Shapiro, Edward S; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Fu, Qiong
The purpose of the study was to compare the use of a Computer Adaptive Test and Curriculum-Based Measurement in the assessment of mathematics. This study also investigated the degree to which slope or rate of change predicted student outcomes on the annual state assessment of mathematics above and beyond scores of single point screening assessments (i.e., the computer adaptive test or the CBM assessment just before the administration of the state assessment). Repeated measurement of mathematics once per month across a 7-month period using a Computer Adaptive Test (STAR-Math) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM, AIMSweb Math Computation, AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications) was collected for a maximum total of 250 third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Results showed STAR-Math in all 3 grades and AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications in the third and fifth grades had primarily linear growth patterns in mathematics. AIMSweb Math Computation in all grades and AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications in Grade 4 had decelerating positive trends. Predictive validity evidence showed the strongest relationships were between STAR-Math and outcomes for third and fourth grade students. The blockwise multiple regression by grade revealed that slopes accounted for only a very small proportion of additional variance above and beyond what was explained by the scores obtained on a single point of assessment just prior to the administration of the state assessment.
Wiebe, Arthur, Ed.; And Others
The activities in this booklet were designed to provide second grade children with opportunities to explore areas of natural interest to them while gaining knowledge and practice in math skills and with science processes. Seasonal activities which are appropriate for the first half of the school year are offered on the topics of: holidays, seeds…
Bailey, Anne Lowrey
Charles Pine, CASE's Professor of the Year, is a professor who gets students to know and love math and physics and who has emerged as a leading teacher of math teachers. It started when Pine found that his students couldn't do the math involved in his physics classes. (MLW)
Achieve, Inc., 2013
Far too many students in the U.S. give up on math early because it does not come easy and they believe only students with innate ability can really be "good" at mathematics, a notion that is all too often reinforced by adults who believe the same thing. There is a serious gap between how Americans value math generally and how they value math for…
Four decades ago following Russia's Sputnik satellite launching, the nation embraced "new" math as part of its commitment not to fall behind its global neighbors. Issues addressed in "new-new" math include equal access to challenging learning, problem solving, reasoning and proof, communications, multiple ways to solve…
Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…
O'Brien, Thomas C.
Parrot math (memorization) seeks to control children through external rewards and punishments, rather than harness their intelligence and curiosity. Recent standardized test results document parrot math's failure. Activities-based approaches, supported by a constructivist philosophy (involving classifying, inferring, generalizing, and…
Many experts give the nation's schools a poor grade for their approach to teaching mathematics and for their preparation of mathematics teachers. While many policymakers make much of data that suggest children in the United States lag behind many other advanced countries in math, many experts call for a change in mathematics education,…
Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas
Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…
Discussion in maths lessons has always been something encouraged by ATM but can be difficult to initiate for non-specialist and inexperienced teachers who may feel they need material in books to get them going. In this article, the author describes resources aimed at encouraging discussion among primary mathematicians. These resources include: (1)…
Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie
Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)
"When am I ever going to use this?" This question is heard or thought in every middle-level math class across the land. Teachers struggle to apply math lessons to everyday life and make math meaningful and useful for their students. This author, too, struggled with this problem, until she read the book "Math Curse" by Jon Scieszka (Viking Books,…
Hoyt, Cathy Fillmore
This book features a comprehensive review of the Math Sense series and is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers;…
Achieve, Inc., 2013
The equation is simple: No matter their background, students who take challenging math courses in high school get better jobs and earn more money throughout their entire lives. This paper stresses that: (1) Higher-level math opens doors for any and all postsecondary programs and keeps it open for advancement beyond entry-level jobs; and (2)…
Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…
Math education consultant Marilyn Burns finds that teachers ask her the same three questions so often she's named them "The Big Three": What can I do with students who finish their math work more quickly?, How can I free up time to work with kids who need extra help?, and How can I differentiate math learning experiences? Burns, who…
Hartel, R. W.; Adem, M.
A math review exam, written and administered in conjunction with the Quantitative Assessment Program at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, is used at the beginning of the 1st food engineering course to evaluate math skills needed for successful completion of the course. Students who do not score well on the math exam are targeted for individual…
Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C
People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.
Cardany, Audrey Berger
"Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…
Zwerling, L. Steven
Describes the Math Learning Center at Palm Beach Junior College which offers 21 courses of study, including all math courses through trigonometry and 11 general education math courses. Examines the implementation process and various program features. (DR)
Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.
Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000
Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L
Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.
Try to learn all you can about a plant in the winter. As the season changes, you can see what the dried seed pod is like in bloom. You are a convert if you notice a spectacular show of summer wildflowers and wonder what sort of winter weed will result. (Author/CM)
This article recounts the battle in the "math wars" that took place in Massachusetts, United States in 1999-2000 over the scope, content and teaching of the state's K-12 mathematics curriculum. Harsh controversies arose between the partisans of a "reform-math" movement stressing an undefined "conceptual understanding"…
Stone, James R., III
This article presents a study, Building Academic Skills in Context: Testing the Value of Enhanced Math Learning in Career and Technical Education, which focused on areas where mathematics concepts logically occurred in the technical and career field being studied and emphasized the math skills students must learn to understand those concepts in…
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Louwerse, Jolien; Straatemeier, Marthe; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Klinkenberg, Sharon; Van der Maas, Han L. J.
It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adaptive program. A total of 207 children (grades 3-6)…
Tuttle, Harry Grover
Technology can support the study of math in a variety of ways. Through class Web sites, blogs or wikis, teachers can communicate the math standards, the goals needed to achieve the standards, homework assignments, projects, tests, and helpful Web sites for parents and students. The online site becomes an extension of the class. There are plenty of…
Baldwin, Anna; And Others
This publication contains materials used in the three phases of the reading and mathematics components of work-specific classes. Each section begins with an overview of developments in that phase. Section 1 focuses on Phase 1 during which math and reading were taught as separate components. It contains a math placement appraisal, worksheets and…
The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…
The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.
Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer
Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…
Betz, Nancy E.
While much progress has been made in treating math anxiety, little is yet known about its causes, correlates or effects. The present study examined factors related to the prevalence and intensity of math anxiety in college students and the extent to which math anxiety is predictive of math course grades. The 655 subjects were obtained from two…
Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz
One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…
"Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)
Presents number loop pattern activities and games designed to interest elementary students in mathematics and encourage computational skills. The activities work as games and cooperative activities and invite math exploration. (SM)
Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.
Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…
Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…
Council of Outdoor Educators of Quebec, Montreal.
Materials on 11 topics presented at a winter workshop for Quebec outdoor educators have been compiled into this booklet. Action story, instant replay, shoe factory, sound and action, and find an object to fit the description are described and recommended as group dynamic activities. Directions for five games (Superlative Selection; Data…
Taylor-Cox, Jennifer; Oberdorf, Christine
Why should schools have a Family Math Night? It helps students learn essential math concepts. It gives parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence. It promotes math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry out of…
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.
Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.
In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.
Gross, Fred E.; Elkind, CavidEpstein, Ann S.; Copley, Juanita V.; Haugen, Ginny; Haugen, Kirsten
Presents five articles addressing numbers and math instruction for young children: "Math Talk with Young Children: One Parent's Experience" (Fred E. Gross); "How Children Build Their Understanding of Numbers" (David Elkind); "Early Math: It's More than Numbers" (Ann S. Epstein); "Assessing Mathematical Learning: Observing and Listening to…
This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include algebra and geometry. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons…
Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L; Hart, Sara A; Lyons, Ian M; Thompson, Lee A; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A
The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. In the current studies, we aimed to address the lack of attention given to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math-learning literature by exploring the relations among math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. In two samples-young adolescent twins and adult college students-results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with high intrinsic math motivation and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing participants' nonsymbolic and symbolic number-estimation ability. These findings may help advance the understanding of mathematics-learning processes and provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics-learning experiences and mathematical skills.
Roettinger, Theresa Marie
Kindergarten, first and second grade teachers play an important role in the development of a student's understanding of mathematics. Consequently, in order to improve student achievement in mathematics, it is important to investigate the relationships that may exist among primary teachers' math profile, math teaching efficacy, and math pedagogy…
This study examined the mathematics beliefs of students who attained mastery, as indicated by earning an A, in their introductory math class in fall, 2008. This study addressed the following research questions: do students who attain mastery in introductory college math courses differ in their math beliefs from students who pass introductory math…
McIntosh, Ronald D.
Professional learning communities (PLCs) are designed to increase and improve the time teachers spend working with one another planning curriculum for mathematics, reading, writing, history, English, and other disciplines offered by their school. These meetings help to improve test scores in math and English. Teachers have coupled their subject…
Drum, Jean, Ed.
This theme issue discusses education of gifted students in the areas of math and science. The issue contains several articles, an editorial, a program description, and a profile of an educator. "Our Most Important Investment for the Future: The Education of Our Youth" (Marian C. Diamond) describes educational programs of the Lawrence…
Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen
In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…
The March issue of "Mathematics Teaching" included an article by Alice Onion about Bowland Maths, focussing on the nature and use of the Professional Development modules that the Bowland Trust has developed--there are now seven such CPD modules on the Bowland website. The article also mentioned that the Bowland Trust had recently…
Hintz, Allison; Kazemi, Elham
By simply asking students how they got the answer to a problem, math teachers can open the door to stimulating discussions in class. But how can they make sure those discussions promote mathematical understanding? Allison Hintz and Elham Kazemi explain that teachers need to know what the goal is for a discussion and plan accordingly. The authors…
Switzer, J. Matt
Too often, the experiences that middle school students have in math do not connect to what they experience in elementary school. Although middle school teachers often have a sense of the content that students have learned in elementary school, the school structure and other factors can inhibit communication between elementary school and middle…
In the first part (AA 527 718) of this two part article math expression was discussed as well as student difficulty with translating written symbols into easily verbalized sentences. In this second part comprehension problems are examined and activities are offered to help students overcome these reading difficulties. (Editor/RK)
Since 1990, the January issue of "Teaching Pre K-8" has highlighted a school visit by the president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. This article discusses Cathy Seeley's visit to a 6th grade classroom at the J. E. Pearce Middle School in Austin, Texas, where she participated in a math activity from the Connected…
Maida, Paula J.
Integrating mathematics across the curriculum offers students the opportunity to link ideas in a natural, impactive way. In this article, the author shares some interactive math activities that she used in a fourth-grade class on "Cinco de Mayo," a holiday honoring Mexican independence. These fun activities not only allowed connections to be made…
Blum, Christopher O.
Asserts that when college mathematics is taught as one of the liberal arts, Euclid's Elements of Geometry, which is one of the oldest math textbooks, may still be the best, because it helps students understand what is "lovely about mathematics". Suggests that "Elements of Geometry" promotes the mental exercise that comes from…
Eubanks-Turner, Christina; Hajj, Najat
In this article, Christina Eubanks-Turner and Najat Hajj describe a planning process that they used to create a fun-filled eighth-grade math activity that focused on parade planning. The activity was designed to enhance and supplement the eighth-grade algebra curriculum on linear equations and functions, help students use mathematical habits of…
Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.
The teacher's guide for the remedial text-workbook "Understanding Math" discusses instruction of the deaf student. An answer key for workbooks 1 and 2, a section with masters for transparencies to be used for games and activities and for teaching fractions, and two patterns for making geometric solids are included in the guide. For workbooks 1 and…
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…
Achieve, Inc., 2013
This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…
Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.
The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.
Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.
Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID
Achieve, Inc., 2013
Minority and low-income students are less likely to have access to, enroll in and succeed in higher-level math courses in high school than their more advantaged peers. Under these circumstances, higher-level math courses function not as the intellectual and practical boost they should be, but as a filter that screens students out of the pathway to…
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Lucas, David M.; Fugitt, Jamie
By means of a qualitative research method known as folknography, a concerted effort was made to discern perceptions of math and math education in the rural Midwest. A community that will be referred to as Midville, located in the state of Illinois, was chosen as the target population for this study. The community and surrounding region stands over…
Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine
The widespread concern about mathematics achievement has drawn extensive research attention to what skills predict later academic achievement. There is clear and consistent evidence that math achievement at school entry is the strongest predictor of later school success and educational attainment. Early childhood math achievement can thus have…
Sparks, Sarah D.
Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…
Mokashi, Neelima A.
This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This newsletter theme issue includes six articles on improving math and science education, particularly for poor, Limited-English-Proficient (LEP), and female students. "Effective Math and Science Instruction--The Project Approach for LEP Students" (Joseph Vigil) describes how hands-on science projects can increase student motivation,…
This article presents the author's story, as a teacher, about building a Math Matters club and discusses why her students arrived at school before first bell to participate enthusiastically. The author's students seemed to have a negative attitude about math. In giving that stirring motivational speech, she apparently overlooked one important…
In this article, the author relates how a math-assessment software has allowed his school to track the academic progress of its students. The author relates that in the first year that the software was deployed, schoolwide averages in terms of national standing on the math ITBS rose from the 42nd to 59th percentile. In addition, a significant…
MacDonald, Lucy; Caverly, David C.
Reviews the evolution of math software from the 1980s to the present. Discusses how current notions of learning styles have changed software applications and how critical thinking and problem solving have impacted software development. Addresses the overall effect of technology on math anxiety and explores what new technology tools are available…
An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…
Ready, Patricia M.
The life cycle of "new math" is fertile ground for the study of the diffusion of an innovation. New math arrived in 1958 to save the day for America after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first successful space flight in 1957. In a period of 16 years an entire diffusion cycle was completed throughout the entire educational system…
Soni, Akanksha; Kumari, Santha
The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children's math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math…
Stahl, Gerry; Çakir, Murat Perit; Weimar, Stephen; Weusijana, Baba Kofi; Ou, Jimmy Xiantong
The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT) service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies…
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
Since most elementary school teachers do not hold a degree in mathematics, teaching math may be a daunting task for some. Following are a few techniques to help make teaching and learning math easier and less stressful. First, know that math is a difficult subject to teach--even for math teachers. The subject matter itself is challenging. Second,…
In many elementary classrooms, math tends to be individualized work with repetitive paper-and-pencil assignments. This research project attempted to generate more interest in math, reduce math anxiety, and make math more enjoyable for students. Through the use of cooperative learning, students practiced and developed social skills needed to…
Allen, K. Eileen; And Others
These three colloqium papers focus on math readiness and the young child, the use of games in teaching basic math skills, and the teaching of math concepts through informal day care activities. The first paper discusses notions about math readiness. It points out that mental age has little to do with readiness to learn basic concept skills and…
Kay, Cynthia; Charles, Jim
Emphasizes the need to integrate math and writing and shows how writing can assist in understanding math concepts or processes. Suggests activities that encourage writing in mathematics, and suggests how to combine math and writing to create such activities. Provides examples of children's literature that can be used as an introduction into math.…
Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.
Hart, Sara A; Logan, Jessica A R; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated five groupings of individuals representing different patterns of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety, coupled with differing degrees of familial transmission. These results suggest that there may be distinct profiles of math achievement, numerosity and anxiety; particularly for students who struggle in math.
Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A.R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated five groupings of individuals representing different patterns of math achievement, numerosity and math anxiety, coupled with differing degrees of familial transmission. These results suggest that there may be distinct profiles of math achievement, numerosity and anxiety; particularly for students who struggle in math. PMID:26957650
Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara
Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence.
Phillips, Ronald E.
The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)
Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...
Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…
Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity, and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated 5 groupings of…
Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.
Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…
Churchwell, Don Wesley
This study examined the relationship between STAR Math gains and TCAP composite scores. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between STAR Math pretest and posttest gains over the course of the 2005-2006 academic year through the use of the STAR Math software program and TCAP math composite scores at…
Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal
The Effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness: This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math…
Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.
As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…
After 11 years of teaching, the question the author worries about now is "How do we do this well? How do we engage students in math classes? How do we convince them that math is beautiful, fun and powerful?" For the math department at the author's school, Boston Arts Academy (BAA), the answer has been to infuse creativity into math…
This article reports that two programs for teaching mathematics in the early grades--Math Expressions and Saxon Math--emerged as winners in early findings released last week from a large-scale federal experiment that pits four popular, and philosophically distinct, math curricula against one another. But the results don't promise to end the…
Kangas, Jon; Ma, Tony
A study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC) and San Jose City College (SJCC) to determine persistence rates over 4 academic years for students with no previous college experience who entered arithmetic (Math 310), beginning algebra (Math 12), and intermediate algebra (Math 13) courses in fall 1988. The study sought to determine…
Gavin, M. Katherine; Firmender, Janine M.; Casa, Tutita M.
What is math talent? Ten different educators will most likely provide 10 different answers. Researchers state that one reason mathematical talent is difficult to describe involves the different ways children manifest math talent. Children can display math talent in three different ways: (a) those who reason abstractly and have an "algebraic…
Roman, Harry T.
Teachers and students will find a very practical math application right in a pair of common binoculars. This article describes a procedure to get a bit of math practice and analysis. It presents a math activity with elementary students on taking measurements using the binoculars. (Contains 1 table.)
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers; decimals and money; fractions, ratios,…
This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers and addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Lessons are…
Frechette, Ellen Carley
This book is designed to help adults gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life and work and on standardized tests including the GED. It is expected to help students overcome math anxiety, discover math as interesting and purposeful, and develop good number sense. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons…
Mitchell, Robert P.
This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include measurement and data analysis such as measuring distance, space, time, capacity,…
Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J
There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.
Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L.; Hart, Sara Ann; Lyons, Ian M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.
The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. Given the lack of attention to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math learning literature, the current study aimed to address this gap via exploring the relations between math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. The current study consisted of two samples. One sample included 262 pairs of young adolescent twins and the other included 237 adult college students. Participants self-reported their math anxiety and math motivation. Math cognition was assessed using a comprehensive battery of mathematics tasks. In both samples, results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in students with high intrinsic math motivation, and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in students with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing student’s nonsymbolic and symbolic number estimation. These findings may help advance our understanding of mathematics learning processes and may provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics learning experiences and mathematical skills. PMID:26518438
Describes three simple games that do not involve numbers and that can be used to teach children problem-solving strategies and math skills. The games are Tick-Tack-Toe; Jest, a game that uses a blocking strategy; and Nim, a game that uses a capturing strategy. All three games force students to plan ahead and calculate possible outcomes using…
Achieve, Inc., 2013
No student who hopes to compete in today's rapidly evolving global economy and job market can afford to graduate from high school with weak mathematical skills, which include the ability to use logic, reason, and solve problems. The benefits associated with improving the math performance of American students also extend to the larger U.S. economy.…
Franklin, Teresa; Peng, Li-Wei
The public and educational communities are aware of the continuing crisis in math education in our middle schools and the convergence of technologies for teaching and learning. This paper presents a case study in which iPod Touch[R] was used to help middle school students learn about algebraic equations and, in particular, the concept of slope,…
Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori
An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…
CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008
This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…
IDRA Newsletter, 1995
This theme issue contains six articles on improving math and science education for minority group students, particularly language-minority students. "Accelerating Content Area Gains for English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) describes the Young Scientists Acquiring English project, which seeks to improve the content-area…
Leatham, Keith R.; Hill, Diane S.
In this article, the authors discuss some of the dispositions that comprise students' (and teachers') relationships with mathematics--what they call a "mathematical identity." They define "mathematical identity" as an individual's "relationship" with mathematics. They present three reflective tasks that can be used with math students at all levels…
Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…
This article describes the Jaime Escalante Math Program, a system that in 1989 helped an East Los Angeles high school set a record by administering over 450 Advanced Placement exams, having administered only 10 tests in 1978. The article is presented in three sections. The first section describes the program, discussing origins and backgrounds:…
Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)
The material presented in this booklet is designed to provide supplemental information and exercises to aid in the development of basic everyday skills in business math. Seven units are presented with each unit containing basic information on the unit topic, followed by student exercises, and a review section. The seven units are (1) check writing…
Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan
Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…
Khan, Salman; Slavitt, Elizabeth
Summit San Jose is part of the Summit Public Schools network, a group of charter schools in California's Bay Area. In 2011, when Summit San Jose first opened its new high school with a cohort of 9th graders, the teachers decided to pilot Khan Academy. At the time, they had piloted their math resources and platform with five classrooms in Los…
Sherard, Wade H.
The author draws from the literature eight specific guidelines for classroom teachers to help them prevent or ameliorate students' math anxiety. Suggestions include: avoid sex stereotyping; help students develop self-confidence; concentrate on problem solving, spatial skills, and the language of mathematics; and provide a relaxed, supportive…
Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H
Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.
This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122
The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…
Otts, Cynthia D.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship among math attitudes, self-regulated learning, and course outcomes in developmental math. Math attitudes involved perceived usefulness of math and math anxiety. Self-regulated learning represented the ability of students to control cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioral aspects of…
Fast, Lisa A.; Lewis, James L.; Bryant, Michael J.; Bocian, Kathleen A.; Cardullo, Richard A.; Rettig, Michael; Hammond, Kimberly A.
We examined the effect of the perceived classroom environment on math self-efficacy and the effect of math self-efficacy on standardized math test performance. Upper elementary school students (N = 1,163) provided self-reports of their perceived math self-efficacy and the degree to which their math classroom environment was mastery oriented,…
Gardas, Bartlomiej; Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh Behari
Here, we investigate <math>
Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"…
When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who were taught first. The second study further showed that when given an opportunity to learn from the failed problem-solving attempts of their peers, students outperformed those who were taught first, but not those who engaged in problem solving first. Process findings showed that the number of student-generated solutions significantly predicted learning outcomes. These results challenge the conventional practice of direct instruction to teach new math concepts and procedures, and propose the possibility of learning from one's own failed problem-solving attempts or those of others before receiving instruction as alternatives for better math learning.
Orosco, Michael J.
Word problems for English language learners (ELLs) at risk for math disabilities are challenging in terms of the constant need to develop precise math language and comprehension knowledge. As a result of this, ELLs may not only need math support but also reading and linguistic support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a…
In an increasingly technological world, developing basic math skills is crucial. Headlines regularly be-moan the international ranking of American students on math proficiency, and students from low-income families do worse in math than their more affluent peers. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that employment in occupations…
Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.
Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…
National Math and Science Initiative, 2008
This paper presents the annual report of the National Math and Science Initiative (NMSI) for 2008. Eighteen months ago, the National Math and Science Initiative did not exist. Today NMSI is helping lead the country forward in math and science. In just 18 months, NMSI has rolled out the first round of grants and has implemented programs in 14…
Farnsworth, Donald M., Jr.
While research continues to link increased math anxiety with reduced working memory, the exact nature of the relationship remains elusive. In addition, research regarding the extent of the impact math anxiety has on working memory is contradictory. This research clarifies the directional nature of math anxiety as it pertains to working memory, and…
Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.
This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…
Ramirez, Gerardo; Chang, Hyesang; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
Even at young ages, children self-report experiencing math anxiety, which negatively relates to their math achievement. Leveraging a large dataset of first and second grade students' math achievement scores, math problem solving strategies, and math attitudes, we explored the possibility that children's math anxiety (i.e., a fear or apprehension about math) negatively relates to their use of more advanced problem solving strategies, which in turn relates to their math achievement. Our results confirm our hypothesis and, moreover, demonstrate that the relation between math anxiety and math problem solving strategies is strongest in children with the highest working memory capacity. Ironically, children who have the highest cognitive capacity avoid using advanced problem solving strategies when they are high in math anxiety and, as a result, underperform in math compared with their lower working memory peers.
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.
Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine
Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.
Diefenbach, D.R.; Derleth, E.L.; Vander Haegen, W.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.
We examined winter distribution and fidelity to wintering areas for the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), which exhibits reversed, sexual size dimorphism. Band-recovery data revealed no difference in winter distributions of different age/sex classes for woodcock from the same breeding areas. Similarly, band recoveries from woodcock banded on wintering grounds revealed no difference in fidelity to wintering sites. Males may winter north of a latitude that is optimal for survival based on physiological considerations, but they gain a reproductive advantage if they are among the first to arrive on the breeding grounds. This may explain our results, which indicate males and females have similar distribution patterns during winter.
Mercer, Gary J.
This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender.
When groups engage in math problem solving in an online environment like the VMT (Virtual Math Teams) service, they can face significant challenges from troubles of individual and group understanding that emerge in their problem-solving process. We are interested in how shared understanding is interactionally constructed and accomplished in a…
Schools that are integrating the arts into literacy, math, and other core subjects are dispelling the notion that there's an either-or choice in education--either you focus on literacy and math or you provide a well-rounded curriculum in the arts and other subjects. Crayola grant-recipient schools are demonstrating that you can do both--and end up…
Boyd, Vivian; And Others
Students enrolled in two sections of college algebra (Math 110) at the University of Maryland in spring 1984 were informed about assistance available from the Math Lab. They were also informed that a sticker would be attached to any one of the four semester exams when grades indicated that the student should pursue one or more of the Lab services.…
This report proposes a preliminary basic math program that may help mitigate the student attrition problem at Contra Costa College (California). For the purposes of this proposal, Math 101, 115, and 118 are identified as courses to be included in the program. The essential features of this proposed curriculum are summarized as follows: (1) it…
Miner, Robert; Topping, Paul
This publication reports on resources on the Web for the area of math. A quick look is given at innovative sites under the areas of new resources for students, new ways for teachers and students to interact, new ways of presenting math, and new tools for research. Next, advantages and disadvantages are identified for each of the following…
Teaching PreK-8, 1996
Presents six articles dealing with math and science education: "Sneaker Geometry" (Jack George), "Fairs with a Flair" (Diane McCarty), "Generating Excitement with Math Projects" (Jeffrey Kostecky and Louis Roe), "Playing with Numbers" (Diana Smith), "When Student Teachers Want to Do Hands-On Science" (Betsy Feldkamp-Price), and "Science ala Carte"…
Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer
This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…
Olsen, James R.
After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…
Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof
Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…
Faulkner, Valerie N.
The Common Core math standards promote several important differences in how math concepts are taught and should be talked about. These changes will make it easier for younger students to comprehend and adapt to more complex concepts in the later grades. This guide should help elementary teachers make changes and adaptations that are in line the…
Students with or without disabilities often experience difficulties with abstract math concepts. This paper is intended to help solve the mystery of math concepts through origami construction, a hands-on activity. Students are involved in constructing and deconstructing concepts by folding and unfolding a piece of paper which eventually leads to a…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2016
"Saxon Math" is a core curriculum for students in grades K-12 that uses an incremental approach to instruction and assessment. This approach limits the amount of new math content delivered to students each day and allows time for daily practice. New concepts are introduced gradually and integrated with previously introduced content so…
Ke, Fengfeng; Grabowski, Barbara
This study investigated the effects of gameplaying on fifth-graders' maths performance and attitudes. One hundred twenty five fifth graders were recruited and assigned to a cooperative Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT), interpersonal competitive or no gameplaying condition. A state standards-based maths exam and an inventory on attitudes towards maths…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
"Saxon Math", published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, is a core curriculum for students in grades K-12. This report includes studies that investigate the potential impact of "Saxon Math" for students in grades 6-8. A distinguishing feature of the curriculum is its use of an incremental approach for instruction and assessment.…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
"Saxon Math," published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, is a core curriculum for students in grades K-5. A distinguishing feature of the curriculum is its use of an incremental approach for instruction and assessment. This approach limits the amount of new math content delivered to students each day and allows time for daily practice. New…
Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary
Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…
Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung
The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This…
This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…
IDRA Newsletter, 1996
This newsletter focuses on efforts to make math and science more attractive, relevant, and accessible to students, especially limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, female, and at-risk students. "TAAS Math Performance" (Linda Cantu) outlines recent statewide results for the controversial Texas Assessment of…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2011
"Saxon Math" is a textbook series covering grades K-12 based on incremental development and continual review of mathematical concepts to give students time to learn and practice concepts throughout the year. A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Math" is its use of a distributed approach--spreading practice and instruction for any…
In math classes, teachers often focus instruction on the formulas and processes needed to solve different types of problems, but neglect to teach the concepts on which these tools are based. In this article, the author argues that before they can do this, teachers themselves need to understand "understanding math." Teaching mathematics with…
Sherman, Laurel Galbraith
Suggestions are made for activities that combine the teaching of math and science. Math concepts include: graphing, estimating, measurement, statistics, geometry, and logic. Science topics include: plant reproduction, solar system, forces, longitude and latitude, Earth's magnetic field, nutrition, and heat. (IAH)
Math historian Morris Kline suggests that math instruction should be made concrete and that teachers should not turn kids off by making intuitively understood concepts complex through the use of fancy language. He advocates using pictorial representations and examples of actual physical occurrences. The dyslexic student has special difficulties in…
Math anxiety affects both sexes, and is not the cause of imbalance in mathematical professions. Attempts to broaden perceptions of mathematics deal only with the symptoms of math anxiety. The principal cause is the methodology used to teach mathematics. Problem-solving processes must be employed. (MNS)
If you want to get the attention of a group of eighth grade math students, tell them they are going to build a life-size cardboard boat. To increase interest, follow up this statement by telling them that two to four of them will actually be rowing this boat across a small pond. Eighth grade math students at Oasis Charter Middle School in…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2004
"Saxon Math" focuses on fundamental mathematics skills, targeting children from kindergarten through grade 12. This report focuses on middle school math, defined as grades 6 through 9. The 6th grade curriculum covers simplifying expressions containing parentheses, graphing functions, and understanding ratios and proportions. The 7th grade…
Edwards, Sharon A.; Maloy, Robert W.; Anderson, Gordon
"Math is language, too," Phyllis and David Whitin (2000) remind everyone in their informative book about reading and writing in the mathematics classroom. This means that students in elementary school math classes are learning two distinct, yet related languages--one of numbers, the other of words. These languages of numbers and words…
Lambeth, Cathryn Colley
The current study investigated variability in student performance on a concurrent verbalization measure based on a grade-level sample math word problem and sought to determine to what extent the variability in verbalization scores is related to scores on a reliable measure of reading (DIBELS Next) and math (easyCBM) and to student factors (e.g.…
Wedekind, Kassia Omohundro
Traditionally, small-group math instruction has been used as a format for reaching children who struggle to understand. Math coach Kassia Omohundro Wedekind uses small-group instruction as the centerpiece of her math workshop approach, engaging all students in rigorous "math exchanges." The key characteristics of these mathematical conversations…
Nelson, Barbara Scott; Sassi, Annette
Principals need to get away from traditional beliefs that equate math success solely with rote knowledge of math facts and the ability to calculate. Today, math instruction also is being directed to student understanding of essential concepts. Principals must learn what to look for when they visit math classrooms to make sure it is being taught…
Math is used in many occupations. And, experts say, workers with a strong background in mathematics are increasingly in demand. That equals prime opportunity for career-minded math enthusiasts. This article describes how math factors into careers. The first section talks about some of the ways workers use math in the workplace. The second section…
Waller, Lisa Ivey
This research investigated the relationship of math intervention teachers' (MITs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and students' math achievement gains in primary math interventions. The Kentucky Center for Mathematics gathered data on the MITs and primary math intervention students included in this study. Longitudinal data were analyzed for a…
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.
A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…
Founded in 2006 by Jonathan Osler, Math and Community Organizing teacher at El Puente Academy for Peace and Justice, a public CES high school in Brooklyn, New York, Radical Math is an organization for educators working to integrate issues of political, economic, and social justice into math education. In April 2007, Radical Math cosponsored…
Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod
Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.
Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda
Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J.
Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an…
Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul
We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.
Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984
Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…
Mammals that tolerate the winter cold and stay active all year exploit the harsh northern climate to their advantage. By simple experiments and observation you can better understand their adaptations which include furry bodies, snowshoe feet, extra blubber, light coloration, and strategically distributed food caches. (JHZ)
Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H.; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.; Sande, Merle A.
Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733
Winter, like all seasons, adds a new sense of mystery and discovery to the world of young children. It is the time when they can study snowflakes, find icicles, or observe the birds that share their yards. This article presents ideas and suggestions on how to plan a playscape. A playscape is a man-made seasonal playground for young children. It…
Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.
Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not
This slide presentation examines the role of mathematical proficiency and how it relates to advantages in careers. It emphasises the role of math in attaining entrance to college, graduate schools, and a career that is interesting and well paying.
Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J.
There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925
Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Greenwald, Anthony G
A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) me with male (gender identity), (b) male with math (math-gender stereotype), and (c) me with math (math self-concept). Two findings emerged. First, as early as second grade, the children demonstrated the American cultural stereotype that math is for boys on both implicit and explicit measures. Second, elementary school boys identified with math more strongly than did girls on both implicit and self-report measures. The findings suggest that the math-gender stereotype is acquired early and influences emerging math self-concepts prior to ages at which there are actual differences in math achievement.
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu
In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition.
Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter
Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…
Each year, physical educators are asked to incorporate even more math, language arts, science and social studies into their curriculum. The challenge is how to do this without sacrificing the essential health and life skills provided by a quality physical education program. One program, Math & Movement, is a great aid for physical educators to…
Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal
To raise math success rates in middle school, many schools and districts have implemented summer math programs designed to improve student preparation for algebra content in grade 8. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. While students who participate typically experience learning gains, there is little rigorous…
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…
Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
Research Findings: The current study analyzed the relation between the amount of mathematical input that preschool children hear (i.e., math talk) from their mothers in their homes and their early math ability a year later. Forty mother-child dyads recorded their naturalistic exchanges in their homes using an enhanced audio-recording device (the…
Zakariya, Yusuf F.
In this study, the author examined the validity of MATH 105 as a prerequisite to MATH 201. The data for this study was extracted directly from the examination results logic of the university. Descriptive statistics in form of correlations and linear regressions were used to analyze the obtained data. Three research questions were formulated and…
Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…
McKenzie, Michelle A.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; Moore, Marion E.; Martella, Ronald C.
This study investigated the effects of teaching basic math skills to 16 children (11 typically developing, 5 with developmental delays) in an integrated university preschool. "Connecting Math Concepts Level K (CMC--K"; Engelmann & Becker, 1995) was delivered by the classroom teacher to small groups of 4 to 6 children over 6.5 weeks.…
Jolivette, Kristine; Lingo, Amy S.; Houchins, David E.; Barton-Arwood, Sally M.; Shippen, Margaret E.
The effects of a fluency building math program on addition and subtraction computational skills were evaluated using a multiple probe across subjects design. Two students with developmental disabilities and one student with attentional difficulties participated in a supplemental intervention using the Great Leaps Math program. Analyses indicated…
Wendt, Staci; Rice, John; Nakamoto, Jonathan
The MIND Research Institute contracted with the Evaluation Research Program at WestEd to conduct an independent assessment of mathematics outcomes in elementary school grades across California that were provided with the ST Math program. Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math is a game-based instructional software designed to boost K-5 and secondary-level…
ACT, Inc., 2013
The proposed federal STEM Teacher Pathway program seeks to produce 100,000 new, high-quality math and science teachers in the next decade. How difficult will the goal be to achieve? This report uses data from the ACT® college readiness assessment to examine the feasibility of producing 100,000 high-quality math and science teachers in the next…
This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…
Mathematics is a critical part of academic preparation of the middle school child, or, as Dr. Maria Montessori would refer to them, children in the third plane of development. Montessori educators are sincere in their endeavors not only to prepare young students for further studies of math and the application of math in their world and careers,…
Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.
Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.
DiGisi, Lori L.; Fleming, Dianne
Sixth and eighth grade students who are English language learners must be able to read and interpret 39 math word problems in order to successfully calculate the answers on the Massachusetts state math assessment (MCAS). The first year that MCAS was administered, many ELL students read the questions, found them confusing, and left them blank,…
This quasi-experimental study was to design, develop, and implement one multimedia math lesson in third grade to improve students' math learning. The non-equivalent control group design was used. The experimental group had 11 third grade students and the control group had 15 third grade students in an African American predominated elementary…
Bahr, Peter Riley
Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…
This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Head Start teachers toward mathematics and how it may influence how and what they teach in the classroom. In general, the findings of this study can be summarized as this: 1) Math anxiety affects how teachers assess their ability at mathematics. The more math anxiety they report, the lower they…
Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the shared environment and genetics influenced the covariance among math fluency, untimed math measures, and reading measures. However, roughly two thirds of the variance in math fluency was independent from untimed math measures and reading, including reading fluency. The majority of this independent variance was the result of genetic factors that were longitudinally stable across two measurement occasions. These results suggest that math fluency, although related to other math measures, may also be a genetically distinct dimension of mathematics performance.
Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.
As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order
Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L
Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations.
2005-01-01This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter
Jansen, Brenda R J; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariët J
Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an MBID-sample using computerized math training. Also, it was investigated whether EF and math performance were related and whether computerized math training had beneficial effects on EF. The sample consisted of a total of 58 adolescents (12-15 years) from special education. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or a treatment as usual (TAU) group. In the experimental condition, participants received 5 weeks of training. Math performance and EF were assessed before and after the training period. Math performance improved equally in both groups. However, frequently practicing participants improved more than participants in the control group. Visuo-spatial memory skills were positively related to addition and subtraction skills. Transfer effects from math training to EF were absent. It is concluded that math skills may increase if a reasonable effort in practicing math skills is made. The relation between visuo-spatial memory skills provides opportunities for improving math performance.
2006-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.
Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement.
Heinrichs, Audrey S.
Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)
Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.
An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.
Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R.
Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to…
Kiili, Kristian; Ketamo, Harri; Koivisto, Antti; Finn, Enda
This paper presents the first findings from Math Elements user experience (UX) studies. Math Elements is a game that makes the whole Finnish maths K-2 curriculum (kindergarten and primary school grades 1 and 2) available for players all over the world. The game is based on teachable agent approach, which means that in the game players can teach…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2011
"Accelerated Math"[TM], published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool used to customize assignments and monitor progress in math for students in grades 1-12. The "Accelerated Math"[TM] software creates individualized assignments aligned with state standards and national guidelines, scores student work, and generates…
Smith, Jean Burr
As colleges take on increasing numbers of nontraditional students who have had only minimal exposure to mathematics, instructors must alleviate patterns of math anxiety and math avoidance which impede academic success, and, in a technological society, limit career opportunities. Among the obvious causes of math anxiety are: instructors' insistence…
Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.
Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…
Rosales, Allen C.
Based on years of research with early childhood teachers, author Allen Rosales provides an approach to create an emergent math curriculum that integrates children's interests with math concepts. The mathematizing approach is different from traditional math curriculums, as it immerses children in a process that is designed to develop their…
Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lynch, Tom Liam; Plati, Erin
As American students struggle with basic mathematical skills, the importance of math fact fluency has gained the attention of educators and researchers. Generalization of math fact fluency is also important for the transfer of skills to other settings and formats, assisting students in the completion of more varied and complicated math tasks. This…
Academy for Educational Development, 2007
This report summarizes findings from the Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) evaluation of After-School Math PLUS (ASM+). This program was designed to help students find the math in everyday experiences and create awareness about the importance of math skills for future career options. The evaluation was conducted by AED's Center for…
School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.
Accelerated Math (AM) math management software is a task level learning information system placed in 4th-11th grade classrooms around the country. AM provides teachers with an information system that assures that students can master all math objectives and state standards from grade 3 through calculus. It eliminates teacher paperwork, improves…
U Do the Math provides an innovative alternative to developmental math, replacing traditional course lectures with a student-centered approach to active learning and subject mastery. Chattanooga State used its grant funding from Next Generation Learning Challenges (NGLC) to establish and scale the U Do the Math program. The community college,…
Kotsopoulos, Donna; Lee, Joanne
A "math congress" is a pedagogical approach in which students present their solutions from their mathematical work completed individually, in pairs, or in small groups, and share and defend their mathematical thinking. Mathematical artifacts presented during math congress remain on display as community records of practice. Math congress…
Ashkenazi, Sarit; Black, Jessica M.; Abrams, Daniel A.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Menon, Vinod
The primary goal of this review is to highlight current research and theories describing the neurobiological basis of math (MD), reading (RD), and comorbid math and reading disability (MD+RD). We first describe the unique brain and cognitive processes involved in acquisition of math and reading skills, emphasizing similarities and differences in…
Apelman, Maja; King, Julie
This book focuses on everyday math and parent involvement. It is divided into three parts and contains activities that help teachers involve parents in everyday math. Part I, Getting Started, describes the organization of the book and includes a curriculum chart. Part II, Involving Parents, discusses how children learn math and strategies for…
Winburg, Karin; Chamberlain, Barbara; Valdez, Alfred; Trujillo, Karen; Stanford, Theodore B.
This "Math Snacks" intervention measured 741 fifth grade students' gains in conceptual understanding of core math concepts after game-based learning activities. Teachers integrated four "Math Snacks" games and related activities into instruction on ratios, coordinate plane, number systems, fractions and decimals. Using a…
Adcock, Deborah P.
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include measurement and data analysis such as measuring…
This book is designed to help adults gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life and work and on standardized tests, including the GED. It is expected to help students overcome math anxiety, discover math as interesting and purposeful, and develop good number sense. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons that…
Harper, Norma Wynn; Daane, C. J.
Analyzed math-anxiety levels among elementary preservice teachers before and after a mathematics methods course, noting factors that promoted math anxiety. Interviews and surveys indicated significant reductions in math anxiety at the end of the course. Anxiety stemmed from rigid and structured classroom instructional practices. The main factors…
Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include whole numbers and addition, subtraction,…
Phillips, Jan; Osmus, Kathy
This book is a teacher's resource guide designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include algebra and geometry. Lessons are organized around four…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Saxon Math" curricula and materials are available for grades K through 12, with the content and skills designed to meet National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards and various state standards. This WWC report focuses on middle school math curricula, defined as all Saxon Math curricula for grades 6 through 9. The…
12 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows late winter clouds over the 104 km (65 mi) diameter crater, Mie. Cellular clouds occur in the lower martian atmosphere, surrounding Mie Crater. Their cloudtops are at an altitude that is below the crater rim. Higher than the crater rim occurs a series of lee wave clouds, indicating air circulation moving from west/northwest (left) toward the east/southeast (right). Mie Crater is located in Utopia Planitia, not too far from the Viking 2 landing site, near 48.5 N, 220.4 W. Sunlight illuminates this January 2004 scene from the lower left.
2006-01-01At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.
Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
This booklet discusses a variety of topics to help consumers prepare for winter. Tips for the home include: winterizing the home, dealing with a loss of heat or power failure, and what you need to have on hand. Another section gives driving tips and what to do in a storm. Health factors include suggestions for keeping warm, signs and treatment for…
Are your students engaged and motivated to read and write but hesitant during math instruction? Do you want your students to be as excited about math as they are about literacy? This unique resource explores how best practices for teaching reading and writing can help you become a better math teacher. Drawing on the work of such educators as…
Cummings, Tracy; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Bilbrey, Carol; Vorhaus, Elizabeth
The "Building Blocks PreK Math Curriculum" (Clements & Sarama, 2007) was designed to facilitate children's engagement in math and talk about math. Much research investigates the effect of curriculum on classrooms or teacher practices. This study used a mediational model to look at a curriculum's effect on children's achievement gain, operating…
Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa
The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…
Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle
In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be…
Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…
Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines
Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…
Levpuscek, Melita Puklek; Zupancic, Maja
Contributions of parental involvement in educational pursuits as well as math teachers' classroom behavior to students' motivation and performance in math were investigated. By the end of the first school term, 365 Slovene eighth graders reported on their parents' academic involvement (pressure, support, and help) and their math teachers' behavior…
Klanderman, David B.; Moore, Mary Webster; Maxwell, Mandi S.; Robbert, Sharon K.
We describe several service-learning initiatives implemented by the mathematics and education departments. College students with majors and minors in math and math education have helped to design and implement math events for elementary and middle school students. Formal and informal reflections on these service-related experiences have…
"Stepping Up to Science and Math" invites teachers to step back and rethink the way they teach both of these essential subjects. Then it illustrates how teachers can step up the pace with Standards-based activities that make learning more effective and efficient. (New lessons featuring gummy worms, school buses, or the planet Mars help teachers…
Sayler, Michael, Ed.
This theme issue of a Texas journal on gifted education contains articles focusing on math and science instruction for gifted students. "Science Education for Gifted Students" (Joyce VanTassel-Baska) discusses what a science curriculum for gifted students should include, what teachers can do to make reform efforts successful, and how to…
Langkamp, Greg; Hull, Joe
This document presents an interdisciplinary course and workshop that aims to develop a better understanding of cooperative learning, interdisciplinary curriculum, and earthquakes among the participants. Students are encouraged to develop their own math and environmental education curriculum. An exercise on earthquakes and power law frequency are…
Math can sometimes seem like a strange language from foreign land--one communicated in symbols, numbers, and geometric figures. When teachers talk about mathematical concepts, even familiar, garden variety words such as "parallel," "power," "even," "odd," "multiply," "difference," "product," "positive," and "negative" take on brand-new meanings.…
Kissane, Barry; McConney, Andrew
"Maths by Email" (MbE) is a free fortnightly email newsletter produced through a partnership between CSIRO Education and the Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute (AMSI), with funding from the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). The principal aim of MbE has been "to…
Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…
Few strategies for luring more students and working adults into math and science teaching have proved as popular among elected officials as financial incentives, which try to make one of the least appealing aspects of the job--low pay--a little less daunting. Lawmakers on Capitol Hill are considering a number of bills that would expand existing…
Rodrigues, Kathleen J.
This paper describes application of innovative practice and procedures in relationship to recognized principles and theory of adult education used in college math instruction. Adult learning principles provide the theoretical constructs and foundation of the practice supporting a learner-centered approach to learning. The purpose was to explore…
Many students begin higher education unprepared for college-level work in mathematics and must take non-credit developmental courses. Furthermore, many are "math-phobic" and avoid courses, majors and careers that involve quantitative work. Yet science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are among the few job-growth…
Cafarella, Brian V.
Currently, many community colleges are struggling with poor student success rates in developmental math. Therefore, this qualitative study focused on employing best practices in developmental mathematics at an urban community college in Dayton, Ohio. Guiding the study were the following research questions: What are the best practices utilized by a…
Saunders, Marnie M.
To promote math and science, this author designed an activity to show students that biomedical fields are within their reach. The activity has three distinct goals: (1) To introduce the field of biomedical engineering to students and encourage them in these career pursuits; (2) To give them hands-on experience conducting a biomechanical test; and…
Stoodt, Barbara D.
This column discusses five children's books selected to develop math concepts involving problem solving, reasoning, and communication. The books are "Only One" (Marc Harshman); "The Librarian Who Measured the Earth" (Kathryn Lasky); "Counting Jennie" (Helena C. Pittman); "The Search for Delicious" (Natalie Babbitt); and "The Toothpaste…
Fotoples, Robert M.
Describes math anxiety, explaining roadblocks to mathematics success; discussing strategies for overcoming anxiety (e.g., parent involvement, teacher sensitivity, and peer tutoring); and examining the influence of learning styles on mathematics achievement and attitudes. Mathematics teachers must identify students' problems in mathematics, work…
Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.
This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional…
Robertson, Douglas F.; Claesgens, Joan
This paper discusses the problems associated with mathematics anxiety, and provides detailed information on the history and structure of the Mathematics Anxiety Program at the University of Minnesota. The seven parts concern: (1) the Continuing Education for Women Program, (2) the development of the Math Anxiety Program, (3) the symptoms of…
Hoff, David J.; Cavanagh, Sean
Improving K-12 instruction and student achievement in mathematics and science is at the heart of separate bills intended to bolster America's economic standing that won overwhelming approval in both houses of Congress last week. The House on April 24 approved the 10,000 Teachers, 10 Million Minds Science and Math Scholarship Act by a vote of…
One may have heard of Bowland maths and will know something of the "case studies" that were published in 2008. These are substantial mathematics projects, taking five hours, or more, to complete. Most are set in real or realistic contexts, like "designing a smoothy"--Product Wars, or "devising plans to improve road safety"--Reducing Road…
Students enjoy origami and like making everything from paper cranes to footballs out of small, colorful squares of paper. They can invent their own shapes and are intrigued by the polyhedrons that they can construct. Paper folding is fun, but where is the math? Unless teachers develop lessons that address mathematical objectives, origami could be…
Hunka, Dan; And Others
An elective unit was developed for a course (Math 20) which would teach students to program solutions to typical exercises. Development of the unit took place in a large senior high school in Alberta. The elective is 15 hours long, with the first five hours devoted to learning programming fundamentals and the final ten hours to programming…
This article describes the Math Olympiads for Elementary and Middle School, Inc., a non-for profit public foundation dedicated to strengthening the education of gifted youngsters though mathematics competitions. The development of the Olympiads, the program's structure, and the benefits of competition are discussed. Sample questions and answers…
While math has long been regarded as a universal language because of its foundation in numbers, the subject poses nearly as many hurdles for students with limited English as lessons that rely more heavily on reading, many educators say. Malinda Evans spends about an hour and a half each day teaching mathematics to her 5th graders at Navajo…
Bryant-Jones, Marian; Shimmins, Kymberley J.; Vega, Jill D.
This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes…
For some children maths and science are exciting subjects that work side by side, one providing the opportunity to practise and hone skills and knowledge gained from the other. For other children the subjects are disjointed and seem to bear no relationship to each other. Science can provide a wonderful opportunity to practise a variety of math…
Aspects of the Math for America organization's actions, aims and affiliations are analyzed for their effects on urban schools and society at large. These aspects are argued as evidence to consider MfA as an agent working against democratic practice and in favor of furthering profit and its resultant inequitable resource distribution. The…
The author discusses the level of mathematics needed in biomedical technology programs. Technical institutes and community colleges across the country have varying math requirements, from first-year college algebra on into calculus. He suggests a study to determine the reasons for the variance, leading eventually to uniform quality. (MF)
This article describes a developmental math course design that uses flipped instruction and self-paced learning. The design was created and taught at Metropolitan State University, where most students are returning adult students with little preparation in mathematics. The author argues that this design suits the students well: the learning…
Rapacki, Lauren J.; Cross Francis, Dionne I.
When one of the authors saw the job description for an elementary school mathematics coach on a state Department of Education website, she recognized it as an opportunity to have her dream job. She knew that making the transition from the classroom to a math teacher leader would afford her the opportunity to have an even greater impact on student…
Schroth, Stephen T.; Helfer, Jason A.
Gifted middle school mathematics students often exhibit boundless energy, a desire to exert some degree of control over their learning, and an ability to think logically and abstractly in ways that astound their parents and teachers. Middle school math curriculum that combines guided investigations of real-life problems with product-based…
Mathematics professionals are working with teachers revealing the reality and beauty that happens in the world of math and to show that this is essentially a "human endeavour," embedded in much of what people do and the ways in which they think. In this article, the author shares vignettes of primary classes working with mathematicians…
Gao, Niu; Adan, Sara
Last year, the California Legislature passed a new law--the California Mathematics Placement Act--to address widespread concern over equity in the math placement process. The law is aimed at improving the measurement of student performance in order to move more students successfully through the high school curriculum. In this context, researchers…
Blume, Joseph; Garcia, Kristi; Mullinax, Kelly; Vogel, Kelly
This report describes the effect of integrating math and science and employing technology to bridge the gap. The targeted population consisted of primary and secondary students in a diverse, blue-collar, rural community located in northeast central Illinois. The problem of low-test scores and errors on assignments in mathematics was evident and…
An innovative Math for Liberal Arts course was designed to provide liberal arts students with the life skills necessary to survive in the 21st century. The course emphasizes application driven mathematics. This course has been successful in changing students' perceptions of the usefulness of the course and improving student success rate as well as…
Rawding, Molly Rothermel; Call, Susan
Last year, Annandale Terrace Elementary School (Annandale, Virginia) began exploring professional learning communities (PLC). In this article, two of Annandale's math coaches share the school's journey. On the basis of their own reflections, the coaches conclude with some recommendations for those considering embarking on a similar journey…
When students at Prescott High School sign up to take math as seniors, not all of them will be wading into precalculus or calculus, with in-depth explorations of derivatives and trigonometric functions. Some will instead end up using mathematics to study the Electoral College, or the security of Internet passwords, or how delivery companies ship…
Gadanidis, George; Hughes, Janette M.
A storied math context helps students engage both emotionally and cognitively with mathematics and helps show that mathematics develops out of human experience. Children's literature also models mathematical storytelling for students, and creates opportunities for them to retell and extend stories. This article describes mathematics investigations…
Golovcsenko, Igor V.
The report describes the math model for an experimental ship handling trainer. The training task is that of a replenishment operation at sea. The model includes equations for ship dynamics of a destroyer, propeller-engine response times, ship separation, interaction effects between supply ship and destroyer, and outputs to a visual display system.…
Despite suggestions for incorporating students' experiences into school math lessons, mathematics education seems to be the last bastion of formalism. This paper reports on a sociocultural study of the use of students' personal experiences in early childhood elementary mathematics lessons. This study documents the use of students' personal…
Zhao, Liming; Huang, Yong; Hu, Yan; He, Xiaoli; Shen, Wenhui; Liu, Chunlin; Ruan, Ying
The MATH (meprin and TRAF-C homology) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel β-helices involved in protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 90 MATH-domain proteins from the Brassica rapa genome. By sequence analysis together with MATH-domain proteins from other species, the B. rapa MATH-domain proteins can be grouped into 6 classes. Class-I protein has one or several MATH domains without any other recognizable domain; Class-II protein contains a MATH domain together with a conserved BTB (Broad Complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-Brac ) domain; Class-III protein belongs to the MATH/Filament domain family; Class-IV protein contains a MATH domain frequently combined with some other domains; Class-V protein has a relative long sequence but contains only one MATH domain; Class-VI protein is characterized by the presence of Peptidase and UBQ (Ubiquitinylation) domains together with one MATH domain. As part of our study regarding seed development of B. rapa, six genes are screened by SSH (Suppression Subtractive Hybridization) and their expression levels are analyzed in combination with seed developmental stages, and expression patterns suggested that Bra001786, Bra03578 and Bra036572 may be seed development specific genes, while Bra001787, Bra020541 and Bra040904 may be involved in seed and flower organ development. This study provides the first characterization of the MATH domain proteins in B. rapa PMID:24179444
Brown, Jayna Nicole
Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p < .001), performance (p = .008), and progress ( p = .001), indicating students who tested into Introduction to Algebra were more successful and persisted more often to degree completion. In order to improve instructional methods for Basic Math courses, a 3-day professional development workshop was developed for math faculty focusing on current, best practices in remedial math instruction. Implications for social change include providing math faculty with the knowledge and skills to develop new instructional methods for remedial math courses. A change in instructional methods may improve community college students' math competencies and degree achievement.
The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.
Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru
Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.
Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru
Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed. PMID:27788235
Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan
Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)
Kirchhoff, C; Imhoff, A B; Hinterwimmer, S
Nowadays, a general negative evaluation of sportive activity regarding different kinds of sport following arthroplasty is at present no more scientifically supported. However, at present no valid guidelines regarding sportive activity of patients after implantation of shoulder joint arthroplasty exist. The question regarding the ability of performing winter sports activities of patients treated with shoulder joint endoprothesis has not been answered so far. Therefore the aim of the presented work was to identify winter sports-specific risks for patients treated with shoulder joint endoprothesis as well as to critically discuss the actual literature in refer to winter sport activities. Criteria for the education of patients with shoulder joint endoprothesis as well as consultation regarding winter sport activities will be provided for the orthopaedic surgeon.
... Us Social Media Contact Us FAQS Publications Emergency Alerts Home Search × Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Languages × ... take when you receive a winter weather storm alert from the National Weather Service for your local ...
Winter lightning, which occurs along the Sea of Japan coast, often damages transmission lines and distribution lines with the conventional lightning protection. These lines in mountainous areas suffer extensive damage from winter lightning. It is very important to investigate the features of lightning outages in detail to improve the lightning protection measures against winter lightning, therefore observations of lightning strokes to transmission lines and distribution lines as well as measurements of lightning surges on these lines have been carried out. And then the lightning performance of various protection methods has studied by experiments and analyses. Taking into account these studies, the effective methods have been adopted. This paper presents the lightning protection of transmission lines and distribution lines against winter lightning.
Stacy, Sara T.; Cartwright, Macey; Arwood, Zjanya; Canfield, James P.; Kloos, Heidi
Students rarely practice math outside of school requirements, which we refer to as the “math-practice gap”. This gap might be the reason why students struggle with math, making it urgent to develop means by which to address it. In the current paper, we propose that math apps offer a viable solution to the math-practice gap: Online apps can provide access to a large number of problems, tied to immediate feedback, and delivered in an engaging way. To substantiate this conversation, we looked at whether tablets are sufficiently engaging to motivate children’s informal math practice. Our approach was to partner with education agencies via a community-based participatory research design. The three participating education agencies serve elementary-school students from low-SES communities, allowing us to look at tablet use by children who are unlikely to have extensive access to online math enrichment programs. At the same time, the agencies differed in several structural details, including whether our intervention took place during school time, after school, or during the summer. This allowed us to shed light on tablet feasibility under different organizational constraints. Our findings show that tablet-based math practice is engaging for young children, independent of the setting, the student’s age, or the math concept that was tackled. At the same time, we found that student engagement was a function of the presence of caring adults to facilitate their online math practice. PMID:28270780
Deacon, Mary M.
Despite initiatives to increase and broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, women remain underrepresented in STEM. While U.S. girls and women perform as well as, if not better, than boys and men in math, research results indicate that there are significant declines in girls' math self-efficacy,…
Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan
Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.
Erickson, Shanna; Heit, Evan
Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math. PMID:26082742
Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.
The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.
Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel
The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Impact Evaluation of Math Professional... of Collection: Impact Evaluation of Math Professional Development. OMB Control Number: 1850-NEW. Type..., and teachers for a study of math professional development. The study will provide...
Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS. PMID:26648893
Saul, Sara M.; Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Altschuler, Richard A.; Shore, Susan E.; Rudolph, Dellaney D.; Kabara, Lisa L.; Halsey, Karin E.; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Zhou, Jianxun; Dolan, David F.; Glaser, Tom
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Math5 (Atoh7) is required for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and optic nerve development. Using Math5-lacZ knockout mice, we have identified an additional expression domain for Math5 outside the eye, in functionally connected structures of the central auditory system. In the adult hindbrain, the cytoplasmic Math5-lacZ reporter is expressed within the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), in a subpopulation of neurons that project to medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), lateral superior olive (LSO), and lateral lemniscus (LL). These cells were identified as globular and small spherical bushy cells based on their morphology, abundance, distribution within the cochlear nucleus (CN), co-expression of Kv1.1, Kv3.1b and Kcnq4 potassium channels, and projection patterns within the auditory brainstem. Math5-lacZ is also expressed by cochlear root neurons in the auditory nerve. During embryonic development, Math5-lacZ was detected in precursor cells emerging from the caudal rhombic lip from embryonic day (E)12 onwards, consistent with the time course of CN neurogenesis. These cells co-express MafB, Math1 and Math5 and are post-mitotic. Math5 expression in the CN was verified by mRNA in situ hybridization, and the identity of positive neurons was confirmed morphologically using a Math5-Cre BAC transgene with an alkaline phosphatase reporter. The hindbrains of Math5 mutants appear grossly normal, with the exception of the CN. Although overall CN dimensions are unchanged, the lacZ positive cells are significantly smaller in Math5 −/− mice compared to Math5 +/− mice, suggesting these neurons may function abnormally. The Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) of Math5 mutants was evaluated in a BALB/cJ congenic background. ABR thresholds of Math5 −/− mice were similar to those of wild-type and heterozygous mice, but the interpeak latencies for Peaks II-IV were significantly altered. These temporal changes are consistent
Englund, Sumedha Lamba; Adams, Brian B
As more individuals choose to maintain their fitness level year-round, they inevitably encounter skin problems. During these athletic pursuits, the skin must endure ongoing insult, serving as the interface between the athlete and environmental factors unique to the sport and season. Therefore, primary care physicians and dermatologists must understand how athletic activity and weather contribute to the development of dermatoses. By appropriately recognizing winter sport dermatoses, the practitioner can best provide tailored effective treatment that enables the patient to quickly return to the winter sport.
Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others
Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…
Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice; DeFlorio, Lydia
There is a national need for effective interventions to improve school readiness and subsequent achievement in mathematics for students from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a 2-year preschool math intervention that began at preschool entry when children were 3 years of age and continued through the end…
Vaille, John; Kushins, Harold
Many school districts around the nation are re-evaluating how they measure student performance in mathematics. Calls have been made for alternative, authentic assessment tools that go beyond simple, and widely ineffective, multiple-choice tests. This book examines how the Fizz & Martina math video series provides students with hands-on…
Institutions find success with Pearson Education's MyMathLab. The Department of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Memphis (UM) reported a narrowing of the achievement gap between Black and White students. According to the study conducted by UM professors and titled "The Effectiveness of Blended Instruction in Postsecondary General…
This article explores how place matters in public school reform efforts intended to promote more equitable opportunities and outcomes. Qualitative case studies of three California middle schools' eighth grade math reforms and the resulting opportunities for Latino English learners are presented, using the conceptual frameworks of critical human…
Smith, Thomas; Cobb, Paul; Farran, Dale; Cordray, David; Munter, Charles; Dunn, Alfred
The authors' goal was to evaluate the potential of Math Recovery (MR), a pullout, one-to-one tutoring program that has been designed to increase mathematics achievement among low-performing first graders, thereby closing the school-entry achievement gap and enabling participants to achieve at the level of their higher-performing peers in the…
South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.
This publication contains materials for three courses in Applied Math in the Applied Academics program at South Seattle Community College. It begins with the article, "Community College Applied Academics: The State of the Art?" (George B. Neff), which describes the characteristics, model, courses, and coordination activity that make up…
Hamadneh, Iyad M.; Al-Masaeed, Aslan
This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…
Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L
Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.
Mannamaa, Mairi; Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Palu, Anu
Math achievement is not a unidimensional construct but includes different skills that require different cognitive abilities. The focus of this study was to examine associations between a number of cognitive abilities and three domains of math skills (knowing, applying and problem solving) simultaneously in a multivariate framework. Participants…
Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan
The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…
Oehlert, Jeremy J.
Previous research has reported positive correlations between math achievement and the cognitive constructs of spatial visualization, working memory, and general intelligence; however, no single study has assessed variance in math achievement attributable to all three constructs, examined in combination. The current study fills this gap in the…
Mook, Corena; Legg, Marilyn
One of a series of instructional packets to aid schools in reducing sex stereotypes, this inservice guide for use with school personnel is designed to increase awareness of the extent to which Kansans limit their career options by avoiding math and science. Focus is on why people do not develop more math knowledge and/or skills (such as…
de la Rosa, Raul; Hackett, Eugene deG.
The educational background and issues which shaped the design of the National Migrant Education Program Math Skills Information System are explained in this report, along with a full description of the features of the system and its operation. It discusses the variety of math skills information used to permit teachers to input and receive math…
Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.
Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…
Anderson, Nancy; Chapin, Suzanne; O'Connor, Cathy
"Classroom Discussions: Seeing Math Discourse in Action, Grades K-6" provides preservice and inservice instructors, coaches and facilitators with real, classroom-based video examples that illustrate the principles and practices covered in the authors' best-selling book, "Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grade K-6,…
Ethridge, Elizabeth Ann; King, James R.
The Early Childhood profession would benefit from a systematic inquiry into "calendar math." The authors offer an organized framework for this work. After a description of calendar math practices, the authors examine problematic aspects of its implementation, based on developmental theory. The essay concludes with a call for more reflective…
Dunkle, Susan M.
The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Saxon Elementary School Math," published by Harcourt Achieve, is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 5. A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Elementary School Math" is its use of a distributed approach, as opposed to a chapter-based approach, for instruction and assessment. The program is built on the…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) reviewed seven studies of the "Saxon Elementary School Math program." A distinguishing feature of "Saxon Elementary School Math" is its use of a distributed approach, as opposed to a chapter-based approach, for instruction and assessment. One of these studies met WWC standards with…
Latterell, Carmen M.
Parents are concerned about their children's math learning. Teachers are concerned about math teaching. When parents see what children are bringing home under the new curriculum, it is clear that their children are not working on the same mathematics that parents remember from the time when they were in school. But, the problem goes beyond grades…
Corporation for National and Community Service, 2010
President Obama has recognized the need to move students from the middle to the top of the pack in math and science as a national priority. Mentorship is often cited as a key strategy for exciting, supporting, and keeping students and young scientists and engineers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This is…
Kizer, Pat; And Others
Developed by the Small Schools Career Education Development Project, the guide, divided into 6 units, provides 279 activities for math and language instruction in grades 1-6. Units are titled: Bank, Grocery Store, Hardware Store, Pandora's Box, Restaurant, and Streets, Bikes, and Highways. Both math and language activities are provided for each…
A catalog is presented of subsystem and environment math models used or planned for space shuttle simulations. The purpose is to facilitate sharing of similar math models between shuttle simulations. It provides information on mach model requirements, formulations, schedules, and contact persons for further information.
Everett, Gregory E.; Swift, Honora S.; McKenney, Elizabeth L. W.; Jewell, Jeremy D.
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of individualized math-to-mastery (MTM) interventions, selected though brief experimental analysis (BEA), at increasing math fluency skills for three elementary-aged females. As MTM has only been investigated as a multicomponent intervention, the present study utilized BEA to identify those specific…
Althauser, Krista; Harter, Cynthia
The purpose of this study is to outline a partnership program that involved a local elementary school district, an institution of higher education, the local business community, and a state economic education advocacy group to integrate economics into math in grades K-5. The "Economics: Math in Real Life" program was provided in…
Fogelberg, Ellen; Skalinder, Carole; Satz, Patti; Hiller, Barbara; Bernstein, Lisa; Vitantonio, Sandra
Many K-6 teachers and students still think of mathematics as a totally separate subject from literacy. Yet incorporating math content into the language arts block helps students gain skills for reading many kinds of texts. Bringing reading, writing, and talking into the math classroom supports the development of conceptual knowledge and problem…
Hill, Jason G.; Dalton, Ben
This study investigates the distribution of math teachers with a major or certification in math using data from the National Center for Education Statistics' High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). The authors discuss the limitations of existing data sources for measuring teacher qualifications, such as the Schools and Staffing Survey…
Research indicates that many students have difficulty with mathematics, which can be attributed to many factors including math anxiety. Students who experience math anxiety have poor attitudes towards mathematics and perform below grade level based on class and statewide assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to…
Kilday, Carolyn R.
This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…
During the author's everyday math discussions with her class, young children talk about mathematical ideas, theories, and concepts within a predictable structure. These discussions include many concepts from--and beyond--the first-grade math curriculum, and their depth and complexity build throughout the school year. Concepts and skills include…
Kuhns, Catherine Jones
In this book, author Catherine Jones Kuhns introduces student- and teacher-friendly math activities designed to get students thinking like mathematicians and loving mathematics, while addressing content standards through grade 2. She also shows how to make math fun for students, get children actively engaged in learning, create a student-centered…
CYBERCHASE, an interactive math-based adventure series for young viewers, is entering its fifth season on public broadcasting stations in the United States. This article explore season highlights and suggests benefits of using CYBERCHASE to supplement math lessons in school and at home.
Redish, Edward F.
Mathematics is an essential element of physics problem solving, but experts often fail to appreciate exactly how they use it. Math may be the language of science, but math-in-physics is a distinct dialect of that language. Physicists tend to blend conceptual physics with mathematical symbolism in a way that profoundly affects the way equations are…
Peterson, Patricia; Johnson, Gae; Showalter, Stephen
Students with learning disabilities have significantly lower achievement in math and science than students from the general population. If these students with learning disabilities also are English Learners, the challenges for success in math and science are even more difficult. Teachers need to infuse best practices into their classrooms to…
Some students--and parents--think math and science are not too important for their future. As everyday life becomes more dependent on technology, most people will need a better background in math and science to succeed in today's global economy. To get high-paying jobs in some of California's fastest-growing occupations, a strong background in…
Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine
Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.
Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine
Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number–space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety. PMID:27683570
Martin, Anthony W.
This study was designed to determine whether or not data driven math skills groups would be effective in increasing student academic achievement. From this topic three key questions arose: "Would the implementation of data driven math skills groups improve student academic achievement more than standard instruction as measured by the…
Linn-Benton Community Coll., Albany, OR.
Covering the time period of January 1974 to June 1975, the report describes the activities of an ongoing project to provide verbal problem sets for occupational math courses offered in Oregon community colleges and secondary schools. The problems were selected to provide the math skills necessary for job entry and performance in several…
How is that you can walk into a classroom and gain an overall sense of the quality of math instruction taking place there? What contributes to getting that sense? In "Math Sense," Chris Moynihan explores some of the components that comprise the look, sound, and feel of effective teaching and learning. Does the landscape of the classroom feature…
Squires, John; Faulkner, Jerry; Hite, Carl
The math department at Cleveland State Community College embarked upon course redesign in 2008. As a result of this project, student engagement, learning, and success rates have increased dramatically. By including both developmental and college level math courses in the redesign, the department has been able to implement innovative scheduling and…
Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…
Swanson, H. Lee; Jerman, Olga; Zheng, Xinhua
This article synthesizes some of the published literature that selectively compares the cognitive functioning of children with math disabilities (MDs) with average-achieving children and poor readers (children with reading disabilities [RDs] or comorbid disabilities [RDs + MDs]). All studies in the synthesis report reading, IQ, and math scores for…
This article describes the development of the contextualized math, the course design, student teaching and daily interaction with the students, and the implementation aspects of the research project designed to develop contextualized mathematics and integrate it into the Auto Technician courses. The applied math curriculum was integrated into…
Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.
"Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…
Nunez-Pena, M. I.; Suarez-Pellicioni, M.; Bono, R.
This study examines whether math anxiety and negative attitudes toward mathematics have an effect on university students' academic achievement in a methodological course forming part of their degree. A total of 193 students were presented with a math anxiety test and some questions about their enjoyment, self-confidence and motivation regarding…
Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia
This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…
Do word problems and math vocabulary confuse students in your mathematics classes? Do simple keywords like "value" and "portion" seem to mislead them? Many words that students already know can have a different meaning in mathematics. To grasp that difference, students need to connect English literacy skills to math. Successful students speak,…
Duffrin, Melanie W.; Cuson, Diane; Phillips, Sharon K.
There is a clear need for improved math and science education, according to the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and National Science Board. The Food, Math and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative was developed in response to this need. The FoodMASTER Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed…
Karp, Karen; Shakeshaft, Charol
The gender gap in math Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, attributable to course avoidance, lack of confidence, and unbalanced classroom instruction, can have serious consequences for young women, such as limited university selection, limited career choices, and lower lifetime salaries. Solutions include hiring math specialists, establishing role…
Aquino, Teresa L.; Levine, Elissa R.
Describes the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program which helps school library media specialists and science and math teachers bring earth science, math, information literacy, information technology, and student inquiry into the classroom. Discusses use of the Internet to create a global network to study the…
Examines the implementation and utility of the blocked longitudinal growth method (BLGM) to understand math course placement practices in junior high schools in one district. Found that movement away from a conventional and normative approach to a more flexible approach based on growth in math skills seems to be supported. (Author/MLF)
Online Submission, 2008
Family involvement in children's math education is critical to helping kids succeed. "Helping Children Be Successful in Math" explains why--and how. (Contains 5 endnotes.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines. This document was produced by DreamBox Learning, Inc.
Zank, Alicia A.
The purpose of the study is to determine what effects explicit and systematic math intervention instruction will have on student's performance on math assessments. The study will focus on a small group of fifth grade students that have been identified as needing targeted intervention (tier 2) and intensive interventions (tier 1) through the…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
"enVisionMATH," published by Pearson Education, Inc., is a core curriculum for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The program seeks to help students develop an understanding of math concepts through problem-based instruction, small-group interaction, and visual learning with a focus on reasoning and modeling. Differentiated…
Lee, Kerry; Bull, Rebecca
Children with higher working memory or updating (WMU) capacity perform better in math. What is less clear is whether and how this relation varies with grade. Children (N = 673, kindergarten to Grade 9) participated in a 4-year cross-sequential study. Data from 3 WMU (Listening Recall, Mr. X, and an updating task) and a standardized math task…
Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the "Math Academy--Play Ball! Explorations in Data Analysis & Statistics," which teachers can use to…
Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the "Math Academy--Dining Out! Explorations in Fractions, Decimals, and Percents," which teachers can use…
Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel
The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by…
Spann, Mary Beth
This book contains 18 reproducible Math Storymats which can be a refreshing addition to any early elementary math program. Each storymat is accompanied by two separate read-aloud story selections that guide children in using plastic disk-shaped markers to interact with the mats in specific and open-ended ways. Together the mats and the…
Teague, P. Terrett; Austin-Martin, George G.
This study focused on anxiety, both math and situational, and its relationship to teaching performance. Preservice elementary teachers were given a methods course on teaching mathematics and, after five weeks, were assigned a group of children to instruct twice a week. A positive correlation was found between performance in teaching math and…
Silk, Kami J; Parrott, Roxanne L
Health risks are often communicated to the lay public in statistical formats even though low math skills, or innumeracy, have been found to be prevalent among lay individuals. Although numeracy has been a topic of much research investigation, the role of math self-efficacy and math anxiety on health and risk communication processing has received scant attention from health communication researchers. To advance theoretical and applied understanding regarding health message processing, the authors consider the role of math anxiety, including the effects of math self-efficacy, numeracy, and form of presenting statistics on math anxiety, and the potential effects for comprehension, yielding, and behavioral intentions. The authors also examine math anxiety in a health risk context through an evaluation of the effects of exposure to a message about genetically modified foods on levels of math anxiety. Participants (N = 323) were randomly assigned to read a message that varied the presentation of statistical evidence about potential risks associated with genetically modified foods. Findings reveal that exposure increased levels of math anxiety, with increases in math anxiety limiting yielding. Moreover, math anxiety impaired comprehension but was mediated by perceivers' math confidence and skills. Last, math anxiety facilitated behavioral intentions. Participants who received a text-based message with percentages were more likely to yield than participants who received either a bar graph with percentages or a combined form. Implications are discussed as they relate to math competence and its role in processing health and risk messages.
Kahn, R. A.
For more than ten years, PUMAS has provided a forum for disseminating peer-reviewed examples of Practical Uses of Math And Science, aimed at helping pre-college teachers enrich their presentation of math and science topics. Contributors include scientists, engineers, and content experts from many disciplines. The innovative ideas in PUMAS examples tend to be treasures, containing the ‘sparks’ of understanding that comes only from having real-life experience with the material. Examples can be essays, anecdotes, problems, demonstrations, or activities, and can be written in any style that serves the material well. They are keyed to the National Standards and Benchmarks, which provide the critical connection to K-12 curriculum guidelines, and the peer-review process involves at least one scientist with a relevant background, and at least one teacher at an appropriate grade level. The PUMAS Web Site has recently been upgraded. It is now a NASA-wide facility, recognized by both the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). This presentation will describe and illustrate the operation of PUMAS, will highlight a few of our many treasures, and will appeal to scientists interested in contributing meaningfully to pre-college education to consider submitting examples to PUMAS.
Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K
Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.
Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John
Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.
Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John
Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.
Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.
North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.
Beveridge, Breann R.; Weber, Kimberly P.; Derby, K. Mark; McLaughlin, T. F.
A classroom intervention employing math racetracks was carried out to teach math facts to two elementary students with learning disabilities. A math racetrack is a drill and practice procedure where known and unknown facts are placed on a sheet of paper like an oval racetrack. The effectiveness of using math racetracks was evaluated with a…
Jameson, Molly M.
As the United States falls farther behind other countries in standardized math assessments, the author seeks to understand why U.S. students perform so poorly. One of the possible explanations to U.S. students' poor math performance may be math anxiety. However, math anxiety in elementary school children is a neglected area in the research. The…
Browder, Diane M.; Jimenez, Bree A.; Trela, Katherine
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of grade-aligned math instruction on math skill acquisition of four middle schools with moderate intellectual disability. Teachers were trained to follow a task analysis to teach grade-aligned math to middle school students using adapted math problem stories and graphic organizers. The teacher…
Melanese, Kathy; Chung, Luz; Forbes, Cheryl
This new addition to Math Solutions "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class series" offers a wealth of lessons and strategies for modifying grades 6-8 instruction. Section I presents an overview of teaching math to English learners: the research, the challenges, the linguistic demands of a math lesson, and specific strategies and…
Raghubar, Kimberly; Cirino, Paul; Barnes, Marcia; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fletcher, Jack; Fuchs, Lynn
Errors in written multi-digit computation were investigated in children with math difficulties. Third- and fourth-grade children (n = 291) with coexisting math and reading difficulties, math difficulties, reading difficulties, or no learning difficulties were compared. A second analysis compared those with severe math learning difficulties, low…
This new animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery shows the movement of winter storms from January 1 to March 24 making for a snowier-than-normal winter along the U.S. East coast and Midwest...
Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert
Children's anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (M age = 10.34 years; SD age = 0.63) filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex, and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.
Andrew, Sharon; Salamonson, Yenna; Halcomb, Elizabeth J
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties, including predictive validity, of the newly-developed nursing self-efficacy for mathematics (NSE-Math). The NSE-Math is a 12 item scale that comprises items related to mathematic and arithmetic concepts underpinning medication calculations. The NSE-Math instrument was administered to second year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled in a nursing practice subject. Students' academic results for a compulsory medication calculation examination for this subject were collected. One-hundred and twelve students (73%) completed both the NSE-Math instrument and the drug calculation assessment task. The NSE-Math demonstrated two factors 'Confidence in application of mathematic concepts to nursing practice' and 'Confidence in arithmetic concepts' with 63.5% of variance explained. Cronbach alpha for the scale was 0.90. The NSE-Math demonstrated predictive validity with the medication calculation examination results (p=0.009). Psychometric testing suggests the NSE-Math is a valid measure of mathematics self-efficacy of second year nursing students.
Gold, Alanna B; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Cirino, Paul; Fuchs, Lynn S; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M
Cognitive assessments and behavioral ratings of attention were used to examine the relation of inattention to math performance in children. Third grade students with math difficulties (MD; n = 17) and math and reading difficulties (MDRD; n = 35) were administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT), as well as achievement and intelligence measures. Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior-IV (SWAN-IV) Inattention ratings were collected from teachers. Two comparison groups were also recruited: a typically achieving group (n = 23) and a group that responded to a math-tutoring intervention (responders; n = 54). On the ANT, children with MD and MDRD did not perform significantly different than typically achieving children or responders on measures of alerting and orienting attention and executive control. All subgroups did demonstrate performance patterns that were expected on the ANT. However, performance across blocks of the task was inconsistent, suggesting poor reliability. There were no relations between ANT performance and SWAN-IV behavioral inattention scores, though behavioral ratings of inattention correlated significantly with math performance. Children with MD and MDRD may have more difficulty with distraction and attention to detail in contextual situations, as opposed to impulsive responding in these settings. The lack of relation between cognitive attention and math performance may suggest that either the ANT does not assess the relevant attention constructs associated with math difficulties or may parallel studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which cognitive and behavioral assessments are weakly related.
... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities....
... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on park roads and in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities....
Metoyer, Cheryl A.
Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…
Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...
Andersen, Lori; Cross, Tracy L.
Expectancy-value motivation profiles were identified in a sample of US ninth-grade students in 2009 (n = 19,259) using latent profile analysis. Of four distinct profiles, two were high, one typical, and one low in math and in science. In each area, the two high profiles were distinguished by (1) high self-efficacy with lower utility value and (2)…
Wu, Sarah S; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod
Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement
Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang
The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.
The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years. PMID:28178351
On October 8--10, 1989, the US Department of Energy, the Lawrence Hall of Science, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory sponsored a Math/Science Education Action Conference in Berkeley, California. The conference was co-chaired by Admiral James D. Watkins, Secretary of Energy, and Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg Chairman of the Lawrence Hall of Science. Nearly 250 scientists, educators, business executives, and government leaders came together to develop a concrete plan of action for restructuring and revitalizing mathematics and science education. Their target was to improve education for an entire cohort of children--the Class of 2007, the children born this school year--and their governing principle was one of collaboration, both between Federal agencies, and between public and private sectors. The report of the conference co-chairmen and participants is provided in this document. 41 figs.
Edwards, Leo, Jr.
The goal of this project is to increase the scientific knowledge and appreciation bases and skills of pre-service and in-service middle school teachers, so as to impact positively on teaching, learning, and student retention. This report lists the objectives and summarizes the progress thus far. Included is the working draft of the TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science) curriculum outline. Seven of the eight instructional subject-oriented modules are also included. The modules include informative materials and corresponding questions and educational activities in a textbook format. The subjects included here are the universe and stars; the sun and its place in the universe; our solar system; astronomical instruments and scientific measurements; the moon and eclipses; the earth's atmosphere: its nature and composition; and the earth: directions, time, and seasons. The module not included regards winds and circulation.
Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.
Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L
In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety.
Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.
Bermingham, N. A.; Hassan, B. A.; Wang, V. Y.; Fernandez, M.; Banfi, S.; Bellen, H. J.; Fritzsch, B.; Zoghbi, H. Y.
The proprioceptive system provides continuous positional information on the limbs and body to the thalamus, cortex, pontine nucleus, and cerebellum. We showed previously that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Math1 is essential for the development of certain components of the proprioceptive pathway, including inner-ear hair cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and the pontine nuclei. Here, we demonstrate that Math1 null embryos lack the D1 interneurons and that these interneurons give rise to a subset of proprioceptor interneurons and the spinocerebellar and cuneocerebellar tracts. We also identify three downstream genes of Math1 (Lh2A, Lh2B, and Barhl1) and establish that Math1 governs the development of multiple components of the proprioceptive pathway.
Ashcraft, M H; Kirk, E P
Individuals with high math anxiety demonstrated smaller working memory spans, especially when assessed with a computation-based span task. This reduced working memory capacity led to a pronounced increase in reaction time and errors when mental addition was performed concurrently with a memory load task. The effects of the reduction also generalized to a working memory-intensive transformation task. Overall, the results demonstrated that an individual difference variable, math anxiety, affects on-line performance in math-related tasks and that this effect is a transitory disruption of working memory. The authors consider a possible mechanism underlying this effect--disruption of central executive processes--and suggest that individual difference variables like math anxiety deserve greater empirical attention, especially on assessments of working memory capacity and functioning.
More than 200 seventh-graders recently experienced a variety of hands-on learning activities during the 2011 Bohn-Meyer Math and Science Odyssey at Antelope Valley College in Lancaster, Calif. Spon...
A teacher describes how a cardboard box tunnel was used to capitalize on children's fascination with boxes. The finished tunnel offers opportunities for honing math and writing skills. Layouts for tunnels and related activities are suggested. (MT)
Having taught developmental mathematics for a number of years, the author is keenly aware of the effects of math anxiety on developmental math students. Math-anxious students complain of such things as nervousness, inability to concentrate, a blank mind, and a feeling of sickness when they are confronted with taking a math test. Math anxiety is…
Pyo, Katrina A.
A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.
Bennett, W. P.; Herold, R. W.
Simulation of the STS-2 Shuttle nonavionics subsystems in the shuttle avionics integration laboratory (SAIL) is necessary for verification of the integrated shuttle avionics system. The math model (simulation) requirements for each of the nonavionics subsystems that interfaces with the Shuttle avionics system is documented and a single source document for controlling approved changes (by the SAIL change control panel) to the math models is provided.
Hardré, Patricia L.
Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning and motivation from the fields of educational psychology, human neuroscience and rural education, to present an integrated systemic view of motivation for learning math in rural schools.
I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment
Jones, Martin H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Kibe, Grace W.
The study is one of few to examine how living in rural, suburban, or urban settings may alter factors supporting African Americans adolescents' math performance. The study examines the relationship of math self-concept and perceptions of friends' academic behaviors to African American students' math performance. Participants (N = 1,049) are…
Harada, Tokiko; Bridge, Donna J; Chiao, Joan Y
Both situational (e.g., perceived power) and sustained social factors (e.g., cultural stereotypes) are known to affect how people academically perform, particularly in the domain of mathematics. The ability to compute even simple mathematics, such as addition, relies on distinct neural circuitry within the inferior parietal and inferior frontal lobes, brain regions where magnitude representation and addition are performed. Despite prior behavioral evidence of social influence on academic performance, little is known about whether or not temporarily heightening a person's sense of power may influence the neural bases of math calculation. Here we primed female participants with either high or low power (LP) and then measured neural response while they performed exact and approximate math problems. We found that priming power affected math performance; specifically, females primed with high power (HP) performed better on approximate math calculation compared to females primed with LP. Furthermore, neural response within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region previously associated with cognitive interference, was reduced for females in the HP compared to LP group. Taken together, these results indicate that even temporarily heightening a person's sense of social power can increase their math performance, possibly by reducing cognitive interference during math performance.
Park, Joonkoo; Brannon, Elizabeth M
Humans and nonhuman animals share an approximate number system (ANS) that permits estimation and rough calculation of quantities without symbols. Recent studies show a correlation between the acuity of the ANS and performance in symbolic math throughout development and into adulthood, which suggests that the ANS may serve as a cognitive foundation for the uniquely human capacity for symbolic math. Such a proposition leads to the untested prediction that training aimed at improving ANS performance will transfer to improvement in symbolic-math ability. In the two experiments reported here, we showed that ANS training on approximate addition and subtraction of arrays of dots selectively improved symbolic addition and subtraction. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that complex math skills are fundamentally linked to rudimentary preverbal quantitative abilities and provides the first direct evidence that the ANS and symbolic math may be causally related. It also raises the possibility that interventions aimed at the ANS could benefit children and adults who struggle with math.
Harada, Tokiko; Bridge, Donna J.; Chiao, Joan Y.
Both situational (e.g., perceived power) and sustained social factors (e.g., cultural stereotypes) are known to affect how people academically perform, particularly in the domain of mathematics. The ability to compute even simple mathematics, such as addition, relies on distinct neural circuitry within the inferior parietal and inferior frontal lobes, brain regions where magnitude representation and addition are performed. Despite prior behavioral evidence of social influence on academic performance, little is known about whether or not temporarily heightening a person's sense of power may influence the neural bases of math calculation. Here we primed female participants with either high or low power (LP) and then measured neural response while they performed exact and approximate math problems. We found that priming power affected math performance; specifically, females primed with high power (HP) performed better on approximate math calculation compared to females primed with LP. Furthermore, neural response within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region previously associated with cognitive interference, was reduced for females in the HP compared to LP group. Taken together, these results indicate that even temporarily heightening a person's sense of social power can increase their math performance, possibly by reducing cognitive interference during math performance. PMID:23390415
Diemer, Matthew A; Marchand, Aixa D; McKellar, Sarah E; Malanchuk, Oksana
Framed by expectancy-value theory (which posits that beliefs about and the subjective valuation of a domain predict achievement and decision-making in that domain), this study examined the relationships among teacher differential treatment and relevant math instruction on African American students' self-concept of math ability, math task value, and math achievement. These questions were examined by applying structural equation modeling to 618 African American youth (45.6 % female) followed from 7th to 11th grade in the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. While controlling for gender and prior math achievement, relevant math instruction promoted and teacher differential treatment corroded students' math beliefs and achievement over time. Further, teacher discrimination undermined students' perceptions of their teachers, a mediating process under-examined in previous inquiry. These findings suggest policy and practice levers to narrow opportunity gaps, as well as foster math achievement and science, technology, engineering and math success.
Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A
Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition.
Robock, A.; Mao, J.
An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.
Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping
An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.
Hughes, Nicole M
Leaf reddening during autumn in senescing, deciduous tree species has received widespread attention from the public and in the scientific literature, whereas leaf reddening in evergreen species during winter remains largely ignored. Winter reddening can be observed in evergreen herbs, shrubs, vines and trees in Mediterranean, temperate, alpine, and arctic regions, and can persist for several months before dissipating with springtime warming. Yet, little is known about the functional significance of this colour change, or why it occurs in some species but not others. Here, the biochemistry, physiology and ecology associated with winter leaf reddening are reviewed, with special focus on its possible adaptive function. Photoprotection is currently the favoured hypothesis for winter reddening, but alternative explanations have scarcely been explored. Intraspecific reddening generally increases with sunlight incidence, and may also accompany photosynthetic inferiority in photosynthetically 'weak' (e.g. low-nitrogen) individuals. Red leaves tend to show symptoms of shade acclimation relative to green, consistent with a photoprotective function. However, winter-red and winter-green species often cohabitate the same high-light environments, and exhibit similar photosynthetic capacities. The factors dictating interspecific winter leaf colouration therefore remain unclear. Additional outstanding questions and future directions are also highlighted, and possible alternative functions of winter reddening discussed.
Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species turn red during winter, corresponding with synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The function of winter color change, and why it occurs in some species and not others, is not yet understood. We hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotect...
Baker, Joseph M; Reiss, Allan L
AIM Studies investigating the relationship between Turner syndrome and math learning disability have used a wide variation of tasks designed to test various aspects of mathematical competencies. Although these studies have revealed much about the math deficits common to Turner syndrome, their diversity makes comparisons between individual studies difficult. As a result, the consistency of outcomes among these diverse measures remains unknown. The overarching aim of this review is to provide a systematic meta-analysis of the differences in math and number performance between females with Turner syndrome and age-matched neurotypical peers. METHOD We provide a meta-analysis of behavioral performance in Turner syndrome relative to age-matched neurotypical populations on assessments of math and number aptitude. In total, 112 comparisons collected across 17 studies were included. RESULTS Although 54% of all statistical comparisons in our analyses failed to reject the null hypothesis, our results indicate that meaningful group differences exist on all comparisons except those that do not require explicit calculation. INTERPRETATION Taken together, these results help elucidate our current understanding of math and number weaknesses in Turner syndrome, while highlighting specific topics that require further investigation. PMID:26566693
Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...
de Sairigne, Catherine
This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…
"Jagger" has been utilized widely as a parent to develop hard red winter wheat varieties throughout the U.S. southern Great Plains. Jagger has resistance to stem rust pathogen race TTTTF, which is virulent to many winter wheat cultivars, yet the genetic basis of this resistance remains unknown. Mark...
The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.
Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.
To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.
Topeka Public Schools, KS.
Winter seems to hold more mysteries than any other season. It changes the behavior of wildlife and also brings about drastic changes in plant life. This unit, designed around the following two ideas: (1) to develop an appreciation and understanding of the winter season and (2) to understand how plants and wildlife are affected by the winter…
Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults’ ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner. PMID:27171224
Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.
Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973–2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations. PMID:26173734
Farmer, Troy M; Marschall, Elizabeth A; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A
Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations.
Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.
Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations.
Structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of pulsed-laser-deposition-grown <math>
Das, S.; Sen, K.; Marozau, I.; Uribe-Laverde, M. A.; Biskup, N.; Varela, M.; Khaydukov, Y.; Soltwedel, O.; Keller, T.; Döbeli, M.; Schneider, C. W.; Bernhard, C.
Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V
This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year.
Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Swan, Amy K.; Creager, Marie F.
The authors examined the central hypothesis that students' early perceptions of support and sense of engagement in math classes and math activities strongly influence the broadening or narrowing of their math interest. The focus was on the first wave of qualitative data collected from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students during the 2007-2008…
Haake, Magnus; Husain, Layla; Gulz, Agneta
There is substantial evidence that preschooler's performance in early math is highly correlated to math performance throughout school as well as academic skills in general. One way to help children attain early math skills is by using targeted educational software and the paper discusses potential gains of using such software to support early math…
Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis
This book offers practical recommendations to reach every student in a K-8 classroom. Research-based and written in a teacher-friendly style, it will help teachers with classroom organization and lesson planning in math and science. Included are math and science games, activities, ideas, and lesson plans based on the math and science standards.…
Hankes, Judith Elaine
Two studies appear to reach unsatisfactory conclusions regarding causes of low math achievement among American Indians. Leap (1988) studied math problem-solving strategies among low-math-achieving fourth- and fifth-grade Ute reservation students. He concluded that faulty or cumbersome problem-solving strategies were directly linked to Ute language…
Employing mixed-method approach, this case study examined the in situ use of educational computer games in a summer math program to facilitate 4th and 5th graders' cognitive math achievement, metacognitive awareness, and positive attitudes toward math learning. The results indicated that students developed more positive attitudes toward math…
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2017
The Carnegie Foundation launched its Math Pathways initiative nearly six years ago at 29 colleges across the country with the aim of improving success rates in developmental math. Tens of thousands of students a year, who need additional preparation for college-level math, are shut out of earning degrees and fulfilling careers due to the huge…
Entwisle, Doris R.; Alexander, Karl L.
This paper uses a structural model with a large random sample of urban children to explain children's competence in math concepts and computation at the time they begin first grade. These two aspects of math ability respond differently to environmental resources, with math concepts much more responsive to family factors before formal schooling…
Reduce the number of discipline issues that arise in your math classroom with ideas from math education expert Jennifer Taylor-Cox. In this book, you'll learn a variety of ways to handle disruptive, disinterested, avoidant, and/or disrespectful students in K-12 math classrooms. Using realistic, case-by-case examples, the author reveals practical…
Nelson, Peter M.; Parker, David C.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the importance of growth in math fact skills within the context of overall math proficiency. Data for 1,493 elementary and middle school students were included for analysis. Regression models were fit to examine the relative value of math fact fluency growth, prior state test performance, and a fall…
Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The present study investigated to what extent teachers' beliefs about children's achievement contribute to the development of children's math interest. In addition, the extent to which other possible predictors, such as performance in math, gender, and race/ethnicity would contribute to the development of children's math interest was examined.…
Hosch, Mary L.
Many adults are obstructed from specialized professions based on their anxiety of math. Math anxiety has been extensively researched for over 3 decades. Scholars have attempted to define its origins as well as the means to eliminate its often-debilitating effect on learners. Research indicates that learners with math anxiety often give up career…
Hawkins, Renee O.; Collins, Tai; Hernan, Colleen; Flowers, Emily
Research findings support the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as a curriculum supplement for improving math skills, including math fact fluency. There are a number of websites and mobile applications (i.e., apps) designed to build students' math fact fluency, but the options can become overwhelming. This article provides implementation…
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
A number of studies, both small scale and of nationally-representative student samples, have reported substantial associations between school entry math ability and later elementary school achievement. However, questions remain regarding the persistence of the association between early growth in math ability and later math achievement due to the…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2015
This report on "Singapore Math®" updates the 2009 WWC review of the curriculum to include seven new studies. Despite the additional research, no studies meet WWC design standards and therefore, no conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of "Singapore Math®." [For the 2009 report, "Singapore Math," see…
Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Gabriel M.; Johnson, Evelyn S.; Carter, Deborah R.
Students who fail to develop proficiency in math skills in the primary grades are more likely to experience difficulties in the math curriculum later on. These students may be in need of a more targeted intervention, or Tier 2 supports, in mathematic instruction. Although the instructional principles of an effective math intervention are becoming…
Redish, Edward F.; Kuo, Eric
Mathematics is a critical part of much scientific research. Physics in particular weaves math extensively into its instruction beginning in high school. Despite much research on the learning of both physics and math, the problem of how to effectively include math in physics in a way that reaches most students remains unsolved. In this paper, we…
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...
Orosco, Michael J.; Swanson, H. Lee; O'Connor, Rollanda; Lussier, Cathy
English language learners (ELLs) struggle with solving word problems for a number of reasons beyond math procedures or calculation challenges. As a result, ELLs may not only need math support but also reading and linguistic support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a math comprehension strategy called Dynamic Strategic…
Olsen, Robert; Seftor, Neil; Silva, Tim; Myers, David; DesRoches, David; Young, Julie
To help address continuing disparities in academic achievement and under-representation of disadvantaged groups in math and science majors and careers, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) established a math and science initiative in 1990 within Upward Bound, a federal grant program known as Upward Bound Math-Science (UBMS) designed to provide…
Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa L.; Li, Huijun; Proctor, Briley
The impact of memory and anxiety on math performance was analyzed in a sample of 115 college undergraduates, all of whom had a diagnosed learning disability. The direct effects of memory and anxiety on math performance were first examined, followed by an examination of whether anxiety moderates the relationship between memory and math. Both memory…
Banks, Kathleen; Jeddeeni, Ahmad; Walker, Cindy M.
Differential bundle functioning (DBF) analyses were conducted to determine whether seventh and eighth grade second language learners (SLLs) had lower probabilities of answering bundles of math word problems correctly that had heavy language demands, when compared to non-SLLs of equal math proficiency. Math word problems on each of four test forms…
Wilms, Ulrich Heinz
The formation of the Common Core State Standards can be regarded as the predecessor of a national curriculum. This research addresses how the proposed national math curriculum compares to the math curricula of a sample of peer-nations (Singapore, Netherlands, Germany, and Japan) with high student achievement rates in math, while relating the math…
Cavazos, Blanca Guadalupe
"Do The Math," a 1-hour, live, educational television program provides on-air instruction in general math, geometry, pre-algebra and algebra to a target audience of 4th-12th graders. A team of math teachers also provides tutoring to students who call in for help with homework. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether watching…
Parke, Carol S.
This study investigates relationships between assessment scores and other indicators of math performance. The impetus for the research came from a district's need to better understand high school math achievement. Longitudinal data for a cohort of students were obtained, including math scores from their state assessment, TerraNova, and New…
Garriott, Patton O.; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Zoma, Lorrine; Mackie-Hernandez, Dylan; Lavin, Kelly
This study tested a social cognitive model of math/science career goals in a sample (N = 258) of Mexican American high school students. Familism and proximal family supports for math/science careers were examined as predictors of math/science: performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, interests, and goals. Results showed that the hypothesized…
National Math and Science Initiative, 2012
In today's high-tech world, math and science matter. Of the 10 fastest growing occupations, eight are science, math or technology-related. Whatever a child wants to do--join the military, join the workforce, or go on to college--math and science skills will be important. Become part of the equation to help one's child succeed now and in the…
Cuesta Coll., San Luis Obispo, CA. Matriculation and Research Services.
This report presents findings of exploratory research on success, retention, and persistence in math courses at Cuesta College. The following research questions were addressed: (1) How do success rates in Math 23 (elementary algebra) and Math 27 (intermediate algebra) compare with traditional and computer-assisted formats? (2) What are the…
Actuarial Foundation, 2013
"Shake, Rattle, & Roll" is a new program developed by The Actuarial Foundation with Scholastic, provides dynamic real-world math content designed to build student skills while showing students the relevance of math to understanding their world and planning for their future. Math skills are increasingly important for students. According to the U.S.…
Kong, Jennifer E.; Orosco, Michael J.
Minority students at risk for math difficulties (MD) struggle with word problems for various reasons beyond procedural or calculation challenges. As a result, these students require support in reading and language development in addition to math. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a math comprehension strategy based on a…
Melguizo, Tatiana; Kosiewicz, Holly; Prather, George; Bos, Johannes
The study's main objective was to provide a detailed description of math Assessment and Placement (A&P) policies in the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD). The study was focused on math because a larger proportion of students place into remedial math than remedial reading or English (Bailey, Jeong, & Cho, 2010; Parsad, Lewis,…
Fay, Maggie P.; Bickerstaff, Susan; Hodara, Michelle
Drawn from surveys completed by 122 students enrolled in developmental math at four community colleges and from seven student focus groups with a total of 34 developmental math students at those same colleges, this research brief illuminates student experiences with and perspectives on the math assessment and placement process. Findings suggest…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"SRA Real Math Building Blocks PreK" (also referred to as "Building Blocks for Math") is a supplemental mathematics curriculum designed to develop preschool children's early mathematical knowledge through various individual and small- and large-group activities. It uses "Building Blocks for Math PreK" software,…
Banda, Devender R.; Matuszny, Rose Marie; Therrien, William J.
Designed to enhance the completion of math tasks, high-preference strategy consists of presenting math tasks that students prefer, to enhance their interest in completing difficult math tasks. In this article, a brief review of the literature related to the use of the high-preference strategy is provided along with directions on how to implement…
Algebra is the language that must be mastered for any course that uses math because it is the gateway for entry into any science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) discipline. "Math Remediation for the College Bound" fosters mastery of critical math and algebraic concepts and skills essential to all of the STEM disciplines and some…
Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.
Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students' performance in math. Whereas boys' successes in math are attributed to ability, girls' successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys' failures in math are attributed to a…
Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina
Sex differences have been previously found in cognitive and affective predictors of math achievement, including spatial skills and math attitudes. It is important to determine whether there are sex differences not only in the predictors themselves, but also in the nature of their relation to math achievement. The present paper examined spatial…
Powell, J.A.; Clark, C.
The Smith College Secondary Math and Science Outreach Program works collaboratively with front-line educators to encourage young women students of all abilities, especially underrepresented and underserved minorities, to continue studying math and science throughout high school. The program includes three main components: (1) Twenty-five to thirty teams of math/science teachers and guidance counselors participate in a year-long program which begins with a three-day Current Students/Future Scientists and Engineering Workshop. This event includes a keynote address, presentations and workshops by successful women in science and engineering, and hands-on laboratory sessions. Each participant receives a stipend and free room and board. Returning to their schools, the teacher-counselor teams implement ongoing plans designed to counteract gender bias in the sciences and to alert female students to the broad range of math, science, and engineering career choices open to them. A follow-up session in the spring allows the teams to present and discuss their year-long activities. (2) TRI-ON, a day of science for 120 ninth- and tenth- grade girls from schools with a large underserved and underrepresented population, is held in early spring. Girls discover the excitement of laboratory investigation and interact with female college science and math majors. (3) Teaching Internships, initiated in 1991, involve ten to fifteen Smith College math and science majors in teaching in public schools. The teaching interns experience the rewards and challenges of classroom teaching, and they also serve as role models for younger students.
Tenhoff, Amanda C.; Gerenz, Adam J.; Jalkio, Jeffrey A.
Students often tend to compartmentalize material learned in school. While we see this phenomenon within our own classes, it is even more apparent that students have difficulty making connections between their math and physics courses. We believe that hands-on experiments are particularly useful in helping students make these connections. In this paper we present several possible experiments that use buoyancy to help students grasp both the similarities between different forces and the physical interpretation of the integration and differentiation techniques learned in their math classes. These experiments can also be used to introduce computational methods and 3D printing.
Mayes, Donald Roy
This research has been conducted in response to struggling math students and parents who become frustrated while trying to help their student at home. A need remains for a treatment that can increase math success and lower the anxiety level associated with math. The rationale for this research is an attempt to increase students' math success by…
Yancy, Yuri G.
This study was conducted in a middle school math class and investigated the effects of project-based activities on the middle school math students' skill acquisition and intrinsic motivation. After math-related project activities were implemented and completed, an analysis of how the students were affected in the areas of math skills and…
Rutherford, Teomara; Kibrick, Melissa; Burchinal, Margaret; Richland, Lindsey; Conley, AnneMarie; Osborne, Keara; Schneider, Stephanie; Duran, Lauren; Coulson, Andrew; Antenore, Fran; Daniels, Abby; Martinez, Michael E.
This paper describes the background, methodology, preliminary findings, and anticipated future directions of a large-scale multi-year randomized field experiment addressing the efficacy of ST Math [Spatial-Temporal Math], a fully-developed math curriculum that uses interactive animated software. ST Math's unique approach minimizes the use of…
Achieve, Inc., 2013
Too many students and educators view the senior year and graduation from high school as an end point, rather than one vital step along the education pipeline. Students who engage in a fourth year of math tap into and build upon their advanced analytic skills and are more likely to have better success in postsecondary course work, as they have…
This document contains the lesson plans for a 12-week course in basic workplace math that was developed for clothing and textile workers through the joint efforts of Northeastern Illinois University's Chicago Teachers' Center and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. A chart for recording students' mastery of 25 course objectives is…
Powell, Gary; Copeland, Nancy; Baker, Catherine
This instructor's guide contains materials for a 40-hour course designed to refresh math skills for current computer numerical control machine operators. The course uses two instructional methods: computer-based multimedia and traditional instruction. The course description lists target audience and general objective. The next section gives…
Davis, Michelle R.
President Bush continued his campaign to get schools to focus more on mathematics and science education with a visit to a middle school in Rockville, Maryland, where students study robotics and work with NASA scientists. President Bush toured the school with Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings as part of his initiative to emphasize math and…
This research project was completed with twenty-nine fourth grade students from Shawnee Elementary, a school in the Chippewa Valley School District. It began in April 2012 and the data collection was completed by June 2012. The purpose of this project was to see if utilizing math manipulatives in an elementary classroom will increase student…
This study concerns itself with the conflict in mathematics education--popularly known as "math wars"--in the United States. More specifically, it investigates the "terms of debate" in this conflict to develop insights into the varied, and sometimes conflicting, relationships between the perceived nature of mathematics and its…
Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.
This study examined the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of kindergarten screening for risk for math difficulty (MD). Three screening measures, administered in September and May of kindergarten to 196 students, assessed number sense and computational fluency. Conceptual and procedural outcomes were measured at end of first grade, with…
Rowe, Ellen W.; Miller, Cristin; Ebenstein, Lauren A.; Thompson, Dawna F.
This study investigated the predictive power of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), the General Ability Index (GAI), and the WISC-IV index score composites on subsequent reading and math standardized test scores among high-achieving students. The sample consisted of 84 elementary-age students…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2017
Odyssey® Math is a web-based program developed by Compass Learning® for mathematics instruction in grades K-8. The online program includes a mathematics curriculum and formative assessments designed to support differentiated and data-driven instruction. Based on assessment results, the program generates an individualized sequence of mathematics…
Graham, Janina Maria
Today's mathematics standards require teachers to use concrete math manipulatives (CMM) to increase the proficiency of students, but many upper elementary teachers fail to use these resources. The effects of this resource disuse may decrease student learning potential and impede successful standardized test results. This case study allows leaders…
This is a quantitative, survey-based study of Iowa community college faculty members. The survey was administered in the spring of 2011 to all faculty members identified by their colleges as being employed full time. This study compares the demographics of math and science faculty members to faculty within the arts and sciences who do not teach math or science. Comparisons of how the two groups interact with students and what they identify as barriers to student success are included, as well as their attitudes about mentoring, encouraging students, and their roles in student recruitment and student retention. Highly correlated variables are grouped as factors and used in the construction of prediction models for faculty engagement in student recruitment and student retention efforts. A contrast in the cultures of the math/science faculty members as compared to the non-math/science faculty is considered for its impact on faculty engagement with students and those variables believed to support undergraduate student success.
Chen, Fang; Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline
Literature provides consistent evidence that there is a strong relationship between language proficiency and math achievement. However, research results show conflicts supporting either an increasing or a decreasing longitudinal relationship between the two. This study explored a longitudinal data and adopted quantile regression analyses to…
Haven, Kendall F.
Any topic, math included, becomes more accessible and understandable when human stories are related about the development of the subject. Stories make subjects real and purposeful. They provide a foundation from which students can understand and appreciate mathematics rather than merely memorize a series of rote exercises. This book presents 16…
Connecting students to the arts in a concrete way can be an effective teaching tool. In this article, the author describes how Dale Chihuly's "Hart Window," which features hand-blown glass disks affixed to the framework of the window, can be an inspiration for interdisciplinary connections in art, science and math. (Contains 4 online resources.)
In this article, the author describes an innovative collaboration with an elementary school math teacher that leads to original student choreography and engaging mathematical thinking. Using a tool the author created called Jump Patterns, students at Fox Hill Elementary School in Indianapolis, Indiana, engage in a robust, creative, choreographic…
O'Connell, Susan, Ed.
NCTM's Process Standards support teaching that helps upper elementary level children develop independent, effective mathematical thinking. The books in the Heinemann Math Process Standards Series give every intermediate-grades teacher the opportunity to explore each standard in depth. With language and examples that don't require prior math…
Peterson, Paul E.; Ackerman, Matthew
Since No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was enacted into federal law in 2002, states have been required to test students in grades 3 through 8 and again in high school to assess math and reading achievement. The federal law also asks states to establish the performance level students must reach on the exams in order to be identified as…
Allen, Kasi C.
What if every middle school student learned to create a robot in math class? What if every middle school had a robotics team? Would students view mathematics differently? Would they have a different relationship with technology? Might they see science and engineering as fields driven by innovation rather than memorization? As students find…
Monte, Brent M.
Due to the increase in students seeking remedial math classes at the community college level, coupled with declining revenues to the community colleges and a lack of classroom availability, the need to consider increasing class size has become a relevant and timely issue. This study is a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study testing effects of…
Inquiry-based learning is a topic of growing interest in the mathematical community. Much of the focus has been on using these methods in calculus and higher-level classes. This article describes the design and implementation of a set of inquiry-based learning activities in a Math for Liberal Arts course at a small, private, Catholic college.…
Nelson, Brian W.
By some estimates, students lose an average of 2.6 months of learning during summer break, roughly one quarter of the time spent in school. To combat this problem, the school under study implemented a summer math program that was thematically linked to the Boston Red Sox baseball team. Hundreds of students have participated in the program, but the…
Malinsky, Marci; Ross, Ann; Pannells, Tammy; McJunkin, Mark
This research article examines math anxiety in pre-service teachers. The Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MARS-R) was administered to 481 university students. Significant results were found in areas of gender, educational level, and educational major. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)
Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Thomson, Dana
Involving 740 highly gifted math and science students from two different countries, Korea and the United States, this study examined how these gifted adolescents perceived their interpersonal ability and peer relationships and whether there were differences between these two groups by demographic variables. Based on the survey data, results showed…
Guzzetta, Torrie; Gilbert, Pat
A glyph--short for hieroglyphic--is a form of picture writing that conveys information. This book uses 10 glyphs to teach math concepts that are linked to the new NCTM Standards. There are four key parts to each glyph: (1) a legend (or survey questions); (2) directions for the teacher that tell students what to draw, color, or write based on…
Avitia, Maria; DeBiase, Emily; Pagirsky, Matthew; Root, Melissa M.; Howell, Meiko; Pan, Xingyu; Knupp, Tawnya; Liu, Xiaochen
The purpose of this study was to understand and compare the types of errors students with a specific learning disability in reading and/or writing (SLD-R/W) and those with a specific learning disability in math (SLD-M) made in the areas of reading, writing, language, and mathematics. Clinical samples were selected from the norming population of…
Lee, Fong Yun; Silverman, Fredrick L.; Montoya, Patricia
Describes proven assessment strategies, which, used separately or in combination, can help young ESL students express their understanding of math concepts while building their English-language skills: Manipulative objects, diagrams, and physical movement. Also describes other assessment techniques including self-assessment, interviewing, and…
Pena, Leticia M.
The researcher developed a case study using a qualitative research methodology to describe the functions of a team of math teachers in a professional learning community in a Title 1 low performing high school that led to increased student achievement. The tenth-grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics results for the…
Hargens, Diane K.
Math preparedness is a barrier to completion for many community college vocational students. With President Obama's (2010) challenge to produce more graduates in order to ensure our nation succeeds in the 21st century, community colleges across the country have an increased focus on graduation or completion. This study was conducted to provide…
Gasser, Kenneth W.
This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of tractor-trailer drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to…
Fearrington, Jamie Y.; McCallum, R. Steve; Skinner, Christopher H.
Solution-focused brief counseling (SFBC) is an efficient and direct approach to therapy that emphasizes problem identification and solutions. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used to evaluate the effects of a SFBC intervention on mathematics assignment completion and accuracy across six fifth-grade students who were failing math.…
McAllister, Deborah A.; Mealer, Adrian; Moyer, Peggy S.; McDonald, Shirley A.; Peoples, John B.
This collection of community mathematics modules, or "math trail", is appropriate for middle grades and high school students (grades 5-12). Collectively, the modules pay attention to all 10 of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards which include five content standards (Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry,…
O'Brien, Rebecca; Pan, Xingyu; Courville, Troy; Bray, Melissa A.; Breaux, Kristina; Avitia, Maria; Choi, Dowon
Norm-referenced error analysis is useful for understanding individual differences in students' academic skill development and for identifying areas of skill strength and weakness. The purpose of the present study was to identify underlying connections between error categories across five language and math subtests of the Kaufman Test of…
Senne, Jessica; Coxon, Steve V.
The United States is dependent on innovations in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields for the growth of its economy and improvements to quality of life, but too few students are prepared for them. To help meet the challenges in filling the STEM pipeline, teachers of gifted elementary students can nurture important talents,…
This book rates 60 selected Web sites that focus on three core K-12 content areas--math, reading, and language arts. The introduction summarizes the quality criteria for the site ratings and selection, lists recommended software and plug-ins for viewing Web sites, provides tips on Internet navigation, and offers guidelines for Internet safety. The…