelpful remarks received from others, 40 previously suicidal students answered open-ended questions about their experiences and completed the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ). Respondents were still moderately suicidal on the SBQ, even though their most recent suicidal episode was an average of 3 years earlier. Respondents reported that family, friends, and personal resources were most helpful in keeping them alive. Those who told someone about their suicidal ideas or plans reported helpful remarks ("The situation is not worth dying for") that appeared to be empathic and thoughtful. Those who told no one about their suicidal ideas or plans, speculated helpful remarks that also appeared to be empathic and thoughtful. In contrast, unhelpful remarks (e.g., "You are stupid") appeared to be simplistic and thoughtless. Implications are that those who are suicidal should be careful in choosing person(s) in whom they confide, and training modules that give examples of actual helpful remarks might be useful for students.

  12. Recurrent arthralgias in a patient with previous Mayaro fever infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shawn F; Patel, Paresh R; Herold, Thomas J S

    2005-04-01

    Mayaro fever is an acute, self-limited, febrile, mosquito-borne viral disease manifested by fever, chills, headache, myalgias, and arthralgias. The virus belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus. Five other mosquito-borne viruses have been described as causing a similar dengue-like illness. The virus was first isolated in 1954, and the first epidemics were described in 1955 in Brazil and Bolivia. Other cases have been reported in Suriname, Brazil, Peru, French Guiana, and Trinidad. Up to 10 to 15% of febrile illnesses in endemic areas have been attributed to Mayaro virus. The exact pathogenesis and pathophysiology among humans is unknown. Animal models have demonstrated necrosis of skeletal muscle, periosteum, perichondrial tissues, and evidence of meningitis and encephalitis. All previous cases of Mayaro fever describe a self-limited illness. No reports of recurrent symptoms exist in the literature. This report describes a case of recurrent arthralgias in a military service member presenting to the emergency department.

  13. Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Hertkorn, Norbert; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Moritz, Franco; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Michalke, Bernhard; Wimpenny, Joshua; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bronsky, Basil; Saraykin, Vladimir; Gabelica, Zelimir; Gougeon, Régis D; Quirico, Eric; Ralew, Stefan; Jakubowski, Tomasz; Haack, Henning; Gonsior, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter; Hinman, Nancy W; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-03-14

    The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR](-), in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High collision energies, which are required for fragmentation, suggest substantial thermal stability of these Mg-metalorganics (CHOMg compounds). This was corroborated by their higher abundance in thermally processed meteorites. CHOMg compounds were found to be present in a set of 61 meteorites of diverse petrological classes. The appearance of this CHOMg chemical class extends the previously investigated, diverse set of CHNOS molecules. A connection between the evolution of organic compounds and minerals is made, as Mg released from minerals gets trapped into organic compounds. These CHOMg metalorganic compounds and their relation to thermal processing in meteorites might shed new light on our understanding of carbon speciation at a molecular level in meteorite parent bodies.

  14. Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Hertkorn, Norbert; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Moritz, Franco; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Michalke, Bernhard; Wimpenny, Joshua; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bronsky, Basil; Saraykin, Vladimir; Gabelica, Zelimir; Gougeon, Régis D.; Quirico, Eric; Ralew, Stefan; Jakubowski, Tomasz; Haack, Henning; Gonsior, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter; Hinman, Nancy W.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR]−, in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High collision energies, which are required for fragmentation, suggest substantial thermal stability of these Mg-metalorganics (CHOMg compounds). This was corroborated by their higher abundance in thermally processed meteorites. CHOMg compounds were found to be present in a set of 61 meteorites of diverse petrological classes. The appearance of this CHOMg chemical class extends the previously investigated, diverse set of CHNOS molecules. A connection between the evolution of organic compounds and minerals is made, as Mg released from minerals gets trapped into organic compounds. These CHOMg metalorganic compounds and their relation to thermal processing in meteorites might shed new light on our understanding of carbon speciation at a molecular level in meteorite parent bodies. PMID:28242686

  15. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  16. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both). Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  17. [Thrombocytopenia induced by rifampicin not previously sensitized: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Neino Mourtala Mohamed, A; Tummino, C; Gouitaa, M; Chanez, P

    2013-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia induced by rifampicin in the absence of prior sensitization is exceptional, especially when it occurs in a patient without risk factors. We report the case of a patient aged 25 years with no past history of medical, surgical or knowledge of having taken rifampicin previously, who was hospitalized for treatment of thrombocytopenic purpura occurring after the initiation of fixed combination quadruple therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) for pulmonary tuberculosis. The biological pretreatment and therapeutic education had not been made. The patient presented with thrombocytopenic purpura 30000/mm(3) on day 9 after the initiation of treatment. The platelet count returned to normal 10 days after discontinuation of treatment. We elected not to reintroduce rifampicin given the strong likelihood that it was responsible for this complication. We conducted a phased reintroduction of isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. No recurrence of the thrombocytopenia occurred. Thus, the diagnosis of rifampicin-induced thrombocytopenia appears to have been confirmed and the patient tolerated the remainder of their treatment well.

  18. Red Algal Mitochondrial Genomes Are More Complete than Previously Reported

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    The enslavement of an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont by the last common eukaryotic ancestor resulted in large-scale gene transfer of endosymbiont genes to the host nucleus as the endosymbiont transitioned into the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial genomes have experienced widespread gene loss and genome reduction within eukaryotes and DNA sequencing has revealed that most of these gene losses occurred early in eukaryotic lineage diversification. On a broad scale, more recent modifications to organelle genomes appear to be conserved and phylogenetically informative. The first red algal mitochondrial genome was sequenced more than 20 years ago, and an additional 29 Florideophyceae mitochondria have been added over the past decade. A total of 32 genes have been described to have been missing or considered non-functional pseudogenes from these Florideophyceae mitochondria. These losses have been attributed to endosymbiotic gene transfer or the evolution of a parasitic life strategy. Here we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes from the red algal parasite Choreocolax polysiphoniae and its host Vertebrata lanosa and found them to be complete and conserved in structure with other Florideophyceae mitochondria. This result led us to resequence the previously published parasite Gracilariophila oryzoides and its host Gracilariopsis andersonii, as well as reevaluate reported gene losses from published Florideophyceae mitochondria. Multiple independent losses of rpl20 and a single loss of rps11 can be verified. However by reannotating published data and resequencing specimens when possible, we were able to identify the majority of genes that have been reported as lost or pseudogenes from Florideophyceae mitochondria. PMID:28175279

  19. Plasma and Brain Pharmacokinetics of Previously Unexplored Lithium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam J.; Kim, Seol-Hee; Tan, Jun; Sneed, Kevin B.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Shytle, R. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Despite its narrow therapeutic window, lithium is still regarded as the gold standard comparator and benchmark treatment for mania. Recent attempts to find new drugs with similar therapeutic activities have yielded new chemical entities. However, these potential new drugs have yet to match the many bioactivities attributable to lithium's efficacy for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Consequently, an intense effort for re-engineering lithium therapeutics using crystal engineering is currently underway. We sought to improve the likelihood of success of these endeavors by evaluating the pharmacokinetics of previously unexplored lithium salts with organic anions (lithium salicylate and lithium lactate). We report that these lithium salts exhibit profoundly different pharmacokinetics compared to the more common FDA approved salt, lithium carbonate, in rats. Remarkably, lithium salicylate produced elevated plasma and brain levels of lithium beyond 48 hours post-dose without the sharp peak that contributes to the toxicity problems of current lithium therapeutics. These findings could be important for the development of the next generation of lithium therapeutics. PMID:25045517

  20. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310